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Sample records for blueberry enriched diet

  1. Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart from ischemic damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD). Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negati...

  2. Prophylactic neuroprotection by blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of light-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, François; Waterhouse, Jenna; Nason, Janette; Kalt, Wilhelmina

    2013-04-01

    The role of anthocyanins is controversial in vision health. This study investigates the impact of a blueberry-enriched diet as neuroprotectant in a rat model of light-induced retinopathy. Thirty-eight albino Wistar rats and 25 pigmented Brown-Norway rats were fed by gavage with long (7 weeks) and short (2 weeks) intervention with fortified blueberry juice (1 ml; 2.8 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents) or with a placebo solution (7 weeks) that contained the abundant nonanthocyanin blueberry phenolic, namely, chlorogenic acid, before being submitted to 2 hours of intense light regimen (1.8×10(4) lux). Retinal health was measured by fitting electroretinogram responses with the Naka-Rushton equation. The light-induced retinal damage was severe in the placebo groups, with the maximum amplitude of the electroretinogram being significantly reduced in both Wistar and Brown-Norway rats. The maximum amplitude of the electroretinogram was significantly protected from the light insult in the Wistar rats supplemented with blueberry juice for 7 or 2 weeks, and there was no significant difference between these two groups. The same dietary intervention in the Brown-Norway groups failed to protect the retina. Histological examination of retinal section confirmed the electroretinography results, showing protection of the outer nuclear layer of the retina in the Wistar rats fed with blueberries, while all placebo-fed rats and blueberry-fed Brown-Norway rats showed evidence of retinal damage concentrated in the superior hemiretina. The neuroprotective potential of anthocyanins in this particular model is discussed in terms of interaction with rhodopsin/phototransduction and in terms of antioxidative capacity.

  3. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  4. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering. And effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapopt...

  5. A blueberry enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Background: Oxidative stress (OS) appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-indu...

  6. Feeding rats diets enriched in lowbush blueberries for six weeks decreases ischemia-induced brain damage.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M I; Kalt, W; MacKinnon, S L; Ashby, J; Gottschall-Pass, K T

    2002-12-01

    Oxidative stress is an important element in the etiology of ischemic stroke. Lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) have a high antioxidant capacity and thus we determined whether consumption of lowbush blueberries would protect neurons from stroke-induced damage. Rats were fed AIN-93G diets containing 0 or 14.3% blueberries (g fresh weight/100 g feed) for 6 weeks. Stroke was then simulated by ligation of the left common carotid artery (ischemia), followed by hypoxia. One week later, plasma and urine were collected, and neuronal damage in the hippocampus was determined histologically. In control rats, hypoxia-ischemia resulted in 40 +/- 2% loss of neurons in the hippocampus of the left cerebral hemisphere, as compared to the right hemisphere. Rats on blueberry-supplemented diets lost only 17 +/- 2% of neurons in the ischemic hippocampus. Neuroprotection was observed in the CA1 and CA2 regions, but not CA3 region, of the hippocampus. The blueberry diet had no detectable effects on the plasma or urine oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) or plasma lipids. We conclude that consumption of lowbush blueberries by rats confers protection to the brain against damage from ischemia, suggesting that inclusion of blueberries in the diet may improve ischemic stroke outcomes.

  7. Wild blueberry (V. angustifolium)-enriched diets alter aortic glycosaminoglycan profile in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Kristo, Aleksandra S; Malavaki, Christina J; Lamari, Fotini N; Karamanos, Nikos K; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-08-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are essential polysaccharide components of extracellular matrix and cell surface with key roles on numerous vascular wall functions. Previous studies have documented a role of wild blueberries on the GAG profile of the Sprague-Dawley rat with a functional endothelium as well as in the vascular tone of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) with endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, the effect of wild blueberries on the composition and structure of aortic GAGs was examined in 20-week-old SHRs after 8 weeks on a control (C) or a wild blueberry-enriched diet (WB). Aortic tissue GAGs were isolated following pronase digestion and anion-exchange chromatography. Treatment of the isolated populations with specific GAG-degrading lyases and subsequent electrophoretic profiling revealed the presence of three GAG species, i.e., hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS) and galactosaminoglycans (GalAGs). A notable reduction of the total sulfated GAGs and a redistribution of the aortic GAG pattern were recorded in the WB as compared to the C group: a 25% and 10% increase in HA and HS, respectively, and an 11% decrease in GalAGs. Fine biochemical analysis of GalAGs at the level of constituent disaccharides with high-performance capillary electrophoresis revealed a notable increase of nonsulfated (18.0% vs. 10.7%) and a decrease of disulfated disaccharides (2.2% vs. 5.3%) in the WB aorta. This is the first study to report the redistribution of GAGs at the level of composition and their fine structural characteristics with implications for the endothelial dysfunction of the SHR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A wild blueberry-enriched diet (Vaccinium angustifolium) improves vascular tone in the adult spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Kristo, Aleksandra S; Kalea, Anastasia Z; Schuschke, Dale A; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy J

    2010-11-24

    The effect of a wild blueberry-enriched diet on vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation was examined in the adult, 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) after 8 weeks of a control (C) or an 8% wild blueberry (WB) diet. Nitric oxide (NO)- and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated aortic responses were examined ex vivo with the agonists L-phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach), in the absence or presence of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NG-monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) or the COX inhibitor mefenamic acid (MFA). The vasoconstriction elicited by Phe was reduced in the WB group, attributed to the NO pathway, favoring a lower vascular tone under basal conditions. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the WB group was possibly mediated through the COX, but not the NO pathway. These findings document the potential of wild blueberries to modify major pathways of vasomotor control and improve the vascular tone in the adult SHR with endothelial dysfunction.

  9. Survival and Cardioprotective Benefits of Long-Term Blueberry Enriched Diet in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Following Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmet, Ismayil; Spangler, Edward; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Ingram, Donald K.; Talan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. Method and Results Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27) and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27) also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH). Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01). In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. Conclusion This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation. PMID:19936253

  10. Blueberry-enriched diet ameliorates age-related declines in NMDA receptor-dependent LTP

    PubMed Central

    Bickford, Paula C.; Browning, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is widely accepted as a cellular substrate for memory formation. Age-related declines in the expression of both NMDAR-dependent LTP and NMDAR subunit proteins in the CA1 region of the hippocampus have been well characterized and likely underlie age-related memory impairment. In the current study, we examined NMDAR-dependent LTP in young Fischer 344 rats (4 months old) and aged rats (24 months old) given either a control diet or a diet supplemented with blueberry extract for 6–8 weeks. NMDAR-dependent LTP was evoked by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in the presence of nifedipine, to eliminate voltage-gated calcium channel LTP. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were increased by 57% 1 h after HFS in young animals, but this potentiation was reduced to 31% in aged animals. Supplementation of the diet with blueberry extract elevated LTP (63%) in aged animals to levels seen in young. The normalization of LTP may be due to the blueberry diet preventing a decline in synaptic strength, as measured by the slope of the fEPSP for a given fiber potential. The blueberry diet did not prevent age-related declines in NMDAR protein expression. However, phosphorylation of a key tyrosine residue on the NR2B subunit, important for increasing NMDAR function, was enhanced by the diet, suggesting that an increase in NMDAR function might overcome the loss in protein. This report provides evidence that dietary alterations later in life may prevent or postpone the cognitive declines associated with aging. PMID:19424850

  11. Anthocyanin absorption, metabolism, and distribution from a wild blueberry-enriched diet (Vaccinium angustifolium) is affected by diet duration in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Del Bò, Cristian; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Martini, Daniela; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa

    2010-02-24

    The effect of wild blueberry consumption on anthocyanin (ACNs) distribution and metabolism in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. Thirty-two rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks with a control (C) or a wild blueberry-enriched diet (8%) (WB). Anthocyanin profile in plasma, urine, feces, brain, and liver was evaluated by LC-MS/MS, and significantly increased in urine and not in feces after 8 weeks on the WB diet compared to that in 4 weeks, but no anthocyanins were detected in plasma, liver, and brain samples either in the C or WB groups. Metabolites of ACNs were detected in the plasma, urine, feces, and tissues of both the C and WB groups, but the urinary excretion of hippuric acid increased significantly after 4 and 8 weeks of WB consumption. Thus, it seems that ACNs are metabolized by the intestinal microflora to respective phenyl-alkyl acids, which can be further metabolized to benzoic acid. In conclusion, ACNs are bioavailable in rats, and the extent of their metabolism and excretion is based on diet duration. Additionally, urinary hippuric acid content could represent a potential biomarker of ACNs absorption and metabolism in the SD rat under the present experimental conditions.

  12. A blueberry-enriched diet improves renal function and reduces oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome animals: potential mechanism of TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anand R; Elks, Carrie M; Vila, Jorge; Del Piero, Fabio; Paulsen, Daniel B; Francis, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of health factors that indicate a higher risk for cardio-renal diseases. Recent evidence indicates that antioxidants from berries are alternative to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that inflammation-induced renal damage is triggered by the activation of TLR4, and subsequent modulation of redox-sensitive molecules and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Five-week old lean and obese Zucker rats (LZR and OZR) were fed a blueberry-enriched diet or an isocaloric control diet for 15 weeks. A glucose tolerance test and acute renal clearance experiments were performed. Gene and protein expression levels for TLR4, cytokines and phosphorylation of ERK and p38MAPK were measured. Kidney redox status and urinary albumin levels were quantified. Renal pathology was evaluated histologically. Control OZR exhibited lower glucose tolerance; exacerbated renal function parameters; increased oxidative stress. Gene and protein expression levels of TLR4 were higher and this was accompanied by increased renal pathology with extensive albuminuria and deterioration in antioxidant levels in OZR. In addition, OZR had increased phosphorylation of ERK and p38MAPK. Blueberry-fed OZR exhibited significant improvements in all these parameters compared to OZR. TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway is a key to the renal structural injury and dysfunction in MetS and blueberry (BB) protect against this damage by inhibiting TLR4. This is the first study to put forth a potential mechanism of TLR4-induced kidney damage in a model of MetS and to elucidate a downstream mechanism by which blueberry exert their reno-protective effects.

  13. The temporal effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet on vasomotor tone in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Del Bo', C; Kristo, A S; Kalea, A Z; Ciappellano, S; Riso, P; Porrini, M; Klimis-Zacas, D

    2012-02-01

    We have previously reported that wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diets (WB) attenuate aortic adrenergic response through endothelial-mediated pathways. The duration of dietary intervention necessary to induce the positive changes on vasomotor tone has not been studied to date. Thus, our objective was to investigate the temporal effect of WB consumption on vascular function and reactivity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat aorta after 4 and 7 weeks of dietary treatment. Forty male SD rats were randomly assigned to a control (AIN-93) (C) or a WB diet for 4 or 7 weeks. Vascular ring studies were conducted in 3-mm isolated rat aortic rings to investigate vasoconstriction induced by six doses of the α(1)-adrenergic agonist, L-phenylephrine (Phe, 10(-8)-3×10(-6) M) alone or in the presence of the NOS inhibitor, L-N(G)-monomethyl-arginine (L-NMMA, 10(-4)M). The maximum force of contraction (F(max)) and vessel sensitivity (pD(2)) were determined. Analysis of variance revealed no significant differences on F(max) after 4 weeks of the WB diet but only a significant increase in pD(2) in the absence of L-NMMA. Seven week WB consumption significantly attenuated contraction in response to L-Phe and resulted in lower pD(2). Inhibition of NOS induced a significant increase in the constrictor response in both diet groups at both time periods, with the WB group fed for 7 weeks having the greater response. Thus wild blueberries incorporated into the diet at 8% w/w positively affect vascular smooth muscle contractility and sensitivity but these effects are evident only after 7 weeks of WB consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet improves dyslipidaemia and modulates the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Daugherty, Allison; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2014-01-28

    The present study investigated the potential of a wild blueberry (WB)-enriched diet to improve blood lipid profile and modulate the expression of genes related to lipid homeostasis in obese Zucker rats (OZR), a model of the metabolic syndrome with severe dyslipidaemia. For this purpose, twenty OZR and twenty lean Zucker rats (LZR; controls) were placed either on a control (C) or an 8 % WB diet for 8 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations were determined. The relative expression of six genes involved in lipid metabolism was also determined in both the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma TAG and TC concentrations were significantly lower in the OZR following WB consumption (4228 (sem 471) and 2287 (sem 125) mg/l, respectively) than in those on the C diet (5475 (sem 315) and 2631 (sem 129) mg/l, P< 0·05), while there was no change in HDL-cholesterol concentration. No significant effects were observed for plasma lipids in the LZR. Following WB consumption, the expression of the transcription factors PPARα and PPARγ in the OZR was increased in the AAT, while that of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) was decreased in the liver and AAT. The expression of fatty acid synthase was significantly decreased in both the liver and AAT and that of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 was increased in the AAT following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption appears to improve lipid profiles and modulate the expression of key enzymes and transcription factors of lipid metabolism in severely dyslipidaemic rats.

  15. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice.

    PubMed

    Roopchand, Diana E; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-02-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05-10μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24-74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  17. Blueberry anthocyanins at doses of 0.5 and 1 % lowered plasma cholesterol by increasing fecal excretion of acidic and neutral sterols in hamsters fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yintong; Chen, Jingnan; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Ka Ying; Jiang, Yue; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the underlying mechanism associated with the hypocholesterolemic activity of blueberry anthocyanins by examining its effect on fecal sterol excretion and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into three groups and fed a 0.1 % cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CTL), 0.5 % (BL), and 1.0 % (BH) blueberry anthocyanins, respectively, for six weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and non-high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. GC analysis was used to quantify hepatic cholesterol and fecal acidic and neutral sterols. Dietary supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0 % blueberry anthocyanins for 6 weeks decreased plasma TC concentration by 6-12 % in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increasing the excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols by 22-29 % and 41-74 %, respectively. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that incorporation of blueberry anthocyanins into diet down-regulated the genes of NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8. In addition, blueberry anthocyanins were also able to down-regulate the gene expression of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. The cholesterol-lowering activity of blueberry anthocyanins was most likely mediated by enhancing the excretion of sterols accompanied with down-regulation on gene expression of intestinal NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8.

  18. Improvement of lymphocyte resistance against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in Sprague-Dawley rats after eight weeks of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Del Bo', Cristian; Martini, Daniela; Vendrame, Stefano; Riso, Patrizia; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

    2010-12-21

    The effect of wild-blueberry consumption on the resistance of H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage was evaluated in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Thirty-two, four week-old SD rats were randomly assigned to two groups of sixteen rats each and fed a control diet (C) or a wild-blueberry (WB) diet for four or eight weeks. Following the dietary treatment, plasma antioxidant capacity was assessed by the TRAP assay. Ex vivo protection from H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage was evaluated in lymphocytes by means of the comet assay. No significant effect was detected in plasma antioxidant capacity at four and eight weeks in both dietary groups. In contrast, the level of DNA damage was significantly lower in rats fed the WB diet compared with those on the C diet after eight weeks (11.± 1.0% vs 17.2 ± 2.4% DNA in tail, p ≤ 0.05) but not after four weeks. In conclusion, while WB consumption did not affect plasma antioxidant activity, it improved lymphocyte protection against oxidative damage, but only after eight weeks. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals; our lab has demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against put...

  20. Blueberry

    MedlinePlus

    ... agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast agents make it possible for radiologists to see and interpret the images. Some people inhale the fumes of burning dried blueberry flowers for treatment of insanity.

  1. Effect of blueberries on the immune response of obese mice induced by high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both high fat diet and obesity have been linked to impaired cell-mediated immune response. Blueberry, rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, has been shown to impact biologic functions in several tissues. However, no information is available on immune cells. We investigated whether blueberry consumptio...

  2. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Dietary enrichment with wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) affects the vascular reactivity in the aorta of young spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kalea, Anastasia Z; Clark, Kateryna; Schuschke, Dale A; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy J

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported on the positive effects of wild blueberries on arterial contractile response to alpha(1) adrenergic stimuli and on endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation. Our present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the dietary enrichment with wild blueberries on aortic function and reactivity in the developmental phase of essential hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We investigated the possible influence blueberries may have on the acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in young SHRs, as well as the contribution of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways in each of the above responses in an animal model with dysfunctional endothelium. Vascular ring studies were conducted in 3-mm isolated rat aortic ring preparations to investigate vasoconstriction induced by l-Phenylephrine (Phe, 10(-8) to 3x10(-6)M) and vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine (Ach, 10(-9) to 3x10(-6)M). The major findings of our study were that in Phe-induced vasoconstriction, SHR-BB aortas relaxed to a greater degree in comparison to controls when mefenamic acid (MFA) was present and that the incubation with this COX inhibitor failed to restore - and in fact decreased - the maximum vasodilator response to Ach, in comparison to controls. Our vessel reactivity index (pD(2)) observations indicate that blueberries appear to modulate cell membrane-agonist (Ach) interactions primarily in response to Ach in the young SHR model, but not to the alpha(1) adrenoreceptor agonist. Incorporating wild blueberries in the diet seems to affect the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by modulating alternative metabolic pathway(s) (such as affecting the production/activity of COX-derived products) in the young SHR aorta.

  4. The effects of blueberry supplementation in middle aged mice consuming a high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consuming a high fat diet may result in behavioral deficits that are similar to those observed in aging animals, possibly because of increased brain inflammation and oxidative stress. Our lab has demonstrated that diets supplemented with polyphenolic- rich berries, such as blueberries, can allay beh...

  5. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice consuming a high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consuming a high fat (HF) diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals, possibly because of increased brain inflammation and oxidative stress. Our lab has demonstrated that diets supplemented with polyphenolic-rich berries, such as blueberries (BB), can allay beh...

  6. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  7. Early consumption of blueberry diet protects against sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss in adult female rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the effects of blueberry consumption in early development on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats later in life. Weanling female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder from PND 21 to PND34 (short-term group), or PND21 to PND81 (chro...

  8. Blueberry juice and anthocyanins modulate obesity, leptin and beta cell function in mice fed a high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are the components responsible for the red and blue colors found in many fruits and berries. Consumption of purified blueberry (BB) anthocyanins but not whole BB in the diet has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in mice fed high-fat diets (JAFC 56:647, 2008). The o...

  9. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of rankl in stromal cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce thes...

  10. Blueberry diet derived 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (PPA) suppresses osteoblastic cell senescence to promote bone accretion in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A blueberry (BB) supplemented diet has been previously shown to significantly stimulate bone formation in rapidly growing male and female rodents. Phenolic acids (PAs) are metabolites derived from polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables as a result of the actions of gut bacteria, and the levels o...

  11. Blueberry Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyu; Pang, Wei; He, Congcong; Li, Yibo; Jiang, Yugang; Guo, Changjiang

    2017-01-11

    Blueberry anthocyanin-enriched extracts (BAE) at three doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg) were administered by oral gavage to rats exposed to 10 mg/kg fine particulate matter (PM2.5) three times a week. A positive control group was exposed to PM2.5 without BAE treatment. We analyzed heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram (ECG), and histopathology, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system injuries, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function, and apoptosis. Results indicated that BAE, particularly at 1.0 g/kg, improved ECG and decreased cytokine levels in PM2.5-exposed rats. These changes were accompanied by an increase in interleukin 10 levels and superoxide dismutase activity in heart tissue and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as a decrease in interleukin 6, malondialdehyde, endothelin 1, and angiotensin II levels and a reduction in Bax protein expression. This study demonstrates that BAE at certain doses can protect the cardiovascular system from PM2.5-induced damage.

  12. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potentail to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenols present in lowbush blueberries cannot be absorbed by the intestinal epithelial tissue in their native form. These compounds are catabolized by the gut microbiota before being utilized. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with lowbush blueberries on th...

  13. Anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) anthocyanin in high-fat diet-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Jiang, Zenghong; Yin, Jinjin; Long, Hairong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) anthocyanin (BA) in high-fat diet-induced obese male C57BL/6 mice. BA at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg was supplemented in the daily food of obese C57BL/6 mice during an 8-week experiment. Our findings indicate that consumption of BA at high doses reduced body weight by 19.4%, whereas both low and middle doses did not affect the body weight. Furthermore, BA supplementation at high dose could effectively decrease serum glucose, attenuate epididymal adipocytes, improve lipid profiles, and significantly down-regulate expression levels of TNFα, IL-6 PPARγ, and FAS genes. Therefour, BA might alter bodyweight by suppressing fatty acid synthesis and alleviating inflammation.

  14. Feeding Blueberry Diets to Young Rats Dose-Dependently Inhibits Bone Resorption through Suppression of RANKL in Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Kang, Jie; Blackburn, Michael L.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce these effects is, as yet, unknown. The current study examined the effects of three different levels of BB diet supplementation (1, 3, and 5%) for 35 days beginning on PND25 on bone quality, and osteoclastic bone resorption in female rats. Peripheral quantitative CT scan (pQCT) of tibia, demonstrated that bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were dose-dependently increased in BB-fed rats compared to controls (P<0.05). Significantly increased bone mass after feeding 5% BB extracts was also observed in a TEN (total enteral nutrition) rat model in which daily caloric and food intake was precisely controlled. Expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) a protein essential for osteoclast formation was dose-dependently decreased in the femur of BB animals. In addition, expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) which regulates bone marrow adipogenesis was suppressed in BB diet rats compared to non-BB diet controls. Finally, a set of in vitro cell cultures revealed that the inhibitory effect of BB diet rat serum on RANKL expression was more profound in mesenchymal stromal cells compared to its effect on mature osteoblasts, pre-adipocytes and osteocytes. These results suggest that inhibition of bone resorption may contribute to increased bone mass during early development after BB consumption. PMID:23936431

  15. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:27698956

  16. Monosaccharide-enriched diets cause hyperleptinemia without hypophagia.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, A D; Chehade, J; Hurd, R; Haas, M J

    2000-06-01

    To determine the effect of monosaccharide-enriched diets on plasma leptin and food consumption, body weight, food intake, and serum glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations were measured in rats maintained on a 10-d course of 60% glucose or 60% fructose diet. The serum leptin concentration in rats fed a high-glucose diet (7.60 +/- 0.6 ng/mL) or a high-fructose diet (5.12 +/- 0.8 ng/mL) was significantly increased compared with that in control rats (2.45 +/- 0.10 ng/mL; P < 0.001). To ascertain that the observed effect was related to hyperinsulinemia, a group of rats were infused with exogenous insulin or rendered insulin resistent with a high-fat diet. When hyperinsulinemia was induced with exogenous infusion, the serum leptin was increased (5.56 +/- 0.23 ng/mL; P < 0.001). High-fat feeding was associated with increased serum leptin (12.1 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) and insulin levels. The increased serum leptin concentration was not associated with decreased food intake. We conclude that monosaccharide-enriched diets, probably through hyperinsulinemia or relative or absolute insulin resistance, cause hyperleptinemia, which does not appear to change feeding behavior.

  17. Blueberry certification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certification programs for the production of systemic pathogen-tested blueberry stock require the following two major elements: reliable sources of clean starting material and propagation and maintenance of clean stock. One of the major components of the United States Blueberry National Certificatio...

  18. Maternal blueberry diet programs Wnt-1-induced mammary tumor progression and gene expression in mouse offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the well-accepted notion of peri-natal origins of adult diseases, the factors and regulatory mechanisms underlying breast cancer development at later adult life remains unclear. Diet is a highly modifiable determinant of breast cancer risk, and the effects of the in utero nutritional environ...

  19. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  20. Lowbush blueberries, vaccinium angustifolium, modulate the functional potential of nutrient utilization and DNA maintenance mechanisms in the rat proximal colon microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research is to study whether a diet enriched with wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium ) can aid in promoting a beneficial population of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve, three-week-old, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups. The cont...

  1. Effects of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) on DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and phase II enzyme activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, Rachel V; Yi, Weiguang; Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Krewer, Gerard; Fischer, Joan G

    2008-12-24

    Blueberry extracts have high antioxidant potential and increase phase II enzyme activities in vitro. This study tested the hypothesis that blueberries would reduce DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and increase phase II enzyme activities in vivo. Young, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were fed control AIN-93 diets or AIN-93 diets supplemented with blueberries or blueberry extracts for 3 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 10% freeze-dried whole blueberries, blueberry polyphenol extract and sugars to match the 10% blueberry diet, or 1 and 0.2% blueberry flavonoids, which were primarily anthocyanins. Liver and colon mucosa glutathione-S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in colon mucosa and liver were not significantly increased by freeze-dried whole blueberries or blueberry fractions. Liver GST activity, however, was approximately 25% higher than controls for the freeze-dried whole blueberry, blueberry polyphenol, and 1% flavonoid groups. DNA damage was significantly lower than control only in the liver of animals fed the 1% flavonoid diet. The level of urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was unaffected. In summary, in healthy rats, short-term supplementation with freeze-dried whole blueberries, blueberry polyphenols, or blueberry flavonoids did not significantly increase phase II enzyme activities. However, supplementation with 1% blueberry flavonoids did decrease oxidative DNA damage in the liver.

  2. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Omar M; Pabona, John Mark P; Kelly, Thomas; Huang, Yan; Hennings, Leah J; Prior, Ronald L; Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2013-02-01

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether early exposure to blueberry (BB) via maternal diet alters oncogene Wnt1-induced mammary tumorigenesis in offspring. Wnt1-transgenic female mice were exposed to maternal Casein (CAS, control) or blueberry-supplemented (CAS + 3%BB) diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned to CAS and mammary tumor development was followed until age 8 months. Tumor incidence and latency were similar for both groups; however, tumor weight at killing and tumor volume within 2 weeks of initial detection were lower (by 50 and 60%, respectively) in offspring of BB- versus control-fed dams. Dietary BB exposure beginning at weaning did not alter mammary tumor parameters. Tumors from maternal BB-exposed offspring showed higher tumor suppressor (Pten and Cdh1) and lower proproliferative (Ccnd1), anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) and proangiogenic (Figf, Flt1 and Ephb4) transcript levels, and displayed attenuated microvessel density. Expression of Pten and Cdh1 genes was also higher in mammary tissues of maternal BB-exposed offspring. Mammary tissues and tumors of maternal BB-exposed offspring showed increased chromatin-modifying enzyme Dnmt1 and Ezh2 transcript levels. Body weight, serum insulin and serum leptin/adiponectin ratio were lower for maternal BB-exposed than control tumor-bearing offspring. Tumor weights and serum insulin were positively correlated. Results suggest that dietary influences on the maternal environment contribute to key developmental programs in the mammary gland to modify breast cancer outcome in adult progeny.

  3. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  4. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN ‘93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001), with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159) or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670). Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  5. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001), with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159) or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670). Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid.

  6. 'Blueberry' Exposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This three-dimensional model shows a postage-stamp-sized patch of the rock target in the outcrop near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site. A sliced sphere-like particle, or 'blueberry,' can be seen to the far right of the model. The model was created from images taken by the rover's microscopic imager, after the surface of the rock was scraped away with the rock abrasion tool.

  7. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to ;accelerated aging.; One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  8. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of (56)Fe particles.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Rabin, Bernard M; Bielinski, Donna F; Kelly, Megan E; Miller, Marshall G; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as (56)Fe, within 24-48h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to (56)Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to (56)Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that (56)Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Philip J; Wilson, C Brad; Wilson, Leslie D; Nair, Anand R; J, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC). The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE) as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2%) or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD.

  10. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberries in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, Philip J.; Wilson, C. Brad; Wilson, Leslie D.; Nair, Anand R.; J, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in a prolonged stress response. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC). The only approved therapy for PTSD is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but their efficacy is marginal. Recently, we demonstrated that over-production of norepinephrine (NE) as the possible reason for the lack of efficacy of SSRIs. Hence, there is a need for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of blueberries in modulating inflammatory markers and neurotransmitter levels in PTSD. Rats were fed either a blueberry enriched (2%) or a control diet. Rats were exposed to cats for one hour on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day schedule to simulate traumatic conditions. The rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and the PFC and HC were isolated. Monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured. In our PTSD model, NE levels were increased and 5-HT levels were decreased when compared to control. In contrast, a blueberry enriched diet increased 5-HT without affecting NE levels. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also studied and they confirmed our findings. The enhanced levels free radicals, gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines seen in the PTSD group were normalized with a blueberry enriched diet. Decreased anxiety in this group was shown by improved performance on the elevated plus-maze. These findings indicate blueberries can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation and restore neurotransmitter imbalances in a rat model of PTSD. PMID:27603014

  11. Blueberry extract prolongs lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Kwan, Kin Ming; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Huang, Yu; Yu, Hongjian; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Blueberry possesses greater antioxidant capacity than most other fruits and vegetables. The present study investigated the lifespan-prolonging activity of blueberry extracts in fruit flies and explored its underlying mechanism. Results revealed that blueberry extracts at 5mg/ml in diet could significantly extend the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10%, accompanied by up-regulating gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Rpn11 and down-regulating Methuselah (MTH) gene. Intensive H(2)O(2) and Paraquat challenge tests showed that lifespan was only extended in Oregon-R wild type flies but not in SOD(n108) or Cat(n1) mutant strains. Chronic Paraquat exposure shortened the maximum survival time from 73 to 35days and decreased the climbing ability by 60% while blueberry extracts at 5mg/ml in diet could significantly increase the survival rate and partially restore the climbing ability with up-regulating SOD, CAT, and Rpn11. Furthermore, gustatory assay demonstrated that those changes were not due to the variation of food intake between the control and the experimental diet containing 5mg/ml blueberry extracts. It was therefore concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of blueberry extracts was at least partially associated with its interactions with MTH, Rpn11, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT.

  12. The effect of diets enriched in cabbage and collards on murine pulmonary metastasis.

    PubMed

    Scholar, E M; Wolterman, K; Birt, D F; Bresnick, E

    1989-01-01

    Feeding mice with diets enriched in dried cruciferous vegetables (cabbage and collards) resulted in a significant decrease in the number of pulmonary metastases after the animals were injected intravenously with mammary tumor cells. No differences in weight gain or calorie consumption were seen between the mice fed the different diets. These results support other evidence that diets high in cruciferous vegetables may be beneficial in cancer prevention.

  13. [Is a fish oil enriched diet therapeutically beneficial?].

    PubMed

    Machura, E; Kalaciński, W; Brus, R

    1995-07-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and significance of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of asthma are presented in this article. The effect of a diet containing eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of a variety of diseases is discussed as well.

  14. Retinoid- and carotenoid-enriched diets influence the ontogenesis of the immune system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ada L; Rühl, Ralph; Herz, Udo; Koebnick, Corinna; Schweigert, Florian J; Worm, Margitta

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) has been identified as an important factor for the development of the immune system, especially during ontogenesis. It has been shown that antibody secretion and proliferation of lymphocyte populations depend on retinoids. In the present study we investigated the influence of a base VA diet and diets enriched with VA, β-carotene and lycopene, on the ontogenesis of the immune system in mice. We examined the absolute and relative concentrations of splenic B lymphocytes (CD45R/B220), T lymphocytes (CD3+) and their subpopulations (CD4+ and CD8+), and measured serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations in the offspring of supplemented dams at different ages (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 65 days). The experimental diets resulted in higher numbers of T and B lymphocytes after VA and carotenoid enrichment, when compared, at various time-points, with the base diet. Higher values of total serum IgG were found in the β-carotene-enriched diet group on day 7. On days 7 and 14, the enriched diets induced significant alterations in the percentages and total numbers of splenic lymphocytes in comparison to the base diet. Our results confirm that supplementation with VA and carotenoids affect the immune-cell function during ontogenesis and suggest a possible role of these nutritional factors on the development of the immune system. PMID:14511231

  15. Effect of broccoli extract enriched diet on liver cholesterol oxidation in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lorenzini, Antonello; Bandini, Erika; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana; Malaguti, Marco

    2016-04-12

    The effect of broccoli extract (BE)-enriched diet was studied in order to evaluate its ability to counteract liver cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) induced by acute strenuous exercise in rats. Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control diet without exercise (C), BE-enriched diet without exercise (B), control diet with acute exhaustive exercise (S) and BE-enriched diet with acute exhaustive exercise (BS). The study lasted 45days and on the last day, rats of S and BS groups were forced to run until exhaustion on a treadmill. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were determined in liver. Exhaustive exercise was clearly responsible for tissue damage, as evidenced by the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma activity in the S group. Moreover, the exercise protocol reduced CAT activity in liver, while it did not affect GST, GR and GPx. BE-enriched diet raised GST, GR and CAT activities in rats of BS group. The main COPs found were 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestanetriol, 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. The BE-enriched diet led to reduced cholesterol oxidation following exhaustive exercise; the highest level of COPs was found in the S group, whereas the BS rats showed the lowest amount. This study indicates that the BE-enriched diet increases antioxidant enzyme activities and exerts an antioxidant effect towards cholesterol oxidation in rat liver, suggesting the use of phytochemicals in the prevention of oxidative damage and in the modulation of the redox environment.

  16. Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) Alleviate Inflammation and Hypertension Associated with Developing Obesity in Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mykkänen, Otto T.; Huotari, Anne; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Dunlop, Thomas W.; Mykkänen, Hannu; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects. Berries, especially Nordic wild blueberries (hereafter referred to as bilberries), represent an important source of dietary anthocyanins, a group of polyphenols with potential beneficial effects to combat obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Methods The effects of 5% or 10% (w/w) of whole bilberries (BB) were studied on the development of obesity and its metabolic disturbances in C57BL mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for three months. Cytokines, inflammatory cells, systolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, body fat, food consumption and energy metabolism were assessed. Results Bilberries ameliorated type 1 pro-inflammatory responsiveness induced by HFD. This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells. Bilberries also prevented the progression of obesity associated long term increase in systolic blood pressure in mice. Conclusions Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity. PMID:25501421

  17. Modeling the dynamics of stable isotope tissue-diet enrichment.

    PubMed

    Remien, Christopher H

    2015-02-21

    Reconstructions of dietary composition and trophic level from stable isotope measurements of animal tissue rely on predictable offsets of stable isotope ratios from diet to tissue. Physiological processes associated with metabolism shape tissue stable isotope ratios, and as such the spacing between stable isotope ratios of diet and tissue may be influenced by processes such as growth, nutritional stress, and disease. Here, we develop a model of incorporation stable isotopes in diet to tissues by coupling stable isotope dynamics to a model of macronutrient energy metabolism. We use the model to explore the effect of changes in dietary intake, both composition and amount, and in energy expenditure, on body mass and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of tissue.

  18. Comparison of an oleic acid enriched-diet vs NCEP-I diet on LDL susceptibility to oxidative modifications.

    PubMed

    Castro, P; Miranda, J L; Gómez, P; Escalante, D M; Segura, F L; Martín, A; Fuentes, F; Blanco, A; Ordovás, J M; Jiménez, F P

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this trial was to compare the effect on the susceptibility of plasma Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidative modifications of consumption of two oleic rich diets, prepared with two different plant oils, virgin olive oil (OL)1 and refined high monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA sunflower oil (SU)), with the susceptibility of plasma LDL to oxidation after an National Cholesterol Education Program step 1 (NCEP-I) phase diet. A randomized crossover design. Twenty-two healthy normolipidemic young males consumed an NCEP-I diet for a 4-week period. Subjects were then assigned to two diets each of 4-weeks duration. Group one was placed on an olive oil enriched diet (40% fat, 22% MUFA) followed by a 4-week period of a MUFA diet enriched in sunflower oil (40% fat, 22% MUFA). In group two, the order of the diets was reversed. Both MUFA diets induced a decrease in saturated (14:0, 16:0, and 18:0) and an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n-6 (18:2, 20:3, and 20:5) plasma LDL-phospholipid fatty acids, compared to the NCEP-I diet (P<0.01). No significant differences in lag times were observed between the olive oil and the NCEP-I diet periods. However there was a greater inhibition time (P<0.001) when subjects consumed the MUFA rich sunflower oil diet compared to the NCEP-I diet. These differences were probably related to the relative enrichment of plasma LDL particles in alpha-tocopherol due to the high vitamin E content of the MUFA-rich sunflower oil. Indeed, the alpha-tocopherol content was positively correlated with lag time (r=0.338; P<0.008). Our findings suggest that changes in plasma LDL alpha-tocopherol content with practical solid-food diets can decrease its susceptibility to oxidation. This work has been supported by grants from the Investigaciones de la Seguridad Social (FIS 92/0182, to Francisco Pérez Jiménez); and from Koype Co, Andújar, Jaén, Spain. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 61-67

  19. 'Bluesfest' Rabbiteye Blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Bluesfest’ is a productive new rabbiteye blueberry developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). The mid-season ripening rabbiteye blueberry ‘Powderblue’ is currently among the more popular rabbiteye blueberries mostly due to its e...

  20. Blueberry shock virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry shock disease first observed in Washington state in 1987 and initially confused with blueberry scorch caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). However, shock affected plants produced a second flush of leaves after flowering and the plants appeared normal by late summer except for the lac...

  1. Effect of a soluble cocoa fiber-enriched diet in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, David; Moulay, Leila; Muguerza, Begoña; Quiñones, Mar; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2010-06-01

    The effects of a soluble cocoa fiber (SCF) were studied in Zucker fatty rats. Two groups of Zucker fatty rats were fed the following diets: standard diet and 5% SCF-enriched diet. A group of Zucker lean rats fed the standard diet was used for results comparison with obese Zucker animals. Solid and liquid intakes, body weight, plasma glucose, lipid profile, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were recorded weekly. At the end of the experimental period insulin was determined, and fat apparent digestibility (FAD) and insulin resistance were calculated. The Zucker fatty rats fed 5% SCF-enriched diet showed less weight gain and food intake than those fed the standard diet. The group fed the fiber-enriched diet showed lower values of the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels than the standard group. FAD was also lower in the fiber group. Both SBP and DBP were decreased. In addition, SCF reduced plasma glucose and insulin, and as a consequence the insulin resistance was also decreased. Our data demonstrate that SCF resulted in an improvement of the studied risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disorders.

  2. Glucomannan or Glucomannan Plus Spirulina-Enriched Squid-Surimi Diets Reduce Histological Damage to Liver and Heart in Zucker fa/fa Rats Fed a Cholesterol-Enriched and Non-Cholesterol-Enriched Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Glucomannan-enriched squid surimi improves cholesterolemia and liver antioxidant status. The effect of squid surimi enriched with glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina on liver and heart structures and cell damage markers was tested in fa/fa rats fed highly saturated-hyper-energetic diets. Animals were fed 70% AIN-93M rodent diet plus six versions of 30% squid surimi for 7 weeks: control (C), glucomannan (G), and glucomannan plus spirulina (GS). The cholesterol-control (HC), cholesterol-glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-glucomannan plus spirulina (HGS) groups were given similar diets that were enriched with 2% cholesterol and 0.4% cholic acid. G and GS diets versus C diet significantly inhibited weight gain and lowered plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, liver steatosis, lipogranulomas, and total inflammation and alteration scores. The hypercholesterolemic agent significantly increased the harmful effects of the C diet. Liver weight, the hepatosomatic index, all damage markers, and total histological scoring rose for HC versus C (at least P < .05). The addition of glucomannan (HG vs. HC) improved these biomarkers, and non-additional effects from spirulina were observed except for the total liver alteration score. In conclusion, glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina blocked the highly saturated-hyper-energetic diet negative effects both with and without added cholesterol. Results suggest the usefulness of including these functional ingredients in fish products.

  3. Effects of fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipid profiles of MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, O A; Olayiwola, I O; Ademuyiwa, O; Balogun, E A

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of some fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipids in an animal model of obesity induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), obese rats were fed diets containing 30% of Acha, Cassava, Maize and Plantain for five weeks and weight gain, feed intake and lee index were recorded. The lipid profiles of plasma, erythrocytes, kidney, heart and liver as well as hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were measured. The diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight gain and lee index in the obese rats. Obesity-induced increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid levels was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by these diets. MSG-induced obesity also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in hepatic cholesterol level which was reduced by the diets. MSG-obesity was characterised by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in kidney and this was reversed by the diets except Maize which did not reverse the increased cholesterol level. Only Acha reversed the obesity-induced increase in heart cholesterol and phospholipids. The increased activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase associated with obesity was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the diets. In conclusion, dyslipidemia associated with MSG-induced obesity could be attenuated by consumption of fibre-enriched diets.

  4. γ-Tocopherol-enriched mixed tocopherol diet inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice

    PubMed Central

    Barve, Avantika; Khor, Tin Oo; Nair, Sujit; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Reddy, Bandaru; Newmark, Harold; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2015-01-01

    γ-tocopherol (γ-T) alone or in combination with α-tocopherol has been shown to suppress biomarkers of oxidative stress in asthamatics and human subjects with metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a key event in prostate carcinogenesis. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of γ-tocopherol-enriched mixed tocopherol diet on prostate carcinogenesis in a murine prostate cancer model (TRAMP). 8 week old TRAMP males were fed 0.1% γ -T-enriched mixed tocopherol diet that contained 20-fold higher levels of γ-tocopherol, and roughly 3-fold higher levels of α-tocopherol. The effect of such diet on tumor and PIN development was observed. The expression of phase II detoxifying, antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 mRNA and protein were determined by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques. Treatment with γ-T-enriched mixed tocopherols significantly suppressed the incidence of palpable tumor and Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) development without affecting the expression of the transgene (SV-40). Tumor progression occurred with a significant suppression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, heme-oxygenase-1 and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Treatment with γ-T-enriched mixed tocopherol diet upregulated the expression of most detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. Nrf2—a redox sensitive transcription factor known to mediate the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes, was also significantly upregulated following treatment with γ-T-enriched mixed tocopherol diet. γ-T-enriched mixed tocopherols significantly up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and its related detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes thereby suppressing PIN and tumor development. PMID:19115203

  5. Feeding blueberry diets during early development is sufficient to prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in adulthood

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  6. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  7. 'Blueberry' Exposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic of five images taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 87 shows the hole drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Pilbara.' A sliced 'blueberry,' or spherule, which is darker and harder than the rest of the rock, can be seen near the center of the hole. The rock abrasion process left a pile of rock powder around the side of the hole, and to a lesser degree, inside the hole. The hole is 7.2 millimeters (about 0.28 inches) deep and 4.5 centimeters (about 1.8 inches) in diameter.

    Because the original images of this hole had areas of bright sunlight as well as shadow, the images making up this mosaic have been arranged to hide as much of the sunlit area as possible. The white spot is one area that could not be covered by other images. It is possible to stretch the image so that features in this white spot are visible, but this makes the rest of the mosaic harder to view. The bright streaks on the bottom part of the hole are most likely reflections from various parts of the robotic arm. The geometric and brightness seams have been corrected in this image.

  8. Effects of a vegetarian diet vs. a vegetarian diet enriched with avocado in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Madrigal, J; Herrera-Abarca, J E; Alvizouri-Muñoz, M; Alvarado-Jimenez, M R; Chavez-Carbajal, F

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effects of a vegetarian diet with avocado as a source of monounsaturated fat on serum lipids, thirteen patients with phenotype II (twelve with IIa and one with IIb) dyslipidemia were included in a prospective, transversal and comparative study in which three four-week diets randomly assigned were assessed. One vegetarian diet (ALVD) was composed of 70% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 20% lipids. Another was composed of 60% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 30% lipids, 75% of which was supplied by avocado (AVD). A third diet was an avocado-added free diet (FDWA). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC), high (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)) were evaluated. AVD produced a significant decrease in LDL. ALVD did not change TC and LDL, while FDWA increased them slightly. The three diets reduced TG levels, but only ALVD did so significantly. All three diets reduced HDL levels, particularly ALVD, which produced the greatest reduction. Low-fat, carbohydrate-rich vegetarian diets may be harmful to hypercholesterolemic patients. The avocado addition to a vegetarian diet does not correct these undesirable effects. To obtain beneficial effects on lipid profile with avocado, lower amounts of carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids are probably needed.

  9. Larval quality of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  10. Larval performance of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  11. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Picado, C; Castillo, J A; Schinca, N; Pujades, M; Ordinas, A; Coronas, A; Agusti-Vidal, A

    1988-02-01

    The effect of a fish oil enriched diet containing about 3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid was studied in 10 patients with aspirin intolerant asthma. Subjects were studied during six weeks on a control diet followed by six weeks on the fish oil diet in a single blind study design. They were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily, bronchodilator and steroid doses, and subjective ratings of pulmonary symptoms on diary cards. There were no significant changes in symptom scores over the six weeks of either the control diet or the fish oil diet. PEF values, however, were significantly lower during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control diet (308 v 262 l/min week 5 and 306 v 256 l/min week 6). Bronchodilator usage was also greater during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control period (12.0 v 7.4 and 13.0 v 7.4 puffs a day in weeks 5 and 6). This pilot study suggests that fish diets may have a deleterious effect on patients with aspirin intolerant asthma.

  12. The effect of peptidoglycan enriched diets on antimicrobial peptide gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Casadei, Elisa; Bird, Steve; Vecino, Jose L González; Wadsworth, Simon; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diets on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. Fish were divided into 5 groups and fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg PG/Kg, and sampled 1, 7 and 14 days later. The expression of eight AMP genes (four defensins, two cathelicidins and two liver expressed AMPs) was determined in skin, gill, gut and liver, tissues important for first lines of defence or production of acute phase proteins. Up-regulation of many AMPs was found after feeding the PG enriched diets, with sequential expression seen over the time course studied, where defensins were typically expressed early and cathelicidins and LEAPs later on. A number of clear differences in AMP responsiveness between the tissues examined were also apparent. Of the four PG concentrations used, 5 mg PG/Kg did not always elicit AMP gene induction or to the same degree as seen with the other diets. The three higher dose groups generally showed similar trends although differences in fold change were more pronounced in the 50 and 100 mg PG/Kg groups. Curiously several AMPs were down-regulated after 14 days of feeding in gills, gut and liver. Nevertheless, overall the PG enriched diets had a positive effect on AMP expression. Further investigations now need to be undertaken to confirm whether this higher AMP gene expression correlates with protection against common bacterial diseases and if PG enriched diets have value as a means to temporarily boost the piscine immune system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  14. Environmental enrichment and cafeteria diet attenuate the response to chronic variable stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeeni, N; Bassil, M; Fromentin, G; Chaumontet, C; Darcel, N; Tome, D; Daher, C F

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment (EE) or the intake of a highly palatable diet may reduce the response to chronic stress in rodents. To further explore the relationships between EE, dietary intake and stress, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of two diets for 5 weeks: high carbohydrate (HC) or "cafeteria" (CAF) (Standard HC plus a choice of highly palatable cafeteria foods: chocolate, biscuits, and peanut butter). In addition, they were either housed in empty cages or cages with EE. After the first two weeks, half of the animals from each group were stressed daily using a chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm, while the other half were kept undisturbed. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 5-week period. The effects of stress, enrichment and dietary intake on animal adiposity, serum lipids, and stress hormones were analyzed. Results showed an increase in intra-abdominal fat associated with the CAF diet and an increase in body weight gain associated with both the CAF diet and EE. Furthermore, the increase in ACTH associated with CVS was attenuated in the presence of EE and the CAF diet independently while the stress-induced increase in corticosterone was reduced by the combination of EE and CAF feeding. The present study provides evidence that the availability of a positive environment combined to a highly palatable diet increases resilience to the effects of CVS in rats. These results highlight the important place of palatable food and supportive environments in reducing central stress responses.

  15. Cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation is prevented by a hempseed-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Prociuk, M A; Edel, A L; Richard, M N; Gavel, N T; Ander, B P; Dupasquier, C M C; Pierce, G N

    2008-04-01

    Hypercholesterolemia indirectly increases the risk for myocardial infarction by enhancing the ability of platelets to aggregate. Diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce the detrimental effects of cholesterol on platelet aggregation. This study investigated whether dietary hempseed, a rich source of PUFAs, inhibits platelet aggregation under normal and hypercholesterolemic conditions. Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed one of 6 dietary interventions: regular control diet (RG); control diet + 10% hempseed (HP); control diet + 10% partially delipidated hempseed (DHP); control diet + 0.5% cholesterol (OL); control diet + 0.5% cholesterol + 10% hempseed (OLHP); control diet + 5% coconut oil (CO). After 8 weeks, blood was collected to measure ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and plasma levels of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The hempseed-fed animals (HP and OLHP) displayed elevated plasma levels of PUFAs and a prominent enhancement in 18:3n-6 (gamma-linolenic acid, GLA) levels, a unique PUFA found in hempseed. The cholesterol-supplemented groups (OL and OLHP) had significantly elevated plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but platelet aggregation was significantly augmented only in the OL group. The addition of hempseed to this diet (OLHP) normalized aggregation. The direct addition of GLA to the OL platelet samples blocked the cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation. The results of this study demonstrate that when hempseed is added to a cholesterol-enriched diet, cholesterol-induced platelet aggregation returns to control levels. This normalization is not due to a reduction in plasma cholesterol levels, but may be partly due to increased levels of plasma GLA.

  16. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  17. Rats fed fructose-enriched diets have characteristics of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takahiro; Igarashi, Kanji; Koeda, Tatsuki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Hayashi, Shuichi; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2009-11-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are increasing in adults and are likely to be increasing in children. Both conditions are hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome. Experimental animals fed fructose-enriched diets are widely recognized as good models for metabolic syndrome. However, few reports have described the hepatic pathology of these experimental animals. In this study, 5-wk-old Wistar specific pathogen-free rats, which are a normal strain, were fed experimental diets for 5 wk. We then evaluated the degree of steatohepatitis. The 5 diet groups were as follows: cornstarch (70% wt:wt) [control (C)], high-fructose (70%) (HFr), high-sucrose (70%) (HS), high-fat (15%) (HF), and high-fat (15%) high-fructose (50%) (HFHFr) diets. The macrovesicular steatosis grade, liver:body weight ratio, and hepatic triglyceride concentration were significantly higher in the HFr group than in the other 4 groups. However, the HFr group had a significantly lower ratio of epididymal white fat:body weight than the other 4 groups and had a lower final body weight than the HF and HFHFr groups. The HF group had a greater final body weight than the C, HFr, and HS groups, but no macrovesicular steatosis was observed. The HFr group had a significantly higher grade of lobular inflammation than the other 4 groups. The distribution of lobular inflammation was predominant over portal inflammation, which is consistent with human NASH. In conclusion, rats fed fructose-enriched diets are a better model for NASH than rats fed fat-enriched diets.

  18. An ω-3-enriched diet alone does not attenuate CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Todd R; Kodani, Sean; Yang, Jun; Imai, Denise M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) leads to hepatic lipid peroxidation, inflammation and fibrosis. Dietary supplementation of ω-3 fatty acids has been increasingly advocated as being generally anti-inflammatory, though its effect in models of liver fibrosis is mixed. This raises the question of whether diets high in ω-3 fatty acids will result in a greater sensitivity or resistance to liver fibrosis as a result of environmental toxicants like CCl4. In this study, we fed CCl4-treated mice a high ω-3 diet (using a mix of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters). We also co-administered an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), which has been shown to boost anti-inflammatory epoxy fatty acids that are produced from both ω-3 and ω-6 dietary lipids. We showed that soluble epoxide inhibitors reduced CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Three major results were obtained. First, the ω-3-enriched diet did not attenuate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis as judged by collagen deposition and collagen mRNA expression. Second, the ω-3-enriched diet raised hepatic tissue levels of several inflammatory lipoxygenase metabolites and prostaglandins, including PGE2. Third, treatment with TPPU in drinking water in conjunction with the ω-3-enriched diet resulted in a reduction in liver fibrosis compared to all other groups. Taken together, these results indicate that dietary ω-3 supplementation alone did not attenuate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Additionally, oxylipin signaling molecules may play role in the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in the high ω-3 diet groups.

  19. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  20. Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Lee, Soo-Jung; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Gon-Sup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE) in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBPβ, as well as the C/EBPα and PPARγ genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain and inhibited fat

  1. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  2. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins.

    PubMed

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, J; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V

    2008-03-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva. Since abundant salivary proteins obscure the purification and identification of medium and low expressed salivary proteins, we used centrifugation to obtain saliva samples free from proteins that precipitate after tannin binding. Data from Peptide Mass Fingerprinting allowed us to identify ten different proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy of parotid salivary gland acini was observed by histology, along with a decrease in body mass in the first 4 days of the experimental period.

  3. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to “accelerated aging.” One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge par...

  4. Effects of exercise with or without blueberries in the diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors: An exploratory pilot study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Sofia; Gerring, Edvard; Gjellan, Solveig; Vergara, Marta; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Background. The improvement of insulin sensitivity by exercise has been shown to be inhibited by supplementation of vitamins acting as antioxidants. Objective. To examine effects of exercise with or without blueberries, containing natural antioxidants, on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods. Fifteen healthy men and 17 women, 27.6 ± 6.5 years old, were recruited, and 26 completed a randomized cross-over trial with 4 weeks of exercise by running/jogging 5 km five times/week and 4 weeks of minimal physical activity. Participants were also randomized to consume 150 g of blueberries, or not, on exercise days. Laboratory variables were measured before and after a 5 km running-race at maximal speed at the beginning and end of each period, i.e. there were four maximal running-races and eight samplings in total for each participant. Results. Insulin and triglyceride levels were reduced while HDL-cholesterol increased by exercise compared with minimal physical activity. Participants randomized to consume blueberries showed an increase in fasting glucose levels compared with controls, during the exercise period (blueberries: from 5.12 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 5.32 ± 0.29 mmol/l; controls: from 5.24 ± 0.27 mmol/l to 5.17 ± 0.23 mmol/l, P = 0.04 for difference in change). Triglyceride levels fell in the control group (from 1.1 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 0.93 ± 0.31 mmol/l, P = 0.02), while HDL-cholesterol increased in the blueberry group (from 1.51 ± 0.29 mmol/l to 1.64 ± 0.33 mmol/l, P = 0.006). Conclusions. Ingestion of blueberries induced differential effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including increased levels of both fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. However, since it is possible that indirect effects on food intake were induced, other than consumption of blueberries, further studies are needed to confirm the findings. PMID:23977864

  5. Effects of exercise with or without blueberries in the diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors: an exploratory pilot study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Sofia; Gerring, Edvard; Gjellan, Solveig; Vergara, Marta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2013-11-01

    The improvement of insulin sensitivity by exercise has been shown to be inhibited by supplementation of vitamins acting as antioxidants. To examine effects of exercise with or without blueberries, containing natural antioxidants, on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Fifteen healthy men and 17 women, 27.6 ± 6.5 years old, were recruited, and 26 completed a randomized cross-over trial with 4 weeks of exercise by running/jogging 5 km five times/week and 4 weeks of minimal physical activity. Participants were also randomized to consume 150 g of blueberries, or not, on exercise days. Laboratory variables were measured before and after a 5 km running-race at maximal speed at the beginning and end of each period, i.e. there were four maximal running-races and eight samplings in total for each participant. Insulin and triglyceride levels were reduced while HDL-cholesterol increased by exercise compared with minimal physical activity. Participants randomized to consume blueberries showed an increase in fasting glucose levels compared with controls, during the exercise period (blueberries: from 5.12 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 5.32 ± 0.29 mmol/l; controls: from 5.24 ± 0.27 mmol/l to 5.17 ± 0.23 mmol/l, P = 0.04 for difference in change). Triglyceride levels fell in the control group (from 1.1 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 0.93 ± 0.31 mmol/l, P = 0.02), while HDL-cholesterol increased in the blueberry group (from 1.51 ± 0.29 mmol/l to 1.64 ± 0.33 mmol/l, P = 0.006). Ingestion of blueberries induced differential effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including increased levels of both fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. However, since it is possible that indirect effects on food intake were induced, other than consumption of blueberries, further studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of sodium alginate enriched diet in kelp grouper Epinephelus brneus against Streptococcus iniae.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Jang, Ik-Soo; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ following challenge with Streptococcus iniae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus were assessed with reference to survival rate and innate immune parameters such as alternative complement, lysozyme, natural haemagglutination, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, and phagocytic activities on week 1, 2, and 4. Fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after being challenged with S. iniae had higher survival rates of 75% and 60%, respectively than those fed with control diet (0 g kg⁻¹). With any enriched diet the percentage of macrophages significantly decreased from week 1-4, while the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes significantly increased. The alternate complement activity, natural haemagglutination, and phagocytic activities of infected fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ on week 2 and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ diets on week 4 were significantly higher when compared to the control. The lysozyme, respiratory bursts, and superoxide dismutase activities of fish fed with enriched diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly increased on week 2 and 4. We therefore recommend that at 1.0 or 2.0 g kg⁻¹ dietary administration of sodium alginate can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance in kelp grouper against S. iniae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BDNF increases with behavioral enrichment and an antioxidant diet in the aged dog.

    PubMed

    Fahnestock, Margaret; Marchese, Monica; Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Michalski, Bernadeta; Milgram, William N; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-03-01

    The aged canine (dog) is an excellent model for investigating the neurobiological changes that underlie cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in humans, as canines and humans undergo similar pathological and behavioral changes with aging. Recent evidence indicates that a combination of environmental enrichment and antioxidant-fortified diet can be used to reduce the rate of age-dependent neuropathology and cognitive decline in aged dogs, although the mechanisms underlying these changes have not been established. We examined the hypothesis that an increase in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the factors underlying improvements in learning and memory. Old, cognitively impaired animals that did not receive any treatment showed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in the temporal cortex when compared with the young group. Animals receiving either an antioxidant diet or environmental enrichment displayed intermediate levels of BDNF mRNA. However, dogs receiving both an antioxidant diet and environmental enrichment showed increased levels of BDNF mRNA when compared with untreated aged dogs, approaching levels measured in young animals. BDNF receptor TrkB mRNA levels did not differ between groups. BDNF mRNA levels were positively correlated with improved cognitive performance and inversely correlated with cortical Aβ((1-42)) and Aβ((1-40)) levels. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment and antioxidant diet interact to maintain brain levels of BDNF, which may lead to improved cognitive performance. This is the first demonstration in a higher animal that nonpharmacological changes in lifestyle in advanced age can upregulate BDNF to levels approaching those in the young brain.

  8. [Effect of a zinc-enriched diet on the clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakov, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Mazo, V K; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Aleshko-Ozhevskiĭ, Iu P; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N

    2004-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of a diet with zinc supplementation on dynamic of glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure and weight in type 2 diabetic patients. Traditional hypocaloric diet was supplemented with zinc-spirulina (7.5 mg zinc per day). The results investigations indicated that a zinc-enriched diet has beneficial effects on basal and postprandial glycaemia, the content of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum in compared with a traditional hypocaloric diet.

  9. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  10. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  11. Fighting phytophthora in blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  12. Southern Blueberry Pollinators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present three profiles of important bee pollinators of southeastern blueberries. The first profile is about the chief pollinator, a native solitary bee, the southeastern blueberry bee. The second profile concerns floral robbery instigated by carpenter bees and honey bees, which proved beneficial ...

  13. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinium consists of approximately 450 species, of which highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is one of the three major Vaccinium fruit crops (i.e., blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry) domesticated in the twentieth century. In blueberry the adventitious shoot regeneration using leaf explants has been the most desirable regeneration system to date; Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is the major gene delivery method and effective selection has been reported using either the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) or the bialaphos resistance (bar) gene as selectable markers. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol described in this chapter is based on combining the optimal conditions for efficient plant regeneration, reliable gene delivery, and effective selection. The protocol has led to successful regeneration of transgenic plants from leaf explants of four commercially important highbush blueberry cultivars for multiple purposes, providing a powerful approach to supplement conventional breeding methods for blueberry by introducing genes of interest.

  14. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  15. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    PubMed

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA.

  16. Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect. PMID:23966108

  17. Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ogiku, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Masato; Ishii, Kenichi; Hara, Michio

    2010-11-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid (MCT- diets), and N-3 fatty acid and MCT (MCT+ diets) for 2 weeks and then were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS. Serum and tissue samples were collected 5 days after ethanol or TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was measured in colonic tissues. Furthermore, protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colonic tissues. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the colon by TNBS enema was markedly attenuated by the MCT+ diet among the 3 diets studied. Furthermore, the induction of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 also was blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets. As a result, MPO activities in the colonic tissue also were blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets compared with those fed the control diets or the MCT- diets. Furthermore, the MCT+ diet improved chemically induced colitis significantly among the 3 diets studied. Diets enriched with both MCTs and N-3 fatty acids may be effective for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as antiinflammatory immunomodulating nutrients.

  18. Effectiveness of a walnut-enriched diet on murine sperm: involvement of reduced peroxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Coffua, Lauren S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    A walnut supplement for a Western-style diet in men was shown to improve sperm motility, vitality, and morphology. To gain further insights into factors underlying this improvement, we administered a parallel walnut-enriched diet to mice [including those with a defect in sperm motility due to deletion of Plasma Membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 4 (Pmca4(-/-) )] to determine if there is a similar improvement that is accompanied by reduced sperm membrane peroxidative damage. Although sperm vitality and acrosome reaction rate were unaffected, the diet led to a significant improvement in motility (P < 0.05) and morphology (P < 0.04) in wild-type sperm and in morphology (P < 0.01) in Pmca4(-/-) , confirming the diet's efficacy, which appeared to be more modest in mice than in humans. In both strains of mice, the diet resulted in a significant decrease in sperm lipid peroxidation (oxidative stress) levels, but did not rescue the significantly increased apoptotic levels seen in the testis and epididymis of Pmca4 nulls. Our findings support the effectiveness of walnuts on sperm quality, associated with reduced peroxidative damage; and suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism(s) underlying male reproductive defects in Pmca4(-/-) .

  19. Beneficial effects of blueberries in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Junping; Feinstein, Douglas L; Hejna, Matthew J; Lorens, Stanley A; McGuire, Susan O

    2012-06-13

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of autoimmune disease that presents with pathological and clinical features similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS) including inflammation and neurodegeneration. This study investigated whether blueberries, which possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, could provide protection in EAE. Dietary supplementation with 1% whole, freeze-dried blueberries reduced disease incidence by >50% in a chronic EAE model (p < 0.01). When blueberry-fed mice with EAE were compared with control-fed mice with EAE, blueberry-fed mice had significantly lower motor disability scores (p = 0.03) as well as significantly greater myelin preservation in the lumbar spinal cord (p = 0.04). In a relapsing-remitting EAE model, blueberry-supplemented mice showed improved cumulative and final motor scores compared to control diet-fed mice (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). These data demonstrate that blueberry supplementation is beneficial in multiple EAE models, suggesting that blueberries, which are easily administered orally and well-tolerated, may provide benefit to MS patients.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    PubMed

    Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  2. P38 MAPK / beta-catenin canonical wnt signaling mediated bone formation effects of blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Appropriate nutrition is one of the critical factors that influences bone development. We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 a...

  3. Wnt/RANKL-mediated bone growth promoting effects of blueberries in weanling rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 and 30 days beginning on PND 21. In both sexes tibial bone mineral density and content a...

  4. Blueberries Inside Popcorn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-18

    This view from the microscopic imager on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a type of light-colored, rough-textured spherules scientists call popcorn in contrast to the darker, smoother spherules called blueberries.

  5. Gut Microbiota in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model: Effect of a Cocoa-Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota. Lewis rats were orally sensitized and fed with either a standard or 10% cocoa diet. Faecal microbiota was analysed through metagenomics study. Intestinal IgA concentration was also determined. Oral sensitization produced few changes in intestinal microbiota, but in those rats fed a cocoa diet significant modifications appeared. Decreased bacteria from the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and a higher percentage of bacteria belonging to the Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria phyla were observed. In conclusion, a cocoa diet is able to modify the microbiota bacterial pattern in orally sensitized animals. As cocoa inhibits the synthesis of specific antibodies and also intestinal IgA, those changes in microbiota pattern, particularly those of the Proteobacteria phylum, might be partially responsible for the tolerogenic effect of cocoa. PMID:28239436

  6. Cholesterol-enriched diet causes age-related macular degeneration-like pathology in rabbit retina

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) share several pathological hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. The causes of AD and AMD are likely multi-factorial with several factors such as diet, environment, and genetic susceptibility participating in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Epidemiological studies correlated high plasma cholesterol levels with high incidence of AD, and feeding rabbits with a diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to induce AD-like pathology in rabbit brain. High intake of cholesterol and saturated fat were also long been suspected to increase the risk for AMD. However, the extent to which cholesterol-enriched diet may also cause AMD-like features in rabbit retinas is not well known. Methods Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed normal chow or a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet for 12 weeks. At necropsy, animals were perfused with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline and the eyes were promptly removed. One eye of each animal was used for immunohistochemistry and retina dissected from the other eye was used for Western blot, ELISA assays, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry analyses. Results Increased levels of Aβ, decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and gadd153 proteins, emergence of TUNEL-positive cells, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species were found in retinas from cholesterol-fed compared to normal chow-fed rabbits. Additionally, astrogliosis, drusen-like debris and cholesterol accumulations in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits were observed. As several lines of evidence suggest that oxidized cholesterol metabolites (oxysterols) may be the link by which cholesterol contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined levels of oxysterols and found a dramatic increase in levels of oxysterols in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits. Conclusions Our results

  7. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  8. The Effects of Long-Term Saturated Fat Enriched Diets on the Brain Lipidome

    PubMed Central

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Mellett, Natalie A.; Meikle, Peter J.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Mamo, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The brain is highly enriched in lipids, where they influence neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and inflammation. Non-pathological modulation of the brain lipidome has not been previously reported and few studies have investigated the interplay between plasma lipid homeostasis relative to cerebral lipids. This study explored whether changes in plasma lipids induced by chronic consumption of a well-tolerated diet enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was associated with parallel changes in cerebral lipid homeostasis. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed regular chow or the SFA diet for six months. Plasma, hippocampus (HPF) and cerebral cortex (CTX) lipids were analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 348 lipid species were determined, comprising 25 lipid classes. The general abundance of HPF and CTX lipids was comparable in SFA fed mice versus controls, despite substantial differences in plasma lipid-class abundance. However, significant differences in 50 specific lipid species were identified as a consequence of SFA treatment, restricted to phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), alkyl-PC, alkenyl-PC, alkyl-PE, alkenyl-PE, cholesterol ester (CE), diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) classes. Partial least squares regression of the HPF/CTX lipidome versus plasma lipidome revealed the plasma lipidome could account for a substantial proportion of variation. The findings demonstrate that cerebral abundance of specific lipid species is strongly associated with plasma lipid homeostasis. PMID:27907021

  9. The Effects of Long-Term Saturated Fat Enriched Diets on the Brain Lipidome.

    PubMed

    Giles, Corey; Takechi, Ryusuke; Mellett, Natalie A; Meikle, Peter J; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Mamo, John C

    2016-01-01

    The brain is highly enriched in lipids, where they influence neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and inflammation. Non-pathological modulation of the brain lipidome has not been previously reported and few studies have investigated the interplay between plasma lipid homeostasis relative to cerebral lipids. This study explored whether changes in plasma lipids induced by chronic consumption of a well-tolerated diet enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was associated with parallel changes in cerebral lipid homeostasis. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed regular chow or the SFA diet for six months. Plasma, hippocampus (HPF) and cerebral cortex (CTX) lipids were analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 348 lipid species were determined, comprising 25 lipid classes. The general abundance of HPF and CTX lipids was comparable in SFA fed mice versus controls, despite substantial differences in plasma lipid-class abundance. However, significant differences in 50 specific lipid species were identified as a consequence of SFA treatment, restricted to phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), alkyl-PC, alkenyl-PC, alkyl-PE, alkenyl-PE, cholesterol ester (CE), diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) classes. Partial least squares regression of the HPF/CTX lipidome versus plasma lipidome revealed the plasma lipidome could account for a substantial proportion of variation. The findings demonstrate that cerebral abundance of specific lipid species is strongly associated with plasma lipid homeostasis.

  10. Minimizing aggression during mixing of gestating sows with supplementation of a tryptophan-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Rosangela; Kretzer, Fabiana C; Hötzel, Maria J

    2014-06-10

    Gestation stalls are criticized for its negative physical and psycho-physiological effects on sow welfare. Group housing benefits sow well-being and when planned properly can minimize aggression during mixing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of a TRP-enriched diet at a concentration of 220% the control (CTL) diet, on aggressiveness at mixing of sows at 4weeks of gestation. Treatment diets were fed for 7 consecutive days; from days 1 to 5 sows were housed in stalls, early in the morning on day 6 sows were grouped by parity and assessed until day 7. Eighteen pens with 4 sows each (n=72) of similar parity were assigned to CTL and TRP treatments. Sows' behaviors were recorded daily for 12h, from days 1 to 7. Inactive and active behaviors (alert, walking (pen), rooting, feeding, drinking, eliminating), stereotypic behaviors (bar biting and sham-chewing), and postures (standing, sitting, lying) were assessed by 10-minute scan sampling. Occurrence of agonistic interactions, number of actions such as bites, head knocks and pursuits and their sum per interaction were recorded for each pen using 2-h continuous behavioral observation, at days 6 and 7. Skin lesion scores were assessed from each sow at day 5 and at 48h post-mixing, using a sow body map subdivided into anterior, central and posterior body regions. A linear mixed model with day as repeated measure, stall or pen as experimental unit, tested the fixed effects of treatment, day, period within day, their interactions, and block by treatment interaction; stall (trt) or pen (trt) as appropriate was used as random effect. Blood concentration of TRP was higher on the mixing day in TRP-fed sows compared to baseline (76%) and CLT-fed sows at mixing (79%; P<0.05), while serotonin concentration did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). The TRP-enriched diet was effective in reducing sham-chewing in stall housed sows of parity 5-9 (P<0.05). In pens, TRP-fed sows spent more time rooting (TRP=28

  11. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Scorch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV), which is vectored by aphids, can infect blueberry and cranberry. Once a plant is infected, symptoms may take 1 to 2 years or more to develop. This makes early detection vital for controlling the disease. The virus was first observed in a ‘Berkeley’ blueberry plant...

  12. Dandelion-enriched diet of mothers alleviates lead-induced damages in liver of newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, M; Magné, C; Ben Amara, I; Ben Saad, H; El Feki, A

    2017-02-28

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal present in the environment. It causes disturbances of several functions, including hematologic, renal, reproductive and nervous ones. Preventive or curative use of medicinal plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. This study evaluated the hepatic toxic effects of prenatal exposure to lead in rats and the possible protective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) added to the diet. Female rats were given a normal diet (control) or a diet enriched with dandelion (treated). In addition, lead acetate was administered to half of the rats through drinking water from the 5th day of gestation until the 14th day postpartum. Lead toxicity was evaluated in their offspring by measuring body and liver weights, plasma biochemical parameters, liver damage, as well as protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver tissues. Lead poisoning of mothers caused lead deposition in blood and stomach of their pups as well as hepatic tissue damages. Moreover, significant decreases in liver weight and protein content were found. Lead treatment caused oxidative stress and marked changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, no damages or biochemical changes were observed in puppies from the rats co-treated with lead and dandelion. These results indicate that supplementation of pregnant and lactating rats with dandelion protects their offspring against lead poisoning, likely through reduction of oxidative stress and liver damages.

  13. Enrichment of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) diet with palm fruit extracts and probiotics: Effects on skin mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2016-02-01

    Fish skin mucus contains numerous immune substances still poorly studied. To date, there are no studies regarding the possible influence of dietary supplements on such important substances. In the present work, a commercial diet used as control diet was enriched with: 1) probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens (Pdp11 diet, 10(9) cfu g(-1)); 2) probiotic Bacillus sp. (Bacillus diet, 10(9) ufc g(-1)); 3) aqueous date palm fruits extracts (DPE diet, 4%), and 4) a combination of Pdp11 + Bacillus sp + aqueous DPE (Mix diet). After 2 and 4 weeks of the feeding trial, enzymatic activities (proteases, antiproteases and peroxidases), IgM levels and terminal carbohydrates abundance were determined in skin mucus. In addition, the expression of certain immune related genes was evaluated in the skin. Our results demonstrated the significant alteration of the terminal carbohydrate abundance in skin mucus. Carbohydrates more affected by experimental diets were N-acetyl-galactosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine, galactose, mannose, glucose and fucose. IgM, peroxidase activity and protease were also significantly higher in fish fed enriched diets. For last, an important up-regulation on the immune related gene studied on the skin was also detected. Present findings provide robust evidence that fish skin mucosal immunity can be improved by the diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  15. Impact of a folic acid-enriched diet on urinary tract function in mice treated with testosterone and estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Kimberly P.; Abler, Lisa L.; Altmann, Helene M.; Wang, Zunyi; Wang, Peiqing; Ricke, William A.; Bjorling, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Aging men are susceptible to developing lower urinary tract symptoms, but the underlying etiology is unknown and the influence of dietary and environmental factors on them is unclear. We tested whether a folic acid-enriched diet changed urinary tract physiology and biology in control male mice and male mice with urinary dysfunction induced by exogenous testosterone and estradiol (T+E2), which mimics changing hormone levels in aging humans. T+E2 treatment increased mouse urine output, time between voiding events, and bladder capacity and compliance. Consumption of a folic acid-enriched diet moderated these changes without decreasing prostate wet weight or threshold voiding pressure. One potential mechanism for these changes involves water balance. T+E2 treatment increases plasma concentrations of anti-diuretic hormone, which is offset at least in part by a folic acid-enriched diet. Another potential mechanism involves neural control of micturition. The folic acid-enriched diet, fed to T+E2-treated mice, increased voiding frequency in response to intravesicular capsaicin infusion and increased mRNA abundance of the capsaicin-sensitive cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (Trpv1) in L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. T+E2 treatment and a folic acid-enriched diet also modified DNA methylation, which is capable of altering gene expression. We found the enriched diet increased global DNA methylation in dorsal and ventral prostate and L6 and S1 DRG. Our results are consistent with folic acid acting to slow or reverse T+E2-mediated alteration in urinary function in part by normalizing water balance and enhancing or preserving afferent neuronal function. PMID:25855514

  16. A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces the Growth of LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Hardman, W. Elaine; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Qi, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether a standard mouse diet (AIN-76A) supplemented with walnuts reduced the establishment and growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in nude (nu/nu) mice. The walnut-enriched diet reduced the number of tumors and the growth of the LNCaP xenografts; 3 of 16 (18.7%) of the walnut-fed mice developed tumors; conversely, 14 of 32 mice (44.0%) of the control diet-fed animals developed tumors. Similarly, the xenografts in the walnut-fed animals grew more slowly than those in the control diet mice. The final average tumor size in the walnut-diet animals was roughly one-fourth the average size of the prostate tumors in the mice that ate the control diet. PMID:23758186

  17. Effect of a diet enriched with green-lipped mussel on pain behavior and functioning in dogs with clinical osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rialland, Pascale; Bichot, Sylvain; Lussier, Bertrand; Moreau, Maxim; Beaudry, Francis; del Castillo, Jérôme R E; Gauvin, Dominique; Troncy, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the effect of a diet enriched with green-lipped mussel (GLM) on pain and functional outcomes in osteoarthritic dogs. Twenty-three client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) were fed a balanced control diet for 30 d and then a GLM-enriched balanced diet for the next 60 d. We assessed peak vertical force (PVF), which is considered to be the gold standard method, at Day (D)0 (start), D30 (end of control diet), and D90 (end of GLM-enriched diet). The owners completed a client-specific outcome measure (CSOM), which is a pain questionnaire, once a week. Motor activity (MA) was continuously recorded in 7 dogs for 12 wk. Concentrations of plasma omega-3 fatty acids were quantified as indicative of diet change. Statistical analyses were linear-mixed models and multinomial logistic regression for repeated measures. The GLM diet (from D30 to D90) resulted in an increase in concentrations of plasma omega-3 fatty acids (P < 0.016) and improvement of PVF (P = 0.003). From D0 to D30, PVF did not significantly change (P = 0.06), which suggests that the GLM diet had a beneficial effect on gait function. Moreover, PVF (P = 0.0004), CSOM (P = 0.006), and MA (P = 0.02) improved significantly from D0 to D90. In general, the balanced control diet could have contributed to reduced OA symptoms, an effect that was subsequently amplified by the GLM diet.

  18. Effect of a diet enriched with green-lipped mussel on pain behavior and functioning in dogs with clinical osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rialland, Pascale; Bichot, Sylvain; Lussier, Bertrand; Moreau, Maxim; Beaudry, Francis; del Castillo, Jérôme RE; Gauvin, Dominique; Troncy, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the effect of a diet enriched with green-lipped mussel (GLM) on pain and functional outcomes in osteoarthritic dogs. Twenty-three client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) were fed a balanced control diet for 30 d and then a GLM-enriched balanced diet for the next 60 d. We assessed peak vertical force (PVF), which is considered to be the gold standard method, at Day (D)0 (start), D30 (end of control diet), and D90 (end of GLM-enriched diet). The owners completed a client-specific outcome measure (CSOM), which is a pain questionnaire, once a week. Motor activity (MA) was continuously recorded in 7 dogs for 12 wk. Concentrations of plasma omega-3 fatty acids were quantified as indicative of diet change. Statistical analyses were linear-mixed models and multinomial logistic regression for repeated measures. The GLM diet (from D30 to D90) resulted in an increase in concentrations of plasma omega-3 fatty acids (P < 0.016) and improvement of PVF (P = 0.003). From D0 to D30, PVF did not significantly change (P = 0.06), which suggests that the GLM diet had a beneficial effect on gait function. Moreover, PVF (P = 0.0004), CSOM (P = 0.006), and MA (P = 0.02) improved significantly from D0 to D90. In general, the balanced control diet could have contributed to reduced OA symptoms, an effect that was subsequently amplified by the GLM diet. PMID:23814358

  19. Modulatory effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet on bone homeostasis abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Mehana, Noha Ali

    2015-03-05

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex syndrome which is responsible for numerous complications affecting the whole body. Osteoporosis is regarded as one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus that results from reduced bone formation and increased resorption. In this context, we searched for dietary supplements that preserve diabetic bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been suggested as a possible mechanism affecting bone homeostasis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The osteoprotective effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet were also investigated. Male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups; normal control, untreated STZ-diabetic rats and STZ-diabetic rats treated with either l-arginine (10mg/kg/day) or fed soy enriched diet (200 g/kg diet) for 12 weeks. l-Arginine and soy enriched diet normalized serum PTH level and increased serum osteocalcin level; bone osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and runt-related transcription factor2 mRNA levels compared to diabetic rats. A decrease in serum pyridinoline, C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, cathepsin k levels and bone cathepsin k mRNA level was observed in both treated groups. Both treatments increased serum insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 levels and decreased urinary calcium excretion. In conclusion, l-arginine and soy enriched diet are effective in prevention of osteoporosis associated with diabetes mellitus.

  20. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, Kenneth C

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in plant biotechnology have led to a reliable and reproductive method for genetic transformation of blueberry. These efforts built on previous attempts at transient and stable transformation of blueberry that demonstrated the potential of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and as well, the difficulties of selecting and regenerating transgenic plants. As a prerequisite for successful stable transformation, efficient regeneration systems were required despite many reports on factors controlling shoot regeneration from leaf explants. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol described in this chapter is based on combining efficient regeneration methods and the results of A. tumefaciens-mediated transient transformation studies to optimize selected parameters for gene transfer. The protocol has led to successful regeneration of transgenic plants of four commercially important highbush blueberry cultivars.

  1. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Afrin, Sadia; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, Josè L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19-21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article "Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade" in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017) [1].

  2. A Diet Enriched with Curcumin Impairs Newly Acquired and Reactivated Fear Memories

    PubMed Central

    Monsey, Melissa S; Gerhard, Danielle M; Boyle, Lara M; Briones, Miguel A; Seligsohn, Ma'ayan; Schafe, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow-pigment compound found in the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been extensively investigated for its anti-inflammatory, chemopreventative, and antidepressant properties. Here, we examined the efficacy of dietary curcumin at impairing the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory, a widely studied animal model of traumatic memory formation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We show that a diet enriched with 1.5% curcumin prevents the training-related elevation in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the lateral amygdala (LA) and impairs the ‘consolidation' of an auditory Pavlovian fear memory; short-term memory (STM) is intact, whereas long-term memory (LTM) is significantly impaired. Next, we show that dietary curcumin impairs the ‘reconsolidation' of a recently formed auditory Pavlovian fear memory; fear memory retrieval (reactivation) and postreactivation (PR)-STM are intact, whereas PR-LTM is significantly impaired. Additional experiments revealed that dietary curcumin is also effective at impairing the reconsolidation of an older, well-consolidated fear memory. Furthermore, we observed that fear memories that fail to reconsolidate under the influence of dietary curcumin are impaired in an enduring manner; unlike extinguished fear memories, they are not subject to reinstatement or renewal. Collectively, our findings indicate that a diet enriched with curcumin is capable of impairing fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes, findings that may have important clinical implications for the treatment of disorders such as PTSD that are characterized by unusually strong and persistently reactivated fear memories. PMID:25430781

  3. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Nikul K.; Ross, Alastair B.; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. PMID:27598198

  4. α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Diet Prevents Myocardial Damage and Expands Longevity in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Fiaccavento, Roberta; Carotenuto, Felicia; Minieri, Marilena; Masuelli, Laura; Vecchini, Alba; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea; Binaglia, Luciano; Fusco, Angelo; Bertoli, Aldo; Forte, Giancarlo; Carosella, Luciana; Di Nardo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that the increased intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly reduces the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, but no investigations have been performed in hereditary cardiomyopathies with diffusely damaged myocardium. In the present study, δ-sarcoglycan-null cardiomyopathic hamsters were fed from weaning to death with an α-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched versus standard diet. Results demonstrated a great accumulation of ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid and an increased eicosapentaenoic/arachidonic acid ratio in cardiomyopathic hamster hearts, correlating with the preservation of myocardial structure and function. In fact, ALA administration preserved plasmalemma and mitochondrial membrane integrity, thus maintaining proper cell/extracellular matrix contacts and signaling, as well as a normal gene expression profile (myosin heavy chain isoforms, atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-β1) and a limited extension of fibrotic areas within ALA-fed cardiomyopathic hearts. Consequently, hemodynamic indexes were safeguarded, and more than 60% of ALA-fed animals were still alive (mean survival time, 293 ± 141.8 days) when all those fed with standard diet were deceased (mean survival time, 175.9 ± 56 days). Therefore, the clinically evident beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mainly related to preservation of myocardium structure and function and the attenuation of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:17148657

  5. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-09-03

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  6. Sodium chloride-enriched Diet Enhanced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Exacerbated Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Ivan; Marafini, Irene; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Di Fusco, Davide; Troncone, Edoardo; Zorzi, Francesca; Laudisi, Federica; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Environmental factors are supposed to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]. Increased dietary salt intake has been linked with the development of autoimmune diseases, but the impact of a salt-enriched diet on the course of IBD remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether high salt intake alters mucosal cytokine production and exacerbates colitis. Normal intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells [LPMCs] were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] and/or SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38/MAP Kinase. For in vivo experiments, a high dose of NaCl was administered to mice 15 days before induction of trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid [TNBS]-colitis or dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis. In parallel, mice were given SB202190 before induction of TNBS-colitis. Transcription factors and effector cytokines were evaluated by flow-cytometry and real-time PCR. IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α, and Ror-γT were significantly increased in human LPMCs following NaCl exposure, while there was no significant change in IFN-γ, T-bet or Foxp3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38/MAPK abrogated the NaCl-inducing effect on LPMC-derived cytokines. Mice receiving the high-salt diet developed a more severe colitis than control mice, and this effect was preventable by SB202190. Our data indicated that exposure of intestinal mononuclear cells to a high-NaCl diet enhanced effector cytokine production and contributed to the exacerbation of experimental colitis in mice. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Enriched dairy fat matrix diet prevents early life lipopolysaccharide-induced spatial memory impairment at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Baudry, C; Fressange-Mazda, C; Le Ruyet, P; Nadjar, A; Pallet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events. In this work, we evaluated the protective effect of partial replacement of VL by DL, supplemented or not with DHA and ARA, on post-natal inflammation and its consequence on memory. Mice were fed with diets poor in vegetal n-3 PUFA (Def VL), balanced in vegetal n-3/n-6 PUFA (Bal VL), balanced in dairy lipids (Bal DL) or enriched in DHA and ARA (Supp VL; Supp DL) from the first day of gestation until adulthood. At post-natal day 14 (PND14), pups received a single administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and brain cytokine expression, microglia phenotype and neurogenesis were measured. In a second set of experiments, memory and neurogenesis were measured at adulthood. Overall, our data showed that lipid quality of the diet modulates early life LPS effect on microglia phenotype, brain cytokine expression and neurogenesis at PND14 and memory at adulthood. In particular, Bal DL diet protects from the adverse effect of early life LPS exposure on PND14 neurogenesis and adult spatial memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enrichment diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Arun Kumar, Meenatchi Sundaram; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-09-01

    The impact of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enriched diet on growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. O. mossambicus was fed with 2 g kg(-1), 4 g kg(-1), and 6 g kg(-1) C. mixta seed meal diets for a period of 4 weeks. The results indicated that C. mixta seed meal diets at 4 g kg(-1) and 6 g kg(-1) significantly (P < 0.05) enhances the survival rate, weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency (FE) from weeks 1-4 when compared to control. C. mixta seed meals administered as feed supplements significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the complement activity, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst activity, and lysosome activity in infected fish fed with 4 g kg(-1) and 6 g kg(-1) of C. mixta seed meal enriched diet from weeks 2-4. The cumulative mortality was lower in the fish fed with 4 g kg(-1) and 6 g kg(-1) of C. mixta seed meal enriched diets (15% and 18%) than with 2 g kg(-1) diet (26%). The present investigation suggested that C. mixta seed meal enriched diet at 4 g kg(-1) and 6 g kg(-1) enhance the better growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance against A. hydrophilla in O. mossambicus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Blueberry consumption inhibits gastrointestinal tumorigenesis in AOM-treated rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiological studies show inverse or no association of fruit consumption with relative risk for colorectal cancers. Such studies did not examine specific fruits and in particular, those enriched in polyphenols with high antioxidant capacities. We examined blueberry (BB), a fruit rich in anthocy...

  10. Hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats fed with fructose-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Muniandy Narayanan, Jeyabarathy; Jesudoss, Victor A S

    2016-04-01

    Overconsumption of fructose increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is currently one of the most common etiologies of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone against fructose-enriched diet-induced rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male albino Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into four groups: group 1, control rats fed with standard pellet; group 2, rats were fed normal pellet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day); group 3, rats were fed fructose enriched diet alone; group 4, rats were fed fructose enriched diet with intragastric intubation of zingerone (100 mg/kg/day). Body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile and hepatic function indicators were increased and HDL reduced in group 3 rats. Liver pathology of group 3 showed marked changes which includes micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, marked inflammatory cell infiltration, sinusoidal fibrosis and with a significant increase in the area percentage of the collagen. Administration of zingerone reversed the fructose enriched diet induced changes especially body weight, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic function indicators and restored pathological alteration of liver. Taken together these data provide new insights into the preventive approach of zingerone against the development of the NAFLD.

  11. Blueberry virus A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf yellowing on highbush blueberry ‘Spartan’ prompted Isogai et al. to investigate whether a virus was the causal agent of the disorder. After double-stranded RNA extraction from symptomatic material they identified a single band of 17 Kb, indicative of virus infection. Shotgun cloning and sequenc...

  12. Blueberry latent spherical virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Blueray’ tissue was mechanically inoculated onto Chenopodium quinoa indicator plants as part of a study to determine virus presence in blueberries at Iwate University, Japan. Plants developed chlorosis indicative of virus presence and after virus purification and genome characterization it was dete...

  13. 'Biloxi' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Biloxi' tetraploid southern highbush blueberry is a new cultivar developed and released by the Agricultural Reseach Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding programs in Beltsville, MD, and Poplarville MS. Plants of 'Biloxi' are upright, vigorous and productive. The fruit ripens earl...

  14. The effects of blueberries on cognition and neuroplasticity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been demonstrated that consuming blueberries can prevent and even reverse the occurrence of neurochemical and behavioral changes associated with aging. Recent research suggests that consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. T...

  15. Diet enriched with procyanidins enhances antioxidant activity and reduces myocardial post-ischaemic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Facino, R M; Carini, M; Aldini, G; Berti, F; Rossoni, G; Bombardelli, E; Morazzoni, P

    1999-01-01

    Aim of this work was to study the efficacy of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds, a standardized mixture of polyphenol antioxidants, on cardiac mechanics following ischemia/reperfusion stunning in the rat, after 3 weeks supplementation. Young and aged male rats were fed a diet enriched with procyanidins complexed (1:3 w/w) with soybean lecithin (2.4%); control animals (CTR-young and CTR-aged) received an equal amount of lecithin and 2 additional groups of animals the standard diet. At the end of the treatment, the total plasma antioxidant defense (TRAP), vitamin E, ascorbic acid and uric acid were determined in plasma and the hearts from all groups of animals subjected to moderate ischemia (flow reduction to 1 ml/min for 20 min) and reperfusion (15 ml/min for 30 min). In both young and aged rats supplemented with procyanidins the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) at the end of reperfusion was 93% (p < 0.01) and 74% (p < 0.01) of the preischemic values and the values of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were maintained close to those of the preischemic period. Also creatine kinase (CK) outflow was restrained to baseline levels, while a 2-fold increase in prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1alpha) in the perfusate from hearts of young and aged rats was elicited during both ischemia and reperfusion. In parallel, procyanidins significantly increased the total antioxidant plasma capacity (by 40% in young and by 30% in aged rats) and the plasma levels of ascorbic acid, while tend to reduce vitamin E levels; no significant differences were observed in uric acid levels. The results of this study demonstrate that procyanidins supplementation in the rat (young and aged) makes the heart less susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage and that this is positively associated to an increase in plasma antioxidant activity.

  16. Middle Iron-Enriched Fructose Diet on Gestational Diabetes Risk and on Oxidative Stress in Offspring Rats.

    PubMed

    Zein, Salam; Sitti, Farida; Osman, Mireille; Arnaud, Josiane; Batandier, Cécile; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Rachidi, Samar; Couturier, Karine; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased insulin resistance and a heightened level of oxidative stress (OS). Additionally, high iron consumption could also increase insulin resistance and OS, which could aggravate GDM risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate a high fructose diet (F) as an alternative experimental model of GDM on rats. We also have evaluated the worst effect of a fructose iron-enriched diet (FI) on glucose tolerance and OS status during pregnancy. Anthropometric parameters, plasma glucose levels, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed after delivery in rats fed an F diet. The effects observed in mothers (hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia) and on pups (macrosomia and hypoglycemia) are similar to those observed in women with GDM. Therefore, the fructose diet could be proposed as an experimental model of GDM. In this way, we can compare the effect of an iron-enriched diet on the metabolic and redox status of mother rats and their pups. The mothers' glycemic was similar in the F and FI groups, whereas the glycemic was significantly different in the newborn. In rat pups born to mothers fed on an FI diet, the activities of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase in livers and GPx in brains were altered and the gender analysis showed significant differences. Thus, alterations in the glycemic and redox status in newborns suggest that fetuses are more sensitive than their mothers to the effect of an iron-enriched diet in the case of GDM pregnancy. This study proposed a novel experimental model for GDM and provided insights on the effect of a moderate iron intake in adding to the risk of glucose disorder and oxidative damage on newborns.

  17. Effects of diet & behavioral enrichment on free fatty acids in the aged canine brain

    PubMed Central

    Snigdha, Shikha; Astarita, Giuseppe; Piomelli, Daniele; Cotman, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several recent studies suggesting that dysregulation of brain lipid metabolism might contribute to the mechanisms of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), lipid metabolism has not been evaluated extensively in the aging brain. Here, we use a lipidomic approach to demonstrate that antioxidants plus mitochondrial cofactors treatment, either alone or in combination with behavioral enrichment, attenuates lipid abnormalities in the frontal cortices of aged canine in a manner correlated with cognitive scores. Our analyses revealed that the levels of free palmitoleic acid and nervonic acid were decreased in frontal cortices of aged dogs (n=5-6/group) treated with antioxidant compared to the control group. The monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, also known as ‘desaturation index’ - an ex-vivo indicator of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity, was also reduced in the frontal cortex of dogs treated with antioxidants compared to control groups. Increased palmitoleic acid levels and desaturation index were positively correlated with increased reversal learning errors and decreased cognitive performance. In conclusion, our study indicates that the addition of antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors to the regular diet alters the composition of free fatty acids in the aged brain. Together with data showing increased palmitoleic acid levels in AD patients, our data suggest that reducing palmitoleic acid levels and desaturation index in the brain may be associated with improved cognitive performance. PMID:22183056

  18. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status.

  19. Pomegranate enriched diet enhances the hematology, innate immune response, and disease resistance in olive flounder against Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-06-08

    Olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus fed with pomegranate enriched diet and challenged with or without Philasterides dicentrarchi had a significantly higher white blood cell (WBC) count on weeks 2 and 4 than the infected group fed with non enriched diet (standard diet). Similarly the red blood cell (RBC) counts did not significantly change in control and treated fish on weeks 1 and 2. It was significantly increased in treated fish on week 2 when compared to the control. In both the groups the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) levels significantly increased on weeks 2 and 4. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) did not significantly change at any time in both groups whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) increased significantly on week 4 in the treated group. The leukocytes such as lymphocytes (Lym), monocytes (Mon), neutrophils (Neu), and biochemical parameters such as total protein (TP), glucose (GLU), and calcium (CAL) levels significantly increased in treated groups on week 2 or 4 as compared to the control. The scuticocidal activity and respiratory burst activity were significantly enhanced in treated groups with or without parasite on weeks 2-4. However, the serum lysozyme activity was significantly enhanced from weeks 1 to 4. The protective response in terms of cumulative mortality was low in groups fed with enriched diet against parasite when compared to control. Therefore, we suggest that pomegranate enriched diet following challenge with P. dicentrarchi restores the altered hematological and biochemical parameters, and improves the innate immune system in olive flounder against P. dicentrarchi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Ingram, Donald K; Joseph, James A; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2006-01-01

    Summary The beneficial effects of polyphenol compounds in fruits and vegetables are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary polyphenols are beneficial in whole animals, particularly with respect to aging. To address this question, we examined the effects of blueberry polyphenols on lifespan and aging of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a useful organism for such a study. We report that a complex mixture of blue-berry polyphenols increased lifespan and slowed aging-related declines in C. elegans. We also found that these benefits did not just reflect antioxidant activity in these compounds. For instance, blueberry treatment increased survival during acute heat stress, but was not protective against acute oxidative stress. The blueberry extract consists of three major fractions that all contain antioxidant activity. However, only one fraction, enriched in proanthocyanidin compounds, increased C. elegans lifespan and thermotolerance. To further determine how polyphenols prolonged C. elegans lifespan, we analyzed the genetic requirements for these effects. Prolonged lifespan from this treatment required the presence of a CaMKII pathway that mediates osmotic stress resistance, though not other pathways that affect stress resistance and longevity. In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds in blueberries had robust and reproducible benefits during aging that were separable from antioxidant effects. PMID:16441844

  1. Effect of high fat diet enriched with unsaturated and diet rich in saturated fatty acids on sphingolipid metabolism in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Baranowski, Marcin; Zabielski, Piotr; Gorski, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of high fat diet leads to muscle lipid accumulation which is an important factor involved in induction of insulin resistance. Ceramide is likely to partially inhibit insulin signaling cascade. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different high fat diets on ceramide metabolism in rat skeletal muscles. The experiments were carried out on rats fed for 5 weeks: (1) a standard chow and (2) high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (3) diet enriched with saturated fatty acids (SAT). Assays were performed on three types of muscles: slow-twitch oxidative (soleus), fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic, and fast-twitch glycolytic (red and white section of the gastrocnemius, respectively). The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acid sphingomyelinase (n- and aSMase), and neutral and alkaline ceramidase (n- and alCDase) was examined. The content of ceramide, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate was also measured. The ceramide content did not change in any muscle from PUFA diet group but increased in the SAT diet group by 46% and 52% in the soleus and red section of the gastrocnemius, respectively. Elevated ceramide content in the SAT diet group could be a result of increased SPT activity and simultaneously decreased activity of nCDase. Unchanged ceramide content in the PUFA diet group might be a result of increased activity of SPT and alCDase and simultaneously decreased activity of SMases. We conclude that regulation of muscle ceramide level depends on the diet and type of skeletal muscle. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Blueberry muffin syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Elhaddou, Ghizlane; Belghiti, Zoubida Alaoui; Hida, Moustapha; Bouharrou, Abdelhak

    2012-01-01

    Le Blueberry Muffin Baby est un syndrome cutané rare observé en période néonatale. Il est caractérisé par des papulo-nodules disséminés inflammatoires traduisant des réactions d'hématopoïèse dermique. Plusieurs causes doivent être recherchées, notamment les infections congénitales, une hémolyse sévère et les pathologies tumorales. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un nouveau-né chez qui l'aspect d'un Blueberry muffin baby a conduit au diagnostic d'une leucémie aiguë myéloïde. PMID:23308328

  3. Effects of seaweed-restructured pork diets enriched or not with cholesterol on rat cholesterolaemia and liver damage.

    PubMed

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Bocanegra, Aranzazu; Méndez, M Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Reus, M Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Seaweed enriched-restructured pork (RP) is a potential functional food. However, indications of adverse effects associated with herbal medications, which include among others liver failure, toxic hepatitis, and death have been reported. Cholesterol feeding produces hepatomegalia and fat liver infiltration. The effect of seaweed-RP diet, cholesterol-enriched or not, on plasma cholesterol, liver damage markers, structure, and cytochrome CYP4A-1 were evaluated after 5 wk. Eight rat groups were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet plus 15% RP. The Cholesterol-control (CC), Cholesterol-Wakame (CW), Cholesterol-Nori (CN) and Cholesterol-Sea Spaghetti (CS) groups respectively consumed similar diets to control (C), Wakame (W), Nori (N), and Sea Spaghetti (S) but as part of hypercholesterolaemic diets. CN and CS significantly blocked the hypercholesterolaemic effect observed in CC group. After 5-wk, N and S diets increased the CYP4A-1 expression. However, seaweed-RPs were unable to reduce the histological liver alterations observed in CC group. Larger and more abundant hepatocellular alterations were found in CS and CN rats suggesting that the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these seaweed-RPs seem to be a two-edged sword as they increased liver damage. Future studies are needed to understand the involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Blueberry Supplementation Attenuates Microglial Activation in Hippocampal Intraocular Grafts to aged hosts

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Lauren M.; Freeman, Linnea; Bickford, Paula C.; Quintero, E. Matthew; Umphlet, Claudia D.; Moore, Alfred B.; Goetzl, Laura; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of central nervous tissue has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention for age-related neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. However, survival of embryonic neuronal cells is hampered by detrimental factors in the aged host brain such as circulating inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. We have previously found that supplementation with 2% blueberry in the diet increases graft growth and neuronal survival in intraocular hippocampal grafts to aged hosts. In the present study we explored possible biochemical mechanisms for this increased survival, and we here report decreased microglial activation and astrogliosis in intraocular hippocampal grafts to middle-aged hosts fed a 2% blueberry diet. Markers for astrocytes and for activated microglial cells were both decreased long-term after grafting to blueberry-treated hosts compared to age-matched rats on a control diet. Similar findings were obtained in the host brain, with a reduction in OX-6 immunoreactive microglial cells in the hippocampus of those recipients treated with blueberry. In addition, immunoreactivity for the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was found to be significantly attenuated in intraocular grafts by the 2% blueberry diet. These studies demonstrate direct effects of blueberry upon microglial activation both during isolated conditions and in the aged host brain and suggest that this nutraceutical can attenuate age-induced inflammation. PMID:20014277

  5. Lowbush Wild Blueberries have the Potential to Modify Gut Microbiota and Xenobiotic Metabolism in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Alison; Li, Robert W.; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Kristo, Aleksandra S.; Tadepalli, Shravani; Krauss, Emily; Young, Ryan; Wu, Vivian C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host’s diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93) and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose) for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote gut health

  6. Lowbush wild blueberries have the potential to modify gut microbiota and xenobiotic metabolism in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Alison; Li, Robert W; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Tadepalli, Shravani; Krauss, Emily; Young, Ryan; Wu, Vivian C H

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93) and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose) for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote gut health and

  7. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption improves inflammatory status in the obese Zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Daugherty, Allison; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2013-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health problem in the United States. Chronic inflammation is a critical component of the MetS, leading to dramatically increased risk of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the ability of a wild-blueberry-enriched diet to improve the proinflammatory status associated with MetS in the obese Zucker rat (OZR). Circulating levels of key inflammatory markers and their expression in the liver and abdominal adipose tissue were examined in OZR and its genetic control, the lean Zucker rat (LZR), after feeding a control or an 8% wild blueberry diet (WB) for 8 weeks from age 8 to 16 weeks. In the OZR, WB consumption resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (-25.6%, P<.05), interleukin (IL)-6 (-14.9%, P<.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-13.1%, P<.05) and increased adiponectin concentration (+21.8%, P<.05). Furthermore, expression of IL-6, TNF-α and nuclear factor (NF)-kB was down-regulated in both the liver (-65%, -59% and -25%, respectively) and the abdominal adipose tissue (-64%, -52% and -65%), while CRP expression was down-regulated only in the liver (-25%). In the abdominal adipose tissue, similar trends were also observed in LZR following WB treatment, with decreased liver expression of NF-kB, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (-24%, -16%, -21% and -50%) and increased adiponectin expression (+25%). Results of this study suggest that wild blueberry consumption exerts an overall anti-inflammatory effect in the OZR, a model of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Caffeine protects against oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in rabbit hippocampus induced by cholesterol-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Prasanthi, Jaya R P; Dasari, Bhanu; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Larson, Tyler; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D; Ghribi, Othman

    2010-10-15

    Cholesterol has been linked to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a risk factor increasing beta-amyloid (Abeta) and oxidative stress levels. Caffeine has antioxidant properties and has been demonstrated to reduce Abeta levels in transgenic mouse models of familial AD. However, the effects of caffeine on cholesterol-induced sporadic AD pathology have not been determined. In this study, we determined the effects of caffeine on Abeta levels, tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress generation, and caffeine-target receptors in rabbits fed a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet, a model system for sporadic AD. Our results showed that the cholesterol-enriched diet increased levels of Abeta, tau phosphorylation, and oxidative stress measured as increased levels of reactive oxygen species and isoprostanes, glutathione depletion, and increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress marker proteins. Additionally, the cholesterol-enriched diet reduced the levels of adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) but not ryanodine or adenosine A(2A) receptors. Caffeine, administered at 0.5 and 30mg/day in the drinking water, reduced the cholesterol-induced increase in Abeta, phosphorylated tau, and oxidative stress levels and reversed the cholesterol-induced decrease in A(1)R levels. Our results suggest that even very low doses of caffeine might protect against sporadic AD-like pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methionine-enriched diet decreases hippocampal antioxidant defences and impairs spontaneous behaviour and long-term potentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Alessandro; Viggiano, Emanuela; Monda, Marcellino; Ingrosso, Diego; Perna, Alessandra F; De Luca, Bruno

    2012-08-30

    Diets high in methionine lead to elevation of plasma homocysteine levels which are possibly linked to neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the effects of methionine-enriched diet on antioxidant defences, on rat spontaneous behaviour and on the ability to sustain long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard laboratory diet or a methionine enriched-diet (1% or 5% methionine in drinking water) for 8 weeks. After the 8 weeks, the animals were tested for spontaneous motor activity and habituation in an open field maze, for anxiety-like behaviour in an elevated plus maze and for the ability to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in the dentate gyrus under urethane anaesthesia. The brains were then removed and histochemically stained for superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Rats fed on 5% methionine significantly reduced total distance travelled during the open field test and exhibited no habituation with respect to the other two groups. Rats fed on 5% methionine also showed a significant increase of the anxiety level. Moreover, in this group, the ability to induce LTP in DG was impaired. SOD activity was significantly increased in the cerebral cortex of the rats fed on 1% and 5% methionine with respect to the control group. In conclusion, 5% methionine in drinking water led to evident impairment of locomotor skills and of synaptic plasticity. SOD activity in the cortex was increased in both the groups fed on 1% and 5% methionine, thus suggesting that metabolic adjustments, triggered by the methionine-enriched diet, are likely mediated by reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative analysis of volatiles in rabbiteye blueberry cultivars at various maturities using rapid solid-phase micro extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, superfruits, such as blueberries, have received much attention as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high antioxidant, healthier diets. Production and consumption are steadily increasing. Yet, there are very few studies detailing the aroma, astring...

  11. Dietary silicon-enriched spirulina improves early atherosclerosis markers in hamsters on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Vidé, Joris; Virsolvy, Anne; Romain, Cindy; Ramos, Jeanne; Jouy, Nicolas; Richard, Sylvain; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Gaillet, Sylvie; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary silicon-enriched spirulina (SES) on atherosclerosis. Hamsters (six per group) on a high-fat (HF) diet received SES or non-enriched spirulina (both at 57 mg/kg body weight) daily. This corresponded to 0.57 mg silicon/kg body weight daily. The HF diet induced dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. Compared with the HF group, SES attenuated increases of lipemia and prevented insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.001). SES protected against oxidative stress through a reduction of heart (P = 0.006) and liver (P < 0.0001) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase activity and by sparing the activity of superoxide dismutase (P = 0.0017) and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.01861). SES decreased inflammation, lowering tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.0006) and interleukin-6 levels (P = 0.0112), decreasing polymorphonuclear cells and preventing nuclear factor-κB activity (P = 0.0259). SES corrected plasma level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.0380), which was increased by the HF diet. Finally, SES supplementation prevented vascular and endothelial functions assessed respectively by the contractile response to the agonist phenylephrine and the relaxation induced by acetylcholine. SES protects against metabolic imbalance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction induced by an HF diet, and could prevent the atherogenic processes. Synergistic effects between spirulina and silicon were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals

  13. Cocoa Enriched Diets Enhance Expression of Phosphatases and Decrease Expression of Inflammatory Molecules in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Ryan J.; Durham, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of trigeminal nerves and release of neuropeptides that promote inflammation are implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The overall response of trigeminal nerves to peripheral inflammatory stimuli involves a balance between enzymes that promote inflammation, kinases, and those that restore homeostasis, phosphatases. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on the expression of key inflammatory proteins in trigeminal ganglion neurons under basal and inflammatory conditions. Rats were fed a control diet or an isocaloric diet enriched in cocoa for 14 days prior to an injection of noxious stimuli to cause acute or chronic excitation of trigeminal neurons. In animals fed a cocoa-enriched diet, basal levels of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAP) phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 were elevated in neurons. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of acute or chronic peripheral inflammation on neuronal expression of the MAPK p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) were significantly repressed in response to cocoa. Similarly, dietary cocoa significantly suppressed basal neuronal expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as well as stimulated levels of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proteins implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and TMJ disorders. To our knowledge, this is first evidence that a dietary supplement can cause upregulation of MKP, and that cocoa can prevent inflammatory responses in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that cocoa contains biologically active compounds that would be beneficial in the treatment of migraine and TMJ disorders. PMID:20138852

  14. A low-fat diet enriched in fish oil increased lipogenesis and fetal outcome of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Akerele, Olatunji A; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2017-08-01

    There is clear evidence that nutritional strategy employed during pregnancy has profound influence on the offspring health outcomes. However, the effect of the quality and the quantity of maternal fat intake on maternal metabolic profile during different stages of pregnancy and its impact on pregnancy sustainability is not known. Female C57BL/6 mice (7 weeks old) were fed diets varying in the quantity of fat (5% vs 11%) for two weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. The 5% fat diet was enriched with longer chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish oil. Maternal plasma and tissues were collected before mating and during pregnancy at days 6.5, 12.5 and 18.5. Plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, progesterone and estradiol levels were measured. Cholesterol efflux capacity of maternal plasma as well as the mRNA expression of placental steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and hepatic lipogenic genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, fatty acid synthase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1) was determined. Feto-placental weight and fetuses sustained throughout gestation were recorded. A low-fat maternal diet enriched with n-3 PUFA increased maternal plasma triacylglycerol and the mRNA expression of rate-limiting lipogenic enzymes, along with increasing cholesterol efflux capacity (P < 0.05), likely to meet fetal lipid demand during pregnancy. Furthermore, diet enriched with longer chain n-3 PUFA increased the maternal plasma concentration of progesterone and estradiol during pregnancy (P < 0.05), which coincides with an increase in the number of fetuses sustained till day 18.5. These novel findings may be important when designing dietary strategies to optimize reproductive capability and pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W; Zee, Francis T

    2009-10-01

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine whether northern or southern highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., are hosts for the invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal and adult emergence. The number of puparia, number of puparia per gram, and percentage of adult emergence on 'Bluecrop' blueberry were significantly higher for B. dorsalis and C. capitata than B. cucurbitae; B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae produced an average of 1.06, 0.60, and 0.09 pupae per g fruit and had 5.8, 54.1, and 12.7% adult emergence, respectively. 'Berkeley' blueberries produced an average of only 0.06, 0.02, and 0.0 pupae per g fruit for B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae, respectively. Similarly, six blueberry cultivars were harvested weekly for 10 wk, exposed to Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in cages, and held for pupal and adult emergence on either sand or artificial diet. In total, 2,677 blueberries were exposed to 2681 B. latifons and held on sand, and no pupariation or adult emergence was observed. Small numbers of B. latifrons puparia and adults emerged from the artificial diet treatment in all cultivars. Results from rearing on sand and diet indicate that blueberry is an acceptable oviposition host for B. latifrons but not an adequate developmental host. These data suggest blueberry is potentially a good host for B. dorsalis and C. capitata, and an adequate host for Bactrocera cucurbitae, but that there may be significant variation in resistance among cultivars. Blueberry seems to be a nonhost for B. latifrons.

  16. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  17. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p < 0.05) levels of vitamin A in the liver by 25 fold, vitamin E and B1--2.0-2.3 fold, vitamin B2--by 40%, 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration--by 21% compared with the control. Feed consumption of the animals treated with vitamin deficient diet and WB was higher by 43% than in rats with vitamin deficit. Their rate of weight occupied the intermediate position between the rates of weight in deficit and in control animals, and they could not serve a full control to evaluate the WB impact on vitamin sufficiency. After filling the vitamin diet content to an adequate level vitamin E liver content was fully restored. To restore vitamins B1 and B2 liver level higher doses of vitamins (120-160% of adequate content) were required, and to restore the reduced levels of vitamin A in rat liver even 2-fold increased dose of vitamin A was insufficient. The diet enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the

  18. A low fat diet enhances polyunsaturated fatty acid desaturation and elongation independent of n3 enrichment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low fat diets are associated with risk reduction for chronic metabolic diseases compared to high fat diets. To evaluate effects of varied fat and fatty acid intake on lipid metabolism, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured and delta 5 and 6 desaturase activities (D5D, D6D) were calculated in...

  19. Mars Blueberry fields for ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2004-04-01

    The Mars saga continues. The latest finds -- wide areas covered in balls of haematite, or 'blueberries', and large sulphate deposits in rocks -- enable us to draw in more details of the planet's past climate.

  20. Progressive Induction of Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of a Reality–Like Fructose Enriched Diet in Young Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dupas, Julie; Goanvec, Christelle; Feray, Annie; Guernec, Anthony; Alain, Charlène; Guerrero, François; Mansourati, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize short and medium-lasting effects of fructose supplementation on young Wistar rats. The diet was similar to actual human consumption. Methods Three week old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 16), fructose fed (FF; n = 16) with a fructose enriched drink for 6 or 12 weeks. Bodyweight, fasting glycemia and systolic blood pressure were monitored. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulinemia was measured concomitantly and enable us to calculate insulin resistance markers (HOMA-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia: ISI-gly). Blood chemistry analyses were performed. Results After six weeks of fructose supplementation, rats were not overweight but presented increased fasting glycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity compared to control group. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were also increased without any change in renal function (theoretical creatinine clearance). After twelve weeks of fructose supplementation, FF rats had increased bodyweight and presented insulin resistance (higher HOMA-IR, lower ISI-gly). Rats also presented higher heart volume and lower ASAT/ALAT ratio (presumed liver lesion). Surprisingly, the Total Cholesterol/Triglycerides ratio was increased only after six weeks of fructose supplementation, predicting a higher LDL presence and thus a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This risk was no longer present after twelve weeks of a fructose enriched diet. Conclusion On young Wistar rats, six weeks of fructose supplementation is sufficient to induce signs of metabolic syndrome. After twelve weeks of fructose enriched diet, rats are insulin resistant. This model enabled us to study longitudinally the early development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26799836

  1. Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

  2. Fatty acid composition of lymphocytes and macrophages from rats fed fiber-rich diets: a comparison between oat bran- and wheat bran-enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Felippe, C R; Calder, P C; Vecchia, M G; Campos, M R; Mancini-Filho, J; Newsholme, E A; Curi, R

    1997-06-01

    The effect of oat bran- (OBD) and wheat bran-enriched diets (WBD) on fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids of rat lymphocytes and macrophages was investigated. In neutral lipids of lymphocytes, OBD reduced the proportion of palmitoleic acid (48%), whereas WBD reduced by 43% palmitoleic acid and raised oleic (18%), linoleic (52%), and arachidonic (2.5-fold) acids. In neutral lipids of macrophages, OBD increased palmitic (16%) and linoleic (29%) acids and slightly decreased oleic acid (15%). The effect of WBD, however, was more pronounced: It reduced myristic (60%), stearic (24%) and arachidonic (63%) acids, and it raised palmitic (30%) and linoleic (2.3-fold) acids. Neither OBD nor WBD modified the composition of fatty acids in phospholipids of lymphocytes. In contrast, both diets had a marked effect on composition of fatty acids in macrophage phospholipids. OBD raised the proportion of myristic (42%) and linoleic (2.4-fold) acids and decreased that of lauric (31%), palmitoleic (43%), and arachidonic (29%) acids. WBD increased palmitic (18%) and stearic (23%) acids and lowered palmitoleic (35%) and arachidonic (78%) acids. Of both cells, macrophages were more responsive to the effect of the fiber-rich diets on fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The high turnover of fatty acids in macrophage membranes may explain the differences between both cells. The modifications observed due to the effects of both diets were similar in few cases: an increase in palmitic and linoleic acids of total neutral lipids occurred and a decrease in palmitoleic and arachidonic acids of phospholipid. Therefore, the mechanism involved in the effect of both diets might be different.

  3. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects.

  4. The effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Lee, Ya P; Mori, Trevor A; Puddey, Ian B; Sipsas, Sofia; Barden, Anne; Swinny, Ewald; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2010-11-15

    A diet enriched in lupin kernel flour can lower blood pressure, but mechanisms responsible are unclear. Lupin is a source of polyphenols, protein, and L-arginine, factors that may influence blood pressure via effects on oxidative stress and vascular function. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function as potential mechanisms for demonstrated benefits on blood pressure. Overweight men and women (n = 88) were recruited to a 16-week parallel-design study. Participants were randomly assigned to replace 15%-20% of their usual daily energy intake with white bread (control) or lupin kernel flour-enriched bread (lupin). All measurements were taken at baseline and 16 weeks. At baseline, plasma F₂-isoprostanes and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) were positively associated with blood pressure, and plasma nitrite was negatively associated with blood pressure (p < 0.05). For lupin relative to control, the estimated differences in plasma F₂-isoprostanes (45 pmol/L; 95%CI: -68, 158), urinary F₂-isoprostanes (17 pmol/mmol creatinine; 95%CI: -43, 76), plasma 20-HETE (75 pmol/L; 95%CI: -91, 241), and plasma nitrite (-0.3 μmol/L; 95%CI: -1.1, 0.4) were not significant. Although regular consumption of lupin-enriched bread can lower blood pressure, these results do not support for the hypothesis that this is via effects on oxidative stress or vascular function.

  5. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  6. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Gačić, Milica; Karačić, Veseljko; Gottstein, Zeljko; Mazija, Hrvoje; Medić, Helga

    2012-12-01

    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio. A total of 150 18weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens were housed in cages and fed with basal diet and four experimental diets containing 1%, 2%, 3% or 4% of linseed oil added to the basal diet. The effect of the altered level of linseed oil on hens laying performance, fatty acid content and composition and cholesterol content in egg yolk has been evaluated during 13weeks of experiment. Egg weight, yolk fat content, yolk weight, yolk percentage and shape index were not influenced by dietary treatment. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs decreased in first 5weeks and then remained stable until the end of the experiment for all experimental groups. Different contents of linseed oil in feed highly influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.0001). Addition of linseed oil did not influence the cholesterol content in yolks (P=0.5200) while the only factor affecting the cholesterol content was the hens age (P<0.0001). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enriching the diet with menhaden oil improves peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Obrosov, Alexander; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  9. Creating a community of practice for blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The “All about Blueberries” Community of Practice is adapting the best existing extension publications and developing new research-based extension recommendations related to blueberry 20 production and consumption. Our primary goal is to increase blueberry productivity and consumption of blueberries...

  10. 7 CFR 1218.2 - Blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blueberries. 1218.2 Section 1218.2 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.2...

  11. 7 CFR 1218.2 - Blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blueberries. 1218.2 Section 1218.2 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.2...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.2 - Blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blueberries. 1218.2 Section 1218.2 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.2...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.15 - Processed blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed blueberries. 1218.15 Section 1218.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.2 - Blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blueberries. 1218.2 Section 1218.2 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.2...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.15 - Processed blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed blueberries. 1218.15 Section 1218.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.15 - Processed blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed blueberries. 1218.15 Section 1218.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.15 - Processed blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed blueberries. 1218.15 Section 1218.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.2 - Blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberries. 1218.2 Section 1218.2 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.2...

  19. 7 CFR 1218.15 - Processed blueberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed blueberries. 1218.15 Section 1218.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  20. A monounsaturated fatty acid-rich pecan-enriched diet favorably alters the serum lipid profile of healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S; Burke, K; Connell, B; Myint, T; Sabaté, J

    2001-09-01

    Frequent consumption of nuts is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of pecans rich in monounsaturated fat as an alternative to the Step 1 diet in modifying serum lipids and lipoproteins in men and women with normal to moderately high serum cholesterol. In a single-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study, we assigned 23 subjects (mean age: 38 y; 9 women, 14 men) to follow two diets, each for 4 wk: a Step I diet and a pecan-enriched diet (accomplished by proportionately reducing all food items in a Step I diet by one fifth for a 20% isoenergetic replacement with pecans). The percentage of energy from fat in the two diets was 28.3 and 39.6%, respectively. Both diets improved the lipid profile; however, the pecan-enriched diet decreased both serum total and LDL cholesterol by 0.32 mmol/L (6.7 and 10.4%, respectively) and triglyceride by 0.14 mmol/L (11.1%) beyond the Step I diet, while increasing HDL cholesterol by 0.06 mmol/L (2.5 mg/dL). Serum apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) decreased by 11.6 and 11.1%, respectively, and apolipoprotein A1 increased by 2.2% when subjects consumed the pecan compared with the Step I diet. These differences were all significant (P < 0.05). A 20% isoenergetic replacement of a Step I diet with pecans favorably altered the serum lipid profile beyond the Step I diet, without increasing body weight. Nuts such as pecans that are rich in monounsaturated fat may therefore be recommended as part of prescribed cholesterol-lowering diet of patients or habitual diet of healthy individuals.

  1. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  2. Long Term Consumption of Flaxseed Enriched Diet Decreased Ovarian Cancer Incidence and Prostaglandin E2 in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Eilati, Erfan; Bahr, Janice M.; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Prevention may be the best approach to reduce ovarian cancer. Flaxseed is the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids which may be effective in the prevention of ovarian cancer. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most proinflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Our objective was to determine if long-term consumption of a flaxseed enriched diet decreased ovarian cancer severity and incidence in the laying hen and to investigate its potential correlation with the expression of COX enzymes and PGE2 concentration. Methods White Leghorn hens were fed 10% flaxseed-enriched or standard diet for 4 years. The severity and incidence of ovarian cancer were determined by gross pathology and histology. COX-1 and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 concentrations in ovaries were measured by Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Results The results demonstrated that there was a reduction in ovarian cancer severity and incidence in hens fed flaxseed diet. In correlation with decreased ovarian cancer severity and incidence, concentration of PGE2 and expression of COX-2 were diminished in ovaries of hens fed flaxseed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the lower levels of COX-2 and PGE2 are the main contributing factors in the chemo-suppressive role of long-term flaxseed consumption in ovarian cancer in laying hens. These findings may provide the basis for clinical trials of dietary intervention targeting prostaglandin biosynthesis for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23707669

  3. Diet enriched with mushroom Phellinus linteus extract enhances the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Phellinus linteus fed for 30 days was investigated in grouper Epinephelus bruneus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio carchariae; infected and treated fish had a significantly higher percent weight gain and feed efficiency. In groups fed with enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum and V. harveyi the mortality rate declined with a consequent rise in survival rate than with other pathogens. On the other hand, in groups fed with P. linteus enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, and V. alginolyticus the cellular and humoral immune responses, such as the alternative complement activity (ACH(50)), serum lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI) significantly higher than in the control group. The respiratory bursts (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were found significantly enhanced when the groups fed with enriched diet against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. The results reveal that kelp grouper fed for 30 days with P. linteus enriched diet had higher cellular and humoral immune response and disease protection from vibriosis than the group fed on basal diet with the protection linked to stimulation of immune system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the productive and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei infected with WSSV and fed diets enriched with Dunaliella sp.

    PubMed

    Medina-Félix, Diana; López-Elías, José A; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R; López-Torres, Marco A; Hernández-López, Jorge; Rivas-Vega, Martha E; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the productive and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei that were infected with WSSV and fed diets enriched with Dunaliella sp., which had a high β-carotene content induced by nitrogen reduction in the culture medium. A basal diet containing 35% crude protein and experimental diets T1 and T2, which included 1% and 2% microalgae meal, respectively, were evaluated. Positive (infected juveniles) and negative (non-infected) controls were also evaluated. Survival was significantly higher (80%) in the two treatment groups compared to the positive control group (56%). In the negative control group, survival was 100%. Some variation was recorded for hemolymph metabolites among treatments and at distinct times post-infection; although the tendencies were not clear, some metabolites (glucose and triglycerides) appeared to decrease on the last days of the trial, probably due to their use as energy for the shrimp to thrive despite the infection. The results of the study suggest a positive effect of the dietary inclusion of Dunaliella meal on shrimp survival and an unclear effect on hemolymph metabolites.

  5. Effect of calcium-enriched high-fat diet on calcium, magnesium and zinc retention in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gallardo, Lucía; Gómez, Marta; Parra, Pilar; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of a high-fat diet enriched in Ca, which accompanies lower body fat deposition, on mineral depots, as well as to assess the potential role of adaptive thermogenesis in mice. Male mice were fed ad libitum a high-fat (43 %) diet with a Ca content of 4 g/kg from calcium carbonate (control group) or 12 g/kg (42 % from milk powder and the rest from calcium carbonate) (Ca group) for 56 d. Body weight, food intake and urine were periodically collected. Tissue samples were collected when the mice were killed and the composition was determined. Expression of uncoupling proteins was determined by Western blotting. Mineral content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Lower body weight gain and fat accretion was found in the Ca group. This could not be attributable to lower gross energy intake or to activation of adaptive thermogenesis. Although significant urine mineral loss was found in the Ca group, preservation of mineral depots in bone was observed. Our data support the fact that adding more Ca to the diet, using a combination of calcium carbonate plus milk powder containing among other things higher Zn and Mg, contributes to counteracting obesity and improving lipid metabolism.

  6. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  7. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  8. Effect of inulin and oligofructose enrichment of the diet on rats suffering thiamine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dębski, B; Kurył, T; Gralak, M A; Pierzynowska, J; Drywień, M

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine deficiency resulted in inhibition of two main pathways supplying energy to the tissues: glycolysis and β-oxidation. Glycolysis was found to be inhibited to 40% of initial value calculated on the basis of RBC trans-membrane transport of glucose. Prolongation of experiment cause lowering of uptake of this sugar. In rats, energy production from fatty acids (FA) seems to be less sensitive to thiamine deficiency than glycolysis. After 30 days of feeding, utilization of FA in rats was depressed to the 61% of initial value. Thiamine deficiency suppressed insulin secretion, and the changes were statistically significant. Feeding of rats with thiamine restricted diet for 1 month caused the reduction of serum insulin by 14%. In the same animals, trans-membrane glucose transport was reduced over two-times, what might suggest a decreased efficiency of insulin action in such conditions. The kind and concentration of non-digestible fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) did not affect significantly serum insulin concentration in animals fed thiamine restricted diet. Substitution of a part of wheat starch with FOS has only insignificant compensatory effect on the uptake of glucose. A partial amelioration of the β-oxidation inhibition caused by feeding rats with thiamine deficient diet was observed in animals supplemented with FOS. However, this effect was statistically significant only in rats receiving diet containing 10% of inulin. The effect of supplemented FOS and their concentration on trans-membrane glucose transport in RBC was statistically significant, when pulled supplementation groups were used for statistical evaluation.

  9. Circulating profiling reveals the effect of a polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on common microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco J; Cardona-Alvarado, Mónica I; Mercader, Josep M; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Moreno, María; Sabater, Mònica; Fuentes-Batllevell, Núria; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Ricart, Wifredo; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Pérez-Luque, Elva L; Fernández-Real, José M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in seafood and nuts, ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have demonstrated to be valuable biomarkers of metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated whether a sustained nuts-enriched diet can lead to changes in circulating miRNAs, in parallel to the dietary modification of fatty acids (FAs). The profile of 192 common miRNAs was assessed (TaqMan low-density arrays) in plasma from 10 healthy women before and after an 8-week trial with a normocaloric diet enriched with PUFAs (30 g/day of almonds and walnuts). The most relevant miRNAs were validated in an extended sample of 30 participants (8 men and 22 women). Adiponectin was measured by immunoassay and FAs by gas liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The percentage of both ω-3 (P=.01) and ω-6 (P=.029) PUFAs of dietary origin (as inferred from plasma FA concentrations) increased, whereas saturated FAs decreased (P=.0008). Concomitantly with changes in circulating FAs, several miRNAs were modified by treatment, including decreased miR-328, miR-330-3p, miR-221 and miR-125a-5p, and increased miR-192, miR-486-5p, miR-19b, miR-106a, miR-769-5p, miR-130b and miR-18a. Interestingly, miR-106a variations in plasma correlated with changes in PUFAs, while miR-130b (r=0.58, P=.003) and miR-221 (r=0.46, P=.03) reflected changes in C-reactive protein. The dietary modulation of miR-125a-5p mirrored changes in fasting triglycerides (r=-0.44, P=.019) and increased adiponectin (r=0.43, P=.026). Dietary FAs (as inferred from plasma FA concentration) are linked to changes in circulating miRNAs, which may be modified by a PUFAs-enriched diet. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effects of Diets Enriched in Omega-9 or Omega-6 Fatty Acids on Reproductive Process.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Shafiei-Neek, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Maternal type and amounts of dietary fatty acids affect on reproductive process in the mice. The present study investigated the effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of omega-6 or omega-9 during pregnancy on the number of offspring, sex-ratio and duration of gestation. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four dietary groups including low omega-6 (16%; LO6), low omega-9 (16%; LO9), high omega-6 (45%; HO6) and high omega-9 (45%; HO9) during gestation. Number of offspring, sex-ratio and duration of pregnancy were compared among four dietary groups. There was significant difference between LO6 and HO6 (p < 0.0001), LO9 and HO9 (p < 0.0001) groups in total number of pups. The number of female and male offspring were significantly different between LO6 and LO9 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively), LO9 and HO9 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.025) groups. Duration of pregnancy was significantly higher in low fat diet than high fat diet groups (< 0.001). High fat diet reduced number of pups, gestation duration and lead to early labor. Omega-9 fatty acids shifted sex of offspring to females.

  11. Enrichment of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) diet with microalgae: effects on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2012-12-01

    The present study assessed the effects of three orally administered microalgae (Nannochloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chuii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) on different immune parameters and immune-related gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish were fed a control or one of six experimental diets and sampled at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. At the end of the trial, growth performance and different systemic and local immune activities were measured (natural haemolytic complement activity, IgM levels, phagocytosis and respiratory burst). The expression levels of different immune-associated genes (EF-1α, IgM(H), TCR-β, MHCIα, MHCIIα, CSF-1R and β-defensin) were analysed in head-kidney and gut. Administration of N. gaditana and T. chuii resulted in a significant increase in haemolytic complement activity, phagocytic capacity, as well expression level of β-defensin, as well as MHCIIα and CSF-1R, respectively. The P. tricornutum-supplemented diet provoked immunostimulation, and very little effect on gene expression was observed. These results suggest that dietary microalgae enhance gilthead seabream defence activity, which could be very important in order to consider such microalgae as a possible additive in fish diets.

  12. Effects of Diets Enriched in Omega-9 or Omega-6 Fatty Acids on Reproductive Process

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Shafiei-Neek, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maternal type and amounts of dietary fatty acids affect on reproductive process in the mice. The present study investigated the effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of omega-6 or omega-9 during pregnancy on the number of offspring, sex-ratio and duration of gestation. Materials and methods: Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four dietary groups including low omega-6 (16%; LO6), low omega-9 (16%; LO9), high omega-6 (45%; HO6) and high omega-9 (45%; HO9) during gestation. Number of offspring, sex-ratio and duration of pregnancy were compared among four dietary groups. Results: There was significant difference between LO6 and HO6 (p < 0.0001), LO9 and HO9 (p < 0.0001) groups in total number of pups. The number of female and male offspring were significantly different between LO6 and LO9 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively), LO9 and HO9 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.025) groups. Duration of pregnancy was significantly higher in low fat diet than high fat diet groups (< 0.001). Conclusion: High fat diet reduced number of pups, gestation duration and lead to early labor. Omega-9 fatty acids shifted sex of offspring to females. PMID:27648098

  13. Silicon-Enriched Restructured Pork Affects the Lipoprotein Profile, VLDL Oxidation, and LDL Receptor Gene Expression in Aged Rats Fed an Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Garcimartín, Alba; Santos-López, Jorge A; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown that silicon can play an important role in protecting against degenerative diseases. Restructuring pork by partially disassembling meat permits the incorporation of active components with potential functional effects. However, there has been no research to date on the impact that silicon, as a functional ingredient in restructured pork (RP), has on lipoprotein composition, metabolism, and oxidation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon-enriched RP on lipemia, lipoprotein profile, and oxidation markers of aged rats fed high-fat, high-energy, cholesterol-enriched diets. RP samples similar to commercial sausages (16% protein and 22% fat, wt:wt) were prepared by mixing lean pork and lard alone or with silicon (1.3 g Si/kg fresh matter) under controlled conditions and then freeze-dried. Saturated fat-rich diets were designed by mixing 78.3% purified diet with 21.7% freeze-dried RP. Three groups composed of 8 aged male Wistar rats (1 y old) were fed for 8 wk a control RP (C) diet, a cholesterol-enriched RP (Chol-C) diet [C diet enriched with 1.26% cholesterol plus 0.25% cholic acid, or a cholesterol and silicon-enriched RP (Chol-Si) diet (same as the Chol-C diet but containing silicon)]. Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein profile, the degree of VLDL oxidation, and LDL receptor gene (Ldlr) expression were tested. Compared with the C diet, the Chol-C diet did not modify food intake or body weight but significantly increased (P < 0.05) plasma cholesterol (32%) and total lipids (19%), VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein + LDL cholesterol (both >600%), total lipids and proteins (both >300%), and the degree of VLDL oxidation [conjugated dienes >250%; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), 900%] and reduced Ldlr expression (64%) and liver arylesterase activity (54%). The Chol-Si diet partially normalized changes induced by the Chol-C diet. Compared with the Chol-C group, Chol-Si rats had lower VLDL compound

  14. 'Blueberry' Triplets Born in Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'Berry Bowl' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows the sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' that fill Berry Bowl. Of particular interest is the blueberry triplet, which indicates that these geologic features grew in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains that form in the air, such as impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli, are unlikely to fuse along a line and form triplets. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 46th martian day, or sol, of its mission.

  15. 'Blueberry' Triplets Born in Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'Berry Bowl' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows the sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' that fill Berry Bowl. Of particular interest is the blueberry triplet, which indicates that these geologic features grew in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains that form in the air, such as impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli, are unlikely to fuse along a line and form triplets. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 46th martian day, or sol, of its mission.

  16. A diet enriched with Mugil cephalus processed roes modulates the tissue lipid profile in healthy rats: a biochemical and chemometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Atzeri, A; Putzu, D; Scano, P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a diet enriched with mullet bottarga on the lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and hydroperoxides) of plasma, liver, kidney, brain, and perirenal adipose tissues of healthy rats was investigated. Rats fed a 10% bottarga enriched-diet for 5 days showed body weights and tissue total lipid and cholesterol levels similar to those of animals fed control diet. Univariate and multivariate results showed that bottarga enriched-diet modified the fatty acid profile in all tissues, except brain. Significant increases of n-3 PUFA, particularly EPA, were observed together with a 20:4 n-6 decrease in plasma, liver, and kidney. Perirenal adipose tissue showed a fat accumulation that reflected the diet composition. The overall data suggest that mullet bottarga may be considered as a natural bioavailable source of n-3 PUFA and qualify it as a traditional food product with functional properties and a potential functional ingredient for preparation of n-3 PUFA enriched foods.

  17. Fructose-enriched diet induces inflammation and reduces antioxidative defense in visceral adipose tissue of young female rats.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Sanja; Nestorov, Jelena; Matić, Gordana; Elaković, Ivana

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of refined, fructose-enriched food continuously increases and has been linked to development of obesity, especially in young population. Low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined alterations in inflammation and antioxidative defense system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of fructose-fed young female rats, and related them to changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. We examined the effects of 9-week fructose-enriched diet applied immediately after weaning on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intracellular distribution, and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and key antioxidative enzymes in the VAT of female rats. Insulin signaling in the VAT was evaluated at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and its inhibitory phosphorylation on Ser(307). Fructose-fed rats had increased VAT mass along with increased NF-κB nuclear accumulation and elevated IL-1β, but not TNFα expression. The protein levels of antioxidative defense enzymes, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase, were reduced, while the protein content of IRS-1 and its inhibitory phosphorylation were not altered by fructose diet. The results suggest that fructose overconsumption-related alterations in pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidative capacity in the VAT of young female rats can be implicated in the development of adiposity, but do not affect inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1.

  18. Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Pauls, K Peter; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2016-02-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds and nondigestible fermentable components, which may help alleviate intestinal diseases. We assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing profiles of phenolic compounds [darkening (DC) and nondarkening (NDC) cranberry beans vs. basal diet control (BD)] on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis (2% DSS wt/vol, 7 days). In unchallenged mice, NDC and DC increased (i) cecal short-chain fatty acids, (ii) colon crypt height, (iii) crypt goblet cell number and mucus content and (iv) Muc1, Klf4, Relmβ and Reg3γ gene expression vs. BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity and gut barrier function. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing determined that beans reduced abundance of the Lactobacillaceae (Ruminococcus gnavus), Clostridiaceae (Clostridium perfringens), Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae and Pophyromonadaceae families, and increased abundance of S24-7 and Prevotellaceae. During colitis, beans reduced (i) disease severity and colonic histological damage, (ii) increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes (Muc1-3, Relmβ, and Reg3γ) and (iii) reduced colonic and circulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα). Therefore, prior to disease induction, bean supplementation enhanced multiple concurrent gut health promoting parameters that translated into reduced colitis severity. Moreover, both bean diets exerted similar effects, indicating that differing phenolic content did not influence the endpoints assessed. These data demonstrate a proof-of-concept regarding the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis, which could be extended to mitigate the severity of other gut barrier-associated pathologies. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of avocado-enriched diets on plasma lipoproteins: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peou, Sokunthea; Milliard-Hasting, Brittany; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing plasma lipoproteins is the primary goal of pharmacotherapy and diet interventions in people at risk for cardiovascular diseases. Avocados offer a rich source of monounsaturated fat and may pose beneficial effects on the lipid profile. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials assessing the impact of avocados on TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and/or triglycerides (TG). We searched PUBMED, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews from their inception to February 2015. The weighted mean difference from baseline was calculated for all endpoints. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess heterogeneity, and funnel plots inspected to assess publication bias. Ten unique studies (n = 229) were included. Avocado consumption significantly reduced TC, LDL-C, and TG by -18.80 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -24.56 to -13.05; I(2), 46.9%), -16.50 mg/dL (95% CI, -22.91 to -10.10; I(2), 72.5%), -27.20 mg/dL (95% CI, -44.41 to -9.99; I(2), 91.1%) respectively. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased nonsignificantly by -0.18 mg/dL (95% CI, -3.23 to 2.88; I(2), 84.8%). Avocado-substituted diets significantly decrease TC, LDL-C, and TG levels. Substituting dietary fats with avocados versus adding to the free diet should be the primary recommendation strategy. Larger trials looking at the impact of avocados on major adverse cardiovascular events are warranted. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  1. Polyphenol-enriched diet prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction by activating the Akt/eNOS pathway.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Padró, Teresa; Casaní, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; López, José A; Streitenberger, Sergio; Badimon, Lina

    2015-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet, rich in polyphenols, has shown to be cardioprotective. However the mechanisms involved remain unknown. We investigated whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract rich in polyphenols renders beneficial effects on coronary function in a clinically relevant experimental model and characterized the underlying mechanisms. Pigs were fed a 10-day normocholesterolemic or hypercholesterolemic diet. Half of the animals were given a supplement of 625 mg/day of a pomegranate extract (Pomanox; 200 mg punicalagins/day). Coronary responses to escalating doses of vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine, calcium ionophore, and sodium nitroprusside) and L-NG-monomethylarginine (endothelial nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor) were measured using flow Doppler. Akt/endothelial nitric oxide-synthase axis activation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression, oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the coronary artery, and lipoprotein resistance to oxidation were evaluated. In dyslipidemic animals, Pomanox supplementation prevented diet-induced impairment of endothelial relaxation, reaching vasodilatory values comparable to normocholesterolemic animals upon stimulation with acetylcholine and/or calcium ionophore. These beneficial effects were associated with vascular Akt/endothelial nitric oxide-synthase activation and lower monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. Pomanox supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress (higher high-density lipoprotein-antioxidant capacity and higher low-density lipoprotein resistance to oxidation) and coronary deoxyribonucleic acid damage. Normocholesterolemic animals elicited similar drug-related vasodilation regardless of Pomanox supplementation. All animals displayed a similar vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside and L-NG-monomethylarginine blunted all vasorelaxation responses except for sodium nitroprusside. Pomanox supplementation hinders hyperlipemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by activating

  2. A diet enriched with plant sterols prevents the memory impairment induced by cholesterol loss in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cañamás, Azucena; Sarroca, Sara; Melero-Jerez, Carolina; Porquet, David; Sansa, Joan; Knafo, Shira; Esteban, Jose A; Sanfeliu, Coral; Ledesma, Maria Dolores

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol reduction at the neuronal plasma membrane has been related to age-dependent cognitive decline. We have used senescent-accelerated mice strain 8 (SAMP8), an animal model for aging, to examine the association between cholesterol loss and cognitive impairment and to test strategies to revert this process. We show that the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice presents reduced cholesterol levels and enhanced amount of its degrading enzyme Cyp46A1 (Cyp46) already at 6 months of age. Cholesterol loss accounts for the impaired long-term potentiation in these mice. Plant sterol (PSE)-enriched diet prevents long-term potentiation impairment and cognitive deficits in SAMP8 mice without altering cholesterol levels. PSE diet also reduces the abnormally high amyloid peptide levels in SAMP8 mice brains and restores membrane compartmentalization of presenilin1, the catalytic component of the amyloidogenic γ-secretase. These results highlight the influence of cholesterol loss in age-related cognitive decline and provide with a noninvasive strategy to counteract it. Our results suggest that PSE overtake cholesterol functions in the brain contributing to reduce deleterious consequences of cholesterol loss during aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Enriched Diet Prevents Skeletal Muscle Lesions in a Hamster Model of Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fiaccavento, Roberta; Carotenuto, Felicia; Vecchini, Alba; Binaglia, Luciano; Forte, Giancarlo; Capucci, Enrico; Maccari, Anna Maria; Minieri, Marilena; Di Nardo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Currently, despite well-known mutational causes, a universal treatment for neuromuscular disorders is still lacking, and current therapeutic efforts are mainly restricted to symptomatic treatments. In the present study, δ-sarcoglycan–null dystrophic hamsters were fed a diet enriched in flaxseed-derived ω3 α-linolenic fatty acid from weaning until death. α-linolenic fatty acid precluded the dystrophic degeneration of muscle morphology and function. In fact, in dystrophic animals fed flaxseed-derived α-linolenic fatty acid, the histological appearance of the muscular tissue was improved, the proliferation of interstitial cells was decreased, and the myogenic differentiation originated new myocytes to repair the injured muscle. In addition, muscle myofibers were larger and cell membrane integrity was preserved, as witnessed by the correct localization of α-, β-, and γ-sarcoglycans and α-dystroglycan. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic accumulation of both β-catenin and caveolin-3 was abolished in dystrophic hamster muscle fed α-linolenic fatty acid versus control animals fed standard diet, while α-myosin heavy chain was expressed at nearly physiological levels. These findings, obtained by dietary intervention only, introduce a novel concept that provides evidence that the modulation of the plasmalemma lipid profile could represent an efficacious strategy to ameliorate human muscular dystrophy. PMID:20829440

  4. Effects of Silicon vs. Hydroxytyrosol-Enriched Restructured Pork on Liver Oxidation Status of Aged Rats Fed High-Saturated/High-Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Pinar; López-Oliva, M. Elvira; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pork is an essential component of the diet that has been linked with major degenerative diseases and development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Previous studies have. Previous studies have demonstrated the in vitro antioxidant activity of silicon (Si). Furthermore, when Si is added to restructured pork (RP) strongly counterbalances the negative effect of high-cholesterol-ingestion, acting as an active hypocholesterolemic and hypolipemic dietary ingredient in aged rats. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Si vs hydroxytyrosol (HxT) RP on liver antioxidant defense in aged rats fed cholesterol-enriched high saturated/high cholesterol diets as a NASH model. Methods Four diets were prepared: Control RP diet (C) with non-added cholesterol; Cholesterol-enriched high-saturated/high-cholesterol control RP diet (CHOL-C) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; Si- or HxT-RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated/high-cholesterol diets (CHOL-Si and CHOL-HxT). Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-yr old) were fed these modified diets for eight weeks. Total cholesterol, hepatosomatic index, liver Nrf2 and antioxidant (CAT, SOD, GSH, GSSG, GR, GPx) markers were determined. Results Both CHOL-Si and CHOL-HxT diets enhanced the liver antioxidant status, reduced hepatosomatic index and increased SOD actvity. Hydrogen peroxide removal seemed to be involved, explaining that the value of redox index was even lower than C without changing the CAT activity. CHOL-Si results were quite better than CHOL-HxT in most measured parameters. Conclusions Our study suggests that Si incorporated into RP matrix was able to counterbalance, more efficiently than HxT, the deleterious effect of consuming a high-saturated/high-cholesterol diet, by improving the liver antioxidant defenses in the context of NASH. PMID:26807847

  5. A Mediterranean Diet Enriched with Olive Oil Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Osteocalcin Levels in Elderly Men at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José Maria; Ricart, Wifredo; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intake of olive oil has been related to the prevention of osteoporosis in experimental and in in vitro models. Very few prospective studies have evaluated the effects of olive oil intake on circulating osteocalcin (OC) in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal effects of a low-fat control diet (n = 34), a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts (MedDiet+nuts, n = 51), or a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet+VOO, n = 42) on circulating forms of OC and bone formation markers in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk. Design: Longitudinal associations between baseline and follow-up (2 yr) measurements of total OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) concentrations were examined in 127 elderly men randomized to three healthy dietary interventions. Results: Baseline characteristics (age, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting insulin levels, and bone formation and resorption markers) were similar in all intervention groups. The total osteocalcin concentration increased robustly in the MedDiet+VOO group (P = 0.007) in parallel to increased P1NP levels (P = 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment-β-cell function (P = 0.01) but not in subjects on the MedDiet+nuts (P = 0.32) or after the control diet (P = 0.74). Interestingly, the consumption of olives was associated positively with both baseline total osteocalcin (r = 0.23, P = 0.02) and the 2-yr osteocalcin concentrations (r = 0.21, P = 0.04) in the total cohort. Conclusions: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil for 2 years is associated with increased serum osteocalcin and P1NP concentrations, suggesting protective effects on bone. PMID:22855341

  6. Blueberry flavonoids inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Matchett, Michael D; MacKinnon, Shawna L; Sweeney, Marva I; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Hurta, Robert A R

    2005-10-01

    Regulation of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the major mediators of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, is crucial to regulate ECM proteolysis, which is important in metastasis. This study examined the effects of 3 flavonoid-enriched fractions (a crude fraction, an anthocyanin-enriched fraction, and a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction), which were prepared from lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), on MMP activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Using gelatin gel electrophoresis, MMP activity was evaluated from cells after 24-hr exposure to blueberry fractions. All fractions elicited an ability to decrease the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Of the fractions tested, the proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction was found to be the most effective at inhibiting MMP activity in these cells. No induction of either necrotic or apoptotic cell death was noted in these cells in response to treatment with the blueberry fractions. These findings indicate that flavonoids from blueberry possess the ability to effectively decrease MMP activity, which may decrease overall ECM degradation. This ability may be important in controlling tumor metastasis formation.

  7. Enrichment of the diet with synthetic and natural sources of provitamin A.

    PubMed

    Fávaro, R M; de Oliveira, J E

    1999-09-01

    The use of available food rich in provitamin A and retinol as well as fortification of local food are known to result in adequate vitamin A status. In Brazil, several regional foods are known to be good sources of provitamin A such as buriti, several palm oils, mango and others. Improving the consumption of these locally available natural sources of provitamin and vitamin A would cover the needs of the vulnerable population. At the same time fortification of industrialized foods with natural and/or synthetic forms of provitamin A could speed up and fill the gap between requirement and low intake of this vitamin in many parts of the country. This approach has been considered by many as the most effective intervention program to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. Our previous studies on the subject have shown that cooking vegetable oil, mainly soybean oil, is a very good alternative vehicle to be fortified and supply vitamin A to the population. Lately we have also enriched the same soybean oil with beta-carotene. Addition of this provitamin A to the oil showed it to be stable when heated at cooking and frying temperatures (retention of 92.4 +/- 6.7% and 65.4 +/- 8.6%, respectively). When rat or human food was prepared with carotene-enriched cooking oil, its bioavailability in experimental animals and absorption in humans were shown to be adequate. An alternative for Brazil, besides adding chemical forms of the vitamin to the cooking oil, would be to mix available carotene-rich palm oil to the soybean oil. There are already regional uses of carotenoid-rich palm oils in the preparation of local dishes in some parts of Brazil and this would facilitate its acceptance by the population. Enrichment of common foods in Brazil, such as soybean oil, with chemical forms of beta-carotene or mixing rich sources of provitamin A can be a good alternative to improve the intake of vitamin A by the Brazilian population.

  8. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  9. An emerging disease in blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottom of leaves. The disease was reported initially in the state ...

  10. Blueberry Microsatellite Markers Identify Cranberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forty-six blueberry simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites were tested for the ability to amplify a polymorphic marker in eight American cranberry accessions. Sixteen SSRs resulted in informative and polymorphic SSR primer pairs and were used to fingerprint 16 economically important...

  11. Blueberries inhibit proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of BB on proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages was investigated. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (...

  12. A diet enriched in docosahexanoic Acid exacerbates brain parenchymal extravasation of apo B lipoproteins induced by chronic ingestion of saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Pallebage-Gamarallage, Menuka M; Lam, Virginie; Takechi, Ryusuke; Galloway, Susan; Mamo, John C L

    2012-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was previously shown to compromise blood-brain barrier integrity, leading to brain parenchymal extravasation of apolipoprotein B (apo B) lipoproteins enriched in amyloid beta. In contrast, diets enriched in mono- or polyunsaturated (PUFA) oils had no detrimental effect. Rather, n3 and n6 oils generally confer protection via suppression of inflammation. This study investigated in wild-type mice if a PUFA diet enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA) restored blood-brain barrier integrity and attenuated parenchymal apo B abundance induced by chronic ingestion of SFA. Cerebrovascular leakage of apo B was quantitated utilising immunofluorescent staining. The plasma concentration of brain-derived S100β was measured as a marker of cerebrovascular inflammation. In mice fed SFA for 3 months, provision thereafter of a DHA-enriched diet exacerbated parenchymal apo B retention, concomitant with a significant increase in plasma cholesterol. In contrast, provision of a low-fat diet following chronic SFA feeding had no effect on SFA-induced parenchymal apo B. The findings suggest that in a heightened state of cerebrovascular inflammation, the provision of unsaturated fatty acids may be detrimental, possibly as a consequence of a greater susceptibility for oxidation.

  13. Measure of mechanical impacts in commercial blueberry packing lines and potential damage to blueberry fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern blueberry packing lines create impact damage to blueberries which will result in fruit bruising. In this study, impacts created by commercial blueberry packing lines were measured quantitatively using a miniature instrumented sphere. Impacts were recorded at transfer points. Average peakG ...

  14. Cerebral Ketone Body Oxidation Is Facilitated by a High Fat Diet Enriched with Advanced Glycation End Products in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Adriano M.; da Silva, Jussemara S.; Rech, Anderson; Longoni, Aline; Nonose, Yasmine; Repond, Cendrine; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus A.; Moreira, José C. F.; Souza, Diogo O.; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes important modifications in the availability and use of different energy substrates in various organs and tissues. Similarly, dietary manipulations such as high fat diets also affect systemic energy metabolism. However, how the brain adapts to these situations remains unclear. To investigate these issues, control and alloxan-induced type I diabetic rats were fed either a standard or a high fat diet enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (HAGE diet). The HAGE diet increased their levels of blood ketone bodies, and this effect was exacerbated by DM induction. To determine the effects of diet and/or DM induction on key cerebral bioenergetic parameters, both ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyric acid) and lactate oxidation were measured. In parallel, the expression of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) and 2 (MCT2) isoforms in hippocampal and cortical slices from rats submitted to these diets was assessed. Ketone body oxidation increased while lactate oxidation decreased in hippocampal and cortical slices in both control and diabetic rats fed a HAGE diet. In parallel, the expression of both MCT1 and MCT2 increased only in the cerebral cortex in diabetic rats fed a HAGE diet. These results suggest a shift in the preferential cerebral energy substrate utilization in favor of ketone bodies in animals fed a HAGE diet, an effect that, in DM animals, is accompanied by the enhanced expression of the related transporters. PMID:27877108

  15. Cerebral Ketone Body Oxidation Is Facilitated by a High Fat Diet Enriched with Advanced Glycation End Products in Normal and Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Adriano M; da Silva, Jussemara S; Rech, Anderson; Longoni, Aline; Nonose, Yasmine; Repond, Cendrine; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus A; Moreira, José C F; Souza, Diogo O; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes important modifications in the availability and use of different energy substrates in various organs and tissues. Similarly, dietary manipulations such as high fat diets also affect systemic energy metabolism. However, how the brain adapts to these situations remains unclear. To investigate these issues, control and alloxan-induced type I diabetic rats were fed either a standard or a high fat diet enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (HAGE diet). The HAGE diet increased their levels of blood ketone bodies, and this effect was exacerbated by DM induction. To determine the effects of diet and/or DM induction on key cerebral bioenergetic parameters, both ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyric acid) and lactate oxidation were measured. In parallel, the expression of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) and 2 (MCT2) isoforms in hippocampal and cortical slices from rats submitted to these diets was assessed. Ketone body oxidation increased while lactate oxidation decreased in hippocampal and cortical slices in both control and diabetic rats fed a HAGE diet. In parallel, the expression of both MCT1 and MCT2 increased only in the cerebral cortex in diabetic rats fed a HAGE diet. These results suggest a shift in the preferential cerebral energy substrate utilization in favor of ketone bodies in animals fed a HAGE diet, an effect that, in DM animals, is accompanied by the enhanced expression of the related transporters.

  16. Blueberry intake alters skeletal muscle and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity and reduces insulin resistance in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E Mitchell; Tanone, Ignasia I; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Lewis, Sarah K; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kondoleon, Michael G; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and includes phenotypes such as obesity, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. A recent epidemiological study indicated that blueberry intake reduced cardiovascular mortality in humans, but the possible genetic mechanisms of this effect are unknown. Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, and anthocyanins can alter the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism. The effect of blueberry intake was assessed in obesity-prone rats. Zucker Fatty and Zucker Lean rats were fed a higher-fat diet (45% of kcal) or a lower-fat diet (10% of kcal) containing 2% (wt/wt) freeze-dried whole highbush blueberry powder or added sugars to match macronutrient and calorie content. In Zucker Fatty rats fed a high-fat diet, the addition of blueberry reduced triglycerides, fasting insulin, homeostasis model index of insulin resistance, and glucose area under the curve. Blueberry intake also reduced abdominal fat mass, increased adipose and skeletal muscle PPAR activity, and affected PPAR transcripts involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake/oxidation. In Zucker Fatty rats fed a low-fat diet, the addition of blueberry also significantly reduced liver weight, body weight, and total fat mass. Finally, Zucker Lean rats fed blueberry had higher body weight and reduced triglycerides, but all other measures were unaffected. In conclusion, whole blueberry intake reduced phenotypes of metabolic syndrome in obesity-prone rats and affected PPAR gene transcripts in adipose and muscle tissue involved in fat and glucose metabolism.

  17. Deleterious effects of lard-enriched diet on tissues fatty acids composition and hypothalamic insulin actions.

    PubMed

    Dornellas, A P S; Watanabe, R L H; Pimentel, G D; Boldarine, V T; Nascimento, C M O; Oyama, L M; Ghebremeskel, K; Wang, Y; Bueno, A A; Ribeiro, E B

    2015-12-01

    Altered tissue fatty acid (FA) composition may affect mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis, including central insulin actions. In rats fed either standard chow or a lard-enriched chow (high in saturated/low in polyunsaturated FA, HS-LP) for eight weeks, we examined the FA composition of blood, hypothalamus, liver, and retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissues. Insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling were evaluated after intracerebroventricular insulin injection. HS-LP feeding increased saturated FA content in adipose tissues and serum while it decreased polyunsaturated FA content of adipose tissues, serum, and liver. Hypothalamic C20:5n-3 and C20:3n-6 contents increased while monounsaturated FA content decreased. HS-LP rats showed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The results showed that, upon HS-LP feeding, peripheral tissues underwent potentially deleterious alterations in their FA composition, whist the hypothalamus was relatively preserved. However, hypothalamic insulin signaling and hypophagia were drastically impaired. These findings suggest that impairment of hypothalamic insulin actions by HS-LP feeding was not related to tissue FA composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study of diets enriched with evening primrose, black currant, borage or fungal oils on blood pressure and pressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Engler, M M

    1993-10-01

    The effects of oils enriched with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on blood pressure and pressor responses were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats were fed purified diets containing evening primrose (EPO), black currant (BCO), borage (BOR) or fungal (FGO) oils for 7 weeks. Significant reductions in blood pressure were obtained in SHR rats maintained on diets enriched with GLA oils. The antihypertensive effect was not associated with enhanced pressor responsiveness to norepinephrine or angiotensin II. Moreover, no differences were found in blood pressure responses to the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. The results suggest that GLA-enriched oils inhibit the development of hypertension in the SHR rat. The blood pressure lowering effect is not mediated by altered pressor responses to vasoconstrictor hormones or intracellular calcium mechanisms.

  19. Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding induces body weight gain and adiposity in lean and glucose-intolerant obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M; Sheril, Alex; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Previously, we reported that chronic feeding of a vitamin A-enriched diet to euglycaemic obese rats (WNIN/Ob) ameliorated obesity. Does this diet exert similar effects even with a different genetic background, i.e. obese rats of the WNIN/GR-Ob strain with impaired glucose tolerance? What is the main finding and its importance? Vitamin A-enriched diet aggravated weight gain and adiposity/obesity in both lean and glucose-intolerant obese rats of the WNIN/GR-Ob strain. Therefore, the role of genetic factors and their regulation by nutrients in determining health and disease conditions assumes greater significance in experimental and clinical research. Vitamin A and its metabolites are key regulators of the development of adipose tissue and its associated metabolic complications. Here, we tested, in a glucose-intolerant obese rat model (the WNIN/GR-Ob stain), whether feeding a vitamin A-enriched diet alters adiposity and its associated changes. For this purpose, 30-week-old male lean and obese rats were divided into two groups and received either stock diet or vitamin A-enriched diet [2.6 or 129 mg vitamin A (kg diet)(-1) , respectively] for 14 weeks. At the end, feeding of the vitamin A-enriched diet resulted in increased body weight gain/obesity and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT) in both lean and obese rats of the WNIN/GR-Ob strain, when compared with their respective control animals receiving stock diet, without affecting food intake. An improvement in hypertriglyceridaemia and circulatory non-esterified fatty acid levels and unaltered hepatic fatty acid oxidative and triglyceride secretory pathway proteins with vitamin A-enriched diet feeding are suggestive of enhanced hepatic clearance of circulatory lipids, resulting in increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Transcriptional analysis of RPWAT showed that feeding the vitamin A-enriched diet augmented the expression of adipogenic

  20. Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianming; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongqing; Xu, Jing; He, Jiuming; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ruoyun; Kang, Jie

    2017-02-18

    To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs) content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O'Neal, and Misty) were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS²). The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b) to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries.

  1. Selenium status in preschool children receiving a Brazil nut-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Martens, Irland B G; Cardoso, Barbara R; Hare, Dominic J; Niedzwiecki, Megan M; Lajolo, Franco M; Martens, Andreas; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region has selenium (Se)-rich soil, which is associated with higher Se levels in populations fed locally grown produce. Brazil nuts are a major source of dietary Se and are included with meals offered to children enrolled in public preschool in Macapá. The aim of this study was to examine Se intake and status of these children. The Macapá group consisted of 41 children from a public preschool who received 15 to 30 g of Brazil nuts 3 d/wk. The control group included 88 children from the nearby city of Belém who did not receive Brazil nut-enriched meals. In both groups, school meals comprised ≥90% of the children's total food consumption. Selenium was assessed using hydride generation quartz tube atomic absorption spectroscopy in plasma, erythrocytes, nails, hair and urine. Dietary intakes (macronutrients and Se) were evaluated using the duplicate-portion method. Both groups received inadequate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Selenium intake was excessive in both groups (155.30 and 44.40 μg/d, in Macapá and Belém, respectively). Intake was potentially toxic in Macapá on days when Brazil nuts were added to meals. Although biomarkers of Se exposure exceeded reference levels in the Macapá group, no clinical symptoms of Se overload (selenosis) were observed. The inclusion of Brazil nuts in school meals provided to children with already high dietary Se intakes increased Se levels and may result in an increased risk for toxicity. As selenosis is associated with some chronic diseases, we recommend continued monitoring of Se intake and status in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of an essential fatty acid-enriched diet in managing canine atopic dermatitis: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bensignor, Emmanuel; Morgan, David M; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that high-quality diets enriched with essential fatty acids (EFA) and other nutrients can ameliorate canine atopic dermatitis (AD). This study compared such a diet (Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP) with a home-cooked equivalent (fish and potato) in a randomised, single-blinded, cross-over trial. Twenty dogs with perennial AD were randomly assigned to receive either the test (group A) or the control diet (group B) for 1 month, followed by the contrasting diet for a further month. Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI version 2) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) scores were recorded at days 0, 30 and 60. Eight dogs in each group completed the study. CADESI scores significantly declined when dogs were fed the test diet (group A P < 0.01; group B P < 0.001), and increased (group A P < 0.05) or remained steady (group B) on the control diet. CADESI scores decreased in 15 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was less than 50% in all cases. Pruritus scores also declined when dogs were fed the test diet compared to the control diet, but this was only significant for group A (P = 0.027). Pruritus was reduced in 11 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was 50% or more in only two dogs. This trial provides evidence for the efficacy of Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP in canine AD, although it is likely that most cases will require adjunct therapy. The mechanism is unclear, but may involve increased and balanced EFA levels.

  3. Identification of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Blueberry

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Lu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huan; Ge, Jiao; Gao, Xueling; Liu, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small endogenous RNAs that play important regulatory roles in cells by negatively affecting gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There have been extensive studies aiming to identify miRNAs and to elucidate their functions in various plant species. In the present study, we employed the high-throughput sequencing technology to profile miRNAs in blueberry fruits. A total of 9,992,446 small RNA tags with sizes ranged from 18 to 30 nt were obtained, indicating that blueberry fruits have a large and diverse small RNA population. Bioinformatic analysis identified 412 conserved miRNAs belonging to 29 families, and 35 predicted novel miRNAs that are likely to be unique to blueberries. Among them, expression profiles of five conserved miRNAs were validated by stem loop qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the potential target genes of conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted and subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. Enrichment analysis of the GO-represented biological processes and molecular functions revealed that these target genes were potentially involved in a wide range of metabolic pathways and developmental processes. Particularly, anthocyanin biosynthesis has been predicted to be directly or indirectly regulated by diverse miRNA families. This study is the first report on genome-wide miRNA profile analysis in blueberry and it provides a useful resource for further elucidation of the functional roles of miRNAs during fruit development and ripening. PMID:28713413

  4. Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidney Resende; Pinto, Paulo Engler; de Miranda, Ariney Costa; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique; Lopasso, Fábio Pinatel; Irya, Kiyoshi

    2004-12-01

    Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. In this study, the effect of a diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day). Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300) connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with standard-diet group. In rats with

  5. Effects of Specific Multi-Nutrient Enriched Diets on Cerebral Metabolism, Cognition and Neuropathology in AβPPswe-PS1dE9 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Diane; Zerbi, Valerio; Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Rijpma, Anne; Fang, Xiaotian T.; Dederen, Pieter J.; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; Broersen, Laus M.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Miller, Malgorzata; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the use of multi-nutrient dietary interventions in search of alternatives for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we investigated to which extent long-term consumption of two specific multi-nutrient diets can modulate AD-related etiopathogenic mechanisms and behavior in 11-12-month-old AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice. Starting from 2 months of age, male AβPP-PS1 mice and wild-type littermates were fed either a control diet, the DHA+EPA+UMP (DEU) diet enriched with uridine monophosphate (UMP) and the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or the Fortasyn® Connect (FC) diet enriched with the DEU diet plus phospholipids, choline, folic acid, vitamins and antioxidants. We performed behavioral testing, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, immunohistochemistry, biochemical analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to gain a better understanding of the potential mechanisms by which these multi-nutrient diets exert protective properties against AD. Our results show that both diets were equally effective in changing brain fatty acid and cholesterol profiles. However, the diets differentially affected AD-related pathologies and behavioral measures, suggesting that the effectiveness of specific nutrients may depend on the dietary context in which they are provided. The FC diet was more effective than the DEU diet in counteracting neurodegenerative aspects of AD and enhancing processes involved in neuronal maintenance and repair. Both diets elevated interleukin-1β mRNA levels in AβPP-PS1 and wild-type mice. The FC diet additionally restored neurogenesis in AβPP-PS1 mice, decreased hippocampal levels of unbound choline-containing compounds in wild-type and AβPP-PS1 animals, suggesting diminished membrane turnover, and decreased anxiety-related behavior in the open field behavior. In conclusion, the current data indicate that specific multi-nutrient diets can influence AD

  6. Influence of diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acids on their distribution in tissues of rats with DMBA induced tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backround Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with proven beneficial influence on health. They show e.g. anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, and antiatherogenic effect. Milk, dairy products and meat of poligastric animals are their most valuable dietary sources, with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (RA - rumenic acid) being the predominant isomer. Dietary supplements with CLA became very popular, mainly among the overweight and bodybuilders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies. Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark) given intragastrically) and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene). Animals were decapitated at 21st week of experiment and serum and microsomes were extracted. Results and conclusions The mammary tumours (adenocarcinoma) occurred in groups treated with DMBA. Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil) and delayed the cancer induction (p = 0.0018). There were no differences in body and organs weight. The supplement used in the study was a mixture of several fatty acids with the greatest proportion of CLA isomers: trans-10, cis-12 (33%) and cis-9, trans-11 (31%). Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. Dietary supplementation had also significant impact on other fatty acids content, both in serum and in microsomes. PMID:21044306

  7. A randomized trial of the effects of an almond-enriched, hypocaloric diet in the treatment of obesity1234

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Gary D; Shantz, Kerri Leh; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Oliver, Tracy L; Lent, Michelle R; Virus, Amy; Szapary, Philippe O; Rader, Daniel J; Zemel, Babette S; Gilden-Tsai, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of nuts has been advocated because of their health benefits, but the role of nuts in the treatment of obesity is unclear given their high energy density. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a hypocaloric, almond-enriched diet (AED) compared with a hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the context of an 18-mo behavioral weight-management program. Design: Overweight and obese individuals [n = 123; age = 46.8 y, BMI (in kg/m2) = 34.0] were randomly assigned to consume an AED or NFD and instructed in traditional behavioral methods of weight control. Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were made at baseline, 6 mo, and 18 mo. Results: Those in the AED group lost slightly but significantly less weight than did those in the NFD group at 6 mo (−5.5 compared with −7.4 kg; P = 0.04), but there were no differences at 18 mo. No significant differences in body composition were found between the groups at 6 or 18 mo. The AED, compared with the NFD, was associated with greater reductions in total cholesterol (P = 0.03), total:HDL cholesterol (P = 0.02), and triglycerides (P = 0.048) at 6 mo, and no differences were observed between the groups at 18 mo. Conclusions: The AED and NFD groups experienced clinically significant and comparable weight loss at 18 mo. Despite smaller weight loss in the AED group at 6 mo, the AED group experienced greater improvements in lipid profiles. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00194428. PMID:22743313

  8. Effect of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentration, puberty and semen quality in male buffalo.

    PubMed

    Tran, L V; Malla, B A; Sharma, A N; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Nitin; Tyagi, A K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentrations, puberty, sperm fatty acid profile and semen quality in male buffalo. Eighteen male buffalo calves were distributed randomly in three different groups and fed concentrate mixture along with green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios as per requirements. Basis ration of animals in group I was supplemented with 4% of prilled fat (PFA), while in group II and group III were added 4.67% of Calcium salt from Soybean (CaSFA) and Linseed oil (CaLFA), respectively. Male buffalo fed omega-3 PUFA high diet significantly increased concentrations of IGF-1 and testosterone in plasma as compared to two other diets (p<0.05). The age of puberty and scrotal circumference significantly increased by dietary fat effect (p<0.05) of which n-3 PUFA enriched diet (CaLFA) had the largest influence as compared to other diets (PFA and CaSFA). Feeding of n-3 PUFA rich diet significantly increased the DHA (C22:6n-3) content in sperm (p<0.05), which contributed to increased fluidity of plasma membrane, elevated quality of sperm (motility, viability) and in vitro fertility (plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity) in both fresh and post-thawing semen. These findings indicate that feeding of n-3 PUFA enriched diet increased IGF-1 and testosterone secretion, reduced pubertal age and improved both fresh and post-thawing semen quality in male buffalo.

  9. Chemopreventive and therapeutic activity of dietary blueberry against estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Aqil, Farrukh; Munagala, Radha; Annamalai, Lakshmanan; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2014-05-07

    Berries are gaining increasing importance lately for their chemopreventive and therapeutic potential against several cancers. In earlier studies, a blueberry-supplemented diet has shown protection against 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. This study tested both preventive and therapeutic activities of diet supplemented with whole blueberry powder (50:50 blend of Tifblue and Rubel). Animals received 5% blueberry diet, either 2 weeks prior to or 12 weeks after E2 treatment in preventive and therapeutic groups, respectively. Both interventions delayed the tumor latency for palpable mammary tumors by 28 and 37 days, respectively. Tumor volume and multiplicity were also reduced significantly in both modes. The effect on mammary tumorigenesis was largely due to down-regulation of CYP 1A1 and ER-α gene expression and also favorable modulation of microRNA (miR-18a and miR-34c) levels. These data suggest that the blueberry blend tested is effective in inhibiting E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in both preventive and therapeutic modes.

  10. Protective effects of n-6 fatty acids-enriched diet on intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury involve lipoxin A4 and its receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gobbetti, T; Ducheix, S; le Faouder, P; Perez, T; Riols, F; Boue, J; Bertrand-Michel, J; Dubourdeau, M; Guillou, H; Perretti, M; Vergnolle, N; Cenac, N

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term intake of dietary fatty acids is known to predispose to chronic inflammation, but their effects on acute intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the consequences of a diet rich in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on intestinal I/R-induced damage. Experimental Approach Mice were fed three different isocaloric diets: a balanced diet used as a control and two different PUFA-enriched diets, providing either high levels of n-3 or of n-6 PUFA. Intestinal injury was evaluated after intestinal I/R. PUFA metabolites were quantitated in intestinal tissues by LC-MS/MS. Key Results In control diet-fed mice, intestinal I/R caused inflammation and increased COX and lipoxygenase-derived metabolites compared with sham-operated animals. Lipoxin A4 (LxA4) was significantly and selectively increased after ischaemia. Animals fed a high n-3 diet did not display a different inflammatory profile following intestinal I/R compared with control diet-fed animals. In contrast, intestinal inflammation was decreased in the I/R group fed with high n-6 diet and level of LxA4 was increased post-ischaemia compared with control diet-fed mice. Blockade of the LxA4 receptor (Fpr2), prevented the anti-inflammatory effects associated with the n-6 rich diet. Conclusions and Implications This study indicates that high levels of dietary n-6, but not n-3, PUFAs provides significant protection against intestinal I/R-induced damage and demonstrates that the endogenous production of LxA4 can be influenced by diet. PMID:25296998

  11. Chia Oil-Enriched Restructured Pork Effects on Oxidative and Inflammatory Status of Aged Rats Fed High Cholesterol/High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Santos-López, Jorge Arturo; Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Bautista-Ávila, Mirandeli; González-Muñoz, María José; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco José

    2017-05-01

    Chia oil has the highest recognized α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. ALA is associated with beneficial changes in plasma lipids and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Present article aims to analyze the effect of Chia oil-enriched restructured pork (RP) on aged rats in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-year old) were fed the experimental diets: control RP diet (C) noncholesterol high saturated; cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high-cholesterol control RP diet (HC) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; and Chia oil- or Hydroxytyrosol RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high cholesterol (CHIA and HxT). Total cholesterol, hepatosomatic index, Nrf2, antioxidant, and inflammation markers were determined. CHIA reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect by lowering levels similar to C; also, ameliorated redox index. CHIA, despite high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content, reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and induced the lowest SOD protein synthesis but not a reduction on its activity. Chia oil activated the Nrf2 to arrest the pro-oxidative response to cholesterol and aging. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) system was lower in HxT than in CHIA, suggesting its antiatherogenic activity and related protective effect against high PUFA. Increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was partially blocked by CHIA. Chia oil has the ability to prevent oxidative damage and modify the inflammatory response, suggesting adequate regulation of the antioxidant system. Results stress the importance of incorporating ALA into the diet.

  12. 'Blueberry' Layers Indicate Watery Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'El Capitan' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, reveals millimeter-scale (.04 inch-scale) layers in the lower portion. This same layering is hinted at by the fine notches that run horizontally across the sphere-like grain or 'blueberry' in the center left. The thin layers do not appear to deform around the blueberry, indicating that these geologic features are concretions and not impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli. Concretions are balls of minerals that form in pre-existing wet sediments. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 29th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The observed area is about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  13. Lactobacillus sakei BK19 enriched diet enhances the immunity status and disease resistance to streptococcosis infection in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus sakei BK19 (10(8) cells g(-1)) supplemented diet fed to kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus parauberis with reference to the innate immune response and disease resistance was evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Maximum reduction in mortalities was observed in kelper feeding the probiotic diet for two weeks after challenged with the pathogens when compared to the infected group fed with basal diet; similarly the cellular and humoral immune responses such as head kidney macrophage phagocytic and peroxidase activities, serum lysozyme activity, and total protein levels increased significantly. The results reveal that, in streptococcosis infected kelp grouper feeding L. sakei BK19 enriched diet affords a higher level of disease protection due to stimulation of immune system.

  14. Studies with regard to the apoptosis of testicular germ cells in rats fed a diet enriched with polyunsaturated Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bertelsmann, Holger; Behne, Dietrich; Kyriakopoulos, Antonios

    2009-08-01

    The essential trace element selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been used for the prevention of cancer. Both nutrients enhance the apoptosis of malignant cells and provide health benefits. However, an increased dietary intake of PUFA augments the susceptibility of lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in many cells. So far, relatively few data are available about the interaction of selenium and PUFA in testis and thus a possible effect of both dietary components on the prevention of testicular cancer or on the apoptosis of testicular germ cells. Male germ cells in the rat contain most of the testicular phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), mainly as the mitochondrial isoform of this selenoprotein (m-PHGPx). An experiment was therefore carried out to determine the action of fish oil, a nutrient rich in PUFA, on the testicular expression of PHGPx. Because the PHGPx formation remains nearly unchanged in the animals fed the PUFA-enriched diet, we conclude that no apoptosis of testicular germ cells is induced by an increased intake of this nutrient. The intake of fish oil in the selenium-deficient animal led to a markedly altered formation of several selenium-containing proteins, including sperm nuclei glutathione peroxidase (snGPx), also designated as the nuclear form of PHGPx (n-PHGPx), and a 10-kDa selenium-containing protein.

  15. Effects of isometric strength training followed by no exercise and Humulus lupulus L-enriched diet on bone metabolism in old female rats.

    PubMed

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Nappey, Maude; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Coxam, Véronique; Lamothe, Valérie; Sauvant, Patrick; Berthelot, Alain

    2007-12-01

    We investigated in female rats the effects on bone metabolism of a prolonged no-training period, subsequent to an isometric exercise program, performed during young adulthood and those of a long-term consumption of Humulus lupulus L-enriched diet (genistein 1.92 and daidzein 1.24 mg/kg diet) combined or not with isometric training. Forty-eight rats (4 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: trained (C-Tr) or nontrained rats (C-NTr) fed with control diet and trained (H-Tr) or nontrained rats (H-NTr) fed with Humulus lupulus L-enriched diet. The diets lasted 100 weeks. Training was followed over a 25-week period. Bone parameters were measured at week 100. Our results showed that no significant difference was observed among the 4 groups in uterine relative weight, calcium (Ca) intake, fecal Ca, urinary Ca excretion, net Ca absorption, plasma Ca, and bone Ca content. Calcium balance was significantly enhanced in H-NTr rats in comparison with C-NTr and C-Tr rats. Isometric strength training led to a significant increase in total bone mineral density (BMD), diaphyseal BMD, and osteocalcin-deoxypyridinoline ratio in C-Tr rats compared with the other groups. The main findings of the present study indicate that in female rats, a 25-week isometric strength training performed during young adulthood followed by a prolonged no-training period increases BMD values and osteocalcin-deoxypyridinoline ratio, whereas long-term consumption of Humulus lupulus L-enriched diet does not improve bone parameters. It suggests that bone gains induced by exercise do not decrease immediately after cessation of training and also confirms the importance of the practice of physical activity during puberty and young adulthood to maximize the achieved peak bone density.

  16. Impact bruise assessment of southern highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern highbush blueberries are currently mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours per acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are underway to develop “crispy” genotypes that will ...

  17. Applying new technologies to transform blueberry harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkable. However, labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly high labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study ...

  18. Blueberry Cultivars for Oregon (EC 1308)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This Extension publication gives an overview of the types of blueberries and the blueberry cultivars that might be grown in Oregon or elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest. Bush and berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or home garden production are given for over 30 bl...

  19. UV Treatment Enhances Flavonoid Content in Blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treatment of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Sierra) with UV-C at 2.15 or 4.30 kJ m-2 enhanced blueberry fruit content of flavonoids including resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-ga...

  20. [Correction of polyhypovitaminosis in rats, having standard and enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids family omega-3 diets with different doses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Preverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of the correction of combined alimentary vitamin deficit in male Wistar rats (body weight 90-121 g) fed standard diet or enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids diet (by replacing sunflower oil (4.5% of the diet) with linseed oil) with different doses (physiological and enhanced) of vitamins has been investigated. The control group of animals (n = 12) received a complete semisynthetic diet during all experimental period (42 d). The animals of the test groups (each of 20 rats) received vitamin-deficient diet containing sunflower or linseed oil and 20% per cent of vitamin mixture amount in control diet from which vitamin E had been excluded. After 28 days of such feeding each of test groups was divided into two subgroups (6-8 rats in each), and the next 14 days the animals of subgroups received the diet with different degree of vitamin compensation (50 or 180% percent of vitamin content in the diet of the control group). The addition of both low and high vitamin dose in deficient diet based on standard fat component did not compensate the reduced liver vitamin A content, which amounted to 47.4% of the level in the liver of the control group. The lack of vitamin E in animals was eliminated only after adding of the enhanced dose of vitamin E to the ration. Recovering of decreased plasma and liver B2 level, plasma 25(OH)D and liver vitamin B1 content have been occurred after addition of the low dose of these vitamins to rat diet. Increasing of omega-3 PUFA diet level improved vitamins A and D sufficiency to some extent, but was accompanied by the significant reduction of rat liver alfa-tocopherol content both under combined vitamin deficiency (by 14%) and increased vitamins consumption (by 43%). PUFA enrichment of the diet of rats with vitamin deficiency had no impact on vitamin B1 and B2 liver level. The use of high doses of vitamins for a long time to eliminate a combined deficiency of vitamins has been proved.

  1. Divergent effects of a CLA-enriched beef diet on metabolic health in ApoE-/- and ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Toomey, Sinead; McBride, Rachael; McMonagle, Jolene; Morine, Melissa J; Belton, Orina; Moloney, Aidan P; Roche, Helen M

    2013-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found naturally in meat and dairy products, and represents a potential therapeutic functional nutrient. However, given the discrepancies in isomer composition and concentration, controversy surrounds its proposed antidiabetic, antiobesity effects. This study focused on the effects of CLA-enriched beef (composed predominantly of c9, t11-CLA) in two separate models of metabolic disease: proatherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice and diabetic, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Animals were fed CLA-enriched beef for 28 days, and markers of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis were assessed. Comprehensive hepatic transcriptomic analysis was completed to understand divergent metabolic effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol and increased adiponectin levels in ob/ob mice. In contrast, plasma lipid profiles and glucose homeostasis deteriorated and promoted atherosclerosis following the CLA-enriched beef diet in ApoE(-/-) mice. Hepatic transcriptomic profiling revealed divergent effects of CLA-enriched beef on insulin signaling and lipogenic pathways, which were adversely affected in ApoE(-/-) mice. This study demonstrated clear divergence in the effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef improved metabolic flexibility in ob/ob mice, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. However, CLA-enriched diet increased expression of lipogenic genes, resulting in inefficient fatty acid storage which increases lipotoxicity in peripheral organs, and led to profound metabolic dysfunction in ApoE(-/-) mice. While CLA may have potential health effects, in some circumstances, caution must be exercised in presenting this bioactive lipid as a potential functional food for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  2. Diet enriched with the Amazon fruit açaí (Euterpe oleracea) prevents electrophysiological deficits and oxidative stress induced by methyl-mercury in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Alódia; Rocha, Fernando Allan de Farias; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Oliveira, Karen Renata M; de Carvalho, Tayana Silva; Batista, Evander de Jesus O; Borges, Rosivaldo Dos Santos; Kremers, Jan; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2016-02-10

    Background The protective effect of a diet supplemented by the Amazonian fruit Euterpe oleracea (EO) against methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in rat retina was studied using electroretinography (ERG) and biochemical evaluation of oxidative stress. Method Wistar rats were submitted to conventional diet or EO-enriched diet for 28 days. After that, each group received saline solution or 5 mg/kg/day of MeHg for 7 days. Full-field single flash, flash and flicker ERGs were evaluated in the following groups: control, EO, MeHg, and EO+MeHg. The amplitudes of the a-wave, b-wave, photopic negative response from rod and/or cone were measured by ERGs as well as the amplitudes and phases of the fundamental component of the sine-wave flicker ERG. Lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Results All ERG components had decreased amplitudes in the MeHg group when compared with controls. EO-enriched food had no effect on the non-intoxicated animals. The intoxicated animals and those that received the supplemented diet presented significant amplitude reductions of the cone b-wave and of the fundamental flicker component when compared with non-intoxicated control. The protective effect of the diet on scotopic conditions was only observed for bright flashes eliciting a mixed rod and cone response. There was a significant increase of lipid peroxidation in the retina from animals exposed to MeHg and EO-supplemented diet was able to prevent MeHg-induced oxidative stress in retinal tissue. Conclusion These findings open up perspectives for the use of diets supplemented with EO as a protective strategy against visual damage induced by MeHg.

  3. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Most, Marlene M; Lefevre, Michael; Greenway, Frank L; Rood, Jennifer C

    2002-11-01

    Nuts appear to have cardiovascular benefits but their effect in diabetic patients is unclear. The objective was to assess effects of almond-enriched diets on insulin sensitivity and lipids in patients with normoglycemia or type 2 diabetes. Study 1 assessed the effect of almonds on insulin sensitivity in 20 free-living healthy volunteers who received 100 g almonds/d for 4 wk. Study 2 was a randomized crossover study that compared 4 diets in 30 volunteers with type 2 diabetes: 1) high-fat, high-almond (HFA; 37% total fat, 10% from almonds); 2) low-fat, high-almond (LFA; 25% total fat, 10% from almonds); 3) high-fat control (HFC; 37% total fat, 10% from olive or canola oil); and 4) low-fat control (LFC; 25% total fat, 10% from olive or canola oil). After each 4-wk diet, serum lipids and oral glucose tolerance were measured. In study 1, almond consumption did not change insulin sensitivity significantly, although body weight increased and total and LDL cholesterol decreased by 21% and 29%, respectively (P < 0.05). In study 2, total cholesterol was lowest with the HFA diet (4.46 +/- 0.14, 4.52 +/- 0.14, 4.63 +/- 0.14, and 4.63 +/- 0.14 mmol/L with the HFA, HFC, LFA, and LFC diets, respectively; P = 0.0004 for fat level). HDL cholesterol was significantly lower with the almond diets (P = 0.002); however, no significant effect of fat source on LDL:HDL was observed. Glycemia was unaffected. Almond-enriched diets do not alter insulin sensitivity in healthy adults or glycemia in patients with diabetes. Almonds had beneficial effects on serum lipids in healthy adults and produced changes similar to high monounsaturated fat oils in diabetic patients.

  4. Protective effects of a phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet in lipopolysaccharide-induced experimental neuroinflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tokés, Tünde; Eros, Gábor; Bebes, Attila; Hartmann, Petra; Várszegi, Szilvia; Varga, Gabriella; Kaszaki, József; Gulya, Károly; Ghyczy, Miklós; Boros, Mihály

    2011-11-01

    Our goal was to characterize the neuroprotective properties of orally administered phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a rodent model of systemic inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were killed at 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, or 7 days after i.p. administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 cytokines. The control group and one group of LPS-treated animals were nourished with standard laboratory chow, whereas another LPS-treated group received a special diet enriched with 1% PC for 5 days before the administration of LPS and thereafter during the 7-day observation period. Immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize the bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin-positive neuroprogenitor cells and Iba1-positive microglia in the hippocampus, whereas the degree of mucosal damage was evaluated on ileal and colon biopsy samples after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activities of proinflammatory myeloperoxidase and xanthine-oxidoreductase and the tissue nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level were additionally determined, and the cognitive functions were monitored via Morris water maze testing. The inflammatory challenge transiently increased the hippocampal NOx level and led to microglia accumulation and decreased neurogenesis. The intestinal damage, mucosal myeloperoxidase, xanthine-oxidoreductase, and NOx changes were less pronounced, and long-lasting behavioral alterations were not observed. Phosphatidylcholine pretreatment reduced the plasma TNF-α and hippocampal NOx changes and prevented the decreased neurogenesis. These data demonstrated the relative susceptibility of the brain to the consequences of transient peripheral inflammatory stimuli. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation did not reduce the overall extent of peripheral inflammatory activation, but efficiently counteracted the disturbed hippocampal neurogenesis by lowering circulating TNF-α concentrations.

  5. Caffeine protects against oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in rabbit hippocampus induced by cholesterol-enriched diet

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Jaya R.P.; Dasari, Bhanu; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Larson, Tyler; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Ghribi, Othman

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol has been linked to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as a risk factor increasing β-amyloid (Aβ) and oxidative stress levels. Caffeine has anti-oxidant properties and has been demonstrated to reduce Aβ levels in transgenic mouse models of familial AD. However, the effects of caffeine on cholesterol-induced sporadic AD pathology have not been determined. In the present study, we determined the effects of caffeine on Aβ levels, tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress generation, and caffeine-target receptors in rabbits fed a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet, a model system for sporadic AD. Our results showed that the cholesterol-enriched diet increased levels of Aβ, tau phosphorylation as well as oxidative stress measured as increased levels of reactive oxygen species, isoprostanes, glutathione depletion, and increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker proteins. Additionally, the cholesterol-enriched diet reduced levels of adenosine A1 (A1R) but not ryanodine (RyR) or adenosine A2A (A2AR) receptors. Caffeine, administered at 0.5 mg and 30 mg/day in the drinking water, reduced cholesterol-induced increase in Aβ, phosphorylated tau and oxidative stress levels, and reversed cholesterol-induced decrease in A1R levels. Our results suggest that even very low doses of caffeine might protect against sporadic AD-like pathology. PMID:20638472

  6. Reduction of Enteric Viruses by Blueberry Juice and Blueberry Proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2016-12-01

    Blueberry and blueberry extracts are known for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. Natural therapeutic or preventive options to decrease the incidences of foodborne viral illnesses are becoming popular and being researched. This study aimed to determine the antiviral effects of blueberry juice (BJ) and blueberry proanthocyanidins (BB-PAC, B-type PAC structurally different from A-type PAC found in cranberries) against the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) at 37 °C over 24 h using standard plaque assays. Viruses at ~5 log PFU/ml were mixed with equal volumes of BJ (pH 2.8), neutralized BJ (pH 7.0), BB-PAC (1, 2, 4, and 10 mg/ml), malic acid (pH 3.0), or phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) and incubated over 24 h at 37 °C. Each experiment was carried out in duplicate and replicated thrice. FCV-F9 titers were found to be reduced to undetectable levels with 1 and 2 mg/ml BB-PAC after 5 min, with 0.5 mg/ml BB-PAC after 1-h, and with BJ after 3-h. MNV-1 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 3 h with 1, 2, and 5 mg/ml BB-PAC and after 6 h with BJ. HAV titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 30 min with 2 and 5 mg/ml BB-PAC, after 3 h with 1 mg/ml BB-PAC, and by ~2 log PFU/ml with BJ after 24-h. BB-PAC shows preventive potential against infection by the tested enteric viruses in a dose- and time-dependent manner, although further in vitro studies in model food systems and in vivo studies using animal models are warranted.

  7. The effects of wild blueberry consumption on plasma markers and gene expression related to glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Zhao, Alice; Merrow, Thomas; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2015-06-01

    Impaired fasting blood glucose is one of the landmark signs of metabolic syndrome, together with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and a chronic proinflammatory, pro-oxidative, and prothrombotic environment. This study investigates the effect of wild blueberry (WB) consumption on blood glucose levels and other parameters involved in glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen OZRs and 16 lean littermate controls (lean Zucker rat [LZR]) were fed an 8% enriched WB diet or a control (C) diet for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin GHbA1c, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured. Expression of the resistin, RBP4, and glucose transporter GLUT4 genes was also determined both in the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, RBP4, and resistin concentrations were significantly lower in OZRs following the WB diet (-20%, -22%, and -27%, respectively, compared to C diet, P<.05). Following WB consumption, resistin expression was significantly downregulated in the liver of both OZRs and LZRs (-28% and -61%, respectively, P<.05), while RBP4 expression was significantly downregulated in the AAT of both OZRs and LZRs (-87% and -43%, respectively, P<.05). All other markers were not significantly affected following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption normalizes some markers related to glucose metabolism in the OZR model of metabolic syndrome, but has no effect on fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations.

  8. Moderate chronic administration of Vineatrol-enriched red wines improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Romain, Cindy; Bresciani, Letizia; Gaillet, Sylvie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Calani, Luca; Bonafos, Béatrice; Vidé, Joris; Rugani, Nathalie; Ramos, Jeanne; Del Rio, Daniele; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2014-06-01

    High-fat (HF) diets contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. This study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of Vineatrol®-enriched red wines on blood lipids, oxidative stress and inflammation, and the role of some metabolic pathway regulatory proteins. Golden Syrian hamsters received an HF diet for 13 wk, in the presence or absence of red wines supplemented with Vineatrol® (RWV) or not. The HF diet increased plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin, which were attenuated by RWV treatment. RWV protected against the HF-induced increase in liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and spared antioxidant enzyme activities. RWV did not reduce either liver steatosis or increased plasma leptin due to the HF diet, but greatly improved adiponectinemia. In the liver, RWV affected the inflammatory response by decreasing polymorphonuclear cell number and lowering TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Moreover, the increase in NF-κB activity in the HF group liver was prevented by RWV. Finally, RWV partially corrected low SIRT1 levels due to the HF diet but had no influence on SIRT3 or p-AMPK protein levels. Our studies suggest that RWV is capable of reversing the atherogenic process induced by an HF diet in hamster tissues. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Blueberries for fresh market and measure of mechanical impacts in commercial blueberry packing lines and mechanical harvesters and potential damage to blueberry fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States of America (USA), fresh blueberries are now available all year round because of significant amount of shipment of fresh blueberries during winter months from Chile and several other countries in South America. Blueberry fruit is susceptible to bruising from mechanical impact. ...

  10. Effect of almond-enriched high-monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomised, controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Sujatha; Connell, Kristianne M; Sabaté, Joan

    2010-03-01

    Frequent consumption of nuts lowers the risk of CHD. While lowering blood lipids is one of the mechanisms for cardioprotection, the present study sought to determine whether monounsaturated fat-rich almonds also influence other CHD risk factors such as inflammation and haemostasis. This was a randomised, controlled, crossover feeding study with twenty-five healthy adults (eleven men; fourteen women), age 22-53 years. Following a 2 week run-in phase (34 % energy from fat), subjects were assigned in random order to three diets for 4 weeks each: a heart-healthy control diet with no nuts ( < 30 % energy from fat), low-almond diet and high-almond diet (10 % or 20 % isoenergetic replacement of control diet with almonds, respectively). Serum E-selectin was significantly lower on the high-almond diet compared with the control diet. E-selectin decreased as the percentage of energy from almonds increased (P < 0.0001). C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower in both the almond diets compared with the control diet. A clear dose response was not observed for either E-selectin or CRP. There was no effect of diet on IL-6 or fibrinogen. Tissue plasminogen activator antigen was significantly lower on the control and high-almond diets compared with the low-almond diet, although the values were within normal range. In conclusion, consumption of almonds influenced a few but not all of the markers of inflammation and haemostasis. A clear dose response was not observed for any of the markers studied.

  11. Effect of a cocoa-enriched diet on immune response and anaphylaxis in a food allergy model in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocoa intake decreased Th2 immune-related antibodies in rats. In consequence, we aimed to study in depth this cocoa action, particularly assessing its effect on a rat model of food allergy (FA) and also on an anaphylactic response. The involvement of the intestinal immune system was analyzed to allow the action mechanisms to be investigated. The role of cocoa flavonoids in the antiallergic properties of cocoa was also established. Brown Norway rats were fed either a reference diet or diets containing conventional cocoa (CC) or nonfermented cocoa (NFC). FA to ovalbumin (OVA) was induced and, later, an anaphylactic response was provoked. As expected, the synthesis of anti-OVA IgE and other Th2-related antibodies was inhibited by CC diet. In addition, the release of mast cell protease II after anaphylaxis was partially prevented by CC, although other variables were not modified. The CC diet also attenuated the increase of some Th2-related cytokines released from mesenteric lymph node and spleen cells, and modulated the intestinal gene expression of molecules involved in allergic response. These results demonstrated the local and systemic influence of CC diet. The effects of the NFC diet were weaker than those of CC, suggesting that cocoa components other than flavonoids play a role in cocoa's action. In conclusion, by acting on intestinal and systemic immune functions, a cocoa-enriched diet in rats exhibited a protective effect against FA and partially against anaphylaxis, making this a food of high interest to the fields of health and immunonutrition.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma on lipopolysaccharide-induced early inflammatory responses in male broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) fed a corn-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kan; Akiba, Yukio

    2011-12-01

    Effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin (Ax) from Phaffia rhodozyma on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses was investigated in male broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Birds (1 week of age) were fed a corn-enriched diet containing either 0 or 100 ppm Ax for 2 weeks and were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory responses were evaluated by determining changes in expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) in cytokines and mediators related to inflammatory responses (interleukin (IL)-1 beta and -6, inducible nitrite synthase (iNOS), interferon (IFN)- γ and cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 in the liver and spleen after 2 h of LPS injection and plasma ceruloplasmin concentration as an acute phase protein. Birds fed Ax showed significantly higher iNOS mRNA expression in the liver and spleen compared to that of control birds. Ax-fed birds also showed greater increase in mRNA expression in the liver of IL-1, IL-6 and IFN-γ compared to that of control birds. The enhancing effect of Ax was further progressed when LPS was injected. No difference was found in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration between the Ax-fed group and control group. The results suggest that feeding supplementation of Ax (100 ppm) to a corn-enriched diet possibly does not have anti-inflammatory effect in male broiler chickens. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Alterations in protein and amino acid metabolism in rats fed a branched-chain amino acid- or leucine-enriched diet during postprandial and postabsorptive states.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan; Siman, Pavel; Vodenicarovova, Melita; Kandar, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe in favourable effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine), especially leucine, on muscle protein balance and consume BCAAs for many years. We determined the effects of the chronic intake of a BCAA- or leucine-enriched diet on protein and amino acid metabolism in fed and postabsorptive states. Rats were fed a standard diet, a diet with a high content of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (HVLID), or a high content of leucine (HLD) for 2 months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state on the last day, and the other half were sacrificed after overnight fast. Protein synthesis was assessed using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-(3)H]phenylalanine), proteolysis on the basis of chymotrypsin-like activity (CHTLA) of proteasome and cathepsin B and L activities. Chronic intake of HVLID or HLD enhanced plasma levels of urea, alanine and glutamine. HVLID also increased levels of all three BCAA and branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), HLD increased leucine, ketoisocaproate and alanine aminotransferase and decreased valine, ketovaline, isoleucine, ketoisoleucine, and LDL cholesterol. Tissue weight and protein content were lower in extensor digitorum longus muscles in the HLD group and higher in kidneys in the HVLID and HLD groups. Muscle protein synthesis in postprandial state was higher in the HVLID group, and CHTLA was lower in muscles of the HVLID and HLD groups compared to controls. Overnight starvation enhanced alanine aminotransferase activity in muscles, and decreased protein synthesis in gastrocnemius (in HVLID group) and extensor digitorum longus (in HLD group) muscles more than in controls. Effect of HVLID and HLD on CHTLA in muscles in postabsorptive state was insignificant. The results failed to demonstrate positive effects of the chronic consumption of a BCAA-enriched diet on protein balance in skeletal muscle and indicate rather negative effects from a leucine-enriched diet. The primary

  14. Toxigenic Alternaria species from Argentinean blueberries.

    PubMed

    Greco, M; Patriarca, A; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V; Pose, G

    2012-03-15

    Blueberries are traditionally consumed in North America, some European countries and Japan. In Argentina, the blueberry crop is profitable because production starts in November, when the northern hemisphere lacks fresh fruit. Fungal contaminants can grow and produce mycotoxins in fresh fruit. The aims of this work were to identify the main genera of the mycobiota of blueberries grown in Argentina and to determine the toxicogenic potential, pathogenicity and host specificity of the species isolated. The genus Alternaria was the main component of the blueberry mycobiota (95%); minor proportions of Phoma spp. (4%) and Penicillium spp. (1%) were also isolated. According to their sporulation patterns, 127 Alternaria isolates belonged to the Alternaria tenuissima species-group, 5 to the Alternaria alternata species-group and 2 to the Alternaria arborescens species-group. The last mentioned species-group was not isolated at 5°C. Of the 134 isolates, 61% were toxicogenic in autoclaved rice; 97% of these produced alternariol (AOH) in a range from 0.14 to 119.18 mg/kg, 95% produced alternariol methylether (AME) in a range from 1.23 to 901.74 mg/kg and 65% produced tenuazonic acid (TA) in a range from 0.13 to 2778 mg/kg. Fifty two isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. According to the size of the lesion that they caused on blueberries, the isolates were classified as slightly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and very pathogenic. No significant differences in pathogenicity were found on different blueberry varieties. In this work, high incidence and toxicogenic potential of the Alternaria isolates from blueberries were demonstrated. Thus, more studies should be done to evaluate the health risk posed by the presence of the Alternaria toxins in blueberries and in the manufactured by-products.

  15. Cronobacter sakazakii reduction by blueberry proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-05-01

    Blueberry juice and blueberry polyphenols reportedly have antimicrobial properties against foodborne pathogens, without much currently known on their effects against Cronobacter sakazakii. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) and commercial blueberry juice (BJ) against two strains of C. sakazakii, ATCC 29004 and 29544. BJ (pH 2.8), blueberry PAC (5 mg/ml) and controls (phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and malic acid pH 3.0) were mixed with equal volumes of washed overnight cultures of C. sakazakii and incubated for 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h at 37°C. Reductions of ∼1 and 1.50 log CFU/ml were obtained for strains 29004 and 29544, respectively after 30 min with BJ or blueberry PAC. Both C. sakazakii strains 29004 and 29544 were reduced to undetectable levels from 8.25 ± 0.12 log CFU/ml and 8.48 ± 0.03 log CFU/ml, respectively with BJ (pH 2.8) or blueberry PAC after 1 h, while malic acid (pH 3.0) showed ∼1.3 log CFU/ml reduction for both strains. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed differences in cell membrane morphology with clumping and formation of blebs of the treated strains compared to untreated controls. These results warrant further in vivo studies with blueberry bioactives to determine potential for preventing and treating C. sakazakii infections. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  17. Effect of blueberry extract from blueberry pomace on the microencapsulated fish oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of the addition of blueberry extract (BE) obtained from blueberry pomace on lipid oxidation of pollock liver oil (PO) during microencapsulation was evaluated. An emulsion containing PO and BE (EBE) was prepared and spray dried in a pilot scale spray dryer. Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) of ...

  18. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  19. Modulation of hippocampal plasticity and cognitive behavior by short-term blueberry supplementation in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Casadesus, Gemma; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Stellwagen, Heather M; Zhu, Xiongwei; Lee, Hyoung-Gon; Smith, Mark A; Joseph, James A

    2004-01-01

    During aging, reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis are associated with memory decline indicating a causal relationship. Indeed, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a major activator of the extracellular receptor kinase pathway that is central in learning and memory processes, is also a key modulator of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previously, we showed that age-related declines in spatial memory tasks can be improved by antioxidant-rich diets containing blueberries. In this study, to begin to understand the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of blueberries, we assessed changes in hippocampal plasticity parameters such as hippocampal neurogenesis, extracellular receptor kinase activation, and IGF-1 and IGF-1R levels in blueberry-supplemented aged animals. Our results show that all these parameters of hippocampal neuronal plasticity are increased in supplemented animals and aspects such as proliferation, extracellular receptor kinase activation and IGF-1 and IGF-1R levels correlate with improvements in spatial memory. Therefore, cognitive improvements afforded by polyphenolic-rich fruits such as blueberries appear, in part, to be mediated by their effects on hippocampal plasticity.

  20. Cranberry extract-enriched diets increase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice.

    PubMed

    Boušová, Iva; Bártíková, Hana; Matoušková, Petra; Lněničková, Kateřina; Zappe, Lukáš; Valentová, Kateřina; Szotáková, Barbora; Martin, Jan; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deferiprone Reduces Amyloid-β and Tau Phosphorylation Levels but not Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hippocampus of Rabbits Fed a Cholesterol-Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Jaya R.P.; Schrag, Matthew; Dasari, Bhanu; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Kirsch, Wolff M.; Ghribi, Othman

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein are major hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The causes of AD are not well known but a number of environmental and dietary factors are suggested to increase the risk of developing AD. Additionally, altered metabolism of iron may have a role in the pathogenesis of AD. We have previously demonstrated that cholesterol-enriched diet causes AD-like pathology with iron deposition in rabbit brain. However, the extent to which chelation of iron protects against this pathology has not been determined. In this study, we administered the iron chelator deferiprone in drinking water to rabbits fed with a 2% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. We found that deferiprone (both at 10 and 50 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 as well as BACE1, the enzyme that initiates cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor to yield Aβ. Deferiprone also reduced the cholesterol diet-induced increase in phosphorylation of tau but failed to reduce reactive oxygen species generation. While deferiprone treatment was not associated with any change in brain iron levels, it was associated with a significant reduction in plasma iron and cholesterol levels. These results demonstrate that deferiprone confers important protection against hypercholesterolemia-induced AD pathology but the mechanism(s) may involve reduction in plasma iron and cholesterol levels rather than chelation of brain iron. We propose that adding an antioxidant therapy to deferiprone may be necessary to fully protect against cholesterol-enriched diet-induced AD-like pathology. PMID:22406440

  3. Evaluation of PPARα activation by known blueberry constituents.

    PubMed

    Rimando, Agnes M; Khan, Shabana I; Mizuno, Cassia S; Ren, Guang; Mathews, Suresh T; Kim, Hyunsook; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2016-03-30

    Anthocyanins are known to have hypolipidemic properties. It was deemed necessary to determine whether major blueberry anthocyanins and catechins are ligands for the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha isoform (PPARα), and compare activation with known PPARα agonistic constituents, pterostilbene and resveratrol. It was also considered important to investigate the effect of pterostilbene on PPARα gene expression, and relate results with hepatic mRNA PPARα expression up-regulation observed previously in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with blueberry peels extract (BBX). The anthocyanins and catechins did not activate PPARα. Only pterostilbene exhibited a dose-dependent activation of PPARα in H4IIEC3 cells. The resveratrol responses were lower than those of pterostilbene. Pterostilbene significantly and dose-dependently (at 10, 20 and 50 µmol L(-1) ) increased PPARα gene expression and the effect at 10 µmol L(-1) was greater than 100 and 200 µmol L(-1) of fenofibrate. Analysis of BBX showed levels of pterostilbene and resveratrol at 418 and 2381 ng g(-1), respectively. Anthocyanins and catechins do not appear to contribute to the up-regulation of hepatic PPARα expression observed in hamsters. While pterostilbene and resveratrol demonstrated PPARα activation, their levels in BBX do not seem to be at efficacious concentrations. These stilbenes may contribute to the up-regulation of PPARα expression by acting synergistically with each other or with other constituents in BBX. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Mark P; Spate, Lee D; Parks, Tina E; Kimura, Koji; Murphy, Clifton N; Williams, Jim E; Kerley, Monty S; Green, Jonathan A; Keisler, Duane H; Roberts, R Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44) maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C) diet or one (F) enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT) production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS), plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P < 0.001). Conceptus IFNT production was unaffected by diet (P > 0.1), but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P < 0.05), and was higher (P < 0.05) in female than male conceptuses after 4 h culture. Maternal plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations, especially progesterone and fatty acid, were also modulated by diet. Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to

  5. Protective effect of γ-tocopherol-enriched diet on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced epithelial dysplasia in rat ventral prostate

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Lucas D; Santos, Sergio A A; Carvalho, Jaqueline R; Jeronimo, Gabriela D M; Favaro, Wagner J; Reis, Maria D G; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Justulin, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the biological basis of prostate cancer (PCa), the management of this disease remains a challenge. Chemoprotective agents have been used to protect against or eradicate prostate malignancies. Here, we investigated the protective effect of γ-tocopherol on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced epithelial dysplasia in the rat ventral prostate (VP). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): control (CT): healthy control animals fed a standard diet; control+γ-tocopherol (CT+γT): healthy control animals without intervention fed a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU): rats that received a single dose of MNU (30 mg/kg) plus testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg) and were fed a standard diet; and MNU+γ-tocopherol (MNU+γT): rats that received the same treatment of MNU plus testosterone and were fed with a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg). After 4 months, the VPs were excised to evaluate morphology, cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) and androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. An increase in the incidence of epithelial dysplasias, such as stratified epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, in the MNU group was accompanied by augmented cell proliferation, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression and pro-MMP-9 activity. Stromal thickening and inflammatory foci were also observed. The administration of a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet significantly attenuated the adverse effects of MNU in the VP. The incidence of epithelial dysplasia decreased, along with the cell proliferation index, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression. The gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9 returned to the levels observed for the CT group. These results suggest that γ-tocopherol acts as a protective agent against MNU-induced prostatic disorders in the rat ventral prostate. PMID:24205794

  6. Comparative effects of a Mg-enriched diet and different orally administered magnesium oxide preparations on ionized Mg, Mg metabolism and electrolytes in serum of human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Altura, B T; Wilimzig, C; Trnovec, T; Nyulassy, S; Altura, B M

    1994-10-01

    To determine whether: 1) short-term dietary elevation in magnesium (Mg) intake could alter serum ionized Mg (IMg2+), total Mg (TMg); % ionized Mg (% IMg2+) and other cations; and 2) different formulated preparations of Mg oxide (MgO) in the presence and absence of phosphate could alter serum IMg2+, TMg, % IMg2+ and other cations in Mg-loaded subjects. A randomized, triple cross-over study was performed on a rigorously defined group of normal male volunteers. Eighteen males were administered diets containing four to five times the United States recommended daily allowance (USRDA) of Mg followed by a randomization of three different MgO preparations, in the presence or absence of phosphate, containing equimolar amounts (12.34 mmol) of elemental Mg. Forty age-matched volunteers served as reference range controls. Specific ion selective electrodes were utilized to measure IMg2+, ionized calcium (ICa2+), sodium (Na+) potassium (K+) and hydrogen ion concentration (H+). Measurement of urinary excretion of Mg as well as TMg were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Diets enriched with different oral formulations of Mg given for 6 days result in significant elevations in serum IMg2+ and % IMg2+ but not TMg, ICa2+, K+ or H+ in normal subjects. Although such Mg-loaded subjects demonstrate significant elevation in urinary excretion of Mg, no further changes in IMg2+, TMg or any of the serum cations were produced by ingestion of either of the three MgO preparations. Subjects showing normally low basal levels of serum IMg2+, (< or = 0.54 mM/L), could easily have their serum IMg2+ level manipulated by diets enriched with Mg, whereas subjects having average normal or high normal IMg2+ levels did not have their IMg2+ elevated significantly with either diets enriched with Mg or with exogenous MgO. These results indicate that since serum IMg2+ and % IMg2+, but not TMg, can be altered by dietary intake, previous or future findings which may indicate no change in TMg by diet

  7. Protective effect of γ-tocopherol-enriched diet on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced epithelial dysplasia in rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Lucas D; Santos, Sergio A A; Carvalho, Jaqueline R; Jeronimo, Gabriela D M; Favaro, Wagner J; Reis, Maria D G; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Justulin, Luis A

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the biological basis of prostate cancer (PCa), the management of this disease remains a challenge. Chemoprotective agents have been used to protect against or eradicate prostate malignancies. Here, we investigated the protective effect of γ-tocopherol on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced epithelial dysplasia in the rat ventral prostate (VP). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): control (CT): healthy control animals fed a standard diet; control+γ-tocopherol (CT+γT): healthy control animals without intervention fed a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU): rats that received a single dose of MNU (30 mg/kg) plus testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg) and were fed a standard diet; and MNU+γ-tocopherol (MNU+γT): rats that received the same treatment of MNU plus testosterone and were fed with a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg). After 4 months, the VPs were excised to evaluate morphology, cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) and androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. An increase in the incidence of epithelial dysplasias, such as stratified epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, in the MNU group was accompanied by augmented cell proliferation, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression and pro-MMP-9 activity. Stromal thickening and inflammatory foci were also observed. The administration of a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet significantly attenuated the adverse effects of MNU in the VP. The incidence of epithelial dysplasia decreased, along with the cell proliferation index, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression. The gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9 returned to the levels observed for the CT group. These results suggest that γ-tocopherol acts as a protective agent against MNU-induced prostatic disorders in the rat ventral prostate. © 2013 The

  8. Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Balfegó, Mariona; Canivell, Silvia; Hanzu, Felicia A; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Martínez-Medina, Margarita; Murillo, Serafín; Mur, Teresa; Ruano, Elena G; Linares, Francisca; Porras, Nuria; Valladares, Silvia; Fontalba, Maria; Roura, Elena; Novials, Anna; Hernández, Cristina; Aranda, Gloria; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Simó, Rafael; Gomis, Ramon

    2016-04-18

    Nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treating diabetes mellitus. The inclusion of fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week is recommended by current international dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. In contrast to a large number of human studies examining the effects of oily fish on different cardiovascular risk factors, little research on this topic is available in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the effects of a sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition, and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. 35 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either a type 2 diabetes standard diet (control group: CG), or a standard diet enriched with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week (sardine group: SG) for 6 months. Anthropometric, dietary information, fasting glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, EMFA and specific bacterial strains were determined before and after intervention. There were no significant differences in glycemic control between groups at the end of the study. Both groups decreased plasma insulin (SG: -35.3%, P = 0.01, CG: -22.6%, P = 0.02) and homeostasis model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SG: -39.2%, P = 0.007, CG: -21.8%, P = 0.04) at 6-months from baseline. However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04). The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001). Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline. Although enriching diet with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week during

  9. Effect of Pullulan Coating on Postharvest Quality and Shelf-Life of Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kraśniewska, Karolina; Ścibisz, Iwona; Mitek, Marta; Pobiega, Katarzyna; Cendrowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Fruits form an important part of a healthy human diet as they contain many ingredients with proven pro-health effects such as vitamins, phenolic compounds, organic acids, fiber, and minerals. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of pullulan coating on the quality and shelf life of highbush blueberry during storage. General appearance, weight loss, dry matter, soluble solid content, reducing sugars, content of L-ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds (total phenolics, phenolics acids and anthocyanins) were determined in uncoated and coated blueberries fruits. The microbiological efficiency of pullulan coating was also evaluated. All parameters were monitored during storage at 4 °C and 16 °C by 28 and 14 days, respectively. The study showed that pullulan coating protects perishable food products especially susceptible to mechanical injury including fruits such as blueberries. Pullulan acts as a barrier that minimizes respiration rate, delaying deterioration and controlling microbial growth. PMID:28820473

  10. An overview of extention "all about blueberries" website

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The All About Blueberries Community of Practice (CoP) was created to help blueberry growers in the southeastern United States maximize productivity and decrease production costs. This CoP uses novel, diverse educational methods to help its Community of Interest (CoI) increase blueberry production e...

  11. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  12. Emerging and Reemerging Virus Diseases of Blueberry and Cranberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It should be expected that as blueberry cultivation continues to expand into new areas the plants will become exposed to viruses that have not been observed in blueberry previously. Since the last symposium in 2004, Blueberry scorch virus continues to be a major concern in the Pacific Northwest of ...

  13. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  14. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  15. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  16. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  17. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  18. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  19. Oviposition cues of the blueberry gall midge, dasineura oxycoccana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blueberry gall midge oviposits into blueberry flower buds and leaf buds, reducing yield up to 80%. We developed an efficient rearing method with a low level of direct handling, and high levels of survival and chance of mating. We also collected and identified volatiles from blueberry flower bu...

  20. Effect of a trans fatty acid-enriched diet on biochemical and inflammatory parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Rafael; Almeida, Roberto Farina; Machado, Letiane; Duarte, Maria Marta Medeiros Frescura; Souza, Débora Guerini; Machado, Priscila; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Quincozes-Santos, André; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2017-04-01

    Recent data regarding trans fatty acids (TFAs) have implicated these lipids as particularly deleterious to human health, causing systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and possibly inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). We aimed to clarify the impact of partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO) with different TFA concentrations on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and hepatic parameters in adult Wistar rats. Wistar rats (n = 15/group) were fed either a normolipidic diet or a hyperlipidic diet for 90 days. The normolipidic and hyperlipidic diets had the same ingredients except for fat compositions, concentrations and calories. We used lard in the cis fatty acid group and PHSO in the trans fatty acid group. The intervention groups were as follows: (1) low lard (LL), (2) high lard (HL), (3) low partially hydrogenated soybean oil (LPHSO) and (4) high partially hydrogenated soybean oil (HPHSO). Body weight, lipid profiles and the inflammatory responses in the CSF, serum and liver tissue were analyzed. Surprisingly, with the PHSO diet we observed a worse metabolic response that was associated with oxidative stress in hepatic tissue as well as impaired serum and CSF fluid parameters at both PHSO concentrations. In many analyses, there were no significant differences between the LPHSO and HPHSO diets. Dietary supplementation with PHSO impaired inflammatory parameters in CSF and blood, induced insulin resistance, altered lipid profiles and caused hepatic damage. Overall, these findings suggest that fat composition is more important than the quantity of fat consumed in terms of cis and trans fatty acid diets.

  1. Blueberry husks and probiotics attenuate colorectal inflammation and oncogenesis, and liver injuries in rats exposed to cycling DSS-treatment.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Asa; Bränning, Camilla; Molin, Göran; Adawi, Diya; Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jeppsson, Bengt; Nyman, Margareta; Ahrné, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI). A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and translocation

  2. Blueberry Husks and Probiotics Attenuate Colorectal Inflammation and Oncogenesis, and Liver Injuries in Rats Exposed to Cycling DSS-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Åsa; Bränning, Camilla; Molin, Göran; Adawi, Diya; Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jeppsson, Bengt; Nyman, Margareta; Ahrné, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated. Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI). A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and translocation

  3. Identification of N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit and AD brain.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garmendia, Roxanna; Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Morales, Miguel Angel; Luna-Muñoz, José; Mena, Raul; Nava-Catorce, Miriam; Acero, Gonzalo; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Viramontes-Pintos, Amparo; Cribbs, David H; Gevorkian, Goar

    2014-01-01

    The main amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42; however, a significant proportion of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain also consists of N-terminal truncated/modified species. AβN3(pE), Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3, has been demonstrated to be a major N-truncated/modified constituent of intracellular, extracellular, and vascular Aβ deposits in AD and Down syndrome brain tissue. It has been previously demonstrated that rabbits fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and given water containing trace copper levels developed AD-like pathology including intraneuronal and extracellular Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, vascular inflammation, astrocytosis, microgliosis, reduced levels of acetylcholine, as well as learning deficits and thus, may be used as a non-transgenic animal model of sporadic AD. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of AβN3(pE) in blood vessels in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit brain. In addition, we detected AβN3(pE) immunoreactivity in all postmortem AD brain samples studied. We believe that our results are potentially important for evaluation of novel therapeutic molecules/strategies targeting Aβ peptides in a suitable non-transgenic animal model.

  4. Influence of an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on the development of tolerance during chronic ethanol administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Meehan, E; Beaugé, F; Choquart, D; Leonard, B E

    1995-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in the form of dietary Evening Primrose Oil (EPO) and safflower oil, on the development of tolerance to ethanol. The degree of fluorescence polarization of the fluoroprobes DPH, PROP-DPH, and TMA-DPH in isolated cortical synaptosomal membranes was measured. In addition, the development of tolerance, as shown by changes in synaptosomal membrane fluidity after an acute in vitro ethanol challenge, was also determined after 20 weeks of ethanol administration, either alone or together with a PUFA-enriched diet. Although the administration of EPO-enriched diet did not significantly render the inner core of the cortical synaptosomal membrane tolerant to the acute ethanol challenge, concomitant administration of ethanol and EPO was found to increase further the rigidity and tolerance to the acute ethanol challenge in the inner core. Chronic administration of safflower oil, which lacks gamma-linolenic acid (18:3, n-6) but like EPO contains linoleic acid, either alone or together with chronic ethanol had no effect on synaptosomal membrane fluidity after an acute ethanol challenge. The results suggest that gamma-linolenic acid or its metabolites may have an important role to play in the development of tolerance to chronic ethanol.

  5. Effect of diets enriched with rutin on blood parameters, oxidative biomarkers and pituitary hormone expression in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    PubMed

    Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Ourique, Giovana M; Londero, Érika P; Gressler, Luciane T; Finamor, Isabela A; Rotili, Daniel A; Golombieski, Jaqueline I; Glanzner, Werner G; Llesuy, Susana F; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Radünz Neto, João; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of adding rutin to the diet (0, 0.15 or 0.30%) of silver catfish for 21 days on blood parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers and pituitary hormones expression were investigated. Fish that received the diet containing 0.15% rutin exhibited reduced plasma cortisol levels. The levels of lipid peroxidation were lowered in the all tissues of animals receiving the diet containing rutin. Rutin increased the activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), nonprotein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid content (AA) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) in the brain; glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and TRAP in the gills; SOD, CAT and GST activity, NPSH, AA levels and TRAP in the liver; CAT and GST activity and TRAP levels in the kidneys; and glutathione peroxidase activity, NPSH, AA levels and TRAP in the muscle. There were no changes regarding the expression of growth hormone, prolactin and somatolactin in fish fed with the diet containing rutin when compared with the control. The supplementation of rutin to the diet of fish is beneficial because it increases the antioxidant responses of tissues.

  6. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  7. Apparent zinc absorption and zinc status of weanling rats fed moderately zinc-deficient diets enriched with beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Weigand, E; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare apparent Zn absorption and Zn status of weanling rats fed diets that differed in Zn level, fat level and fat source. Semi-synthetic diets, which were about isoenergetic and contained 3% soyabean oil, were supplemented with 7 or 100 mg Zn/kg to create a mild Zn deficiency (LZ) or a high Zn supply (HZ) and with 0 (LF), 22% beef tallow (BT) or 22% sunflower oil (SF) according to a 2 × 3 factorial design of treatments. They were fed ad libitum to 6 × 8 rats for 28 days. Energy intake and growth rates were comparable among the HZ groups. Weight gains in the LZ-LF, LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups averaged 5.54, 4.95 and 4.15 g/day, and apparent Zn absorption averaged 79.4, 60.3 and 48.0 μg Zn/day, respectively, whereas faecal Zn excretion was comparable among these groups. Apparent Zn absorption, and plasma and femur Zn concentrations were lower in the high-fat groups than in the LF group, possibly due to the high cellulose content of the BT and SF diets. Plasma Zn concentrations were higher in the animals fed the BT-based than in the SF-based diets, whereas femur and soft tissue Zn concentrations were comparable among these groups. The differences between the LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups in growth rate, Zn absorption rate and Zn status were confirmed in a second experiment. The results indicate that moderately Zn-deficient diets enriched with SF in relation to BT affect Zn metabolism of weanling rats by a yet unknown mechanism.

  8. Brassica juncea (Rai) significantly prevented the development of insulin resistance in rats fed fructose-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S P; Vats, V; Ammini, A C; Grover, J K

    2004-07-01

    Brassica juncea (BJ; Hindi name: Rai) seeds and Murraya koenigii (MK; English names: Curry leaves) leaves, used as food ingredients and also by diabetics in India, were assessed in a fructose-mediated non-genetic model of insulin resistance. Feeding of fructose rich diet for 30 days resulted in rise in blood glucose by 29.4%, insulin by 101.2% and cholesterol by 26.7% indicating development of insulin resistance. However, feeding of a fructose diet containing 10% Brassica juncea seeds powder for 30 days significantly decreased fasting serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels but did not normalize them. On the other hand, a diet containing 15% Murraya koenigii leaves powder failed to exert any effect on these parameters. Results of the present study suggests that BJ can play a role in management of pre-diabetic state of insulin resistance and should be promoted for use in patients prone to diabetes.

  9. Modified Mediterranean Diet for Enrichment of Short Chain Fatty Acids: Potential Adjunctive Therapeutic to Target Immune and Metabolic Dysfunction in Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jamie; Depp, Colin; Shih, Pei-an B.; Cadenhead, Kristen S.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Growing interest in gut and digestive processes and their potential link to brain and peripheral based inflammation or biobehavioral phenotypes has led to an increasing number of basic and translational scientific reports focused on the role of gut microbiota within the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of dietary modification on specific gut metabolites, in association with immune, metabolic, and psychopathological functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders has not been well characterized. The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, and propionate, major metabolites derived from fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbes, interact with multiple immune and metabolic pathways. The specific pathways that SCFA are thought to target, are dysregulated in cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and systemic inflammation. Most notably, these disorders are consistently linked to an attenuated lifespan in schizophrenia. Although, unhealthy dietary intake patterns and increased prevalence of immune and metabolic dysfunction has been observed in people with schizophrenia; dietary interventions have not been well utilized to target immune or metabolic illness. Prior schizophrenia patient trials primarily focused on the effects of gluten free diets. Findings from these studies indicate that a diet avoiding gluten benefits a limited subset of patients, individuals with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Therefore, alternative dietary and nutritional modifications such as high-fiber, Mediterranean style, diets that enrich the production of SCFA, while being associated with a minimal likelihood of adverse events, may improve immune and cardiovascular outcomes linked to premature mortality in schizophrenia. With a growing literature demonstrating that SCFA can cross the blood brain barrier and target key inflammatory and metabolic pathways, this article highlights enriching dietary intake for SCFA as a potential adjunctive

  10. Long term exposure to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment, physical exercise and diet reverses the spatial memory deficits and restores hippocampal neurogenesis in ventral subicular lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Kapgal, Vijayakumar; Prem, Neethi; Hegde, Preethi; Laxmi, T R; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-04-01

    Subiculum is an important structure of the hippocampal formation and plays an imperative role in spatial learning and memory functions. We have demonstrated earlier the cognitive impairment following bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) in rats. We found that short term exposure to enriched environment (EE) did not help to reverse the spatial memory deficits in water maze task suggesting the need for an appropriate enriched paradigm towards the recovery of spatial memory. In the present study, the efficacy of long term exposure of VSL rats to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment (EE), physical exercise and 18 C.W. diet (Combination Therapy - CT) in reversing the spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze task has been studied. Ibotenate lesioning of ventral subiculum produced significant impairment of performance in the Morris water maze and reduced the hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Post lesion exposure to C.T. restored the hippocampal neurogenesis and improved the spatial memory functions in VSL rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the combination paradigm is critical towards the development of an enhanced behavioral and cognitive experience especially in conditions of CNS insults and the associated cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  12. Improvement of leukocyte functions in young prematurely aging mice after a 5-week ingestion of a diet supplemented with biscuits enriched in antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, C; Alvarez, P; Jiménez, L; De la Fuente, M

    2005-01-01

    In our previous studies, diet supplementation with therapeutic thiolic antioxidants improved the function of peritoneal leukocytes from mice, especially in adult prematurely aging mice (PAM). In the present work, we have studied the effects of ingestion during 5 weeks of a diet supplemented with 20% (wt/wt) of biscuits enriched with antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, zinc, and selenium) on several immune functions of peritoneal leukocytes from young PAM. The results show that, in macrophages, chemotaxis and phagocytosis as well as the intracellular free radical levels, which are depressed in PAM in comparison with the control nonprematurely aging mice (NPAM), increase after supplementation, especially in the PAM. An increase also occurs in lymphocyte chemotaxis, proliferative response to the mitogen concanavalin A, and interleukin-2 release, as well as in natural killer cell activity. However, the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which increases with aging, decreases after 5 weeks of supplementation. As a well preserved function of the immune system is an excellent marker of health and longevity, the improvement of leukocyte functions after ingestion of the present diet suggests that this antioxidant supplementation may be useful for the preservation of health and functional longevity in aging populations.

  13. Impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Guardiola, F A; Porcino, C; Cerezuela, R; Cuesta, A; Faggio, C; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    The application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with Pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related genes in head-kidney and gut of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 2 and 4 weeks of administration. This study showed for the first time in European sea bass an immunostimulation in several of the parameters evaluated in fish fed with date palm fruits extracts enriched diet or fed with this substance in combination with Pdp 11 probiotic, mainly after 4 weeks of treatment. In the same way, dietary supplementation of mixture diet has positive effects on the expression levels of immune-related genes, chiefly in head-kidney of Dicentrarchus labrax. Therefore, the combination of both could be considered of great interest as potential additives for farmed fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repression of mammosphere formation of human breast cancer cells by soy isoflavone genistein and blueberry polyphenolic acids suggests diet-mediated targeting of cancer stem-like/progenitor cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammary stem cells are undifferentiated epithelial cells which initiate mammary tumors and render them resistant to anticancer therapies, when deregulated. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables are implicated in breast cancer risk reduction, yet underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we ad...

  15. Diets enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Borthwick, Faye; Mangat, Rabban; Uwiera, Richard; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Quiroga, Ariel D; Jacobs, René L; Lehner, Richard; Proctor, Spencer D; Nelson, Randal C

    2014-07-01

    Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is one of the most predominant naturally occurring trans fats in our food chain and has recently been shown to exert hypolipidemic effects in animal models. In this study, we reveal new mechanism(s) by which VA can alter body fat distribution, energy utilization and dysfunctional lipid metabolism in an animal model of obesity displaying features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obese JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet that included dairy-derived fat or the control diet supplemented with 1% VA. VA reduced total body fat (-6%), stimulated adipose tissue redistribution [reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)] and decreased adipocyte size (-44%) versus control rats. VA supplementation also increased metabolic rate (7%) concomitantly with an increased preference for whole-body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity [lower HOMA-IR (-59%)]. Further, VA decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores (-34%) and reduced hepatic (-27%) and intestinal (-39%) triglyceride secretion relative to control diet, while exerting differential transcriptional regulation of SREBP1 and FAS amongst other key genes in the liver and the intestine. Adding VA to dairy fat alleviates features of MetS potentially by remodeling adipose tissue and attenuating ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of obesity and MetS. Increasing VA content in the diet (naturally or by fortification) may be a useful approach to maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats.

  16. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Melissa; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Meurice, Paul; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy) was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet). Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; P<0.0001), regardless of the diet. All groups presented similar insulin sensitivity index (ISI = 1.39±0.10 mL·min-1·μUI·kg). Compared to starch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral correlates of these

  17. Synergistic effects of long-term antioxidant diet and behavioral enrichment on beta-amyloid load and non-amyloidogenic processing in aged canines

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Viorela; Head, Elizabeth; Hill, Mary-Ann; Gillen, Dan; Berchtold, Nicole C.; Muggenburg, Bruce.A.; Milgram, Norton W.; Murphy, M. Paul; Cotman, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term intervention (2.69 years) with an antioxidant diet, behavioral enrichment, or the combined treatment preserved and improved cognitive function in aged canines. While each intervention alone provided cognitive benefits, the combination treatment was additive. We evaluate the hypothesis that antioxidants, enrichment, or the combination intervention reduces age-related beta-amyloid (Aβ) neuropathology, as one mechanism mediating observed functional improvements. Measures assessed were Aβ neuropathology in plaques, biochemically extractable Aβ40 and Aβ42 species, soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ, and various proteins in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathway. The strongest and most consistent effects on Aβ pathology were observed in animals receiving the combined antioxidant and enrichment treatment. Specifically, Aβ plaque load was significantly decreased in several brain regions, soluble Aβ42 was decreased selectively in the frontal cortex, and a trend for lower Aβ oligomer levels was found in the parietal cortex. Reductions in Aβ may be related to shifted APP processing towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway, as alpha-secretase enzymatic activity was increased, in the absence of changes in beta-secretase activity. While enrichment alone had no significant effects on Aβ, reduced Aβ load and plaque maturation occurred in animals receiving antioxidants as a component of treatment. AB measures did not correlate with cognitive performance on any of the 6 tasks assessed, suggesting that modulation of AB alone may be a relatively minor mechanism mediating cognitive benefits of the interventions. Overall, the data indicate that multi-domain treatments may be a valuable intervention strategy to reduce neuropathology and improve cognitive function in humans. PMID:20660265

  18. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Wu, Shou-Mian; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Ou-Yang, Sheng

    2014-08-08

    It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure.

  20. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Methods Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. Results The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. Conclusions The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure. PMID:25102951

  1. Enrichment of Zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) Diet with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improves Fecundity and Larvae Quality.

    PubMed

    Nowosad, Joanna; Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Targońska, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    The zebrafish is a freshwater fish of the Cyprinidae family, which is frequently used in scientific research. It owes its popularity to its genome, whose structure is comparable to the human genome and, for this reason, this species is often used in human medical research. However, such research requires high-quality material to conduct tests producing repeatable results. This study examines the effect of providing feed enriched with essential fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid, to zebrafish spawners on fertility as well as the survival rate and growth of their offspring. The experiments revealed a significant (p < 0.05) effect of feeding spawners with feed enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on all tested parameters: their fertility (30% higher compared to the control group), survival rate, and the posthatching size of larvae, which were larger by 13% and 4%, respectively, compared to the control group.

  2. Honey bee-collected pollen in agro-ecosystems reveals diet diversity, diet quality, and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Megan J; Williams, Geoffrey R; Evans, Rodger C; Shutler, Dave

    2017-09-01

    European honey bees Apis mellifera are important commercial pollinators that have suffered greater than normal overwintering losses since 2007 in North America and Europe. Contributing factors likely include a combination of parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition. We examined diet diversity, diet nutritional quality, and pesticides in honey bee-collected pollen from commercial colonies in the Canadian Maritime Provinces in spring and summer 2011. We sampled pollen collected by honey bees at colonies in four site types: apple orchards, blueberry fields, cranberry bogs, and fallow fields. Proportion of honey bee-collected pollen from crop versus noncrop flowers was high in apple, very low in blueberry, and low in cranberry sites. Pollen nutritional value tended to be relatively good from apple and cranberry sites and poor from blueberry and fallow sites. Floral surveys ranked, from highest to lowest in diversity, fallow, cranberry, apple, and blueberry sites. Pesticide diversity in honey bee-collected pollen was high from apple and blueberry sites and low from cranberry and fallow sites. Four different neonicotinoid pesticides were detected, but neither these nor any other pesticides were at or above LD50 levels. Pollen hazard quotients were highest in apple and blueberry sites and lowest in fallow sites. Pollen hazard quotients were also negatively correlated with the number of flower taxa detected in surveys. Results reveal differences among site types in diet diversity, diet quality, and pesticide exposure that are informative for improving honey bee and land agro-ecosystem management.

  3. A sucrose-enriched diet promotes tumorigenesis in mammary gland in part through the 12-lipoxygenase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Pan, Yong; Rhea, Patrea R.; Tan, Lin; Gagea, Mihai; Cohen, Lorenzo; Fischer, Susan M.; Yang, Peiying

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that dietary sugar intake has a significant impact on the development of breast cancer. One proposed mechanism for how sugar impacts cancer development involves inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of dietary sugar on mammary gland tumor development in multiple mouse models, along with mechanisms that may be involved. We found that sucrose intake in mice comparable to levels of Western diets led to increased tumor growth and metastasis, when compared to a non-sugar starch diet. This effect was ascribed in part to increased expression of 12-lipoxygenase 12-LOX) and its arachidonate metabolite 12-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid 12-HETE). We determined that fructose derived from the sucrose was responsible for facilitating lung metastasis and 12-HETE production in breast tumors. Overall, our data suggested that dietary sugar induces 12-LOX signaling to increase risks of breast cancer development and metastasis. PMID:26729790

  4. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta:
Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Vidrih, Rajko

    2015-01-01

    Summary Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77% carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10% protein. It is therefore often excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40% dry matter) without (plain high-protein pasta) or with 3% dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta) to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40% of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets. PMID:27904361

  5. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids are influenced by a ketogenic diet enriched with n-3 fatty acids in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Maria; Hjelte, Lena; Nilsson, Susanne; Amark, Per

    2007-02-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is used to treat medically refractory epilepsy in children. Alterations of fatty acid (FA) levels may reflect one mechanism of action. We examined the influence of the KD on FA levels and seizure control. The levels of 17 FAs in plasma phospholipids were determined before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation of the KD in 25 children (mean age 6.3 years) with intractable epilepsy. Fluid omega-3 FA was supplemented in the diet after one month. Highly significant changes of the levels of several FAs were found. Linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased, whereas arachidonic acid (AA) and Mead acid (20:3 n-9) decreased. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increased insignificantly. However, no correlation of changes in FA levels with seizure response was found. The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 gradually decreased from 7.0 before to 4.9 at 12 months after starting the diet, presumably a cardiovascular benefit. The composition of the KD differs as to FA content and type between different treating centers but, still, the efficacy reports are very similar. This study demonstrates the possibility of composing the KD in such a way that the FA profile is kept within a normal range, which may reduce cardiovascular risks.

  6. The inclusion of functional foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, fat-soluble vitamins and n-3 fatty acids in a conventional diet improves the nutrient profile according to the Spanish reference intake.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Cuervo, Marta; de Las Heras, Arantza Ruiz; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, J Alfredo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2011-03-01

    The growing interest in maintaining good health status through optimal nutrition has boosted the launch of a number of functional foods on the market. The objective of the present study was to theoretically evaluate the nutritional relevance of incorporating selected enriched foods in the diet. A 28 d dietary plan, designed to be balanced under the recommended macronutrients criteria, was used as a basal diet. Some conventional foods were exchanged with foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, vitamins A, D, E or n-3 fatty acids. Nutritional composition of basal and modified diets was derived and compared to the Spanish recommended intakes (RI). The basal diet covered the recommendations for fibre and calcium with mean intake of 28 g and 1241 mg, respectively. The current intake of salt, if iodized, or bread elaborated with this salt, allowed reaching the daily intake of iodine every day, with a mean supply of 216 μg/d and 278 μg/d, respectively. The deficient supply of vitamin E in the basal diet (mean = 8 mg/d) was covered by including enriched margarine and dairy products (mean = 15 mg/d). The low n-3 fatty acids intake in the basal diet (1·1 g/d) increased up to 1·9 g/d after the use of enriched margarine, butter and biscuits and soya drink instead of milk. In order to improve the accomplishment of the RI iodine, vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids, interesting strategies dealing with the incorporation of enriched foods in the diet were successfully initiated.

  7. A protein-enriched low glycemic index diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation exerts beneficial effects on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moosheer, Simone M; Waldschütz, Wolfgang; Itariu, Bianca K; Brath, Helmut; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    The current study aims to investigate practicability and effects of a combined dietary intervention with increased relative protein content supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic control and inflammatory parameters in a real life situation in type 2 diabetes patients. In this observational study we advised thirty mostly obese patients with type 2 diabetes to follow a protein-enriched diet with carbohydrates of low glycemic index (low GI) and moderate fat reduction supplemented with omega-3 PUFA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy parameter was the change in HbA1c; secondary parameters included changes in systemic inflammation (measured by ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, usCRP), body weight, waist circumference, fat mass. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01474603). The dietary intervention significantly reduced the primary efficacy variable HbA1c from a baseline value of 63±11mmol/mol to 59±14mmol/mol (P=0.033) and 56±12mmol/mol (P=0.001) after 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. In addition, usCRP decreased significantly at 24 weeks (P=0.039). Waist circumference, an important indicator for cardiometabolic-risk and silent inflammation, decreased from baseline 116.0±14.1cm to 114.9±13.5cm (P=0.019), 114.0±14.4cm (P=0.001), and 112.7±13.4cm (P=0.049), after 3, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Counseling a protein enriched and low glycemic index diet supplemented with long-chain omega-3 PUFA in a real-life clinical setting improves glycemic control and also reduces waist circumference and silent inflammation in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle.

  9. Fatty acid composition and properties of the liver microsomal membrane of rats fed diets enriched with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Muriana, F J; Vazquez, C M; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V

    1992-10-01

    Male rats were fed diets containing olive (OO) or evening primrose (EPO) oil (10% w/w), with or without added cholesterol (1% w/w). After 6-week feeding, the lipid and fatty acid compositions, fluidity, and fatty acid desaturating and cholesterol biosynthesis/esterification related enzymes of liver microsomes were determined. Both the OO and EPO diets, without added cholesterol, increased the contents of oleic and arachidonic acids, respectively, of rat liver microsomes. The results were consistent with the increases in delta 9 and delta 6 desaturation of n-6 essential fatty acids and the lower microviscosity in the EPO group. Dietary cholesterol led to an increase in the cholesterol content of liver microsomes as well as that of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The cholesterol/phospholipid and PC/PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) ratios were also elevated. Fatty acid composition changes were expressed as the accumulation of monounsaturated fatty acids, with accompanying milder depletion of saturated fatty acids in rat liver microsomes. In addition, the arachidonic acid content was lowered, with a concomitant increase in linoleic acid, which led to a significant decrease in the 20:4/18:2 ratio in comparison to in animals fed the cholesterol-free diets. Cholesterol feeding also increased delta 9 desaturase activity as well as membrane microviscosity, whereas it decreased delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activities. There was a very strong correlation between fluidity and the unsaturation index reduction in the membrane. Furthermore, the activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase increased and the activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase decreased in liver microsomes from both cholesterol-fed groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001). Cumulative sodium balance was greater in rats consuming fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P < 0.05). Sodium excretion was lower in fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P < 0.001). Nitric oxide excretion was 2935 ± 256 μmol/24 h in high salt-fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178 μmol /24 hrs P < 0.01). Our results suggest that fructose predisposes rats to salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. ‘Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  12. Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    KRIKORIAN, ROBERT; SHIDLER, MARCELLE D; NASH, TIFFANY A; KALT, WILHELMINA; VINQVIST-TYMCHUK, MELINDA R; SHUKITT-HALE, BARBARA; JOSEPH, JAMES A

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing with expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to address this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominently anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, anthocyanins have been associated with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, benefits that would be expected to mitigate neurodegeneration. We investigated the effects of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice in a sample of nine older adults with early memory changes. At 12 weeks, we observed improved paired associate learning (p = 0.009) and word list recall (p = 0.04). In addition, there were trends suggesting reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.08) and lower glucose levels (p = 0.10). We also compared the memory performances of the blueberry subjects with a demographically-matched sample who consumed a berry placebo beverage in a companion trial of identical design and observed comparable results for paired associate learning. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms. PMID:20047325

  13. Highbush blueberry response to compost and sulfur

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highbush blueberry is adapted to soils with high organic matter and acidic pH and is often grown in Oregon with coniferous sawdust as a soil amendment or mulch. Composts could provide an alternative to sawdust, but acidification is needed to overcome high pH. Our objectives were to (i) predict the q...

  14. Maronutrient distribution in 'Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was developed and initiated to determine the nutrient distribution within a ‘Tifblue’ rabbiteye blueberry. Rooted cuttings were potted into 3.8 liter containers and placed into a completely randomized design on a covered bench. Plants were divided evenly into 3 groups for low, high a...

  15. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  16. Summer Sunset: A new ornamental blueberry variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Summer Sunset’ is a new blueberry hybrid (Vaccinium sp.) jointly released by the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, the University of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, and the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service for t...

  17. Glucomannan- and glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched pork affect liver fatty acid profile, LDL receptor expression and antioxidant status in Zucker fa/fa rats fed atherogenic diets

    PubMed Central

    González-Torres, Laura; Matos, Cátia; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Santos-López, Jorge A.; Sánchez-Martínez, Iria; García–Fernández, Camino; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions. Cholesterolemia was lower in HG and HGS than in HC. GS vs. G showed higher stearic but lower oleic levels. SFA and PUFA decreased while MUFA increased by cholesterol feeding. The arachidonic/linoleic and docosahexaenoic/alpha-linolenic ratios were lower in HC, HG, and HGS vs. C, G, and GS, respectively, suggesting a delta-6-elongase-desaturase system inhibition. Moreover, cholesterol feeding, mainly in HGS, decreased low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression and the delta-5-desaturase activity and increased the delta-9-desaturase activity. In conclusion, the liver production of highly unsaturated fatty acids was limited to decrease their oxidation in presence of hypercholesterolaemia. Glucomannan or glucomannan/spirulina-RP has added new attributes to their functional properties in meat, partially arresting the negative effects induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol feeding on the liver fatty acid and antioxidant statuses. PMID:28325998

  18. Preventive effect of Monascus-fermented products enriched with ubiquinones on type 2 diabetic rats induced by a high-fructose plus high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Won

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Monascus-fermented grains (MFGEs) enriched with ubiquinones (Coenzyme Qs, CoQ9+CoQ10) alleviates high-fructose (60%) plus high-fat (20%) diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with MFGEs (300 mg/kg/day) or atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) for the last 4 weeks of the study. HFD-fed rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired insulin sensitivity. MFGE treatment prevented the increase in glucose levels and index of insulin resistance in the HFD-induced diabetic rats. A significant decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation and significant increases in hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were observed in the MFGE supplemented group. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with MFGEs enriched with CoQs exerts an antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats by improving insulin resistance and hepatic antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Glucomannan- and glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched pork affect liver fatty acid profile, LDL receptor expression and antioxidant status in Zucker fa/fa rats fed atherogenic diets.

    PubMed

    González-Torres, Laura; Matos, Cátia; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Santos-López, Jorge A; Sánchez-Martínez, Iria; García-Fernández, Camino; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions. Cholesterolemia was lower in HG and HGS than in HC. GS vs. G showed higher stearic but lower oleic levels. SFA and PUFA decreased while MUFA increased by cholesterol feeding. The arachidonic/linoleic and docosahexaenoic/alpha-linolenic ratios were lower in HC, HG, and HGS vs. C, G, and GS, respectively, suggesting a delta-6-elongase-desaturase system inhibition. Moreover, cholesterol feeding, mainly in HGS, decreased low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression and the delta-5-desaturase activity and increased the delta-9-desaturase activity. In conclusion, the liver production of highly unsaturated fatty acids was limited to decrease their oxidation in presence of hypercholesterolaemia. Glucomannan or glucomannan/spirulina-RP has added new attributes to their functional properties in meat, partially arresting the negative effects induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol feeding on the liver fatty acid and antioxidant statuses.

  20. A healthy diet rich in carotenoids is effective in maintaining normal blood carotenoid levels during the daily use of plant sterol-enriched spreads.

    PubMed

    Ntanios, Fady Y; Duchateau, Guus S M J E

    2002-01-01

    Blood cholesterol levels are affected by diet and in particular by the type and amount of fat intake. In recent years, vegetable oil spreads containing plant sterols/stanols (as their fatty acid esters) have been developed. Numerous clinical trials on spreads with added plant sterols/stanols have shown that they have much greater cholesterol-lowering properties than conventional vegetable oil spreads. Plant sterols decrease both dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption in the small intestine, with a consequential increase in excretion of cholesterol. It is also recognized that plant sterol/stanol-enriched, cholesterol-lowering spreads, if consumed regularly, may induce a 10-20% decrease in plasma carotenoids, adjusted for changes in plasma lipids. A 10-20% decrease in plasma carotenoids falls well within the seasonal variation observed in individuals. Our current understanding of the physiological functions of carotenoids does not indicate any health risk associated with the slight decrease in their blood levels due to the intake of plant sterol/stanol. The questions that have been raised, though, are how plant sterols/stanols affect plasma carotenoid levels, and in addition, what quantity of fruits and vegetables (the richest dietary sources of carotenoids) would have to be consumed to improve plasma carotenoid levels? The current mini-review covers the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols, their mechanisms of action and effect on blood carotenoids, and concludes with the potential heath benefits of daily intake of plant sterol-enriched spreads.

  1. Dynamic selenium assimilation, distribution, efflux, and maternal transfer in japanese medaka fed a diet of se-enriched mayflies.

    PubMed

    Conley, Justin M; Watson, Atlee T D; Xie, Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) trafficking in oviparous species remains understudied and a major source of uncertainty in developing sound Se regulations. Here, we utilized (75)Se to follow Se through a simulated natural food chain (water, periphyton, mayflies (Centroptilum triangulifer), fish (Japanese medaka)). We specifically examined Se assimilation efficiency, tissue distribution, efflux rate, and maternal transfer in medaka. Selenium assimilation efficiency (AE) averaged 63.2 ± 8.8% from mayfly diets and was not affected by mayfly [Se] across a dietary range of 5.6-38.7 μg g(-1) (dry wt). However, AE decreased significantly as mayfly larva size increased. Efflux rate constants (ke) were consistent between reproductively inactive (0.066 d(-1)) and spawning females (0.069 d(-1)). Total Se loss rate constant (ke+egg; efflux and egg deposition) was 0.17 d(-1) in spawning females. Interestingly, medaka appeared to rapidly shuttle Se to their eggs directly from their diet via the ovary, as opposed to mobilization from surrounding tissues, resulting in dynamic egg [Se] that was more attributable to recent dietary Se ingestion than female whole body [Se] in this asynchronous spawning fish. Spawning strategy likely plays a large role in the process of fish egg Se deposition and requires further attention to understand risk and toxicity of Se to fish.

  2. Plasma and Aorta Biochemistry and MMPs Activities in Female Rabbit Fed Methionine Enriched Diet and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Aouichat Bouguerra, Souhila; Benazzoug, Yasmina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether a high Met diet influences biochemical parameters, MMPs activities in plasma, and biochemical and histological remodeling in aorta, in both pregnant female rabbits and their offspring. Four female rabbit groups are constituted (each n = 8), nonpregnant control (NPC), pregnant control (PC) that received normal commercial chow, nonpregnant Met (NPMet), and pregnant Met (PMet) that received the same diet supplemented with 0,35% L-methionine (w/w) for 3 months (500 mg/d). All pregnant females realize 3 successive pregnancies. Plasma results showed that Met excess increased Hcy, raised CRP in NPMet and decreased it in PMet, enhanced significantly proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities in NPMet, and reduced them in PMet. Aorta showed a rise in collagen level, essentially in PMet, a reduction of elastin content in both PMet and NPMet, and a significant decrease in lipid content in PMet, with histological changes that are more pronounced in NPMet than PMet. Met excess enhanced proMMP-9 activities in NPMet while it decreased them in PMet. PMet newborn presented increase in uremia and CRP and significant rise of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 forms. In aorta, media and adventitia thickness increased, total lipids content decreased, proMMP-9 activity decreased, and proMMP-2 activity increased. PMID:28133545

  3. Walnut-enriched diet reduces fasting non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in healthy Caucasian subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liya; Piotrowski, Katja; Rau, Tiina; Waldmann, Elisa; Broedl, Uli C; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Stark, Renee G; Nagel, Jutta M; Mantzoros, Christos S; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2014-03-01

    Walnut consumption is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed the effect of walnuts on lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines, inflammation and endothelial function in healthy Caucasian men and postmenopausal women ≥50years old. Forty subjects (mean±SEM: age 60±1years, BMI 24.9±0.6kg/m(2); 30 females) were included in a controlled, cross-over study and randomized to receive first a walnut-enriched (43g/d) and then a Western-type (control) diet or vice-versa, with each lasting 8weeks and separated by a 2-week wash-out. At the beginning and end of each diet phase, measurements of fasting values, a mixed meal test and an assessment of postprandial endothelial function (determination of microcirculation by peripheral artery tonometry) were conducted. Area under the curve (AUC), incremental AUC (iAUC) and treatment×time interaction (shape of the curve) were evaluated for postprandial triglycerides, VLDL-triglycerides, chylomicron-triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Compared with the control diet, the walnut diet significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol (walnut vs. control: -10±3 vs. -3±2mg/dL; p=0.025) and apolipoprotein-B (-5.0±1.3 vs. -0.2±1.1mg/dL; p=0.009) after adjusting for age, gender, BMI and diet sequence. Total cholesterol showed a trend toward reduction (p=0.073). Fasting VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c did not change significantly. Similarly, fasting adipokines, C-reactive protein, biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism and endothelial function were unaffected. Daily consumption of 43g of walnuts for 8weeks significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B, which may explain in part the epidemiological observation that regular walnut consumption decreases CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diet supplementation with DHA-enriched food in football players during training season enhances the mitochondrial antioxidant capabilities in blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Llompart, Isabel; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    Exercise induces oxidative stress and causes adaptations in antioxidant defenses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 2-month diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during football training and after acute exercise. Fifteen male football players, in a randomized double-blind trial, ingested a beverage enriched with DHA or a placebo for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected in basal conditions before and after the training period and after an acute and intense exercise. The training season increased the carbonyl and nitrotyrosine index but decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Basal catalase activity decreased in both groups after 8 weeks of training, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity increased mainly in the placebo group. Protein levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP2 and UCP3) and inducible nitric oxide synthase significantly increased after the training period. Acute exercise induced redistribution in the number of circulating cells, increased the MDA levels and nitrotyrosine index, and decreased the levels of nitrate. Acute exercise also increased PBMCs reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after immune stimulation. Diet supplementation with DHA significantly increased the UCP3 levels after training and the superoxide dismutase protein levels after acute exercise, and reduced the production of ROS after acute exercise. Docosahexaenoic acid increased the antioxidant capabilities while reducing the mitochondrial ROS production in a regular football training period and reduced the oxidative damage markers in response to acute exercise.

  5. A genistein-enriched diet neither improves skeletal muscle oxidative capacity nor prevents the transition towards advanced insulin resistance in ZDF rats

    PubMed Central

    van Bree, Bianca W. J.; Lenaers, Ellen; Nabben, Miranda; Briedé, Jacco J.; Jörgensen, Johanna A.; Schaart, Gert; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hoeks, Joris; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Genistein, a natural food compound mainly present in soybeans, is considered a potent antioxidant and to improve glucose homeostasis. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed whether genistein could antagonize the progression of the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic state (pre-diabetes) toward full-blown T2DM in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats by decreasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Rats were assigned to three groups: (1) lean control (CNTL), (2) fa/fa CNTL, and (3) fa/fa genistein (GEN). GEN animals were subjected to a 0.02% (w/w) genistein-enriched diet for 8 weeks, whereas CNTL rats received a standard diet. We show that genistein did not affect the overall response to a glucose challenge in ZDF rats. In fact, genistein may exacerbate glucose intolerance as fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in fa/fa GEN (17.6 ± 0.7 mM) compared with fa/fa CNTL animals (14.9 ± 1.4 mM). Oxidative stress, established by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, carbonylated protein content and UCP3 levels, remained unchanged upon dietary genistein supplementation. Furthermore, respirometry measurements revealed no effects of genistein on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, dietary genistein supplementation did not improve glucose homeostasis, alleviate oxidative stress, or augment skeletal muscle metabolism in ZDF rats. PMID:26973284

  6. A genistein-enriched diet neither improves skeletal muscle oxidative capacity nor prevents the transition towards advanced insulin resistance in ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    van Bree, Bianca W J; Lenaers, Ellen; Nabben, Miranda; Briedé, Jacco J; Jörgensen, Johanna A; Schaart, Gert; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hoeks, Joris; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2016-03-14

    Genistein, a natural food compound mainly present in soybeans, is considered a potent antioxidant and to improve glucose homeostasis. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed whether genistein could antagonize the progression of the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic state (pre-diabetes) toward full-blown T2DM in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats by decreasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Rats were assigned to three groups: (1) lean control (CNTL), (2) fa/fa CNTL, and (3) fa/fa genistein (GEN). GEN animals were subjected to a 0.02% (w/w) genistein-enriched diet for 8 weeks, whereas CNTL rats received a standard diet. We show that genistein did not affect the overall response to a glucose challenge in ZDF rats. In fact, genistein may exacerbate glucose intolerance as fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in fa/fa GEN (17.6 ± 0.7 mM) compared with fa/fa CNTL animals (14.9 ± 1.4 mM). Oxidative stress, established by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, carbonylated protein content and UCP3 levels, remained unchanged upon dietary genistein supplementation. Furthermore, respirometry measurements revealed no effects of genistein on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, dietary genistein supplementation did not improve glucose homeostasis, alleviate oxidative stress, or augment skeletal muscle metabolism in ZDF rats.

  7. Diet enriched with korean pine nut oil improves mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Hoan; Shin, Sunhye; Tu, Thai Hien; Kim, Chu-Sook; Kang, Ji-Hye; Tsuyoshi, Goto; Teruo, Kawada; Han, Sung Nim; Yu, Rina

    2012-12-05

    In this study, we investigated effects of pine nut oil (PNO) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD with 15% energy from lard and 30% energy from either soybean oil (SBO-HFD) or PNO (PNO-HFD) for 12 weeks. The PNO-HFD resulted in less weight gain and intramuscular lipid accumulation than the SBO-HFD and was accompanied by upregulation of transcripts and proteins related to oxidative metabolism and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as molecules selectively expressed in type I and type IIa muscle fibers. In addition, uncoupling protein-1 was upregulated in BAT. These beneficial metabolic effects were partly associated with the dual ligand activity of pinolenic acid, which is abundant in PNO, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and δ. Our findings suggest that PNO may have potential as a dietary supplement for counteracting obesity and metabolic dysregulation.

  8. Blueberries reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in mouse macrophages by inhibiting NF Kappa B activation and the MAPK pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BB in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% fre...

  9. Mechanisms of increased survival after lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice consuming olive oil-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Leite, Milane S; Pacheco, Patrícia; Gomes, Rachel N; Guedes, Alexandre T; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Patrícia T; Koatz, Vera Lúcia G

    2005-02-01

    We examined the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. C57Bl/6J mice were fed for 6 weeks with a commercial laboratory chow (CC) or with test chows containing 7% (w/w) canola oil (CO), sesame oil (SeO), soybean oil (SO), or virgin olive oil (OO). The increase in body weight and energy consumption were similar for all diets tested. In the sixth week, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 400 microg of bacterial LPS to induce endotoxic shock. LPS induced a massive neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity and an increase in lipid body (LB) formation in leukocytes recovered from the peritoneal fluid of mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO. In addition, there were increases in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), leukotriene B4 (LTB(4)), and cytokines IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 in peritoneal lavage, as well as in plasma TNF-alpha. In contrast, mice fed with OO exhibited reduced neutrophil accumulation and LB formation, and also had lower levels of PGE(2), LTB(4), MCP-1, and TNF-alpha. All mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO died within 48 to 72 h after LPS injection. Interestingly, mice fed with the OO diet were resistant to endotoxic shock, with 60% survival at 168 h. These data indicate that intake of OO may have a beneficial role, reducing the magnitude of the inflammatory process triggered by endotoxic shock through modulation of LB formation and of the production of inflammatory mediators.

  10. Consuming a mixed diet enriched with lupin protein beneficially affects plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess whether 25 g/d lupin protein, integrated into a mixed diet, might affect cardiovascular risk factors and whether l-arginine was responsible for these effects. Seventy-two hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in the randomized, controlled, double-blind three-phase crossover study. They were assigned to three diets with 25 g/d lupin protein (LP), milk protein (MP) or milk protein plus 1.6 g/d arginine (MPA) each for 28 d in a random order interrupted by 6-week washout periods. Lupin protein and the comparator milk protein were incorporated into complex food products (bread, roll, sausage, and vegetarian spread). Arginine was administered via capsules. Sixty-eight subjects were included in final analyses. Compared with MP, LDL cholesterol was significantly lower after LP. Compared with MP and MPA, homocysteine was significantly lower after LP. Compared with baseline, concentrations of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol significantly decreased after LP and MPA. Triacylglycerols and uric acid significantly decreased after LP. The relative changes in total and LDL cholesterol were significantly greater for subjects with severe hypercholesterolemia (>6.6 mmol/L) than those with moderate hypercholesterolemia (5.2-6.6 mmol/L). The present study showed for the first time that incorporation of 25 g/d of lupin protein into a variety of complex food products lowers total and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine, and uric acid in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The hypocholesterolemic effect is stronger in subjects with severe hypercholesterolemia. Arginine might be responsible for some, but not all of the beneficial effects of lupin protein. This trial was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (study ID number NCT01598649). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet decreases metabolic and cognitive abnormalities and gut microbiota dysbiosis caused by a sucrose-enriched high-fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Avila-Nava, Azalia; Noriega, Lilia G; Tovar, Armando R; Granados, Omar; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-01-01

    There is few information about the possible health effects of a food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet (PMD). This diet rich in fiber, polyphenols, a healthy ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids, and vegetable protein could improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and cognitive function. We examined the effect of a PMD in a sucrose enriched high-fat model. The PMD contains corn, beans, tomato, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds in dehydrated form. Following induction of obesity, rats were fed PMD. PMD consumption decreased glucose intolerance, body weight gain, serum and liver triglycerides and leptin. In addition, PMD decreased the size of the adipocytes, and increased the protein abundance of UCP-1, PPAR-α, PGC1-α and Tbx-1 in white adipose tissue. Finally, the PMD significant decreased hepatic levels of ROS, oxidized proteins and GSSG/GSH ratio and an increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacteria and the improvement of cognitive function. Consumption of a PMD decreased the glucose intolerance and the biochemical abnormalities caused by the obesity by increasing the abundance of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, decreasing the oxidative stress and modifying the gut microbiota. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Dhanaraj, Anik L; Naik, Dhananjay; Overall, Chris; Matthews, Benjamin F; Rowland, Lisa J

    2007-01-01

    Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG) was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures. PMID:17263892

  13. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data.

    PubMed

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Dhanaraj, Anik L; Naik, Dhananjay; Overall, Chris; Matthews, Benjamin F; Rowland, Lisa J

    2007-01-30

    Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG) was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  14. Effects of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics on Lipid Metabolism, Antioxidative Status, Histopathological Lesions, and Related Gene Expression in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Shituleni, Shituleni Andreas; Mengistu, Berhe Mekonnen; Liu, Yunhuan; Khan, Alam Zeb; Gan, Fang; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Huang, Kehe

    2016-06-01

    A total of 80 female albino mice were randomly allotted into five groups (n = 16) as follows: (A) normal control, (B) high-fat diet (HFD),; (C) HFD + probiotics (P), (D) HFD + sodium selenite (SS), and (E) HFD + selenium-enriched probiotics (SP). The selenium content of diets in groups A, B, C, D, and E was 0.05, 0.05, 0.05, 0.3, and 0.3 μg/g, respectively. The amount of probiotics contained in groups C and E was similar (Lactobacillus acidophilus 0.25 × 10(11)/mL and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.25 × 10(9)/mL colony-forming units (CFU)). The high-fat diet was composed of 15 % lard, 1 % cholesterol, 0.3 % cholic acid, and 83.7 % basal diet. At the end of the 4-week experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for the measurements of lipid metabolism, antioxidative status, histopathological lesions, and related gene expressions. The result shows that HFD significantly increased the body weights and liver damages compared to control, while P, SS, or SP supplementation attenuated the body weights and liver damages in mice. P, SS, or SP supplementation also significantly reversed the changes of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein (TP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels induced by HFD. Generally, adding P, SS, or SP up-regulated mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase II (ACAT2), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and down-regulated mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) involved in lipid metabolism. Among the group

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Almond-enriched, Hypocaloric Diet on Liver Function Tests in Overweight/Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Abazarfard, Zohreh; Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Salehi, Mousa; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gradual weight reduction has been shown to be associated with improvements in liver enzymes. However, some evidence demonstrated that liver enzymes may transiently increase immediately after a diet-induced weight loss. Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effects of a hypocaloric, almond-enriched diet (AED) compared with a hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) on liver function tests in the context of a three-month weight reduction program in overweight/obese women. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with ID number of IRCT2013062313751N1. Overweight and obese Iranian women [n = 108; age = 42.7 y, body mass index = 29.6 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to consume an AED or NFD. The carefully planned hypocaloric diets were identical for both groups except for the AED group who consumed 50 grams of almonds daily for three months. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory measurements including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed before and immediately after the intervention. Results: Of 108 participants, 50 women in AED group and 50 women in NFD group completed the protocol of the study (response rate: 92.6 %). The AED led to a median weight loss of 3.79 kg (interquartile range: 4.4 kg). Significant decreases within AED and NFD were observed in ALT (-16.6 ± 16.3 and -11.7 ± 16.8, P < 0.001, respectively). Similar significant decreases were observed in AST (-13.6 ± 15.7 and -7.7 ± 16.1; P < 0.001, respectively). The decrease in GGT was also significant in both groups (-11.4 ± 21.6 and -6.2 ± 19.8; P < 0.001 respectively). ALT, AST and GGT decreased significantly in the AED group compared to the NFD group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: AED improved liver enzymes in obese women. However, mild, transient increases in ALT and AST values can be observed immediately after

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Almond-enriched, Hypocaloric Diet on Liver Function Tests in Overweight/Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Abazarfard, Zohreh; Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Salehi, Mousa; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-03-01

    Gradual weight reduction has been shown to be associated with improvements in liver enzymes. However, some evidence demonstrated that liver enzymes may transiently increase immediately after a diet-induced weight loss. This study was designed to assess the effects of a hypocaloric, almond-enriched diet (AED) compared with a hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) on liver function tests in the context of a three-month weight reduction program in overweight/obese women. This randomized controlled clinical trial was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with ID number of IRCT2013062313751N1. Overweight and obese Iranian women [n = 108; age = 42.7 y, body mass index = 29.6 kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to consume an AED or NFD. The carefully planned hypocaloric diets were identical for both groups except for the AED group who consumed 50 grams of almonds daily for three months. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory measurements including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed before and immediately after the intervention. Of 108 participants, 50 women in AED group and 50 women in NFD group completed the protocol of the study (response rate: 92.6 %). The AED led to a median weight loss of 3.79 kg (interquartile range: 4.4 kg). Significant decreases within AED and NFD were observed in ALT (-16.6 ± 16.3 and -11.7 ± 16.8, P < 0.001, respectively). Similar significant decreases were observed in AST (-13.6 ± 15.7 and -7.7 ± 16.1; P < 0.001, respectively). The decrease in GGT was also significant in both groups (-11.4 ± 21.6 and -6.2 ± 19.8; P < 0.001 respectively). ALT, AST and GGT decreased significantly in the AED group compared to the NFD group (P < 0.001). AED improved liver enzymes in obese women. However, mild, transient increases in ALT and AST values can be observed immediately after an NFD in women.

  17. Effect of a long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on adipose tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Freret, Sandrine; Maillard, Virginie; Labas, Valérie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Hivelin, Celine; Dupont, Joëlle; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish oil supplement has an effect on adipose tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows were supplemented with either long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; protected fish oil) or control PUFA (n-6; toasted soybeans) for 2mo after calving (n=23 per diet). These cows showed no difference in milk production or metabolic parameters, but exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in early embryo mortality rate after artificial insemination. We hypothesized that, in addition to this effect, modifications in adipose tissue (AT) gene expression and lipid profiles would occur in response to diet. Subcutaneous AT samples were thus collected from the dewlaps of n-3 and n-6 dairy cows at 1mo antepartum, and 1wk, 2mo, and 5mo postpartum for the analysis of lipids and gene expression. Lipid profiles were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in both positive and negative modes. We found 37 lipid species in the 200 to 1,200 m/z range, which differed between the n-3 and control groups, suggesting that the n-3 supplement affected the lipid composition through the enrichment of lipids integrating long-chain PUFA from fish oil sources: eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Moreover, a decrease in triacylglycerolipids was observed in AT of n-3 supplemented cows. The expression of 44 genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and the adipokine system was assessed by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Hierarchical clustering, according to either postpartum stage or diet, enabled us to group genes exhibiting similar kinetic properties during lactation or by those that varied in similar ways after n-3 supplementation, respectively. Among the genes exhibiting a dietary effect, FABP4, LIPE, CD36, and PLIN1 were overexpressed in n-3 AT samples compared with the control, suggesting an increase in lipolysis due to n-3 supplementation, which

  18. The effect of dietary supplementation with blueberry, alpha-tocopherol or astaxanthin on oxidative stability of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) semen.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nabil; McNiven, Mary A; Richardson, Gavin F

    2006-07-15

    The objective was to determine the oxidative stability of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) semen following dietary supplementation with lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) product, alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol+blueberry product, or alpha-tocopherol+astaxanthin. Sperm lipid peroxidation was initiated by challenging with ferrous sulphate/ascorbic acid (Fe(++)/Asc) at level of 0.04/0.2 mmol/L. Addition of blueberry, alpha-tocopherol, or both to char diets inhibited semen lipid peroxidation by: (a) decreasing the rate of sperm lipid peroxidation, an effect which was more pronounced with alpha-tocopherol treatments; and (b) increasing the antioxidant potential of seminal plasma, based on the lipid peroxidation process of sperm and an in vitro chicken brain tissue model. Dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol had the same effect as the supplementation with alpha-tocopherol alone on inhibiting the lipid peroxidation process of sperm and chicken brain. Catalase-like activity increased significantly in sperm of fish fed alpha-tocopherol, blueberry, or both. There was a negative correlation (r= -0.397, P < 0.05) between catalase-like activity in sperm cells and the rate of sperm lipid peroxidation. Seminal plasma alpha-tocopherol levels increased significantly in fish supplemented with alpha-tocopherol alone or in combination with blueberry or astaxanthin. There were negative correlations between seminal plasma alpha-tocopherol levels and lipid peroxidation rates of sperm cells (r= -0.625, P < 0.01) and brain tissue (r= -0.606, P < 0.01). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of blueberry product or alpha-tocopherol inhibited lipid peroxidation in Arctic char semen. Further experiments are needed to test the effect of dietary blueberry and antioxidants on Arctic char semen quality during liquid and cryopreserved storage.

  19. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and blueberry extracts supplementation improves spatial memory and regulates hippocampal ERK expression in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Long; Yang, Hong Peng; Pang, Wei; Lu, Hao; Hu, Yan Dan; Li, Jing; Lu, Shi Jun; Zhang, Wan Qi; Jiang, Yu Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption on postprandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kay, Colin D; Holub, Bruce J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), a concentrated source of non-nutritive antioxidant phytochemicals, would enhance postprandial serum antioxidant status in healthy human subjects. A single-blinded crossover study was performed in a group of eight middle-aged male subjects (38-54 years). Subjects consumed a high-fat meal and a control supplement followed 1 week later by the same high-fat meal supplemented with 100.0 g freeze-dried wild blueberry powder. Upon brachial vein catheterization, fasting and postprandial serum samples were taken sequentially and analysed for lipids and glucose and for serum antioxidant status. Serum antioxidant status was determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and the total antioxidant status (TAS) assay. The wild-blueberry treatment was associated with a significant treatment effect as determined by the ORAC assay (water-soluble fraction ORAC(perchloric acid (PCA)), P=0.04). Significant increases in serum antioxidant status above the controls were observed at 1 h (ORAC(PCA) (8.5 % greater), P=0.02; TAS (4.5 % greater), P=0.05), and 4 h (ORAC(total) (15.0 % greater), P=0.009; ORAC(acetone) (16.0 % greater), P=0.007) post-consumption of the high-fat meal. In conclusion, the consumption of wild blueberries, a food source with high in vitro antioxidant properties, is associated with a diet-induced increase in ex vivo serum antioxidant status. It has been suggested that increasing the antioxidant status of serum may result in the reduced risk of many chronic degenerative diseases.

  1. Supplementation of the Diet with High-Viscosity Beta-Glucan Results in Enrichment for Lactobacilli in the Rat Cecum

    PubMed Central

    Snart, Jennifer; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Grayson, Teresa; Lay, Christophe; Zhang, Haiyan; Allison, Gwen E.; Laverdiere, Julie K.; Temelli, Feral; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; Bell, Rhonda; Tannock, Gerald W.

    2006-01-01

    BBn (BioBreeding) rats were fed casein-based diets supplemented with barley flour, oatmeal flour, cellulose, or barley β-glucans of high [HV] or low viscosity [LV] in order to measure the prebiotic effects of these different sources of dietary fiber. The dietary impact on the composition of the cecal microbiota was determined by the generation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences. The DGGE profiles produced from the cecal microbiota of rats within each dietary group were similar, but consensus profiles generated from pooled bacterial DNAs showed differences between rat groups. Animals fed HV glucans (HV-fed rats) had DGGE consensus profiles that were 30% dissimilar from those of the other rat groups. A 16S rRNA gene fragment that was more conspicuous in the profiles of HV-fed animals than in those of cellulose-fed rats had sequence identity with Lactobacillus acidophilus. Measurements of L. acidophilus rRNA abundance (DNA-RNA hybridization), the preparation of cloned 16S rRNA gene libraries, and the enumeration of Lactobacillus cells (fluorescent in situ hybridization) showed that lactobacilli formed a greater proportion of the cecal microbiota in HV-fed rats. In vitro experiments confirmed that some lactobacilli utilize oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization, 3 or 4) present in β-glucan hydrolysates. The results of this study have relevance to the use of purified β-glucan products as dietary supplements for human consumption. PMID:16517639

  2. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors) in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v), and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days)] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  3. Fermented blueberry juice extract and its specific fractions have an anti-adipogenic effect in 3 T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villavicencio, Mayra L; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Matar, Chantal; Alarcón Aguilar, Francisco J; Escobar Villanueva, Maria Del Carmen; Haddad, Pierre S

    2017-01-06

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic status worldwide. Wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is a plant of the North American Aboriginal traditional pharmacopeia with antidiabetic potential, especially when it is fermented with Serratia vaccinii. A phytochemical fractionation scheme was used to identify potential bioactive compounds as confirmed by HPLC retention times and UV-Vis spectra. 3 T3-L1 cells were differentiated for 7 days with either Normal Blueberry Extract (NBE), Fermented Blueberry Extract (FBE/F1), seven fractions and four pure compounds. Triglyceride content was measured. Examination of selected intracellular signalling components (p-Akt, p-AMPK) and transcriptional factors (SREBP-1c and PPARγ) was carried out by Western blot analysis. The inhibitory effect of FBE/F1 on adipocyte triglyceride accumulation was attributed to total phenolic (F2) and chlorogenic acid enriched (F3-2) fractions that both inhibited by 75%. Pure compounds catechol (CAT) and chlorogenic acid (CA) also inhibited adipogenesis by 70%. Treatment with NBE, F1, F3-2, CAT and CA decreased p-AKT, whereas p-AMPK tended to increase with F1. The expression of SREBP1-c was not significantly modulated. In contrast, PPARγ decreased in all experimental groups that inhibited adipogenesis. These results demonstrate that fermented blueberry extract contains compounds with anti-adipogenic activity, which can serve to standardize nutraceutical preparations from fermented blueberry juice and to develop novel compounds with anti-obesity properties.

  4. Effects of fenfluramine, 8-OH-DPAT, and tryptophan-enriched diet on the high-ethanol intake by rats bred for susceptibility to stress.

    PubMed

    West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Weiss, Jay M

    2011-12-01

    The swim-test susceptible (SUS) line of rats has been bred in our laboratory for the characteristic of reduced motor activity in the swim test following exposure to an acute stressor. Testing of multiple generations of SUS rats has also revealed that they consume large amounts of ethanol voluntarily. As reported for lines of rats that show a propensity for high-ethanol intake, the SUS rats show evidence of low serotonergic function. Because serotonergic function has often been shown to be involved in the regulation of alcohol consumption, here we examined the effects of manipulations of serotonin transmission on intake of ethanol by SUS rats. Fenfluramine, a serotonin-releasing drug, was injected at various doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0mg/kg) twice per day and ethanol intake was measured using a two-bottle free-choice method. The 8-OH-DPAT, a 5‑HT(1A) agonist, was injected at various doses (0.03125, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0mg/kg) before a 1-h session of exposure to ethanol (single-bottle test, water available the other 23h per day). A diet enriched with 3% tryptophan (TRP), the amino acid precursor for serotonin synthesis, was administered in a restricted feeding schedule (5h per day) with ethanol intake measured the last 4h. Fenfluramine decreased ethanol intake at all doses tested. The 8-OH-DPAT increased ethanol intake at lower doses, presumably acting at autoreceptors, which inhibit serotonergic neurons, and decreased intake at higher doses, presumably acting at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. TRP-enriched diet also significantly decreased ethanol intake. Food and water intake were less or unaffected by these three manipulations. With all three manipulations, ethanol intake remained suppressed one or more days after the day of tests that decreased ethanol intake. These data suggest that SUS rats, like many other lines/strains of rodents that consume large amounts of alcohol, show an inverse relationship between serotonin transmission and

  5. Resistant starch type 4-enriched diet lowered blood cholesterols and improved body composition in a double blind controlled cross-over intervention.

    PubMed

    Nichenametla, Sailendra N; Weidauer, Lee A; Wey, Howard E; Beare, Tianna M; Specker, Bonny L; Dey, Moul

    2014-06-01

    A metabolic health crisis is evident as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4), a prebiotic fiber, in comprehensive management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. This study examined the effects of a blinded exchange of RS4-enriched flour (30% v/v) with regular/control flour (CF) diet on multiple MetS comorbidities. In a double blind (participants-investigators), placebo-controlled, cluster cross-over intervention (n = 86, age≥18, 2-12 week interventions, 2-week washout) in the United States, individuals were classified as having MetS (With-MetS) or not (No-MetS) following International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-criteria. RS4 consumption compared with CF resulted in 7.2% (p = 0.002) lower mean total cholesterol, 5.5% (p = 0.04) lower non-HDL, and a 12.8% (p < 0.001) lower HDL cholesterol in the With-MetS group. No-MetS individuals had a 2.6% (p = 0.02) smaller waist circumference and 1.5% (p = 0.03) lower percent body fat following RS4 intervention compared to CF. A small but significant 1% increase in fat-free mass was observed in all participants combined (p = 0.02). No significant effect of RS4 was observed for glycemic variables and blood pressures. RS4 consumption improved dyslipidemia and body composition. Incorporation of RS4 in routine diets could offer an effective strategy for public cardio-metabolic health promotion.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid improves glucose utilization in the soleus muscle of rats fed linoleic acid-enriched and linoleic acid-deprived diets.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Ana C; Hirabara, Sandro; Sain, Juliana; Latorre, María E; González, Marcela; Curi, Rui; Bernal, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The effect that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has on glucose metabolism in experimental animals depends on nutritional conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that CLA improves glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in rats fed different levels of dietary linoleic acid (LA). We investigated the effect of CLA on the uptake, incorporation, and oxidation of glucose and glycogen synthesis in the soleus muscle of rats who were fed either LA-enriched (+LA) or LA-deprived (-LA) diets, under basal conditions and in the absence or presence of insulin and/or palmitate. For 60 days, male Wistar rats were fed 1 of 4 diets consisting of +LA, -LA, or +LA and -LA supplemented with CLA. Nutritional parameters and soleus glucose metabolism were evaluated. Under basal conditions, CLA enhanced soleus glucose oxidation, whereas increased glucose uptake and incorporation were observed in the -LA + CLA group. Conjugated linoleic acid-supplemented rats presented a lower response to insulin on glucose metabolism compared with non-CLA-supplemented rats. Palmitate partially inhibited the effect of insulin on the uptake and incorporation of glucose in the +LA and -LA groups but not in the +LA + CLA or -LA + CLA groups. Dietary CLA increased glucose utilization under basal conditions and prevented the palmitate-induced inhibition of glucose uptake and incorporation that is stimulated by insulin. The beneficial effects of CLA were better in LA-deprived rats. Conjugated linoleic acid may also have negative effects, such as lowering the insulin response capacity. These results demonstrate the complexities of the interactions between CLA, palmitate, and/or insulin to differentially modify muscle glucose utilization and show that the magnitude of the response is related to the dietary LA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diets enriched in whey or casein improve energy balance and prevent morbidity and renal damage in salt-loaded and high-fat-fed spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arashdeep; Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C; Yee, Nicholas J; Knight, Cameron G; Tuor, Ursula I; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2016-11-01

    High-fat diets induce obesity and increase risks of diabetes and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Whey- or casein-enriched diets decrease food intake and weight gain; however, their cardiovascular and renal benefits are unclear. We determined whether whey- and casein-enriched diets improve energy balance and are protective against renal damage and morbidity associated with stroke in an obesogenic and hypertensive experimental setting. We also assessed whether the hypophagic effects of these diets were due to reduced diet preference. In experiment 1, spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats were randomized to (a) control (CON; 14% kcal protein, 33% fat), (b) whey (WHY; 40% protein, 33% fat), (c) casein (CAS; 40% protein, 33% fat) or (d) chow (CHW; 24% protein, 13% fat) for 12 weeks with 1% salt in drinking water for CON, WHY and CAS groups. Our results demonstrated that both WHY and CAS produced short-term hypophagia, moderately increased energy expenditure and decreased respiratory quotient, body weight and lean mass, with effects of WHY being more prolonged. Further, only WHY decreased fat mass and blood pressure. Importantly, both WHY and CAS prevented morbidity associated with stroke and decreased indices of renal inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) and damage (osteopontin, renal lesions). In experiment 2, following four initial conditioning trials, the preference for CON, WHY or CAS diet was determined. Both WHY and CAS decreased food intake during conditioning and decreased preference. In conclusion, diets enriched in whey or casein improved energy balance, increased survival and prevented renal damage in salt-loaded and high-fat-fed spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 16324 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... blueberries to determine whether they favor continuance of the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information... 26, 2011. To be eligible to vote in this referendum, blueberry producers and importers must...

  9. 75 FR 7985 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal... 36955), to amend the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) by increasing the... blueberries annually from $12 to $24 per ton. The Order is administered by the U.S. Highbush Blueberry...

  10. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O iii]/[O ii] ∼ 10–60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}ȯ )∼ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  11. NMR methodologies in the analysis of blueberries.

    PubMed

    Capitani, Donatella; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Delfini, Maurizio; Vista, Silvia; Antiochia, Riccarda; Proietti, Noemi; Bubici, Salvatore; Ferrante, Gianni; Carradori, Simone; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Mannina, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    An NMR analytical protocol based on complementary high and low field measurements is proposed for blueberry characterization. Untargeted NMR metabolite profiling of blueberries aqueous and organic extracts as well as targeted NMR analysis focused on anthocyanins and other phenols are reported. Bligh-Dyer and microwave-assisted extractions were carried out and compared showing a better recovery of lipidic fraction in the case of microwave procedure. Water-soluble metabolites belonging to different classes such as sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and phenolic compounds, as well as metabolites soluble in organic solvent such as triglycerides, sterols, and fatty acids, were identified. Five anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, and petunidin-3-glucoside) and 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl quercetin were identified in solid phase extract. The water status of fresh and withered blueberries was monitored by portable NMR and fast-field cycling NMR. (1) H depth profiles, T2 transverse relaxation times and dispersion profiles were found to be sensitive to the withering.

  12. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Kalea, Anastasia Z; Lamari, Fotini N; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Cordopatis, Paul; Schuschke, Dale A; Karamanos, Nikos K; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy J

    2006-02-01

    It has been documented that increased intake of polyphenols may provide protection against coronary heart disease and stroke. Blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) are one of the richest sources of antioxidants among fruits and vegetables. Phenolic compounds from berry extracts inhibit human low density lipoprotein and liposome oxidation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are structural components of aortas with great structural diversity. Their interaction with compounds such as enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, proteins and lipoproteins and their subsequent role in degenerative diseases has been documented. We investigated the effects of a diet rich in blueberries on the content and structure of GAGs. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (C) or a blueberry (B) diet for 13 weeks. Aortic tissue GAGs were isolated with papain digestion, alkaline borohydride treatment and anion-exchange chromatography. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and treatment of the fractions with specific lyases revealed the presence of three GAG populations, i.e. hyaluronan (HA), heparan sulfate (HS) and galactosaminoglycans (GalAGs). Disaccharide composition was determined by high-performance capillary electrophoresis following enzymatic degradation. A 13% higher amount of total GAGs in aortas of B-fed rats was attributed to a higher content of GalAGs (67%). Determination of the sulfated disaccharides showed an overall lower concentration of oversulfated disaccharides in both HS and GalAG populations in the aortas of the B group. Our results demonstrate for the first time that a diet rich in blueberries results in structural alterations in rat aortic tissue GAGs. These changes may affect cellular signal transduction pathways and could have major consequences for the biological function of GAG molecules within the vascular environment.

  13. Enrichment of Animal Diets with Essential Oils—A Great Perspective on Improving Animal Performance and Quality Characteristics of the Derived Products

    PubMed Central

    Simitzis, Panagiotis E.

    2017-01-01

    Food industry operates in a competitive market and is continually facing challenges to retain or even increase its market share. Consistent high-quality animal products are required to maintain consumer confidence and consumption. Enrichment of foods with bioactive compounds such as the essential oils appears to improve quality characteristics of the derived products and protects consumers against oxidation and bacterial spoilage effects. Synthetic additives are nowadays questioned due to their suspected carcinogenic potential, and therefore extensive research has been undertaken to identify safe and efficient alternatives. Aromatic plants and their respective essential oils belong to natural products and are generally used in pig, poultry, rabbit and ruminant nutrition. The inclusion of essential oils in livestock diets is nowadays becoming a common practice, since dietary supplementation has been proven a simple and convenient strategy to effectively inhibit the oxidative reactions or microbial spoilage at their localized sites. A wide range of essential oils contain bioactive compounds that have the potential to act as multifunctional feed supplements for animals including effects on growth performance, digestive system, pathogenic bacterial growth and lipid oxidation. However, further studies are needed to clarify their exact action and establish their regular use in animal production. PMID:28930250

  14. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  15. Winter shading of blueberry plants in the southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Central Florida, southern highbush blueberries are treated with hydrogen cyanamide to replace lack of chilling and enhance flowering and fruiting. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of repeated applications of processed kaolin particle and flat-top shade structure on blueberry p...

  16. Blueberry Splitting Tendencies as Predicted by Fruit Firmness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To improve the quality of berries during handling and shipping, blueberry breeders have strived to develop a fruit that is firm in texture. However previous studies show blueberry cultivars with firmer fruit were more susceptible to splitting. This study was further investigates the correlation be...

  17. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Dissemination of Blueberry Scorch Virus Via Vegetatively Propagated Nursery Stock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) is one of the most pervasive pathogens of highbush blueberry. BlScV exhibits a latent period between infection and symptom expression that may extend to years. The virus is vectored by aphids and typically spreads in clustered patterns. However, we have observed BlS...

  19. Blueberry Trials on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula: First Year Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In June 2009, 9 plants each of three highbush and six half-high blueberry cultivars were planted at test plots on two commercial farms on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. The purpose of the trials was to determine if domestic blueberry plants could survive and produce crops in Southcentral Alaska. In Octob...

  20. Chemical characteristics of custom compost for highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent development of markets for blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) produced under Organic certification has stimulated interest in production of composts specifically tailored to its edaphic requirements. Blueberry is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching and incorpo...

  1. Evaluation of alternative mulches for blueberry over five production seasons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching with organic matter (OM). Until recently, most blueberry plantings in our region were grown with a mulch of douglas-fir sawdust, with additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied to comp...

  2. Blueberries and Human Health: A Review of Current Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Renewed interest in the health functionality of blueberry (i.e., Vaccinium species with blue surface color) has led to research in several areas including neuroscience, cardiovascular health, cancer chemoprevention and aging. This article reviews these new directions in blueberry research, with emph...

  3. Impact of Wide Hybridization in Southern Highbush Blueberry Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of inter-specific hybridization in blueberry breeding has contributed to incorporate novel traits from wild germplasm and expand the geographic limits of highbush blueberry production. The objectives of this study were: 1) to estimate the impact of wide hybridization on inbreeding, h...

  4. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  5. Molecular characterization and population structure of Blueberry mosaic associated virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry mosaic disease was first described in the 1950s but the causal agent has not been characterized to date. Next generation sequencing was employed in the identification of the causal agent and an undescribed ophiovirus, tentatively named as Blueberry mosaic associated virus (BlMaV), was dete...

  6. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  7. Influence of an ω3-fatty acid-enriched enteral diet with and without added glutamine on the metabolic response to injury in a rat model of prolonged acute catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Gabrielle; Bortolotti, Murielle; Neveux, Nathalie; Gusmini, Xavier; Nakib, Samir; Sarfati, Gilles; Cynober, Luc; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2017-10-01

    In critically ill patients, acute injury alters gut function, causing greater risk for sepsis and malnutrition. Peptide-enriched diets may promote nitrogen absorption, whereas ω3-enriched diets reduce alterations in gut barrier function. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a peptide- and ω3-enriched diet on the metabolic response to injury and the gut barrier function in a model of prolonged catabolism in the rat. Given the intestinal trophic effect of glutamine, we tested for a synergistic effect of glutamine. We randomized 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats (250 g) into four groups to enterally receive a standard high-protein diet (S), or a peptide- and ω3-enriched diet either alone (IMN) or supplemented with glutamine and alanine supplied as dipeptide (DIP) or as free amino acids (AAs) for 4 d. Metabolic response to injury was induced by turpentine injections on days 1 and 3. At sacrifice, nutritional and inflammatory biomarkers and intestinal and liver function were assessed. Weight gain (+45-62%) and nitrogen balance (+33-56%) were significantly higher in all groups than in the S group. In jejunal mucosa, total glutathione was significantly higher (+20-30%) and myeloperoxidase activity significantly lower in all groups compared with the S group. Hepatic triacylglycerol content was significantly lower in the AA (0.30 ± 0.04 μM/g) and DIP (0.43 ± 0.08 μM/g) groups than in the S group (0.71 ± 0.08 μM/g). In this model of prolonged catabolism, compared with a standard diet, a peptide- and ω3-enriched diet improved metabolic response to injury, with better nitrogen balance and weight recovery, and decreased intestinal myeloperoxidase activity. Only marginal additional effects of glutamine supplementation were observed with decreased hepatic fat content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying blueberry germplasm that is slow to get Blueberry shock virus in the Pacific Northwest United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) is a serious problem in blueberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. Infection occurs during bloom and the virus moves into other parts of the plant in an uneven but steady manner and may take several years to become fully systemic in mat...

  9. Blueberry fruit drop associated virus: A new member of the family Caulimoviridae isolated from blueberry exhibiting fruit drop symptoms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study describes the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new DNA virus isolated from ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry plants named Blueberry fruit drop associated virus (BFDaV). Infected bushes lose nearly 100% of their fruit prior to harvest, and in springtime young leaves and flowers develop ...

  10. Resveratrol in raw and baked blueberries and bilberries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Mary M; Yu, Chongwoo; Toma, R B; Cho, Sool Yeon; Reiboldt, Wendy; Lee, Jacqueline; van Breemen, Richard B

    2003-09-24

    Resveratrol in the fruits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), the lowbush "wild" blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade), and the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were measured using a new assay based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS assay provided lower limits of detection than previous methods for resveratrol measurement, 90 fmol of trans-resveratrol injected on-column, and a linear standard curve spanning >3 orders of magnitude. The recoveries of resveratrol from blueberries spiked with 1.8, 3.6, or 36 ng/g were 91.5 +/- 4.5, 95.6 +/- 6.5, and 88.0 +/- 3.6%, respectively. trans-Resveratrol but not cis-resveratrol was detected in both blueberry and bilberry samples. The highest levels of trans-resvertatrol in these specimens were 140.0 +/- 29.9 pmol/g in highbush blueberries from Michigan and 71.0 +/- 15.0 pmol/g in bilberries from Poland. However, considerable regional variation was observed; highbush blueberries from British Columbia contained no detectable resveratrol. Because blueberries and bilberries are often consumed after cooking, the effect of baking on resveratrol content was investigated. After 18 min of heating at 190 degrees C, between 17 and 46% of the resveratrol had degraded in the various Vaccinium species. Therefore, the resveratrol content of baked or heat-processed blueberries or bilberries should be expected to be lower than in the raw fruit. Although blueberries and bilberries were found to contain resveratrol, the level of this chemoprotective compound in these fruits was <10% that reported for grapes. Furthermore, cooking or heat processing of these berries will contribute to the degradation of resveratrol.

  11. The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched Defatted Rapeseed and/or Vitamin E Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rýdlová, Michaela; Růnová, Karolína; Fučíková, Alena; Hakenová, Anna; Mlejnek, Petr; Zídek, Václav; Tremlová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Kaňa, Antonín; Zídková, Jarmila; Melčová, Magdalena; Truhlářová, Klára; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The response of nutrient status and biochemical processes in (i) Wistar and (ii) spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats upon dietary intake of selenium- (Se-) enriched defatted rapeseed (DRS) and/or vitamin E fortification was examined to assess the health benefit of DRS in animal nutrition. Twenty-four individuals of each type of rat were used: The control group was fed with an untreated diet (Diet A). In Diets B and C, soybean meal was replaced with defatted DRS, which comprised 14% of the total diet. The selenized DRS application resulted in ~3-fold increase of Se content in the diet. Diet C was also fortified with the addition of vitamin E, increasing the natural content by 30%. The Se content of the blood and kidneys tended to increase in the DRS groups, where the changes were significant (P < 0.05) only in the case of SHR rats. The iodine (I) content and the proportion of iodide in rat livers indicated a lower transformation rate of iodide into organoiodine compounds compared to the control. Slight and ambiguous alterations in the antioxidative response of the rat were observed in the DRS groups, but the addition of vitamin E to the diet helped to moderate these effects. PMID:28638832

  12. Effect of dietary blueberry pomace on selected metabolic factors associated with high fructose feeding in growing Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Wilkes, Samuel E; Rogers, Theodore J; Prior, Ronald L

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the protective effect of feeding extruded and unextruded blueberry pomace (BBP) on selected metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome in a model of high fructose (HF)-fed growing Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatments were as follows: (1) control (modified AIN-based diet); (2) HF diet (AIN diet with 58% fructose); (3) HF diet with 1.5% unextruded BBP; (4) HF diet with 1.5% extruded BBP; (5) HF diet with 3% unextruded BBP; and (6) HF diet with 3% extruded BBP. Compared with the control, HF feeding increased fasting plasma insulin and fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides as well as homeostatic scores of insulin resistance and β-cell function, but not weight gain, diet intake and efficiency, abdominal fat, oral glucose tolerance, and fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, cholesterol, and leptin levels. Inclusion of unextruded or extruded BBP was effective in minimizing or ameliorating the fructose-induced metabolic anomalies, except postprandial plasma triglycerides, especially at 3% of the diet. In addition, unextruded or extruded BBP at 3% of the diet was also able to reduce plasma cholesterol and abdominal fat relative to the HF control, which may impart additional health benefits. Compared with the control, inclusion of unextruded or extruded BBP at both 1.5% and 3% resulted in lower total fat weight, and animals fed a diet supplemented with 3% unextruded BBP in fasting state or 3% unextruded BBP in fed state had lower leptin levels than the control. This is the first study demonstrating the beneficial effects of feeding blueberry pomace on health.

  13. Blueberry necrotic ring blotch, a new blueberry disease caused by a virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel symptoms have been observed on southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Affected plants show irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottoms of leaves. Diagnostic tests failed to isolate a...

  14. Overexpression of a blueberry-derived CBF enhances cold tolerance in a southern highbush blueberry cultivar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry cultivars are subject to freezing damage in the winter and early spring. C-repeat binding factor (CBF) genes are transcription factors known to induce the expression of genes associated with cold acclimation and freezing tolerance. A CBF-encoding gene (BB-CBF) was isolated from the northe...

  15. First report of blueberry mosaic disease caused by blueberry mosaic associated virus in Kentucky

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2011, a grower in Casey County Kentucky observed persistent yellow, green, and red mosaic patterns on leaves of highbush blueberry plants. Twenty-three randomly-scattered ‘Bluecrop’ plants out of approximately 1,400 5-year-old plants showed symptoms, with coverage ranging from 5% to 100%. Asympto...

  16. Flaxseed enriched diet-mediated reduction in ovarian cancer severity is correlated to the reduction of prostaglandin E(2) in laying hen ovaries.

    PubMed

    Eilati, Erfan; Hales, Karen; Zhuge, Yan; Ansenberger Fricano, Kristine; Yu, Rui; van Breemen, Richard B; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2013-09-01

    Prevention of ovarian cancer is the best approach for reducing the impact of this deadly disease. The laying hen is a robust model of spontaneous ovarian cancer that recapitulates the human disease. Dietary intervention with flaxseed, the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids (OM-3FAs) and phytoestrogen lignans, demonstrate the potential for effective prevention and amelioration of ovarian cancer by targeting inflammatory prostaglandin pathways. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Our objective was to investigate the effect of flaxseed supplementation for one year on ovarian cancer and correlate its effects to expression of COX enzymes and concentrations of prostaglandins. White Leghorn hens were fed 10% flaxseed-enriched or standard diet for one year. The severity of ovarian cancer was determined by gross pathology and histology. COX-1 and COX-2 localization and protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 and PGE3 concentrations in ovaries were measured by IHC, western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and LC-MS-MS, respectively. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in late stage ovarian tumors in the flaxseed-fed hens compared with the control diet-fed hens. In correlation with decreased ovarian cancer severity, concentrations of PGE2 and expression of COX-2 were diminished in ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. PGE3 concentrations were below the level of detection. The results demonstrated that in normal ovaries, COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer surrounding the follicles and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) whereas COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle. Extensive COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression was found throughout the ovarian carcinoma. Our findings suggest that the flaxseed-mediated reduction in the severity of ovarian cancer in hens is correlated to the reduction in PGE2 in

  17. Modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagy and expression of Nrf2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats fed with açaí-enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Bielinski, Donna F; Carey, Amanda; Schauss, Alexander G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Açaí (Euterpe spp.), an exotic palm fruit, has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants with wide pharmacological and nutritional value. In this study, two different species of açaí pulp extracts, naturally grown in two distinct regions of the Amazon, namely, Euterpe oleracea Mart. (habitat: Brazilian floodplains of the Amazon) and Euterpe precatoria Mart. (habitat: Bolivian Amazon), were studied for their effects on brain health and cognition. Neurochemical analyses were performed in critical brain regions associated with memory and cognition of 19-month-old açaí-fed rats, in whom the cognitive benefits of açaí had been established. Results indicated significant reductions (P< 0.05) in prooxidant NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in açaí-fed rats. Measurement of Nrf2 expression, a transcription factor for antioxidant enzymes, and a possible link between oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and autophagy mechanisms, indicated significant overexpression (P<0.005) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the açaí-fed rats. Furthermore, significant activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes GST and SOD were also observed in the açaí-fed animals when compared to control. Analysis of autophagy markers such as p62, phospho-mTOR, beclin1 and MAP1B-LC3 revealed differential expression in frontal cortex and hippocampus, mostly indicating an upregulation in the açaí-fed rats. In general, results were more profound for EP than EO in hippocampus as well as frontal cortex. Therefore, an açaí-enriched diet could possibly modulate Nrf2, which is known to modulate the intracellular redox status, thereby regulating the ubiquitin-proteosomal pathway, ultimately affecting cognitive function in the aging brain.

  18. Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Nikul K.; Ross, Alastair B.; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I.; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling. Biological processes (BPs) related to the immune response, including T-cell receptor signaling pathway, T-cell differentiation and co-stimulation, myeloid dendritic cell differentiation, antigen presentation and processing, and the toll like receptor pathway were downregulated by HFD-ED compared with control and HFD-CO. These findings were supported by the down-regulation of NF-κB in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO fed mice. Lower phospholipid arachidonic acid levels in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO, and control mice suggest attenuation of pathways via prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The HFD-ED also upregulated BPs related to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis compared with control and HFD-CO fed mice. Our findings suggest that EPA and DHA down-regulate the splenic immune response induced by HFD-CO, supporting earlier work that the spleen is a target organ for the anti-inflammatory effects of these n-3 fatty acids. PMID:28075380

  19. A new ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Thekke-Veetil, Thanuja; Ho, Thien; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2014-08-30

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new ophiovirus in symptomatic plants. The virus was detected in all BMD samples collected from several production areas of North America and was thus named blueberry mosaic associated virus. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by high bootstrap values, places the virus within the family Ophioviridae. The genome organization resembles that of citrus psorosis virus, the type member of the genus Ophiovirus. The implications of this discovery in BMD control and blueberry virus certification schemes are also discussed.

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT IN BLUEBERRIES IS INFLUENCED BY UV ILLUMINATION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The levels of phytochemicals in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C light. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cy...

  1. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION RATES AND CROP COEFFICIENTS FOR LOWBUSH BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium angustifolium)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) yield is strongly influenced by water availability; however, growers need more specific irrigation recommendations in order to optimize water use efficiency. Weighing lysimeters were used to determine actual evapotranspiration (ET) rates of lowbush bluebe...

  2. Phenolic compounds from blueberries can inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Weiguang; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard; Akoh, Casimir C

    2005-09-07

    Research has shown that diets rich in phenolic compounds may be associated with lower risks of several chronic diseases including cancer. This study systematically evaluated the bioactivities of phenolic compounds in rabbiteye blueberries and assessed their potential antiproliferation and apoptosis induction effects using two colon cancer cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2. Polyphenols in three blueberry cultivars, Briteblue, Tifblue, and Powderblue, were extracted and freeze-dried. The extracts were further separated into phenolic acids, tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins using an HLB cartridge and LH20 column. Some individual phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified by HPLC with >90% purity in anthocyanin fractions. The dried extracts and fractions were added to the cell culture medium to test for antiproliferation activities and induction of apoptosis. Flavonol and tannin fractions resulted in 50% inhibition of cell proliferation at concentrations of 70-100 and 50-100 microg/mL in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. The phenolic acid fraction showed relatively lower bioactivities with 50% inhibition at approximately 1000 microg/mL. The greatest antiproliferation effect among all four fractions was from the anthocyanin fractions. Both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell growth was significantly inhibited by >50% by the anthocyanin fractions at concentrations of 15-50 microg/mL. Anthocyanin fractions also resulted in 2-7 times increases in DNA fragmentation, indicating the induction of apoptosis. The effective dosage levels are close to the reported range of anthocyanin concentrations in rat plasma. These findings suggest that blueberry intake may reduce colon cancer risk.

  3. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Juanjuan; Ren, Tingting; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effects of the combination of blueberry juice and probiotics on the apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Healthy C57BL/6J mice were used in the control group (CG). AFLD mice models were established with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet and evenly assigned to six groups with different treatments: MG (model), SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA]), BJ (blueberry juice), BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA), BJP (blueberry juice and probiotics), and BJPSI (blueberry juice, probiotics, and SIRT1 siRNA). Hepatic tissue was observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Oil Red O (ORO) staining. Biochemical indexes of the blood serum were analyzed. The levels of SIRT1, caspase-3, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), FasL (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6), BAX, and Bcl-2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. HE and ORO staining showed that the hepatocytes were heavily destroyed with large lipid droplets in MG and SI groups, while the severity was reduced in the CG, BJ, and BJP groups (P<0.05). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were increased in BJ and BJP groups when compared with the model group (P<0.05). In contrast, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were lower in BJ and BJP groups than in the model group (P<0.05). The level of SIRT1 was increased, while the levels of FOXO1, phosphorylated FOXO1, acetylated FOXO1, FasL, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2 were decreased in CG, BJ, and BJP groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, SIRT1 silence resulted in increase of the levels of FOXO1, phosphorylated FOXO1, acetylated FOXO1, FasL, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis in AFLD by

  4. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Juanjuan; Ren, Tingting; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of the combination of blueberry juice and probiotics on the apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Methods Healthy C57BL/6J mice were used in the control group (CG). AFLD mice models were established with Lieber–DeCarli ethanol diet and evenly assigned to six groups with different treatments: MG (model), SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA]), BJ (blueberry juice), BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA), BJP (blueberry juice and probiotics), and BJPSI (blueberry juice, probiotics, and SIRT1 siRNA). Hepatic tissue was observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Oil Red O (ORO) staining. Biochemical indexes of the blood serum were analyzed. The levels of SIRT1, caspase-3, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), FasL (tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6), BAX, and Bcl-2 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results HE and ORO staining showed that the hepatocytes were heavily destroyed with large lipid droplets in MG and SI groups, while the severity was reduced in the CG, BJ, and BJP groups (P<0.05). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were increased in BJ and BJP groups when compared with the model group (P<0.05). In contrast, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were lower in BJ and BJP groups than in the model group (P<0.05). The level of SIRT1 was increased, while the levels of FOXO1, phosphorylated FOXO1, acetylated FOXO1, FasL, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2 were decreased in CG, BJ, and BJP groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, SIRT1 silence resulted in increase of the levels of FOXO1, phosphorylated FOXO1, acetylated FOXO1, FasL, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2. Conclusion The combination of blueberry juice and

  5. Mechanism of tolerance of blueberry (Vaccinium sp) to hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied /sup 14/C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone (/sup 14/C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 ..mu..M. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 ..mu..M.

  6. Attenuation in weight gain with high calcium- and dairy-enriched diets is not associated with taste aversion in rats: a comparison with casein, whey, and soy.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2010-10-01

    A systematic evaluation of the effects of calcium (Ca) and protein source on food intake and taste aversion (TA) in rats is lacking. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to determine if Sprague-Dawley rats display TA to standard rat chow supplemented with 2.4% Ca and (2) to determine if short (24-hour) and long-term (weekly) food intake and weight gain are altered when rats are given access to diets containing various protein sources (casein, whey, dairy, or soy). Rats were assigned to one of two diet groups to examine high (2.4%) versus low (0.67%) Ca or to one of four groups to examine taste preference of diets where the sole protein was one of casein, soy, whey, or complete dairy. A crossover design was used to ensure rats consumed all test diets. Food intake and behavioral sequence of satiety were measured. There was no TA to the 2.4% Ca diet or to any protein source. Food intake did not differ between the two Ca diets or between the four protein diets. The dairy diet attenuated weekly weight gain compared to all other diets except whey. Overall, this study suggests that the levels of Ca and types of protein used in previous work addressing changes in body weight in rats do not influence food intake or trigger TA.

  7. Feeding a DHA-enriched diet increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in growing pigs: association with increased skeletal muscle insulin action and local mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Jiang, Shuzhong; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Sun, Haiqing; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-08-01

    Dietary n-3 PUFA have been demonstrated to promote muscle growth in growing animals. In the present study, fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) in the skeletal muscle of growing pigs fed a DHA-enriched (DE) diet (DE treatment) or a soyabean oil (SO) diet (SO treatment) were evaluated in the fed and feed-deprived states. Feeding-induced increases in muscle FSR, as well as the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and protein kinase B, were higher in the DE treatment as indicated by the positive interaction between diet and feeding. In the fed state, the activation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 in the skeletal muscle of pigs on the DE diet was higher than that in pigs on the SO diet (P<0·05). Feeding the DE diet increased muscle insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) expression (P<0·05) and insulin action (as demonstrated by increased insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, P<0·05), resulting in increased IR substrate 1 activation in the fed state. However, no difference in plasma IGF-1 concentration or hepatic IGF-1 expression between the two treatments was associated. The increased IGF-1 expression in the DE treatment was associated with increased mRNA expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and decreased mRNA expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, mRNA expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1), the activation of PTPN1 and the activation of NF-κB in muscle were significantly lower in the DE treatment (P<0·05). The results of the present study suggest that feeding a DE diet increased feeding-induced muscle protein synthesis in growing pigs, and muscle IGF-1 expression and insulin action were involved in this action.

  8. A high-cholesterol diet enriched with polyphenols from Oriental plums (Prunus salicina) improves cognitive function and lowers brain cholesterol levels and neurodegenerative-related protein expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Hui; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2015-05-28

    Ageing accompanied by a decline in cognitive performance may be a result of the long-term effects of oxidative stress on neurologic processes. It has been shown that high-cholesterol contents in the blood and brain may lead to the deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) protein in the brain, which damages brain cells. The present study was designed to observe the effect of polyphenol-rich Oriental plums on cognitive function and cerebral neurodegeneration-related protein expression in mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 5 months. The study consisted of four groups: the control (Ctrl) group, which was fed the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diet; the high cholesterol (HC) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5% cholesterol; the high cholesterol + low Oriental plum (LOP) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5% cholesterol and 2% Oriental plum powder; and the high cholesterol + high Oriental plum (HOP) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5% cholesterol and 5% Oriental plum powder. Measurements of cognitive function were assessed using the Morris water maze, and the mRNA expression of cholesterol hydroxylase (Cyp46), Aβ and β-secretase 1 (BACE1) were analysed. The results showed that cholesterol concentrations in both the blood and the brain were significantly higher in the HC group than in the Ctrl and HOP groups at the end of the trial. The high-cholesterol diet per se produced significant cognitive deficits, which were accompanied by a significantly increased mRNA expression of Cyp46, BACE1, Aβ and 24-hydroxycholesterol in the brain cortex and hippocampus. However, all of these variables were non-significantly increased in the HOP group as compared to the Ctrl group. In conclusion, incorporating polyphenol-enriched Oriental plum into a high-cholesterol diet can ameliorate some of the symptoms of neurodegenerative conditions.

  9. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Ribnicky, David M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0 ± 10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3 ± 10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism. PMID:24001852

  10. The antimicrobial properties of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) fractional components against foodborne pathogens and the conservation of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Alison; Wu, Vivian C H; White, Jennifer; Tadepalli, Shravaini; Andre, Enroe E

    2012-05-01

    The antimicrobial properties of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine which fractional components have antimicrobial effects and which microorganisms are most susceptible to these antimicrobial properties. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics (F2) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3). Fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (F4) and proanthocyanidins (F5) using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was initially screened for antimicrobial properties using agar diffusion assay. Treatments that demonstrated inhibition were further analyzed for inhibition in liquid culture. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using a two-fold dilution series and viable cell counts taken at 0 and 24 h to examine growth reduction. Fraction 3 demonstrated the lowest MICs/MBCs followed by F1, F2, F4, and F5. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible to blueberry fraction treatment, followed by E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium. L. rhamnosus was the least susceptible to each fraction treatment. The results can be applied to the field of preventive medicine, food safety, and enrich the understanding of the health benefits of lowbush blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1).

    PubMed

    Ribnicky, David M; Roopchand, Diana E; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0±10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3±10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in arkansas.

    PubMed

    Clark, J R; Robbins, R T

    1994-12-01

    Research and commercial blueberry plantings were sampled in October 1991 to determine the population densities and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and highbusb (V. corymbosum) blueberry cultivars and the sod middles between the blueberry rows. In the research planting at Clarksville, Arkansas, samples from the highbush cv. Bluecrop, the southern highbush cv. Cooper and Gulf Coast, and the sod middles had similar numbers of total vermiform phytoparasitic nematodes (125-451/250 cm(3) soil), whereas the samples from rabbiteye cv. Climax and Tifblue had significantly lower numbers (4/250 cm(3)). The major nematode species associated with blueberries and sod was Xiphinema americanum. In a research planting at Bald Knob, Arkansas, which contained Bluecrop and rabbiteye cultivars only, samples from Bluecrop and the sod had similar numbers (288 and 334/250 cm(3)), and the rabbiteye samples had significantly lower numbers (6-14/250 cm(3)). Xiphinema americanum was the major species found in the blueberry samples, whereas Mesocriconema ornata was the major species in the sod. Nematode population densities and species distribution in commercial rabbiteye plantings in nine counties in central and southwestern Arkansas varied greatly. The average population density for rabbiteye samples was 129/250 cm(3) and for sod was 577/250 cm(3). Weed infestations in the blueberry rows in the commercial plantings probably increased the population size and species distribution.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool to image neuroinflammation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease--phagocyte influx to the brain is promoted by bilberry-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Virel, Ana; Rehnmark, Anna; Orädd, Greger; Olmedo-Díaz, Sonia; Faergemann, Erik; Strömberg, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Neuroinflammation is a chronic event in neurodegenerative disorders. In the rat model of Parkinson's disease, including a striatal injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), antioxidant treatment affects the inflammatory process. Despite a heavy accumulation of microglia early after the injury, dopamine nerve fibre regeneration occurs. It remains unclear why this heavy accumulation of microglia is found early after the lesion in antioxidant-treated animals, or even more, what is the origin of these microglia. In this study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to elucidate whether the inflammatory response was generated from the blood or from activated brain microglia. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles were injected intravenously prior to a striatal 6-OHDA injection to tag phagocytes in the blood. Rats were fed either with bilberry-enriched or control diet. T2*-weighted MRI scans were performed 1 week after the lesion, and hypointense areas were calculated from T2*-weighted images, to monitor the presence of SPIO particles. The results revealed that feeding the animals with bilberries significantly promoted accumulation of blood-derived immune cells. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI demonstrated no difference in leakage of the blood-brain barrier independent of diets. To conclude, bilberry-enriched diet promotes an influx of periphery-derived immune cells to the brain early after injury.

  14. Hypoglycemic activity of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation from lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary H; Ribnicky, David M; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Logendra, Sithes; Yousef, Gad G; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-05-01

    Blueberry fruits are known as a rich source of anthocyanin components. In this study we demonstrate that anthocyanins from blueberry have the potency to alleviate symptoms of hyperglycemia in diabetic C57b1/6J mice. The anti-diabetic activity of different anthocyanin-related extracts was evaluated using the pharmaceutically acceptable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system: Labrasol. Treatment by gavage (500 mg/kg body wt) with a phenolic-rich extract and an anthocyanin-enriched fraction formulated with Labrasol lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 33 and 51%, respectively. The hypoglycemic activities of these formulae were comparable to that of the known anti-diabetic drug metformin (27% at 300 mg/kg). The extracts were not significantly hypoglycemic when administered without Labrasol, demonstrating its bio-enhancing effect, most likely due to increasing the bioavailability of the administered preparations. The phenolic-rich extract contained 287.0+/-9.7 mg/g anthocyanins, while the anthocyanin-enriched fraction contained 595+/-20.0 mg/g (cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents), as measured by HPLC and pH differential analysis methods. The greater hypoglycemic activity of the anthocyanin-enriched fraction compared to the initial phenolic-rich extract suggested that the activity was due to the anthocyanin components. Treatment by gavage (300 mg/kg) with the pure anthocyanins, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside, formulated with Labrasol, showed that malvidin-3-O-glucoside was significantly hypoglycemic while delphinidin-3-O-glucoside was not.

  15. Hypoglycemic activity of a novel Anthocyanin-rich formulation from Lowbush Blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Mary H.; Ribnicky, David M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Logendra, Sithes; Yousef, Gad G.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Blueberry fruits are known as a rich source of anthocyanin components. In this study we demonstrate that anthocyanins from blueberry have the potency to alleviate symptoms of hyperglycemia in diabetic C57b1/6J mice. The anti-diabetic activity of different anthocyanin-related extracts was evaluated using the pharmaceutically acceptable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system; Labrasol. Treatment by gavage (500 mg/kg body wt) with a phenolic-rich extract and an anthocyanin-enriched fraction formulated with Labrasol lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 33 and 51%, respectively. The hypoglycemic activities of these formulae were comparable to that of the known anti-diabetic drug metformin (Baily and Day, 2004; 27% at 300 mg/kg). The extracts were not significantly hypoglycemic when administered without Labrasol, demonstrating its bio-enhancing effect, most likely due to increasing the bioavailability of the administered preparations. The phenolic-rich extract contained 287.0 ± 9.7 mg/g anthocyanins, while the anthocyanin-enriched fraction contained 595 ± 20.0 mg/g (cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents), as measured by HPLC and pH differential analysis methods. The greater hypoglycemic activity of the anthocyanin-enriched fraction compared to the initial phenolic-rich extract suggested that the activity was due to the anthocyanin components. Treatment by gavage (300 mg/kg) with the pure anthocyanins, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O- glucoside, formulated with Labrasol, showed that malvidin-3-O- glucoside was significantly hypoglycemic while delphinidin-3-O-glucoside was not. PMID:19303751

  16. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  17. Modulation of postoperative immune response by enteral nutrition with a diet enriched with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Senkal, M; Kemen, M; Homann, H H; Eickhoff, U; Baier, J; Zumtobel, V

    1995-02-01

    To find out whether an enteral diet supplemented with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids modulated the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2 receptor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) after operations for upper gastrointestinal cancer. Prospective double blind clinical study. University hospital, Germany. 42 patients randomised into two groups (n = 21 each), one of which was given an isocaloric and isonitrogenous placebo diet and one of which was fed the same diet supplemented with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids. The cytokines were measured before operation and on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 10, and 16. Comparison of concentrations of cytokines in the two groups. Among those receiving the placebo diet (after spontaneous stimulation) IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher on days 3 and 7 (p < 0.05) and TNF-alpha concentrations on day 7. In contrast (after stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin) mean concentrations of IL-2 receptor were significantly higher on days 3 and 7, and of IL-1 beta and IL-2 on day 16 (p < 0.05) in the group receiving the supplemented diet. Supplementation of an enteral diet with arginine, RNA and omega-3 fatty acids can modulate the acute phase reaction as indicated by the reduction in concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the group fed the supplemented diet. Patients receiving the supplemented diet also showed accelerated recovery in the concentrations of IL-1 beta and IL-2 receptor.

  18. Antibacterial characteristics of anthocyanins extracted from wild blueberries against foodborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild blueberries have rich bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, phenolics and organic acids. Previous studies demonstrated the antibacterial activity of blueberries against the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial characteristics and mech...

  19. Changes in energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries stored at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shunchang; Wei, Baodong; Liu, Xiuying; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-12-01

    Low-temperature storage and transport of blueberries is widely practiced in commercial blueberry production. In this research, the storage life of blueberries was extended at low temperature, but fruit stored for 30 d at 0°C pitted after 2d at room-temperature. Fruit cellular structure and physiological parameters accompanying pitting in blueberries were changed. The objective of this research was to characterise properties of energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries during storage, including adenosine phosphates and mitochondrial enzymes involved in stress responses. Physiological and metabolic disorders, changes in cell ultrastructure, energy content and ATPase enzyme activity were observed in pitting blueberries. Energy shortages and increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were observed in fruit kept at shelf life. The results suggested that sufficient available energy status and a stable enzymatic system in blueberries collectively contribute to improve chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating pitting and maintaining quality of blueberry fruit in long-term cold storage.

  20. Breeding highbush blueberry cultivars adapted to machine harvest for the fresh market

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, world blueberry production has been split evenly between processing and fresh fruit markets. Machine harvest of highbush blueberry [northern highbush (NHB, Vaccinium corymbosum L.), southern highbush (SHB, Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), and rabbiteye (RE, Vaccinium vi...

  1. Botryosphaeria Stem Blight of Southern Blueberries: Cultivar Susceptibility and Effect of Chemical Treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Botryosphaeria stem blight, caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a destructive disease of rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei) and highbush (V. corymbosum) blueberries in the southeastern United States. The susceptibility of 21 southern highbush and seven rabbiteye blueberry cultivars was compar...

  2. Blueberry husks, rye bran and multi-strain probiotics affect the severity of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Asa; Bränning, Camilla; Adawi, Diya; Molin, Göran; Nyman, Margareta; Jeppsson, Bengt; Ahrné, Siv

    2009-01-01

    The enteric microbiota is a pivotal factor in the development of intestinal inflammation in humans but probiotics, dietary fibres and phytochemicals can have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of multi-strain probiotics and two conceivable prebiotics in an experimental colitis model. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fibre-free diet alone or in combination with Lactobacillus crispatus DSM 16743, L. gasseri DSM 16737 and Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15158 and/or rye bran and blueberry husks. Colitis was induced by 5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) given by oro-gastric tube. Colitis severity, inflammatory markers, gut-load of lactobacilli and Enterobacteriaceae, bacterial translocation and formation of carboxylic acids (CAs) were analysed. The disease activity index (DAI) was lower in all treatment groups. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae were reduced and correlated positively with colitis severity, while DAI was negatively correlated with several CAs, e.g. butyric acid. The addition of probiotics to blueberry husks lowered the level of caecal acetic acid and increased that of propionic acid, while rye bran in combination with probiotics increased caecal CA levels and decreased distal colonic levels. Blueberry husks with probiotics reduced the incidence of bacterial translocation to the liver, colonic levels of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and serum interleukin-12. Acetic and butyric acids in colonic content correlated negatively to malondialdehyde. A combination of probiotics and blueberry husks or rye bran enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects compared with probiotics or dietary fibres alone. These combinations can be used as a preventive or therapeutic approach to dietary amelioration of intestinal inflammation.

  3. Blueberries and Tofu: Friend or Foe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ascoli, Jennifer; Lee, Susanne

    2004-03-01

    Two flavonoids, naringenin and genistein found in blueberries and soybeans, respectively, scavenge free radicals and exhibit anti- breast and prostate cancer properties. When consumed in foods, these flavonoids usually are subject to heat, yet all biological studies have been performed with unheated molecules. We have explored and will report on the three-dimensional, molecular structure changes we have thermally-induced in naringenin and genistein. We have measured and will discuss the flavonoids' thermodynamic properties as a function of temperature. Several endothermic transformations were observed along with a marked color change that remained when the flavonoids were dissolved in a solvent, indicating their molecular structures had been altered by the heat. Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, and proton and carbon 1-D nuclear magnetic resonance will be presented that show the change was associated with a decrease in electron localization within the molecules. We will explain how such modified structures could scavenge free radicals more effectively and affect breast cancer cell proliferation.

  4. Antioxidant status of blood and liver of turkeys fed diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids and fruit pomaces as a source of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Juśkiewicz, J; Zduńczyk, P; Kosmala, M; Zieliński, H; Antoszkiewicz, Z; Zduńczyk, Z

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that dietary polyphenol-rich fruit pomaces can improve the antioxidant status of both diets and the tissues of turkeys fed such diets. Turkeys were fed diets containing a cellulose preparation (C) or 5% dried apple pomace (AP), blackcurrant pomace (BCP), strawberry pomace (SP) and seedless strawberry pomace (SSP). Blood and liver biochemical parameters were determined in 7 birds from each experimental group slaughtered at 15 weeks of age, after 5 weeks of feeding diets containing soybean oil and linseed oil (approx. 1:1 ratio). Dietary linseed oil added to diets at 2.5% lowered the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio from approx. 7:1 to below 2:1, thus reducing the antioxidant properties of diets measured using DPPH, ABTS and photo-chemiluminescence assays, compared with diets containing only soybean oil and administered to birds in the first phase of feeding. Fruit pomaces, in particular SSP with the highest polyphenol content (32.81 g/kg) and the highest antioxidant activity (256.4 μM Trolox/g), increased the antioxidant capacity of turkey diets. In comparison with the control group, the dietary treatments with fruit pomaces improved blood antioxidant parameters, including catalase activity (groups AP and BCP), the total antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic (group AP) and lipophilic (groups AP, SP, and SSP) compounds, peroxide levels (groups AP and SSP) and antioxidant capacity measured by the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma) assay (groups AP, BCP and SSP). Significantly lower concentrations of both vitamin E and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were noted in the livers of turkeys fed all diets with dried fruit pomaces.

  5. 75 FR 12707 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase... to add two importer members and their alternates to the U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council (Council) to reflect changes in the quantity of highbush blueberry imports in the past three years. The change...

  6. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... schedule for methyl bromide fumigation of blueberries for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit...-i-1-1) requires blueberries to be treated with methyl bromide at 70 F or above using 2 lbs...

  7. 78 FR 79634 - Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0016] RIN 0579-AD81 Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco... vegetables to allow the importation of fresh blueberry fruit from Morocco into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the blueberries would have to be produced under a systems approach...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.23 - U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council. 1218.23 Section 1218... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  9. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase... importer members and their alternates to the U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council (Council) to reflect changes in the quantity of highbush blueberry imports in the past three years. The change was proposed by...

  10. 7 CFR 1218.23 - U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council. 1218.23 Section 1218... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  11. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research and... rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule invites comments on amending the Blueberry Promotion, Research and... pound). The Order is administered by the U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council (USHBC) with oversight by the...

  12. 75 FR 22551 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries AGENCY: Agricultural... proposed revision to the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries. After considering the...-mail: Myron.Betts@ams.usda.gov . The United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries...

  13. Diagnosis and management of new and re-emerging diseases of highbush blueberries in Michigan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberries are an important commodity in Michigan and disease management is crucial for production of high-quality fruit. Over the past 6 years, a number of new and re-emerging diseases have been diagnosed in the state. In 2009, Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) and Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) were ...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.23 - U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council. 1218.23 Section 1218... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.23 - U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council. 1218.23 Section 1218... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  16. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders... electronic mail: Jeanette.Palmer@ams.usda.gov regarding blueberries; or Maureen T. Pello,...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.23 - U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council. 1218.23 Section 1218... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  18. 76 FR 11939 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section...: This document summarizes the results of an Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) review of the Blueberry... INFORMATION: The Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order (7 CFR part 1218) is authorized under...

  19. A novel Caulimovirus associated with a complete fruit drop symptom in ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we describe the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel virus in the family Caulimoviridae from ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry plants that exhibited fruit drop symptoms. The virus is tentatively named Blueberry fruit drop associated virus (BFDaV). Blueberry fruit drop disease (BFDD) was fi...

  20. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry: A newly studied host of an old foe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa causes a number of plant diseases, including bacterial leaf scorch of southern highbush blueberry. In Louisiana, X. fastidiosa has been detected in rabbiteye blueberry orchards, and we wanted to know if it affected yield in rabbiteye blueberry plants. We detected X...

  1. Host status and damage potential of Paratrichodorus renifer and Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda) to blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus species) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) have been associated with blueberry in most blueberry-growing regions of North America. Relatively little is known, however, of the host status and pathogenicity of these nematodes to blueberry. We per...

  2. Potential new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast Region of the U.S

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several new elite rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry strains developed from diverse origins and having potential for release as new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast region of the U.S. have been developed. Promising new early ripening and vigorous new rabbiteye blueberry strains being c...

  3. Potential new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast region of the U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several new elite rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry strains developed from diverse origins and having potential for release as new blueberry cultivars for the Gulf Coast region of the U.S. have been developed. Promising new early ripening and vigorous new rabbiteye blueberry strains being c...

  4. First report of leaf rust of blueberry caused by Thekopsora minima in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is becoming an important crop in the states of Jalisco and Michoacan in Mexico. As the area under blueberry cultivation increases, new diseases causing severe losses are appearing. Leaf rust is one of the most destructive diseases of blueberry in Mexico. Sori on t...

  5. Visual bruise assessment and analysis of mechanical impact measurement in southern highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States (U.S.) is the largest blueberry producing country in the world. The majority of the highbush blueberries in the U.S.; however, is still hand-harvested because current commercial mechanical harvesters create excessive bruise damages to blueberries. The development of sensing tools...

  6. Effect of supplementation of the laying hen diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of α-linolenic acid enriched eggs during storage.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of the layer diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of α-linolenic acid enriched eggs during refrigerated storage, and to compare this effect with α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. 2. A total of 72 brown Lohmann laying hens, equally allocated to 3 groups, were fed on diets supplemented with 40 g/kg linseed oil, or linseed oil and olive leaves at 10 g/kg or linseed oil and α-tocopheryl acetate at 200 mg/kg. Collected eggs were analysed for fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation either fresh or following 60 d storage at 4°C. 3. Results showed that olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation reduced lipid hydroperoxide concentration in fresh eggs but had no effect on their fatty acid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to controls. 4. Refrigerated storage for 60 d decreased the proportions of PUFAs but increased those of MUFAs in eggs from the control diet, whilst it had no effect on the fatty acid composition of eggs from the diets supplemented with olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate, which in turn showed decreased concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA.

  7. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells by flavonoids from lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium): possible roles for protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein-kinase-mediated events.

    PubMed

    Matchett, Michael D; MacKinnon, Shawna L; Sweeney, Marva I; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Hurta, Robert A R

    2006-02-01

    Regulation of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is crucial to regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis which is important in metastasis. This study investigated the mechanism(s) by which three flavonoid-enriched fractions from lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) down-regulate MMP activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Metalloproteinase activity was evaluated from cells exposed to "crude," anthocyanin-enriched (AN) and proanthocyanidin-enriched (PAC) fractions. Differential down-regulation of MMPs was observed. The activity of the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) from these cells was also evaluated. Increases in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 activity were observed in response to these fractions. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways in the flavonoid-mediated decreases in MMP activity was observed. These findings indicate that blueberry flavonoids may use multiple mechanisms in down-regulating MMP activity in these cells.

  8. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  9. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine.

    PubMed

    Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G

    2016-09-01

    Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  10. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    PubMed

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  11. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-07

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  12. Serum lipoprotein composition, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and tissue lipase activities in pregnant diabetic rats and their offspring receiving enriched n-3 PUFA diet.

    PubMed

    Soulimane-Mokhtari, N A; Guermouche, B; Saker, M; Merzouk, S; Merzouk, H; Hichami, A; Madani, S; Khan, N A; Prost, J

    2008-03-01

    The effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities were studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats during pregnancy and in their macrosomic offspring from birth to adulthood. Pregnant diabetic and control rats were fed Isio-4 diet (vegetable oil) or EPAX diet (concentrated marine omega-3 EPA/DHA oil), the same diets were consumed by pups at weaning. Compared with control rats, diabetic rats showed, during pregnancy, a significant elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low and high density lipoprotein (LDL-HDL(1))-triglyceride, cholesterol and apoprotein B100 concentrations and a reduction in apoprotein A-I levels. HTGL activity was high while LPL and LCAT activities were low in these rats. The macrosomic pups of Isio-4-fed diabetic rats showed a significant enhancement in triglyceride and cholesterol levels at birth and during adulthood with a concomitant increase in lipase and LCAT activities. EPAX diet induces a significant diminution of VLDL and LDL-HDL(1) in mothers and in their macrosomic pups, accompanied by an increase in cholesterol and apoprotein A-I levels in HDL(2-3) fraction. It also restores LPL, HTGL and LCAT activities to normal range. EPAX diet ameliorates considerably lipoprotein disorders in diabetic mothers and in their macrosomic offspring.

  13. Effect of high fat and high carbohydrate diets on adipose tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase and its activation by a plasma membrane-enriched fraction and insulin.

    PubMed

    Begum, N; Tepperman, H M; Tepperman, J

    1982-06-01

    Rats were fed a high lard diet or a high glucose diet for 5--7 days. Basal and insulin-stimulated epididymal fat pad pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities were decreased in fat diet-adapted rats compared to those fed the glucose diet. When adipocyte plasma membranes and mitochondria were incubated together with and without insulin, it was found that the insulin stimulation of PDH activity was lower in preparations from fat-fed rats on both an absolute and percentage basis. Supernatant fractions from insulin-stimulated glucose-fed rat plasma membranes activated mitochondrial PDH to a greater extent than those from lard-fed rat preparations. There was no difference in the response of mitochondria from the two groups when they were stimulated by insulin-treated plasma membranes from stock diet-fed rat adipose tissue. These experiments suggest that fat feeding results in adaptive changes in adipocyte plasma membranes which are involved in the generation of the insulin-stimulated chemical activator of PDH. This adaptive change is in addition to those described earlier.

  14. Genetic diversity of Armillaria spp. infecting highbush blueberry in northern Italy (Trentino region).

    PubMed

    Prodorutti, D; Vanblaere, T; Gobbin, D; Pellegrini, A; Gessler, C; Pertot, I

    2009-06-01

    Armillaria spp. are the causal agents of root rots of several woody plants, including highbush blueberry. Since 2003, highbush blueberry plants infected by Armillaria spp. have been found in Valsugana Valley, Trentino region, northern Italy. Our aim was to identify the Armillaria spp. involved in these infections, as well as possible sources of inoculum in blueberry fields. Samples of Armillaria spp. were collected from diseased blueberry plants in 13 infected blueberry fields, from bark spread along the blueberry rows, from infected trees in the vicinity of the fields, and from four forest locations. The identification of Armillaria spp. was accomplished using a species-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction method and by sequencing the rDNA at a specific locus. The differentiation between genotypes was performed by using simple-sequence repeat analysis. Armillaria mellea and A. gallica were the most frequently observed species infecting blueberry in the Valsugana Valley. Three to eight Armillaria genotypes were identified in each blueberry field. No individual genotypes were found in more than one blueberry field. Two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing trees in the immediate vicinity of infected fields and two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing the bark spread in blueberry rows were also isolated from blueberry plants in the field, indicating that bark used as mulch and infected trees surrounding the fields may be important sources of inoculum.

  15. Distribution and phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Michigan blueberries.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noel G; Isaacs, Rufus

    2012-06-01

    The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, is a serious pest of rabbiteye blueberries in Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi, and a potential pest of southern and northern highbush blueberries. Its damage has been observed with increasing frequency in highbush blueberry plantings in the Great Lakes region, including in Wisconsin and in Michigan. Unlike in rabbiteye blueberry plantings, where blueberry gall midge primarily damages flowering buds, it is found to damage only the vegetative shoots of northern highbush blueberry. In this study, farms throughout Michigan were surveyed for the presence of blueberry gall midge and it was found in 43 of 46 sampled farms in 11 counties. From 2009-2011, several monitoring techniques, including yellow sticky traps, emergence traps, observational sampling, and vegetative shoot dissections were used to determine the ecology of this species in blueberry fields in southwest Michigan. Emergence traps were most useful in early detection of blueberry gall midge in April, and observational sampling for damage symptoms and vegetative shoot dissections revealed multiple population peaks throughout July and August. Infestation was detected in vegetative shoot tips in all parts of the bushes, with initial infestation greatest at the base of bushes. Degree day accumulations until first midge detection and peak infestation suggest some potential for predicting key events in the pest's phenology. This information about the distribution and timing of infestation will be useful in developing management strategies for blueberry gall midge infestation.

  16. Microbial degradation of phosmet on blueberry fruit and in aqueous systems by indigenous bacterial flora on lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium).

    PubMed

    Crowe, K M; Bushway, A A; Bushway, R J; Davis-Dentici, K

    2007-10-01

    Phosmet-adapted bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) were evaluated for their ability to degrade phosmet on blueberry fruit and in minimal salt solutions. Microbial metabolism of phosmet by isolates of Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05; 33.8%) in phosmet residues on blueberry fruit. Degradation was accompanied by microbial proliferation of phosmet-adapted bacteria. Preferential utilization of phosmet as a carbon source was investigated in minimal salt solutions inoculated with either E. agglomerans or P. fluorescens and supplemented with phosmet or phosmet and glucose. Microbial degradation concurrent with the proliferation of P. fluorescens was similar in both liquid systems, indicative of preferential utilization of phosmet as an energy substrate. E. agglomerans exhibited the ability to degrade phosmet as a carbon source, yet in the presence of added glucose, phosmet degradation occurred within the 1st 24 h only followed by total population mortality resulting in no appreciable degradation. Characteristic utilization of glucose by this isolate suggests a possible switch in carbon substrate utilization away from phosmet, which resulted in toxicity from the remaining phosmet. Overall, microbial metabolism of phosmet as an energy source resulted in significant degradation of residues on blueberries and in minimal salt solutions. Thus, the role of adapted strains of E. agglomerans and P. fluorescens in degrading phosmet on blueberries represents an extensive plant-microorganism relationship, which is essential to determination of phosmet persistence under pre- and postharvest conditions.

  17. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  18. Effects of different plant growth regulators on blueberry fruit quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. C.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. N.; Luo, C.; Wang, X.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on blueberry fruit growth, various concentrations of Abscisic acid (ABA), Methyl jasmonate (MJ), Brassinolide (BR), Melatonin (MT) were sprayed on blueberry cv. ‘Brigita’ fruits. The results showed that all the PGRs put into effect on improving the quality of blueberry fruit. Comparing with the control plants no PGR spraying,300 mg/L of MT treatment promoted effectively accumulation of the soluble sugar. ABA 20mg/L treatment in-creased effectively accumulation of anthocyanin, and significantly decreased titratable acid content. The treatment of MJ 10mg/L improved significantly the soluble solid content. The effect of the four PGRs treatments on appearance did not show obvious difference.

  19. Fungal endophytes of South China blueberry (Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum).

    PubMed

    Li, Z-J; Shen, X-Y; Hou, C-L

    2016-12-01

    A total of 374 fungal endophyte strains were isolated from of Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum (Ericaceae), a well-known cultivated blueberry in southern China. These fungal endophytes could be categorized into 25 morphotypes according to culture characteristics and molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer region. All of these isolates belonged to Ascomycota. Jaccard's (Jc) and Sorenson's similarity indices indicated that the species communities from the fruits and branches were closer to each other than to those from leaves. The leaves appeared to host the highest fungal biodiversity, and the fruits displayed the lowest diversity. This study is the first on endophytic fungi isolated from fruits, branches and leaves of blueberry plants. The results contribute to the body of knowledge on the biocontrol of pathogens associated with blueberry and develop the improvement of plant growth. By comparing with the different fungal communities, the leaves appeared to host the highest biodiversity. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in the metabolic syndrome: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Lyons, Timothy J

    2012-06-13

    Emerging science supports therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors. Interventional studies reported by our group and others have demonstrated the following effects: strawberries lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome. Mechanistic studies further explain these observations as up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduction in renal oxidative damage, and inhibition of the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes or angiotensin-converting enzyme by these berries. These findings need confirmation in future studies with a focus on the effects of strawberry, blueberry, or cranberry intervention in clinical biomarkers and molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jane E; Brooks, Kyle; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Brewer, Marin T

    2015-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum), and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids) from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing host population

  2. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jane E.; Brooks, Kyle; Brannen, Phillip M.; Cline, William O.; Brewer, Marin T.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum), and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids) from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing host population

  3. Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Venturini, E M; Drummond, F A; Hoshide, A K; Dibble, A C; Stack, L B

    2017-01-09

    Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator-the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter "PRs") may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR. We consider the effects of PRs on wild bee diversity and the composition of bumble bee pollen loads. We contrast field-level crop pollination services between PRs and controls four years postestablishment. Last, we calculate the time to pay for PR investment. Social bees preferentially used clover plantings; solitary bees preferentially used wildflower plantings. On average, bumble bee pollen loads in treatment fields contained 37% PR pollen. PRs significantly increased visitation rates to the crop in year 4, and exerted a marginally significant positive influence on fruit set. The annualized costs of PRs were covered by the fourth year using the measured increase in pollination services. Our findings provide evidence of the positive impact of PRs on crop pollination services.

  4. Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, F. A.; Hoshide, A. K.; Dibble, A. C.; Stack, L. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator—the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter “PRs”) may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR. We consider the effects of PRs on wild bee diversity and the composition of bumble bee pollen loads. We contrast field-level crop pollination services between PRs and controls four years postestablishment. Last, we calculate the time to pay for PR investment. Social bees preferentially used clover plantings; solitary bees preferentially used wildflower plantings. On average, bumble bee pollen loads in treatment fields contained 37% PR pollen. PRs significantly increased visitation rates to the crop in year 4, and exerted a marginally significant positive influence on fruit set. The annualized costs of PRs were covered by the fourth year using the measured increase in pollination services. Our findings provide evidence of the positive impact of PRs on crop pollination services. PMID:28069631

  5. Influence of methionine supplementation of growing diets enriched with lysine on feedlot performance and characteristics of digestion in Holstein steer calves

    PubMed Central

    Torrentera, Noemí; Carrasco, Ramsés; Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Plascencia, Alejandro; Zinn, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Two trials were conducted in order to examine the effects of level of supplemental methionine on productive performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration, and digestive function. Methods Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing urea as the only source of supplemental nitrogen supplemented with no supplemental amino acid (control), or control plus 1.01% lysine and 0.032%, 0.064%, 0.096%, or 0.128% methionine. In Trial 1, 150 Holstein steer calves (127±4.9 kg) were utilized to evaluate the influence of treatments on growth-performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration during the first 112 days of growing period. During the initial 56-d period calves received the 5 experimental diets. During the subsequent 56-d period all calves were fed the control diet. Results During the initial 56-d period, methionine supplementation increased (linear effect, p<0.01) plasma methionine. In the presence of supplemental lysine, increases on level of methionine in diet did not affect average daily gain. However, increased gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.03) and estimated dietary net energy (NE; linear effect, p = 0.05). Estimated metabolizable methionine supply was closely associated (R2 = 0.95) with efficiency NE utilization for maintenance and gain. During the subsequent 56-d period, when all calves received the control diet (no amino acid supplementation), plasma amino acid concentrations and growth performance was not different among groups. However, the effects of methionine supplementation during the initial 56-period carried over, so that following a 56-d withdrawal of supplementation, the overall 112-d effects on gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.05) dietary NE (linear effect, p≤0.05) remained appreciable. In Trial 2, 5 cannulated Holstein steers were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion and amino acid supply to the small intestine. There were no

  6. In utero and postnatal exposure to a phytoestrogen-enriched diet increases parameters of acute inflammation in a rat model of TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Jan; Molzberger, Almut F; Hertrampf, Torsten; Laudenbach-Leschowski, Ute; Degen, Gisela H; Diel, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is very common in Europe and USA. Its incidence in East Asia has been traditionally low, albeit the risk of IBD increases in Asian immigrants adopting western lifestyles, suggesting a strong role of environmental/dietary factors in IBD. A lifelong exposure to phytoestrogen-rich diets has been associated with a decreased risk of developing breast cancer and might also be protective against IBD. We studied the influence of in utero and postnatal exposure to a phytoestrogen (PE)-rich diet on acute inflammation in an animal model of TNBS-induced colitis. Wistar rats were exposed in utero and postnatally to high (genistein: 240 microg/g feed; daidzein: 232 microg/g feed) or very low levels (genistein and daidzein <10 microg/g feed) of phytoestrogen isoflavones fed to pregnant dams with the diet and throughout nursing. After weaning, the offspring had free access to these diets. At the age of 11 weeks, colitis was induced with an enema of TNBS. After 3 days, animals were sacrificed and tissues were collected for histological evaluation and analysis of molecular markers of inflammation. Animals kept on a PE-rich diet (PRD) had higher colon weights than animals on low PE-levels (PDD), suggesting enhanced acute inflammation by phytoestrogens. This result was supported by histological findings and by analysis of myeloperoxidase activity. Interestingly, relative mRNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were modulated in rats on PRD, providing evidence that COX-2, the inducible isoform of the enzyme, is involved in the management of colonic inflammation. Our results suggest that early-in-life exposure to PE might not protect against the development of IBD but enhances the extent of acute inflammation.

  7. Alleviating the environmental heat burden on laying hens by feeding on diets enriched with certain antioxidants (vitamin E and selenium) individually or combined.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Mahrose, Khalid; Arif, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Saadeldin, Islam M; Saeed, Muhammad; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja; Rehman, Zaib Ur

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to alleviate the negative biohazards of high ambient temperature on the productive performance and physiological status of laying hens. A total of 135 Bovans laying hens were distributed into nine groups in a 3 × 3 factorial design experiment. Basal diet was supplemented with vitamin E at levels of 0, 250, and 500 mg /kg diet. Within each dietary vitamin E level, each diet was supplemented with sodium selenite as a source of selenium (Se) to supply 0, 0.25, and 0.50 mg Se/kg diet. Results showed that supplementing layer's diet with 500 mg vitamin E/kg was accompanied with the lowest feed consumption (FC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The interaction among vitamin E and Se levels exerted significant effects only on FC and FCR. Insignificant differences were observed in egg quality criteria due to the treatments studied. Increasing vitamin E level was associated with a gradual decrease in basophil count and an increase in monocytes. A gradual decrease in the count of each of heterophils, monocytes, and eosinophils was observed with the elevation in the dietary Se level. The combination among vitamin E and Se levels produced a significant effect on all hematological parameters studied. As vitamin E increased, a marked decrease in serum AST and a gradual increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, and calcium were observed. As the level of dietary Se increased, serum total protein, albumin, T4, total cholesterol, and total lipids increased. No significant impacts were detected for the interaction among vitamin E and Se levels on any of blood constituents determined except serum globulin, ALT, and calcium. In conclusion, the combination between vitamin E and Se showed a good ability to alleviate the harmful impacts of heat stress and produced the highest productive performance when compared with the other groups, which exhibit the synergistic effect between the two antioxidants.

  8. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effects of dehulled adlay on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a diet enriched in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Pao-Hua; Chiang, Wenchang; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2006-09-01

    Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a cereal food for humans and has been also used as a superior medical herb substance and functional food for traditional treatment of diabetes in China. However, its scientific basis as a functional food is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary dehulled adlay on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations in diabetic rats. The diabetic male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, induced by injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg subcutaneously), were fed a cholesterol-rich diet (0.5% cholesterol) containing corn starch or dehulled adlay for four weeks. After completion of the experimental period, the abdominal adipose tissue and liver of rats were excised and weighed, and the plasma glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were assayed. The results showed that diabetic rats fed a dehulled adlay diet exhibited a greater adipose tissue weight (9.36 +/- 3.43 vs. 5.39 +/- 3.04 g, p < 0.05) and a reduced food intake (39.3 +/- 5.9 vs. 61.0 +/- 11.7 g/day, p < 0.05) when compared with animals fed a cornstarch diet. Significantly decreased plasma glucose (261.6 +/- 96.6 vs. 422.1 +/- 125.4 mg/dL, p < 0.05), total cholesterol (289.4 +/- 140.6 vs. 627.3 +/- 230.5 mg/dL, p < 0.05), and triglyceride (52.3 +/- 14.4 vs. 96.5 +/- 36.6 mg/dL, p < 0.05) levels were observed in rats fed the dehulled adlay diet. In addition, the ingestion of dehulled adlay appears to significantly decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plus very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol concentrations. Rats fed a dehulled adlay diet showed an increase in fecal weight and cholesterol contents of stools. Although a significantly decreased plasma thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) value was observed in diabetic rats fed the dehulled adlay diet (6.2 +/- 3.4 vs. 11.0 +/- 3.8 nmol malondialdehyde (MDA)/mL, p < 0.05), no significant difference in the hepatic TBARS value was observed between

  10. Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baxheinrich, Andrea; Stratmann, Bernd; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2012-08-01

    In therapy of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal dietary approach with regard to its macronutrient composition and metabolically favourable food components, such as the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), is still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of a hypoenergetic diet with low energy density (ED) enriched in rapeseed oil, resulting in high MUFA content and an ALA intake of 3.5 g/d on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in eighty-one patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison with an olive oil diet rich in MUFA, but with a low ALA content. After a 6-month dietary intervention, body weight was significantly reduced in the rapeseed oil and olive oil groups ( -7.8 v. -6.0 kg; P < 0.05). There were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and insulin levels in both groups (P < 0.05). For all of these changes, no inter-group differences were observed. After the rapeseed oil diet, diastolic blood pressure declined more than after the olive oil diet (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). Furthermore, concentrations of serum TAG were significantly reduced after the high ALA intake, but not in the low ALA group (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). In conclusion, our dietary food pattern with a low ED and high intakes of MUFA and ALA may be a practical approach for long-term dietary treatment in patients with the metabolic syndrome, leading to weight reduction and an improvement in the overall cardiovascular risk profile.

  11. Effect of vitamin D2- and D3-enriched diets on egg vitamin D content, production, and bird condition during an entire production period.

    PubMed

    Mattila, P; Valaja, J; Rossow, L; Venäläinen, E; Tupasela, T

    2004-03-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during winter is a common problem for humans in Europe. One way to ease this problem is through the production of vitamin D-fortified eggs. To evaluate such a production process, the effects of vitamin D supplementation during an entire production period were assessed. Transfer of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) from the diet to egg yolks was measured using 2 different levels of both vitamins (6,000 and 15,000 IU/kg feed) relative to a control treatment (2,500 IU vitamin D3/kg feed). During the experiment, production parameters, egg quality (egg weight, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell fracture force, and Ca content of eggshell), and the condition of hens were monitored. At the end of the experiment histopathological tests were performed. Supplementing diets with vitamin D3 increased egg yolk vitamin D content more effectively than did supplementation with vitamin D2. For groups of hens receiving 6,000 or 15,000 IU of vitamin D3/kg feed, egg yolk vitamin D3 content ranged from 9.1 to 13.6 and from 25.3 to 33.7 microg/100 g, respectively. Corresponding values for birds fed vitamin D2 were 4.7 to 7.0 and 13.3 to 21.0 microg/100 g. Both supplements enhanced vitamin D3 content of egg yolks relative to the control diet (2.5 to 5.0 microg/100 g of egg yolk). Vitamin D supplements had no effects on production parameters compared with the control diet. However, especially vitamin D3 improved bone strength (P < 0.05). Autopsy at the end of the experiment indicated no detrimental accumulation of calcium in the kidneys, liver, heart, muscles, or lungs.

  12. Manna in winter: indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than 35 species of blueberries (Vaccinium L.) and huckleberries (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia Kunth.) are indigenous to North America. The indigenous North American peoples, wise in the ways of survival, recognized the quality of these edible fruits and revered these plants. Beyond food needs, the...

  13. An Economical DNA Test for Genetic Identity Confirmation in Blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) cultivation began in the early 20th Century in the U.S. Since then it has become a major crop in North America, South America, Europe, China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in ...

  14. Inferior Blueberries and Other Excuses I've Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the blueberry story, as one of many excuses for barely advancing the status quo, and suggests a workable framework that is common to both education and business. Unfortunately, many business and education leaders seem intent on fixing specific issues and fail to acquire a systemic perspective. These isolated…

  15. Inferior Blueberries and Other Excuses I've Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the blueberry story, as one of many excuses for barely advancing the status quo, and suggests a workable framework that is common to both education and business. Unfortunately, many business and education leaders seem intent on fixing specific issues and fail to acquire a systemic perspective. These isolated…

  16. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse].

    PubMed

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation.

  17. Response of Rabbiteye Blueberries to Chemical Thinning Agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The thinning potential of various chemicals sprayed on 'Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry was examined under field conditions for two years. Chemicals used were 7-benzylamino purine (BA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 2- naphaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl). BA at 75 mg/L and...

  18. Antibacterial activities of blueberry and muscadine phenolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Biswas, Ronita; Phillips, Robert Dixon; Chen, Jinru

    2011-03-01

    Phenolics are one category of phyto-antimicrobials that refer to the antimicrobial substances extracted from plant sources. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of blueberry and muscadine phenolic extracts on the growths of 2 important foodborne bacterial pathogens, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes. Cells of S. Enteritidis (n = 4) or L. monocytogenes (n = 4) strains were inoculated (3 log CFU/mL) into tryptic soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 46.25 ppm of muscadine phenolics and 24 ppm of blueberry phenolics, respectively. The inoculated and un-inoculated broth with or without the supplemented phenolics were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Samples were drawn periodically, and cell populations of Salmonella and Listeria were determined on tryptic soy agar (TSA). It was observed that Salmonella was relatively more susceptible than Listeria to the phenolic extracts used in the study. The growth of Salmonella was significantly inhibited in all samples at all sampling points except for the sample that was supplemented with muscadine water extract and drawn at the 24-h sampling point. Blueberry phenolics were relatively more effective than muscadine phenolic extracts in inhibiting the growth of Salmonella. One tested strain of Listeria was more susceptible to ethanol than water phenolic extracts. The study revealed the potentials and limitations of using blueberry and muscadine phenolics to control the growths of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains.

  19. Cherry Fruitworm, an emerging pest of Mississippi blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cherry fruitworm (CFW) is a univoltine moth, native to the U.S., and whose larvae preferentially infest rosaceous and ericaceous fruits. CFW larvae have been confirmed infesting rabbiteye blueberries in Mississippi, and this typically northern pest’s appearance may represent a new State record. ...

  20. Blueberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest (PNW 656)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bush habit, berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or homeowner production for 41 highbush, rabbiteye and ornamental blueberry cultivars are presented. This extension guide reviews many of the possible cultivars a commercial grower or homeowner might grow. Standar...

  1. A Transgenic approach to understanding cold tolerance in blueberry cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold hardiness is an important trait in highbush blueberry. Cold hardiness is induced in the fall and helps prevent freezing damage to buds and other plant parts. Plant damage not only directly reduces yield potential, but provides ‘wounds’ that act as an entry point for some pathogens such as stem ...

  2. Minimal Microsatellite Marker Panel for Fingerprinting Blueberry Cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are now cultivated in countries far from their origin in North America. In Chile, they were introduced about two decades ago, and have become the number one exported berry. Accelerated multiplication of plants by local nurseries was needed to cope with the increasing dem...

  3. The brown marmorated stink bug: pest of Mississippi blueberries?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic damage has been reported for the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) attacking small fruits along the mid-Atlantic states, including blueberries, BMSB feeds on numerous plant hosts and populations can be incredibly high at times. Contact insecticides can control the pest, but migrating popula...

  4. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  5. Mulch effects on highbush blueberry under organic management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A long-term organic blueberry trial was planted in October 2006 in Aurora, Oregon to investigate the effect of mulch on soil and plant nutrient status, plant growth, berry yield, irrigation requirements, and weed control efficacy. Mulch treatments were applied at planting and included 1) weed mat ...

  6. Sanitization Treatment of Blueberries for the Frozen/Processing Market

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh blueberries are packed without washing, however, those for the frozen and other processing markets are usually washed prior to packing. Washing is usually done by dipping the berries in a water bath or by spraying water on them. This step can result in an increase in microbial load and contami...

  7. A new Ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new negative-strand RNA virus in symptomatic plants. The virus was ...

  8. New and emerging viruses of blueberry and cranberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America, and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as ...

  9. Pollen loads and specificity of native pollinators of lowbush blueberry.

    PubMed

    Moisan-Deserres, J; Girard, M; Chagnon, M; Fournier, V

    2014-06-01

    The reproduction of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is closely tied to insect pollination, owing to self-incompatibility. Many species are known to have greater pollination efficiency than the introduced Apis mellifera L., commonly used for commercial purposes. In this study, we measured the pollen loads of several antophilous insect species, mostly Apoidea and Syrphidae, present in four lowbush blueberry fields in Lac-St-Jean, Québec. To measure pollen loads and species specificity toward V. angustifolium, we net-collected 627 specimens of pollinators, retrieved their pollen loads, identified pollen taxa, and counted pollen grains. We found that the sizes of pollen loads were highly variable among species, ranging from a few hundred to more than 118,000 pollen grains per individual. Bombus and Andrena species in particular carried large amounts of Vaccinium pollen and thus may have greater pollination efficiency. Also, two species (Andrena bradleyi Viereck and Andrena carolina Viereck) showed nearly monolectic behavior toward lowbush blueberry. Finally, we identified alternative forage plants visited by native pollinators, notably species of Acer, Rubus, Ilex mucronata, Ledum groenlandicum, and Taraxacum. Protecting these flowering plants should be part of management practices to maintain healthy pollinator communities in a lowbush blueberry agroecosystem.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the blueberry-mummy berry pathosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mummy berry disease of blueberry, casual agent Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, has two distinct phases- a blight stage of young foliage and flowers and a flower infection stage that leads to mummified fruit (pseudoscelrotia). The flower infections stage requires conidia to germinate on the style and g...

  11. Dissecting the microbiome to assess blueberry soil health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant rhizosphere is made up of not only soil, but a myriad of living organisms; these living organisms can both contribute to, and be indicators of, soil health. We explored the possibility of assaying the soil microbiome in areas where blueberry fields are declining, as compared to healthy fie...

  12. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  13. Identification and Expression Analysis of MATE Genes Involved in Flavonoid Transport in Blueberry Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477–517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10–12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1–84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars. PMID:25781331

  14. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  15. Production response of multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed diets enriched with n-3 or n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Dahlen, C R; Lamb, G C; Baumgard, L H; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatments to determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and source of dietary fat on production responses. Diets were provided from calving and included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds [SS; 10% of dietary dry matter (DM); n-6:n-3 ratio of 4.6] as a source of linoleic acid (18:2) or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary DM, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids. Diets contained 181 versus 188 g of crude protein and 183 versus 186 g of acid detergent fiber/kg of DM and 1.54 versus 1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation at the actual DM intake for SS versus AF, respectively. Cows received 0 or 500 mg of bST every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk (DIM) and at 14-d intervals through 280 DIM. The 2 x 2 factorial combination of diet (SS or AF) with or without bST administration resulted in treatments designated as SSY, SSN, AFY, and AFN, respectively. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using mixed model procedures to determine the effects of diet, bST, and their interactions. Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was not altered by diet, but was increased by 4.0 +/- 1.9 kg/d from 12 to 70 DIM and by 5.1 +/- 1.2 kg/d from 12 to 280 DIM by bST. Treatment did not affect DM intake or energy balance (EB) nadir. There was an interaction of bST and diet on EB because AF decreased the impact of bST on overall EB and allowed AFY cows to reach a positive EB earlier than SSY cows. Gross feed efficiency adjusted for body weight change was greater for bST-treated cows (1.03 vs. 1.15 +/- 0.03 kg of fat-corrected milk/Mcal of net energy for lactation). Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations were increased by bST (85 vs. 125 +/- 8 ng/mL). Body weight, body condition score, and backfat

  16. Jerusalem artichoke enriched diet on growth performance, immuno-hematological changes and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Syed Raffic Ali, Sajjad; Ambasankar, Kondusamy; Saiyad Musthafa, Mohamed; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-09-09

    A 45 days feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on growth performance, body composition, biochemical, immuno-hematological parameters and disease resistance in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fingerlings against Aeromonas hydrophila. JA was supplemented at three different levels viz., control 0, 5, 10, and 20 g kg(-1) in the commercial diet (403 g kg(-1)protein and 89 g kg (-1)lipid) in L. calcarifer. The results showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in various growth parameters, while the whole body composition showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between control and treatment groups. Hematological parameters showed that red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), pack cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by dietary supplementation of JA at different concentration. However, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fish fed with 20 g kg(-1) JA supplemented diet. Biochemical parameters revealed that glucose, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride showed significant (P < 0.05) differences between control and treatments groups. Interestingly, 20 g kg(-1) JA supplemented diet significantly modulates the innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila compared with control and other treatment groups. The results of the study revealed that 20 g kg(-1) JA supplementation has a beneficial effect in the biochemical, immunological and disease resistance in L. calcarifer juveniles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia.

  18. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia. PMID:27375435

  19. CLA-enriched diet containing t10,c12-CLA alters bile acid homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Letona, Amaia Zabala; Niot, Isabelle; Laugerette, Fabienne; Athias, Anne; Monnot, Marie-Claude; Portillo, Maria P; Besnard, Philippe; Poirier, Hélène

    2011-08-01

    Mice fed a mixture of CLA containing t10,c12-CLA lose fat mass and develop hyperinsulinemia and hepatic steatosis due to an accumulation of TG and cholesterol. Because cholesterol is the precursor in bile acid (BA) synthesis, we investigated whether t10,c12-CLA alters BA metabolism. In Expt. 1, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard diet for 28 d supplemented with a CLA mixture (1 g/100 g) or not (controls). In Expt. 2, the feeding period was reduced to 4, 6, and 10 d. In Expt. 3, mice were fed a diet supplemented with linoleic acid, c9,t11-CLA, or t10,c12-CLA (0.4 g/100 g) for 28 d. In Expt. 1, the BA pool size was greater in CLA-fed mice than in controls and the entero-hepatic circulation of BA was altered due to greater BA synthesis and ileal reclamation. This resulted from higher hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and ileal apical sodium BA transporter expressions in CLA-fed mice. Furthermore, hepatic Na(+)/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) (-52%) and bile salt export pump (BSEP) (-77%) protein levels were lower in CLA-fed mice than in controls, leading to a greater accumulation of BA in the plasma (+500%); also, the cholesterol saturation index and the concentration of hydrophobic BA in the bile were greater in CLA-fed mice, changes associated with the presence of cholesterol crystals. Expt. 2 suggests that CLA-mediated changes were caused by hyperinsulinemia, which occurred after 6 d of the CLA diet before NTCP and BSEP mRNA downregulation (10 d). Expt. 3 demonstrated that only t10,c12-CLA altered NTCP and BSEP mRNA levels. In conclusion, t10,c12-CLA alters BA homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

  20. Herbivore-induced Blueberry Volatiles and Intra-plant Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.

    2011-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack1,2. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA)3,4,5. Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper6, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush7, poplar8, and lima beans9.. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles5,6,10. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used n my study6 to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are

  1. Herbivore-induced blueberry volatiles and intra-plant signaling.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R

    2011-12-18

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush, poplar, and lima beans. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used in my study to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are collected and

  2. Wild blueberry consumption attenuates local inflammation in the perivascular adipose tissue of obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Tsakiroglou, Panagiotis; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Schuschke, Dale A; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2016-10-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been shown to play important roles in regulating vascular tone and linking local and systemic vascular inflammation. We examined the impact of PVAT on phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction in the aorta of obese Zucker rats (OZR) and their lean littermates (LZR) by comparing aortic rings with or without PVAT. Subsequently we placed OZR and LZR on a control (C) or an 8% wild blueberry (WB) diet and evaluated the effect of WB consumption on such response. PVAT-released adipokine concentrations were also measured as a function of WB diet. Maximal constrictor force (Fmax) in aortic rings without PVAT was significantly lower in OZR-C compared with LZR-C (0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.71 ± 0.06 g, respectively). Following WB diet, Fmax significantly increased in OZR (0.54 ± 0.06 g). In aortas with intact PVAT, Fmax was significantly lower in all groups (0.31 ± 0.06 OZR-C, 0.30 ± 0.05 OZR-WB, 0.29 ± 0.03 LZR-C, and 0.30 ± 0.04 g LZR-WB), but no difference was observed between treatments. PVAT concentrations of monocyte chemoactractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and adiponectin were significantly higher in OZR compared with LZR (+102%, +108%, and +45%, respectively). Following WB diet, PVAT concentrations of interleukin-8 were significantly lower in both OZR (-37%) and LZR (-30%), while adiponectin concentrations significantly increased in both OZR (+11%) and LZR (+16%). MCP-1 concentrations significantly decreased (-31%) in the PVAT of OZR with the WB diet. WB consumption appears to attenuate local inflammation in PVAT, which may impact systemic vascular inflammation and endothelial function.

  3. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana is genetically similar to a strain found in Southern highbush blueberry in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the past ten years, Xylella fastidiosa has been confirmed as a pathogen of Southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in Georgia and Florida. Recent work in Louisiana has shown that it is also associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in ‘Tifblue’ ...

  4. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  5. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  6. Assessing the Economic Importance of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Northern Highbush Blueberries.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noel G; Isaacs, Rufus

    2015-08-01

    Infestation by blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, is common in northern highbush blueberries, but its effects on crop productivity are unknown. We examined whether infestation by blueberry gall midge reduces flower bud production when compared with uninfested shoots, and how infestation at different times affects the crop response. From the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2011, the number of flower buds on infested and uninfested shoots of blueberry bushes was counted and compared. Despite causing branching of vegetative growth, there was no significant effect of infestation on flower bud production. During the summer of 2010, damaged shoots were marked throughout the growing season in June, July, or August. The number of flower buds set per shoot declined with later infestation dates, and shoots damaged in August had significantly fewer buds than those damaged in June and July. We discuss the implications of these findings for management of blueberry gall midge in northern highbush blueberry.

  7. Pollination efficiencies of three bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) species visiting rabbiteye blueberry.

    PubMed

    Sampson, B J; Cane, J H

    2000-12-01

    Inadequate bee pollination limits rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei Reade, production in the some areas of the southeastern United States. Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., are currently the only manageable pollinators available for pollinating V. ashei. However, a new adaptable pollinator for rabbiteye blueberry, Osmia ribifloris Cockerell, was successfully reared and flown in captivity. The bee nested successfully in wooden shelters and conferred superior fruit set to 2-yr-old potted, rabbiteye blueberry bushes. Pollination efficiency or the percentage of blueberry flowers to set fruit after being visited once by a female O. ribifloris was comparable to that of the female blueberry bee Habropoda laboriosa (F.) and worker honey bees. Interestingly, honey bees once thought to be inefficient pollinators of rabbiteye blueberry were found to be very efficient, especially for 'Climax' and 'Premier' flowers.

  8. Blueberry intervention improves vascular reactivity and lowers blood pressure in high-fat-, high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Ishisaka, Akari; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Terao, Junji

    2013-05-28

    Growing evidence suggests that intake of flavonoid-containing foods may exert cardiovascular benefits in human subjects. We have investigated the effects of a 10-week blueberry (BB) supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and vascular reactivity in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, known to induce endothelial dysfunction. Rats were randomly assigned to follow a control chow diet, a chow diet supplemented with 2 % (w/w) BB, a high-fat diet (10 % lard; 0·5 % cholesterol) or the high fat plus BB for 10 weeks. Rats supplemented with BB showed significant reductions in systolic BP (SBP) of 11 and 14 %, at weeks 8 and 10, respectively, relative to rats fed the control chow diet (week 8 SBP: 107·5 (SEM 4·7) v. 122·2 (SEM 2·1) mmHg, P= 0·018; week 10 SBP: 115·0 (SEM 3·1) v. 132·7 (SEM 1·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Furthermore, SBP was reduced by 14 % in rats fed with the high fat plus 2 % BB diet at week 10, compared to those on the high-fat diet only (SBP: 118·2 (SEM 3·6) v. 139·5 (SEM 4·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Aortas harvested from BB-fed animals exhibited significantly reduced contractile responses (to L-phenylephrine) compared to those fed the control chow or high-fat diets. Furthermore, in rats fed with high fat supplemented with BB, aorta relaxation was significantly greater in response to acetylcholine compared to animals fed with the fat diet. These data suggest that BB consumption can lower BP and improve endothelial dysfunction induced by a high fat, high cholesterol containing diet.

  9. STUDIES OF REVERSIBLE COMPRESSION OF FREEZE DRIED RTP CHERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Compressed discs, of freeze-dried blueberries and red tart pitted cherries have been produced. Technological evaluations of pies prepared from... cherries and blueberries compressed at 100 to 1500 pounds per square inch, indicate no significant difference in flavor, texture and appearance from those...prepared from the uncompressed counterpart. Compression ratios obtained for freeze-dried blueberries and cherries , respectively, were 1:7 and 1:8

  10. Quality factors, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of jet-tube dried rabbiteye blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Laura A; Pegg, Ronald B; Kerr, William L

    2013-06-01

    Rabbiteye blueberries are an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals. They are often dried, which can degrade health-promoting compounds. Means of shortening exposure to high-temperature drying air are desirable. Five cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries ('Premier', 'Tifblue', 'Brightwell', 'Alapaha', and 'Powderblue') were dried in a jet-tube fluidized bed air dryer with varying pretreatments including mechanical abrasion and osmotic dehydration. Drying time ranged from 66 to 95 min at 107 °C, achieving a final water activity of 0.347-0.605. Prior osmotic dehydration significantly reduced the drying time. Vacuum osmotic dehydration for 70 min achieved similar moisture contents to soaking blueberries for 24 h. Jet-tube dried blueberries exhibited greater color saturation than commercially available blueberries. While drying reduced the total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) content, this occurred to a lesser extent than by other processing methods. The total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (H-ORACFL values) increased after drying. 'Premier' was the most preferred vacuum-infused dried blueberry, with a water activity (aw) of 0.53 and 157 g H2O kg(-1). 'Tifblue' was most preferred amongst the overnight-infused and also unsweetened dried blueberries. Jet-tube drying can substantially reduce drying times while yielding blueberries with good color, sensory properties, TMA, TPC, and H-ORACFL values. Furthermore, some cultivars produce better-quality dried blueberries than others. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Field type, trap type and field-edge characteristics affect Rhagoletis mendax captures in lowbush blueberries.

    PubMed

    Renkema, Justin M; Cutler, G Christopher; Gaul, Sonia O

    2014-11-01

    Blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of blueberries in eastern North America. Insecticide use in fruit-bearing lowbush blueberry fields could be reduced with management strategies focused on vegetative fields. Fly distribution and fruit infestation levels were assessed where fruit-bearing and vegetative fields adjoin and along forested edges of vegetative fields. Along adjoining edges, immature female flies were captured in fruiting fields and mature females in vegetative fields throughout the season. Male fly captures and fruit infestation levels were greater at 5 m than at 30 m from the edge. Along forested edges, fly captures were best predicted by densities of ripe lowbush blueberries and large coniferous trees. Maggot infestation level in lowbush blueberries was best predicted by blueberry density and small deciduous trees. Bunchberry, Cornus canadensis L., was the only non-crop host in which blueberry maggot was found. We have shown that relatively high numbers of flies occur in vegetative fields and at edges of fruiting fields. Ripe blueberries and certain vegetation in forested edges affect fly distribution and probably maintain populations. These results may help to predict where controls for blueberry maggot should be targeted and suggest that management strategies focused on vegetative fields and field edges may be worthwhile. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Temperature modulates hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activity and gene expression in juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed a carbohydrate-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Qiang, J; He, J; Yang, H; Wang, H; Kpundeh, M D; Xu, P; Zhu, Z X

    2014-02-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on hepatic glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and gene expression were studied in GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) tilapia fed a high carbohydrate diet containing 28% crude protein, 5% crude lipid and 40% wheat starch. Triplicate groups of fish (11.28 g initial body weight) were fed the diet for 45 days at 22 °C, 28 °C or 34 °C. At the end of the trial, final body weight of juvenile at 28 °C (59.12 g) was higher than that of the fish reared at 22 °C (27.13 g) and 34 °C (43.17 g). Feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were also better at 28 °C. Liver glycogen levels were higher at 28 °C, while plasma glucose levels were higher in the 22 °C group. Significant (P<0.05) effects of water temperature on enzymes activities and gene expression were observed. Hepatic GK activity and mRNA level were higher at 28 °C than at 34 °C. Higher G6Pase and G6PD activity and gene expression were observed at 22 °C. Overall, the data show that juveniles reared at 28 °C exhibited enhanced liver glycolytic capacity. In contrast, hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis were increased by low temperature (22 °C).

  13. An efficient method for high-purity anthocyanin isomers isolation from wild blueberries and their radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Chorfa, Nasima; Savard, Sylvain; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-04-15

    An efficient process for the purification of anthocyanin monomeric isomers from wild blueberries of Lake Saint-Jean region (Quebec, Canada) was developed and easy scalable at industrial purpose. The blueberries were soaked in acidified ethanol, filtered, and the filtrate was cleaned by solid phase extraction using silica gel C-18 and DSC-SCX cation-exchange resin. Anthocyanin-enriched elutes (87 wt.%) were successfully fractionated by preparative liquid chromatography. The major anthocyanins mono-galactoside, -glucoside and -arabinoside isomers of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin were isolated with a purity up to 100% according to their LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectra. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the obtained pure anthocyanins was evaluated. Delphinidin-3-galactoside has the highest capacity (13.062 ± 2.729 μmol TE/μmol), and malvidin-3-glucoside the lowest (0.851 ± 0.032 μmol TE/μmol). A mechanistic pathway preview is suggested for the anthocyanins scavenging free radical activity by hydrogen transfer.

  14. Diet derived phenolic acids regulate osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation in young mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A blueberry (BB) supplemented diet previously has been shown to significantly stimulate bone formation in rapidly growing male and female rodents. Phenolic acids (PAs) are metabolites derived from polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables as a result of the actions of gut bacteria, and they were fo...

  15. Effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and transcription factor Nrf2 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Cheng, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Bao-Fang; Mu, Mao; Wu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor in rats. METHODS: Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (A); CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis group (B); blueberry prevention group (C); Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) prevention group (D); and blueberry + DSHX prevention group (E). Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 wk (except the control group). The level of hyaluronic acid (HA) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum was examined. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates was determined. The degree of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining. Expression of Nrf2 and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) was detected by real-time reversed transcribed-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical techniques, and western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with group B, liver indices, levels of serum HA and ALT of groups C, D and E were reduced (liver indices: 0.038 ± 0.008, 0.036 ± 0.007, 0.036 ± 0.005 vs 0.054 ± 0.009, P < 0.05; HA: 502.33 ± 110.57 ng/mL, 524.25 ± 255.42 ng/mL, 499.25 ± 198.10 ng/mL vs 828.50 ± 237.83 ng/mL, P < 0.05; ALT: 149.44 ± 16.51 U/L, 136.88 ± 10.07 U/L, 127.38 ± 11.03 U/L vs 203.25 ± 31.62 U/L, P < 0.05), and SOD level was significantly higher, but MDA level was lower, in liver homogenates (SOD: 1.36 ± 0.09 U/mg, 1.42 ± 0.13 U/mg, 1.50 ± 0.15 U/mg vs 1.08 ± 0.19 U/mg, P < 0.05; MDA: 0.294 ± 0.026 nmol/mg, 0.285 ± 0.025 nmol/mg, 0.284 ± 0.028 nmol/mg vs 0.335 ± 0.056 nmol/mg, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the stage of hepatic fibrosis was significantly weakened (P < 0.05). Compared with group A, the activity of GST liver homogenates and expression levels of Nrf2 and Nqo1 in group B were elevated (P < 0.05). The expression level of Nrf2 and

  16. Acquired intestinal lymphangiectasi