Science.gov

Sample records for blume forest stand

  1. Stand size, stand distribution, and rotation lengths for forest wildlife

    Treesearch

    Steven E. Backs; Russel R. Titus

    1989-01-01

    The key to managing forest wildlife is providing diverse habitats. Stand size, stand distribution, and rotation length determine how diverse habitats will be. Since the tenure of private forest owners is generally shorter than prescribed rotations, rotation recommendations serve more as guides to the amount and intensity of cutting needed to maintain desired habitat....

  2. Characteristics of Declining Forest Stands on the Allegheny National Forest

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Robert White; Stanford L. Arner; Christopher, A. Nowak; Susan L. Stout; Susan L. Stout

    1996-01-01

    Forest stands with advanced symptoms of forest decline located on the Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania were studied to describe contemporary stand structure and composition, and the status of regeneration. Across all 340 stands, 12 percent of the total basal area per acre was in dead trees and 16 percent was in trees at high risk of mortality. For...

  3. Stand hazard rating for central Idaho forests

    Treesearch

    Robert Steele; Ralph E. Williams; Julie C. Weatherby; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; James T. Hoffman; R. W. Thier

    1996-01-01

    Growing concern over sustainability of central ldaho forests has created a need to assess the health of forest stands on a relative basis. A stand hazard rating was developed as a composite of 11 individual ratings to compare the health hazards of different stands. The composite rating includes Douglas-fir beetle, mountain pine beetle, western pine beetle, spruce...

  4. Blume-Capel ferromagnet driven by propagating and standing magnetic field wave: Dynamical modes and nonequilibrium phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, Muktish; Halder, Ajay

    2017-03-01

    The dynamical responses of Blume-Capel (S=1) ferromagnet to the plane propagating (with fixed frequency and wavelength) and standing magnetic field waves are studied separately in two dimensions by extensive Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the values of temperature, amplitude of the propagating magnetic field and the strength of anisotropy, two different dynamical phases are observed. For a fixed value of anisotropy and the amplitude of the propagating magnetic field, the system undergoes a dynamical phase transition from a driven spin wave propagating phase to a pinned or spin frozen state as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of the propagating magnetic field plays the role of the dynamic order parameter. A comprehensive phase diagram is plotted in the plane formed by the amplitude of the propagating wave and the temperature of the system. It is found that the phase boundary shrinks inward as the anisotropy increases. The phase boundary, in the plane described by the strength of the anisotropy and temperature, is also drawn. This phase boundary was observed to shrink inward as the field amplitude increases.

  5. Rating forest stands for gypsy moth defoliation

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1986-01-01

    The severity of future defoliation can be estimated from the percentages of basal area in oaks (Quercus), black oak (Q. velutina) and chestnut oak (a prinus), and in trees with good crowns, along with the average diameter of the stand. With information on these variables, the defoliation potential of any hardwood forest stand in an approaching gypsy moth (Lymantria...

  6. Radar modeling of tropical mangal forest stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yong; Simonett, David S.; Imhoff, Marc L.

    1989-01-01

    Radar modeling of mangal forest stands in the Sundarbans area of southern Bangladesh is discussed. The modeling uses radar system parameters with forest data on tree height, spacing, biomass, species combinations, and water content (including slightly conductive water) in leaves and trunks of the mangal. For Sundri and Gewa tropical mangal forests, six model components are proposed; the models are required to explain the contributions of various combinations of forest species in the attenuation and scattering of mangal-vegetated nonflooded or flooded surfaces. Statistical data of simulated images have been compared with those of SIR-B images both to refine the modeling procedures and to characterize the model output appropriately. The possibility of delineation of flooded or nonflooded boundaries is discussed.

  7. Forest Stands Selected by Foraging Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Richard F. Harlow

    1986-01-01

    Selection of forest stands by 18 clans of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers was studied in their year-round home ranges. The foraging use of 276 stands relative to their availability within the home ranges was compared to several stand characteristics. Selection among stands with similar characteristics was highly vairable and red-cockadeds foraged in stands with a...

  8. A primer on stand and forest inventory designs

    Treesearch

    H. Gyde. Lund; Charles E. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Covers designs for the inventory of stands and forests in detail and with worked-out examples. For stands, random sampling, line transects, ricochet plot, systematic sampling, single plot, cluster, subjective sampling and complete enumeration are discussed. For forests inventory, the main categories are subjective sampling, inventories without prior stand mapping,...

  9. Talking with Judy Blume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Judy

    2005-01-01

    The believable voices of Judy Blume's characters--such as the troublemaking Fudge from "Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing" and freckle-less Andrew from "Freckle Juice"--have charmed readers since Blume published her first book, "The One in the Middle Is the Green Kangaroo," in 1969. This article presents an interview with author Judy Blume. In this…

  10. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables.

    Treesearch

    A. J. R. Gillespie; S. Brown; A. E. Lugo

    1992-01-01

    Total aboveground forest biomass may be estimated through a variety of techniques based on commercial inventory stand and stock tables. Stand and stock tables from tropical countries commonly omit trees bellow a certain commercial limit.

  11. The interactive impact of forest site and stand attributes and logging technology on stand management

    Treesearch

    C.B. LeDoux; J.E. Baumgras

    1991-01-01

    The impact of selected site and stand attributes on stand management is demonstrated using actual forest model plot data and a complete systems simulation model called MANAGE. The influence of terrain on the type of logging technology required to log a stand and the resulting impact on stand management is also illustrated. The results can be used by managers and...

  12. Determining stocking, forest type and stand-size class from forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures used by North Central Forest Experiment Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Work Unit (NCFIA) in determining stocking, forest type, and stand-size class. The stocking procedure assigns a portion of the stocking to individual trees measured on NCFIA 10-point field plots. Stand size and forest type are determined as functions...

  13. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    Ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it....

  14. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  15. Relating P-band AIRSAR backscatter to forest stand parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yong; Melack, John M.; Davis, Frank W.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    As part of research on forest ecosystems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborating research teams have conducted multi-season airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) experiments in three forest ecosystems including temperate pine forest (Duke, Forest, North Carolina), boreal forest (Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska), and northern mixed hardwood-conifer forest (Michigan Biological Station, Michigan). The major research goals were to improve understanding of the relationships between radar backscatter and phenological variables (e.g. stand density, tree size, etc.), to improve radar backscatter models of tree canopy properties, and to develop a radar-based scheme for monitoring forest phenological changes. In September 1989, AIRSAR backscatter data were acquired over the Duke Forest. As the aboveground biomass of the loblolly pine forest stands at Duke Forest increased, the SAR backscatter at C-, L-, and P-bands increased and saturated at different biomass levels for the C-band, L-band, and P-band data. We only use the P-band backscatter data and ground measurements here to study the relationships between the backscatter and stand density, the backscatter and mean trunk dbh (diameter at breast height) of trees in the stands, and the backscatter and stand basal area.

  16. Stocking, Forest Type, and Stand Size Class - The Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit's Calculation of Three Important Stand Descriptors

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    The procedures by which the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis unit calculates stocking from tree data collected on inventory sample plots are described in this report. Stocking is then used to ascertain two other important stand descriptors: forest type and stand size class. Inventory data for three plots from the recently completed 1989 Tennessee survey are used...

  17. The role of stand history in assessing forest impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, V.H.; Doyle, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Air pollution, harvesting practices, and natural disturbances can affect the growth of trees and forest development. To make predictions about anthropogenic impacts on forests, we need to understand how these factors affect tree growth. In this study the effect of disturbance history on tree growth and stand structure was examined by using a computer model of forest development. The model was run under the climatic conditions of east Tennessee, USA, and the results compared to stand structure and tree growth data from a yellow poplar-white oak forest. Basal area growth and forest biomass were more accurately projected when rough approximations of the thinning and fire history typical of the measured plots were included in the simulation model. Stand history can influence tree growth rates and forest structure and should be included in any attempt to assess forest impacts.

  18. Forest floor fuels in red and jack pine stands

    Treesearch

    James K. Brown

    1966-01-01

    An investigation to determine the quantity and density of forest floor fuels in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stands was conducted on National Forests in Michigan and Minnesota. The study was designed to answer three questions: How much fuel per acre exits in individual layers of the forest floor? How reliably can weight of...

  19. Forest stand losses to gypsy moth in the Poconos

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick

    1978-01-01

    A Study of forest stand losses associated with the gypsy moth outbreak of the early 1970's in the Pocono Mountain Region of northeastern Pennsylvania, showed that while most of the stands incurred little or no loss, a few suffered heavy damage

  20. The effects of forest fragmentation on forest stand attributes

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes

    2002-01-01

    For two study areas in Minnesota, USA, one heavily forested and one sparsely forested, maps of predicted proportion forest area were created using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, forest inventory plot data, and a logistic regression model. The maps were used to estimate quantitative indices of forest fragmentation. Correlations between the values of the indices and...

  1. Development of a stand-scale forest biodiversity index based on the state forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Kris Vandekerkhove

    2000-01-01

    Ecological aspects are increasingly influencing silvicultural management. Estimating forest biodiversity has become one often major tools for evaluating management strategies. A stand-scale forest biodiversity index is developed, based on available data from the state forest inventory. The index combines aspects of forest structure, woody and herbal layer composition,...

  2. Forest stand structure of the northern spotted owl's foraging habitat.

    Treesearch

    Malcolm P. North; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew B. Carey; Eric D. Forsman; Tom. Hamer

    1999-01-01

    Although the spotted owl's close association with old growth has been extensively studied, it more difficult to identify and quantify the abundance of particular stand structures associated with preferred owl foraging sites. Old-growth forests have a suite of characteristics that distinguish them from younger forests but which also make it difficult to isolate...

  3. A method of forest management for the planned introduction of intensive husbandry in virgin forest stands

    Treesearch

    B. Dolezal

    1978-01-01

    The method proposed is derived from long experience of intensive management in forest stands of Central Europe and from our proposal for management in virgin Iranian forests of the Caspian Region. The method establishes the need for systematic planning of stand conversion to insure both sustained yield and the harvesting of sufficient timber to sustain economic...

  4. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  5. Hazard rating forest stands for gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1991-01-01

    A gypsy moth hazard exists when forest conditions prevail that are conducive to extensive damage from gypsy moth. Combining forest hazard rating with information on insect population trends provides the basis for predicting the probability (risk) of an event occurring. The likelihood of defoliation is termed susceptibility and the probability of damage (mortality,...

  6. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  7. Community stand structure of rehabilitated forest at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatma, N. A. H.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Shaharuddin, M. I.; Wickneswari, R.

    2016-11-01

    A descriptive study of species composition, community structure and biomass was conducted in compartment 107, which is a rehabilitated area at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The objective is to determine the forest structure and species composition in a rehabilitated area of Kenaboi FR since enrichment planting had done. A sample plot of 1 hectare was censused and a total of 395 trees with diameter ≥ 5 cm DBH were recorded. A total of 285 individual trees were identified belonging to 20 families and the commonest family was Dipterocarpaceae with 193 individuals. The highest tree density per ha was Shorea acuminata at 33% followed by S. parvifolia, 10% and S. leprosula, 6%. The biggest tree was Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume with a diameter of 101 cm. The total basal area was 34.48 m2/ha, whereby the highest basal area was between 45 - 54.9 cm DBH class that contributed 10.21 m2/ha (30%). The total biomass estimation (above ground and below ground) was 792.57 t/ha. Dipterocarpaceae contributed the highest total biomass at 545.14 t/ha with S. acuminata contributed the highest total biomass of 330.45 t/ha. This study will contribute to the knowledge of regeneration forest especially on how the ecological process restoring the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in rehabilitated forest by practicing the enrichment planting of native species.

  8. Correlations among stand ages and forest strata in mixed-oak forests of southeastern Ohio

    Treesearch

    P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix

    1997-01-01

    Many models of landscape ecosystem development, as well as of forest stand dynamics, are based upon spatial and temporal changes in the species composition and structure of various forest strata. However, few document the interrelationships among forest strata, or the response of different strata to alterations of natural disturbance regimes. To examine how...

  9. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

    Treesearch

    Liming He; Jing M. Chen; Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; Jens. Kattge

    2012-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key flux in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance, as it summarizes the autotrophic input into the system. Forest NPP varies predictably with stand age, and quantitative information on the NPP-age relationship for different regions and forest types is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We used four...

  10. Relationships between forest cutting and understory vegetation: an overview of eastern hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Hewlette S. Crawford

    1976-01-01

    The impacts of forest cutting upon understory vegetation were evaluated for Ozark oak-hickory and Appalachian oak-pine stands. These findings were related to similar information from other eastern forest types. Production of understory vegetation is related to stand type, stand structure, stand disturbance, and site. Stand type, structure, and site operate together to...

  11. Stand age and climate drive forest carbon balance recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Simon; Carvalhais, Nuno; Clevers, Jan; Herold, Martin; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an essential role in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, especially in the C exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Ecological disturbances and forest management are drivers of forest dynamics and strongly impact the forest C budget. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the exogenous and endogenous factors driving forest C recovery. Our analysis includes 68 forest sites in different climate zones to determine the relative influence of stand age and climate conditions on the forest carbon balance recovery. In this study, we only included forest regrowth after clear-cut stand replacement (e.g. harvest, fire), and afforestation/reforestation processes. We synthesized net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), the photosynthetic respiratory ratio (GPP to Re ratio), the ecosystem carbon use efficiency (CUE), that is NEP to GPP ratio, and CUEclimax, where GPP is derived from the climate conditions. We implemented a non-linear regression analysis in order to identify the best model representing the C flux patterns with stand age. Furthermore, we showed that each C flux have a non-linear relationship with stand age, annual precipitation (P) and mean annual temperature (MAT), therefore, we proposed to use non-linear transformations of the covariates for C fluxes'estimates. Non-linear stand age and climate models were, therefore, used to establish multiple linear regressions for C flux predictions and for determining the contribution of stand age and climate in forest carbon recovery. Our findings depicted that a coupled stand age-climate model explained 33% (44%, average site), 62% (76%, average site), 56% (71%, average site), 41% (59%, average site), 50% (65%, average site) and 36% (50%, average site) of the variance of annual NEP, GPP, Re, photosynthetic respiratory ratio, CUE and CUEclimax across sites, respectively. In addition, we showed that gross fluxes (e.g. GPP and Re) are

  12. Forest stand development patterns in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Copenheaver, C.A.; Matthews, J.M.; Showalter, J.M.; Auch, W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Composition of southern Appalachian forests are influenced by disturbance and topography. This study examined six stands in southwestern Virginia. Within each stand, a 0.3-ha plot was established, and all trees and saplings were measured and aged. Burned stands had lower densities of saplings and small trees, but appeared to have greater Quercus regeneration. Ice damage from the 1994 ice storm was most evident in Pinus strobus saplings. A stand on old coal-mine slag appeared to be experiencing a slower rate of succession than other sites. A variety of stand development patterns were observed, but one common pattern was that oak-hickory overstories had different species in their understory, which may indicate future changes in species composition.

  13. Influence of disturbance on stand development during forest succession

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey S. Ward

    2013-01-01

    Eighty years of data on stand development on 39 strip transects were used to elucidate the influence of disturbance on forest composition. Transects were measured at 10-year intervals between 1927 and 2007, except for 1947, and the resulting data include records of 35,953 stems. Disturbances included a wildfire in 1932, single-year defoliations (1964, 1972, 1981), and...

  14. The Development of Even-Aged Plantation Forests: An Exercise in Forest Stand Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. R.; Leslie, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a field-based practical exercise that allows students in forestry, ecology and natural resources to develop their understanding of forest stand dynamics. The exercise involves measurement of key tree growth parameters in four even-aged, single-species plantation stands of different age but occupying sites with similar soil…

  15. The Development of Even-Aged Plantation Forests: An Exercise in Forest Stand Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. R.; Leslie, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a field-based practical exercise that allows students in forestry, ecology and natural resources to develop their understanding of forest stand dynamics. The exercise involves measurement of key tree growth parameters in four even-aged, single-species plantation stands of different age but occupying sites with similar soil…

  16. Stand hazard rating for central idaho forests. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.; Williams, R.E.; Weatherby, J.C.; Reinhardt, E.D.; Hoffman, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Growing concern over sustainability of central Idaho forests has created a need to assess the health of forest stands on a relative basis. A stand hazard rating was developed as a composite of 11 individual ratings to compare the health hazards of different stands. The composite rating includes Douglas-fire bettle, mountain pine beetle, western pine beetle, spruce beetle, Douglas-fire tussock moth, western spruce budworm, dwarf mistletoes, annosus root disease, Swhweinitzii root and butt rot, and wildfire. The interacting effects of these agents were also considered.

  17. Judy Blume and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Philomena

    An English instructor examined 9 Judy Blume adolescent novels and interviewed 12 students (grades 6, 7, and 8) who had read the novels to look at the world as it was presented in the books and to compare the instructor's own perceptions with those of the adolescent readers. The study revealed that the books did in fact dwell on the problems of…

  18. Extraction of Forest Stands Parameters from Aster Data in Open Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M.; Riyahi Bakhtyarib, H. R.

    2012-07-01

    Tree crown size (CS) and stem number per hectare (SN) has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  19. Abundance of juvenile eastern box turtles in manages forest stands

    Treesearch

    Z. Felix; Y. Wang; H. Czech; C. Schweitzer

    2008-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2005, we used drift fences and artificial pools to sample juvenile eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in northeastern Alabama in forest stands experimentally treated to retain various amounts of overstory trees—clear-cuts and those with 25%–50% and 75%–100% of trees retained.We captured juvenile turtles only in clear-cut and 25%–50% retention...

  20. Reconstructed old-growth forest stand structure and composition of two stands on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington state

    Treesearch

    David H. Peter; Constance A. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    We reconstructed the stand structure and composition for two western Washington old-growth forest stands harvested around 1930 (named Fresca and Rail) from field and historical data. Both old-growth stands had a codominant or dominant 250-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) overstory with a few scattered older Douglas-fir....

  1. Modeling stand level carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, W. J.; McRae, D.

    2008-12-01

    Wildland fires in Canada burn an average of 2.8 million ha of forest annually. In years of extreme forest fire activity, total carbon emissions from wildland fires approach levels similar to Canadian industrial carbon emissions. There is large variability in carbon emissions rate (t per ha) within an individual fire due to fire behaviour and fuel variability. Large ( greater than 200 ha) fires account for about 97 percent of the annual area burned in Canada and they typically burn a wide range of fuel types and fuel loads under weather conditions that change as the fire spreads across the landscape. This causes large spatial and temporal variation in fuel consumption and therefore, carbon emissions. Variability in fuel consumption is well- documented by previous experimental burning projects in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands, a frequently burned component of the Canadian forest. Detailed fuel data from those studies show total fuel consumption rates of 0.8 to 5.4 kg per sq m in fires with intensities of 134 to 93 476 kW per m. The greatest range in fuel consumption rate occurred in the forest floor component where 28 to 74 percent of the initial forest floor material was burned, representing fuel consumption of 0.2 to 2.8 kg per sq m. By contrast, the overstory fuel consumption rate was 10 to 25 percent (0.6 to 2.2 kg per sq m) of the initial fuel load. Dead and downed woody fuel consumption generally represented a small amount of the total fuel consumption due to the limited initial fuel load. The wide range of total fuel consumption in this single fuel type was caused by variability in pre-fire fuel characteristics (fuel size, distribution, and total load), and burning conditions as influenced by weather, which affected fuel moisture content. In other fuel types characterized by deeper organic soils such as black spruce (Picea marianna), there is greater potential for a wider range of total fuel consumption due to higher forest floor fuel loads. To estimate

  2. [Carbon storage of forest stands in Shandong Province estimated by forestry inventory data].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Mei; Yang, Chuan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Nian; Ge, Li-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Based on the 7th forestry inventory data of Shandong Province, this paper estimated the carbon storage and carbon density of forest stands, and analyzed their distribution characteristics according to dominant tree species, age groups and forest category using the volume-derived biomass method and average-biomass method. In 2007, the total carbon storage of the forest stands was 25. 27 Tg, of which the coniferous forests, mixed conifer broad-leaved forests, and broad-leaved forests accounted for 8.6%, 2.0% and 89.4%, respectively. The carbon storage of forest age groups followed the sequence of young forests > middle-aged forests > mature forests > near-mature forests > over-mature forests. The carbon storage of young forests and middle-aged forests accounted for 69.3% of the total carbon storage. Timber forest, non-timber product forest and protection forests accounted for 37.1%, 36.3% and 24.8% of the total carbon storage, respectively. The average carbon density of forest stands in Shandong Province was 10.59 t x hm(-2), which was lower than the national average level. This phenomenon was attributed to the imperfect structure of forest types and age groups, i. e., the notably higher percentage of timber forests and non-timber product forest and the excessively higher percentage of young forests and middle-aged forest than mature forests.

  3. Object-oriented classification of forest structure from light detection and ranging data for stand mapping

    Treesearch

    Alicia A. Sullivan; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Peter. Schiess

    2009-01-01

    Stand delineation is an important step in the process of establishing a forest inventory and provides the spatial framework for many forest management decisions. Many methods for extracting forest structure characteristics for stand delineation and other purposes have been researched in the past, primarily focusing on high-resolution imagery and satellite data. High-...

  4. Forest evaporation models: relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maitre, D. C.; Versfeld, D. B.

    1997-06-01

    The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation on the water regime. The basis for this approach is (a) that growth rates are determined by water availability and limited by the maximum water extraction potential, and (b) that stand evaporation is proportional to biomass and biomass increment. The relationships between stand growth and evaporation were modelled for a set of catchment experiments where estimates of both growth and evaporation were available. The predicted mean evaporation, over periods of several years, was generally within 10% of the measured mean annual evaporation (rainfall minus streamflow) when the model from one catchment was applied to other catchments planted with the same species. The residual evaporation, after fitting the models, was correlated with rainfall: above-average rainfall resulted in above-average evaporation. This relationship could be used to derive estimates for dry and wet years. Analyses using the models provide additional evidence that Eucalyptus grandis may be depleting groundwater reserves in catchments where its roots can reach the water table. The models are designed to be integrated into a plantation management system which uses a geographic information system for spatial analysis and modelling. The use of readily available growth parameters as predictor variables may reduce our dependence on intricate process-based models. This is seen as an efficient way of extrapolating existing catchment data — reflecting the impacts of forestry on water supplies across a range of sites, climatic zones and species. This approach has the potential for further development, especially in dealing with low flows and faster growing species.

  5. Snow accumulation under various forest stand densities at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana, USA

    Treesearch

    Chadwick A. Moore; Ward W. McCaughey

    1997-01-01

    Snow accumulation in forested watersheds is controlled by climate, elevation, topographic factors and vegetation structure. Conifers affect snow accumulation principally by intercepting snow with the canopy which may later be sublimated. Various tree, stand, species and canopy densities of a subalpine fir habitat (ALBANASC) in central Montana were studied to determine...

  6. Forest Stand Volume Estimation Using Airborne LIDAR And Polarimetric SAR Over Hilly Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fengyun; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Liu, Qingwang; Li, Shiming; Ling, Feilong

    2010-10-01

    In order to investigate the potential capability of mapping forest stand volume using the multi-sources data, ALOS PALSAR, airborne LiDAR and high resolution CCD image in forest stand level, one test site located in the warm temperate hilly forest region of Shandong Province in China was established. Airborne LiDAR and CCD campaign was carried out in the end of May, 2005. One scene of ALOS PALSAR quad-polarization image was acquired in May 19th,2007. Ground forest plot data for Black Locust and Chinese Pine dominated forest stands were collected through field work from May to June of 2008. The correlations of forest stand volume to PALSAR backscattering coefficient of HH, HV, VH,VV, their ratio and some H-Alpha polarimetric decomposition parameters were analyzed in stand level through regression analysis. Mean forest stand volume of each polygons (forest stand) was finally estimated based on the regression model established using ground measured forest volume data and the corresponding parameters (polygon mean) derived from LiDAR CHM and polarimetric SAR data. Results show that it is feasible to combine low density LiDAR data, L-band SAR data and forest polygon data from high resolution CCD image for stand level forest volume estimation in hilly regions, the RMSE is 20.064m3/ha for Black Locust and 24.730m3/ha for Chinese Pine .

  7. Forest Stand Volume Estimation Using Airborne LIDAR And Polarimetric SAR Over Hilly Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fengyun; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Liu, Qingwang; Li, Shiming; Ling, Feilong; Pottier, Eric; Cloude, Shane

    2010-10-01

    In order to investigate the potential capability of mapping forest stand volume using the multi-sources data, ALOS PALSAR, airborne LiDAR and high resolution CCD image in forest stand level, one test site located in the warm temperate hilly forest region of Shandong Province in China was established. Airborne LiDAR and CCD campaign was carried out in the end of May, 2005. One scene of ALOS PALSAR quad-polarization image was acquired in May 19th,2007. Ground forest plot data for Black Locust and Chinese Pine dominated forest stands were collected through field work from May to June of 2008. The correlations of forest stand volume to PALSAR backscattering coefficient of HH, HV,VH,VV, their ratio and some H-Alpha polarimetric decomposition parameters were analyzed in stand level through regression analysis. Mean forest stand volume of each polygons (forest stand) was finally estimated based on the regression model established using ground measured forest volume data and the corresponding parameters (polygon mean) derived from LiDAR CHM and polarimetric SAR data. Results show that it is feasible to combine low density LiDAR data, L-band SAR data and forest polygon data from high resolution CCD image for stand level forest volume estimation in hilly regions, the RMSE is 20.064m3/ha for Black Locust and 24.730m3/ha for Chinese Pine .

  8. Forest stand structure from airborne polarimetric InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzter, H.; Saich, P.; Luckman, A. J.; Skinner, L.; Grant, J.

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric SAR at short wavelengths can be used to retrieve stand height of forests. We evaluate the precision of tree height estimation from airborne single-pass interferometric E-SAR data at X-band VV polarisation and repeat-pass L-band polarimetric data. General yield class curves were used to estimate tree height from planting year, tree species and yield class data provided by the Forest Enterprise. The data were compared to tree height estimates from X-VV single-pass InSAR and repeat-pass polarimetric InSAR at L-band acquired by DLR's E-SAR during the SHAC campaign 2000. The effect of gap structure and incidence angle on retrieval precision of tree height from interferometric SAR is analysed. Appropriate correction methods to improve tree height retrieval are proposed. The coherent microwave model CASM is used with a Lindenmayer system tree model to simulate the observed underestimation of stand height in the presence of gaps.

  9. A Conceptual Model for Defining and Assessing Condition of Forest Stands.

    PubMed

    LUNDQUIST; BEATTY

    1999-05-01

    / Determining what indicators can be used to measure forest health has been much discussed but largely unresolved in the forestry literature. A model is presented in which the condition of a stand is quantified relative to a suitable target condition based on a preselected set of stands that, in the opinions of the managers, meet management objectives. Each stand was characterized by a list of variables that were selected from the existing forest database. We termed these characterizations stand profiles. Profiles of inventory data for 28 stands, each managed for either wildlife habitat or timber production in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in eastern Oregon, USA, were used to develop this model. Healthy stands were represented by points in multidimensional scaling space that fell within the bounds of a 65% kernel density estimation of the distribution of stands preselected for each management objective. Stands falling outside these bounds were, by definition unhealthy, and the distance from the bounds is a measure of degree of unhealthiness. Operationally, the objectives of silvicultural manipulations would be to maintain or move points to within the target space by selectively manipulating the values composing stand profiles. The direction and length of the trajectory associated with manipulations is an indicator of the effect of management actions. More work needs to be done to develop and validate this method. KEY WORDS: Monitoring forest condition; Forest health; Decision making; Silviculture prescriptions; Forest management; Forest pests; Forest diseases; Forest insects

  10. Forest inventory and management-based visual preference models of southern pine stands

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis; James H. Gramann; Edward J. Ruddell; Joanne M. Westphal

    1988-01-01

    Statistical models explaining students' ratings of photographs of within stand forest scenes were constructed for 99 forest inventory plots in east Texas pine and oak-pine forest types. Models with parameters that are sensitive to visual preference yet compatible with forest management and timber inventories are presented. The models suggest that the density of...

  11. Species Composition of Down Dead and Standing Live Trees: Implications for Forest Inventory Analysis

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda Nagel

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of species composition in most forest inventory analysis relies solely on standing live tree information characterized by current forest type. With the implementation of the third phase of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program, the species composition of down dead trees, otherwise termed coarse...

  12. An experimental test of the causes of forest growth decline with stand age.

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan; Dan Binkley; James H. Fownes; Christian Giardina; Randy S. Senock

    2004-01-01

    The decline in aboveground wood production after canopy closure in even-aged forest stands is a common pattern in forests, but clear evidence for the mechanism causing the decline is lacking. The problem is fundamental to forest biology, commercial forestry (the decline sets the rotation age), and to carbon storage in forests. We tested three hypotheses...

  13. Spatial impact assessment of conifer stands in the Hoosier National Forest

    Treesearch

    Richard Thurau; Craig Wayson; Dale Weigel; Jeff. Ehman

    2011-01-01

    Forest management decisions on Federal lands must be administered at many spatial and temporal scales. Forest condition, size class, and cover type at the stand level determine how silvicultural practices today will impact management area and overall forest goals in the future. The Hoosier National Forest (HNF) Land Resource Management Plan lists eight goals for...

  14. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Pan, Yude; Birdsey, Richard; Kattge, Jens

    2012-09-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key flux in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance, as it summarizes the autotrophic input into the system. Forest NPP varies predictably with stand age, and quantitative information on the NPP-age relationship for different regions and forest types is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We used four terms to calculate NPP: annual accumulation of live biomass, annual mortality of aboveground and belowground biomass, foliage turnover to soil, and fine root turnover in soil. For U.S. forests the first two terms can be reliably estimated from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. Although the last two terms make up more than 50% of total NPP, direct estimates of these fluxes are highly uncertain due to limited availability of empirical relationships between aboveground biomass and foliage or fine root biomass. To resolve this problem, we developed a new approach using maps of leaf area index (LAI) and forest age at 1 km resolution to derive LAI-age relationships for 18 major forest type groups in the USA. These relationships were then used to derive foliage turnover estimates using species-specific trait data for leaf specific area and longevity. These turnover estimates were also used to derive the fine root turnover based on reliable relationships between fine root and foliage turnover. This combination of FIA data, remote sensing, and plant trait information allows for the first empirical and reliable NPP-age relationships for different forest types in the USA. The relationships show a general temporal pattern of rapid increase in NPP in the young ages of forest type groups, peak growth in the middle ages, and slow decline in the mature ages. The predicted patterns are influenced by climate conditions and can be affected by forest management. These relationships were further generalized to three major forest biomes for use by continental-scale carbon cycle models in conjunction with

  15. Suggested stocking levels for forest stands in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, P.H.; Geist, J.M.; Clemens, D.L.; Clausnitzer, R.R.; Powell, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Catastrophes and manipulation of stocking levels are primary determinants of stand development and the appearance of future forest landscapes. Managers need stocking level guides particularly for sites incapable of supporting stocking levels presented in normal yield tables. To take advantage of information currently available the authors used some assumptions to relate growth basal area (GBA) to stand density index (SDI) and then create stocking level curves for use in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Use of these curves cannot be expected to eliminate all insect and disease problems, but the impact of mountain pine beetle should be moderated.

  16. Small mammal habitat associations in poletimber and sawtimber stands of four forest cover types

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Dana P. Snyder; Barbara J. Hill

    1991-01-01

    Small mammal distribution was examined in poletimber and sawtimber stands of four forest cover types in northern New England: northern hardwoods, red maple, balsam fir, and red spruce-balsam fir. During 1980 and 1981, eight stands on the White Mountain National Forest, NH, were sampled with four trap types (three sizes of snap traps and one pit-fall) for 16 000 trap-...

  17. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management

    Treesearch

    Doug P. Aubrey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus...

  18. Patterns of covariance between forest stand and canopy structure in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew T. Hudak; Warren B. Cohen; S.A. Acker

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, LIDAR (light detection and ranging) has emerged as a powerful tool for remotely sensing forest canopy and stand structure, including the estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Numerous papers have documented the use of LIDAR measurements to predict important aspects of forest stand structure, including aboveground biomass. Other...

  19. Simulating stand climate, phenology, and photosynthesis of a forest stand with a process-based growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rötzer, Thomas; Leuchner, Michael; Nunn, Angela J.

    2010-07-01

    In the face of climate change and accompanying risks, forest management in Europe is becoming increasingly important. Model simulations can help to understand the reactions and feedbacks of a changing environment on tree growth. In order to simulate forest growth based on future climate change scenarios, we tested the basic processes underlying the growth model BALANCE, simulating stand climate (air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and precipitation), tree phenology, and photosynthesis. A mixed stand of 53- to 60-year-old Norway spruce ( Picea abies) and European beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in Southern Germany was used as a reference. The results show that BALANCE is able to realistically simulate air temperature gradients in a forest stand using air temperature measurements above the canopy and PAR regimes at different heights for single trees inside the canopy. Interception as a central variable for water balance of a forest stand was also estimated. Tree phenology, i.e. bud burst and leaf coloring, could be reproduced convincingly. Simulated photosynthesis rates were in accordance with measured values for beech both in the sun and the shade crown. For spruce, however, some discrepancies in the rates were obvious, probably due to changed environmental conditions after bud break. Overall, BALANCE has shown to respond to scenario simulations of a changing environment (e.g., climate change, change of forest stand structure).

  20. Soil sustainability study in Lithuanian alien forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čiuldiene, Dovile; Skridlaite, Grazina; Žalūdiene, Gaile; Askelsson, Cecilia; Armolaitis, Kestutis

    2016-04-01

    Tree species are shifting their natural ranges in response to climate changes (Saltré et al., 2013). Northern red oak has originated from North America, but was planted in Europe already in twentieth century. At present, it is considered as invasive species in Poland and at invasive stage in the Lithuanian forests (Riepsas and Straigyte, 2008). European larch naturally grows in Central Europe, but its range has been extended by planting it as far as the Nordic countries. According to a pollen study in peat soils, European larch naturally grew in Lithuania in the sixteenth century and was reintroduced 200 years ago (Jankauskas, 1954). Therefore, the global warming could accelerate the expansion of European larch and Northern red oak into Lithuanian forests. An urgent need appeared to evaluate an impact of those warmth-tolerant species on soil mineral chemistry and quality. New results on the determination of mineral weathering rates in alien forest stands using a PROFILE soil chemistry model were obtained during a doctoral study at the Institute of Forestry. Soil minerals were studied by a Scanning Electron Microscopy at the Institute of Geology and Geography. The results provided a lot of new information on soil weathering rates in Lithuania. The 47 and 157-year-old European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), 45 and 55-year-old Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantations and adjacent perennial grasslands were chosen for this study. The soils were classified as Luvisols and were developed from glaciofluvial deposits. The PROFILE model requires data of climate conditions (mean annual temperature and precipitation), chemical parameters of atmospheric deposition, forest plantation dendrometric and chemical (wood, foliage litter fall) characteristics, soil physical characteristics and mineral composition. A cation weathering rate (sum of Ca+Mg+ K) is 30% higher in a soil under the Northern red oak than in adjacent perennial grassland. Meanwhile, cation weathering rates

  1. Imputing forest structure attributes from stand inventory and remotely sensed data in western Oregon, USA

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; A. Tod Haren; Nicholas L. Crookston; Robert J. Liebermann; Janet L. Ohmann

    2014-01-01

    Imputation is commonly used to assign reference stand observations to target stands based on covariate relationships to remotely sensed data to assign inventory attributes across the entire landscape. However, most remotely sensed data are collected at higher resolution than the stand inventory data often used by operational foresters. Our primary goal was to compare...

  2. New methods for estimating parameters of weibull functions to characterize future diameter distributions in forest stands

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao; Shanna M. McCarty

    2006-01-01

    Diameter distributions in a forest stand have been successfully characterized by use of the Weibull function. Of special interest are cases where parameters of a Weibull distribution that models a future stand are predicted, either directly or indirectly, from current stand density and dominant height. This study evaluated four methods of predicting the Weibull...

  3. Stand density guides for predicting growth of forest tress of southwest Idaho

    Treesearch

    Douglas D. Basford; John Sloan; Joy Roberts

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating stand growth from stand density and average diameter in stands of pure and mixed species in Southwest Idaho. The methods are adapted from a model developed for Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine on the Salmon National Forest. Growth data were derived from ponderosa pine increment cores taken from sample plots on...

  4. Parametric analysis of synthetic aperture radar data for the study of forest stand characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shih-Tseng

    1988-01-01

    A parametric analysis of a Gulf Coast forest stand was performed using multipolarization, multipath airborne SAR data, and forest plot properties. Allometric equations were used to compute the biomass and basal area for the test plots. A multiple regression analysis with stepwise selection of independent variables was performed. It is found that forest stand characteristics such as biomass, basal area, and average tree height are correlated with SAR data.

  5. Reducing stand densities in immature and mature stands, applegate watershed, southwest Oregon. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Main, M.L.; Amaranthus, M.P.

    1996-02-01

    In the study the authors examined conditions following density management treatments in two adjacent but dissimilar stands in Applegate Watershed, Oregon. An immature stand received a unique density reduction treatment retaining both hardwoods and conifers to encourage long-term survival and growth of its coniferous component. The mature stand density reduction treatment focused on removal of the competitive influence from overstocked, surpressed understory trees and maintaining existing large-diameter conifers. Precommercial thinning greatly reduced stand density and increased quadratic mean diameters in the immature stand. In the immature stand the combination of commercial and precommercial thinnings produced a reduced stand density designed to improve overall stand vigor.

  6. Grapevine dynamics after manual tending of juvenile stands on the Hoosier National Forest, Indiana

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Morrissey; Martin-Michel Gauthier; John A., Jr. Kershaw; Douglass F. Jacobs; Burnell C. Fischer; John R. Siefert

    2008-01-01

    Large woody vines, most notably grapevines, are a source of great concern for forest and wildlife managers in many parts of the Central Hardwood Forest Region of the United States. We examined grapevine dynamics in stands aged 21 - 35 years. The plots, located in regenerated clearcuts in the Hoosier National Forest (HNF), were evaluated for vine control, site, and tree...

  7. Monitoring stand structure in mature coastal Douglas-fir forests: effect of plot size.

    Treesearch

    Andrew. Gray

    2003-01-01

    National and regional interest in the distribution and trends of forest habitat structure and diversity have placed demands on forest inventories for accurate stand-level data. a primary need in the coastal Pacific Northwest of the United States is information on the extent and rate of development of mature forest structure. The objective of this study was to evaluate...

  8. Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Korets, M. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%-90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ˜400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30-40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10-20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%-25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%-50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25-30 m) would occur over 8%-12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30-40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture.

  9. Propagation of noise over and through a forest stand

    Treesearch

    Lee P. Herrington; C. Brock

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the two-dimensional acoustic field in a forest resulting from a source located outside the forest indicated that the attenuation pattern near the ground is significantly different from the pattern higher up in the forest. The patterns of attenuation support the recent theory that the forest floor is the main absorber of acoustic energy in the forest....

  10. Stand and cohort structures of old-growth Pinus resinosa-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Shawn Fraver; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    The wide range of stand and age-cohort structures in these old-growth P. resinosa stands depicts pre-settlement forests more complex than those of the single-cohort, post-stand-replacing-fire model that has guided regional forest management. Within-stand patchiness of cohort age structures implies disturbances operating at scales smaller than...

  11. Effects of Sloped Terrain and Forest Stand Maturity on Evapotranspiration in a Boreal Forested Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabelle, P. E.; Nadeau, D.; Parent, A. C.; Rousseau, A. N.; Jutras, S.; Anctil, F.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forests are the predominant landscape of Canada, occupying 49% of its boreal zone or 27% of the country. Despite the tremendous amount of literature on such ecosystems, some gaps persist in our understanding of boreal forest evapotranspiration (ET), given that direct measurements are costly to obtain and therefore scarce in these remote territories. This is especially the case on sloped terrain, since the eddy covariance method is not traditionally used in such situations. These gaps lead to the implementation of the EVAP experimental project, which intends to produce a major leap in our understanding of the water and energy budgets of a sloped boreal forest. Starting in summer 2015, we heavily instrumented a watershed in the Montmorency Forest (47°17' N; 71°10' W), Quebec, Canada. Located in the Laurentian Mountains, the forest has a mean elevation of 750 m with peaks at 1000 m. The setup includes a 20-m flux tower with two separate sets of eddy correlation and net radiation measurements facing opposite directions, located over an almost mature boreal forest (logged ~20 years ago, 8-10 m trees). Eddy fluxes are also measured under the canopy with a similar setup, while a sub-watershed is instrumented with a 10-m flux tower using homologous instruments, this time on a much younger forest stand (logged ~10 years ago, 4-5 m trees). Both sites are characterized by a significant slope (~20%), facing northeast for the 20-m tower and west for the 10-m tower. With several other instruments, we are measuring every major components of both water and energy budgets, including the outgoing discharge of the watershed and subwatershed. The different slope orientations and local topography of both sites allow us to quantify the relationships between solar exposition, topographic shading and ET rates; these relationships being transposable to other mountainous forested catchments. We also investigate the presence of slope flows and assess their impact on local ET

  12. Stochastically generating tree diameter lists to populate forest stands based on the linkage variables, forest type and stand age.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, B.R.; Lloyd, F.T.

    2003-08-31

    Forest inventory data were used to develop a stand-age-driven, stochastic predictor of unit-area, frequency-weighted lists of breast high tree diameters (DBH). The average of mean statistics from 40-simulation prediction sets of an independent 78-plot validation dataset differed from the observed validation means by 0.5 cm for DBH, and by 12 trees/h for density. The 40-simulation average of standard deviation, quartile range, maximum value and minimum value differed from the validation dataset, respectively, by 0.3, 1.3, 0.6 and 1.5 cm for DBH, and 10, 42, 29, and 54 trees/h for density. In addition, test statistics were also computed individually for each of the 40 single simulations of the 78-plot validation dataset. In all cases, the test statistics supported the null hypothesis of no difference between simulated and observed DBH lists. When power of these hypothesis test statistics was set to 80%, the calculated minimum detectable differences were still reasonably small at 2.7 cm for mean DBH and 90 trees/h for stocking. Also, the shape and dispersion of simulated mean-DBH/density scatter graphs were similar to the same scatter graph from the observed, validation dataset.

  13. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  14. Forest stand structure and pattern of old-growth western hemlock/Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Jiquan Chen; Brian Oakley; Bo Song; Mark Rudnicki; Andrew Gray; Jim Innes

    2004-01-01

    With fire suppression, many western forests are expected to have fewer gaps and higher stem density of shade-tolerant species as light competition becomes a more significant influence on stand pattern and composition. We compared species composition, structure, spatial pattern, and environmental factors such as light and soil moisture between two old-growth forests:...

  15. Long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of two stands of an Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Écio Souza; Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Santos, Rubens Manoel; Gastauer, Markus; Garcia, Paulo Oswaldo; Fontes, Marco Aurélio Leite; Coelho, Polyanne Aparecida; Moreira, Aline Martins; Menino, Gisele Cristina Oliveira; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to report the long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of the tree community in a protected semideciduous Atlantic Forest in the South of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. The study was conducted in two stands (B and C), each with 26 and 38 10 m x 30 m plots. Censuses of stand B were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011, and stand C in 2001, 2006 and 2011. In both stands, the most abundant and important species for biomass accumulation over the inventories were trees larger than 20 cm of diameter, which characterize advanced successional stage within the forest. The two surveyed stands within the studied forest presented differences in structure, diversity and species richness over the time.

  16. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  17. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-08-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  18. Forests

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  19. Water Quality Effects of Forest Roads in Bottomland Hardwood Stands

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer

    1999-01-01

    Management of bottomland hardwood sites requires adequate access to support forest operations. A study conducted in a bottomland forest in central Georgia has evaluated the effect of forest road design on sediment movement and water quality. Five years of measurement indicate that a conventional crowned road design is a net sink for sediment, primarily due to settling...

  20. Vegetative conditions and management options in even-age stands on the Monongahela National Forest

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer; James Knibbs; John E. Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, personnel with the Northeastern Research Station and the Monongahela National Forest initiated a comprehensive survey of even-age stands that regenerated between 1964 and 1990. Preliminary results indicate that clearcutting was successful in regenerating these young stands with a variety of woody and herbaceous plant species. Early cleanings using crop-tree...

  1. Effects of even-aged management on forest birds at northern hardwood stand interfaces

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf

    1992-01-01

    Breeding birds were counted along transects across edges of even-aged northern hardwood stands in the White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Two replicate transects across each of 7 edge types representing 3 classes of contrast (abrupt, intermediate, and subtle) were sampled during June 1983-1985 to define species assemblages at stand edges and estimate...

  2. Beetle-killed stands in the South Carolina piedmont: from fuel hazards to regenerating oak forests

    Treesearch

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; G. Geoff Wang; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2012-01-01

    Impacts of spring prescribed fire, mechanical mastication, and no-treatment (control) on fuels and natural hardwood tree regeneration were examined in beetle-killed stands in the South Carolina Piedmont. Mechanical mastication ground the down and standing dead trees and live vegetation into mulch and deposited it onto the forest floor. The masticated debris layer had...

  3. Predicting the rate of change in timber value for forest stands infested with gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick

    1982-01-01

    Presents a method for estimating the potential impact of gypsy moth attacks on forest-stand value. Robust regression analysis is used to develop an equation for predicting the rate of change in timber value from easy-to-measure key characteristics of stand condition.

  4. Detection of forest stand-level spatial structure in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Treesearch

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns; Thomas R. Horton; D. Lee Taylor; Paul Grogan

    2004-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities are highly diverse at the stand level. To begin to understand what might lead to such diversity, and to improve sampling designs, we investigated the spatial structure of these communities. We used EMF community data from a number of studies carried out in seven mature and one recently fire-initiated forest stand. We applied...

  5. Formulating a stand-growth model for mathematical programming problems in Appalachian forests

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Jay Sullivan

    1993-01-01

    Some growth and yield simulators applicable to central hardwood forests can be formulated for use in mathematical programming models that are designed to optimize multi-stand, multi-resource management problems. Once in the required format, growth equations serve as model constraints, defining the dynamics of stand development brought about by harvesting decisions. In...

  6. Stand dynamics of mixed red alder-conifer forests of southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Ewa H. Orlikowska; David V. D' Amore

    2004-01-01

    Stand structure and dynamics were evaluated in mixed red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer forests of southeast Alaska. We assessed stand development, tree density, total basal area, diameter distribution of live and dead trees, height distribution of live trees, and mean diameter of all and largest conifers in 40-year-old red alder - conifer...

  7. Application of Lidar remote sensing to the estimation of forest canopy and stand structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefsky, Michael Andrew

    A new remote sensing instrument, SLICER (Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery), has been applied to the problem of remote sensing the canopy and stand structure of two groups of deciduous forests, Tulip Poplar-Oak stands in the vicinity of Annapolis, MD. and bottomland hardwood stands near Williamston, NC. The ability of the SLICER instrument to remotely sense the vertical distribution of canopy structure (Canopy Height Profile), bulk canopy transmittance, and several indices of canopy height has been successfully validated using twelve stands with coincident field and SLICER estimates of canopy structure. Principal components analysis has been applied to canopy height profiles from both field sites, and three significant factors were identified, each closely related to the amount of foliage in a recognizable layer of the forest, either understory, midstory, or overstory. The distribution of canopy structure to these layers is significantly correlated with the size and number of stems supporting them. The same layered structure was shown to apply to both field and SLICER remotely sensed canopy height profiles, and to apply to SLICER remotely sensed canopy profiles from both the bottomland hardwood stands in the coastal plain of North Carolina, and to mesic Tulip-Poplars stands in the upland coastal plain of Maryland. Linear regressions have demonstrated that canopy and stand structure are correlated to both a statistically significant and useful degree. Stand age and stem density is more highly correlated to stand height, while stand basal area and aboveground biomass are more closely related to a new measure of canopy structure, the quadratic mean canopy height. A geometric model of canopy structure has been shown to explain the differing relationships between canopy structure and stand basal area for stands of Eastern Deciduous Forest and Douglas Fir Forest.

  8. Influence of site index on the relationship between forest net primary productivity and stand age

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Chen, Jing M.; Yang, Xiguang; Fan, Wenyi; Li, Mingze; He, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that forest net primary productivity (NPP) varies pronouncedly with stand age, and these variations play a crucial role in determining forest carbon sinks or sources at regional scales. Some forest carbon cycling models, eg. InTEC (The integrated terrestrial ecosystem C-budget model), calculates annual forest NPP in the long term according to normalized NPP-age relationships and the reference forest NPP at a given age. Therefore, the accurate NPP-age relationship is important for forest NPP estimation. In this study, NPP at various stand ages for twelve major forest stand types in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China is derived from yield tables with consideration of the total biomass increment and foliage and fine-root turnovers. Similar to previous studies, our results also show that forest NPP increases quickly at young ages, reaches the maximum value at middle age (10–40 years old), and then decreases to a relative stable level at old ages. However, we additionally found that forests under better site conditions have faster growth rates in young ages and steeper declines after reaching the maximum. Therefore, when the NPP-age curves for different site indices are normalized against the maximum value of each curve, there are significant differences among them. These differences have implications on the methodology for estimating the spatial distribution of forest carbon sources and sinks. PMID:28493995

  9. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2010-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinusspp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in...

  10. Reintroducing fire in regenerated dry forests following stand-replacing wildfire.

    Treesearch

    David W. Peterson; Paul F. Hessburg; Brion Salter; Kevin M. James; Matthew C. Dahlgreen; John A. Barnes

    2007-01-01

    Prescribed fire use may be effective for increasing fire resilience in young coniferous forests by reducing surface fuels, modifying overstory stand structure, and promoting development of large trees of fire resistant species. Questions remain, however, about when and how to reintroduce fire in regenerated forests, and to what end. We studied the effects of spring...

  11. CLIMACS: a computer model of forest stand development for western Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Virginia H. Dale; Miles. Hemstrom

    1984-01-01

    A simulation model for the development of timber stands in the Pacific Northwest is described. The model grows individual trees of 21 species in a 0.20-hectare (0.08-acre) forest gap. The model provides a means of assimilating existing information, indicates where knowledge is deficient, suggests where the forest system is most sensitive, and provides a first testing...

  12. Estimating carbon stocks in uneven-aged bottomland hardwood forest stands in south Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Matthew K. Moerschbaecher; Rikchard F. Keim; John W. Day

    2016-01-01

    This study reports growth and carbon storage of four bottomland hardwood forest sites in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of southern Louisiana. Forest growth and carbon sequestration rates at the four sites were highly variable because of differences in stand composition, age, structure, and site hydrology. Mean annual carbon assimilation rates ranged from...

  13. Forest processes from stands to landscapes: exploring model forecast uncertainties using cross-scale model comparison

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Papaik; Andrew Fall; Brian Sturtevant; Daniel Kneeshaw; Christian Messier; Marie-Josee Fortin; Neal. Simon

    2010-01-01

    Forest management practices conducted primarily at the stand scale result in simplified forests with regeneration problems and low structural and biological diversity. Landscape models have been used to help design management strategies to address these problems. However, there remains a great deal of uncertainty that the actual management practices result in the...

  14. Cutting a young-growth, mixed-conifer stand to California Forest Practice Act Standards

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald

    1973-01-01

    Cutting by the minimum standard of the Rules of California's North Sierra Pine Forest District was evaluated for effects on species composition, seed fall, regeneration, and residual growth at the Challenge Experimental Forest, central California. Cutting removed 74 percent of the stand basal area and 94 percent of the merchantable volume. The heavy cut changed...

  15. Stand compositional dynamics in a mature Illinois Ozarks forest: implications for management

    Treesearch

    John W. Groninger; Trevor B. Ozier; Charles M. Ruffner

    2003-01-01

    The Ozark Hills region of southern Illinois is characterized by the severe topography typical of the Ozark Plateau, but is overlain by loess deposits and therefore supports site conditions more typical of mesophytic forests. As is common in lightly disturbed and undisturbed mesic upland sites throughout this region, mature stands in Trail of Tears State Forest are...

  16. Using the Forest Vegetation Simulator to reconstruct historical stand conditions in the Colorado Front Range

    Treesearch

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby; Jason M. Stoker

    2002-01-01

    Presettlement ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests of the Colorado Front Range were open and heterogeneous. Logging, grazing, and fire suppression over past 100 to150 years have altered stand structure by changing diameter distributions and increasing overstory density. In an effort to guide forest restoration toward presettlement conditions, we are currently using the...

  17. Stand density index as a tool to assess the maximization of forest carbon and biomass

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2012-01-01

    Given the ability of forests to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and provide feedstocks to energy utilities, there is an emerging need to assess forest biomass/carbon accretion opportunities over large areas. Techniques for objectively quantifying stand stocking of biomass/carbon are lacking for large areas given the complexity of tree species composition in the U.S....

  18. Stand-level bird response to experimental forest management in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Sarah W. Kendrick; Paul A. Porneluzi; Frank R. Thompson; Dana L. Morris; Janet M. Haslerig; John. Faaborg

    2015-01-01

    Long-term landscape-scale experiments allow for the detection of effects of silviculture on bird abundance. Manipulative studies allow for strong inference on effects and confirmation of patterns from observational studies.We estimated bird-territory density within forest stands (2.89-62 ha) for 19 years of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP), a 100-...

  19. Wildlife Habitat Conditions in Mature Pine Hardwood Stands in the Ouachita/Ozark National Forests

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Nancy E. Koerth

    1994-01-01

    A long-term, stand-level, interdisciplinsry research and demonstration project was initiated on the Ouachia (ONF) and Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas in 1990 to compare the impacts of alternative reproduction cutting methods on commodity and noncommodity forest resources including wildlife habitat and populations. Habitat masurement procedures and...

  20. Interactions of changing climate and shifts in forest composition on stand carbon balance

    Treesearch

    Chiang Jyh-Min; Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim Brown

    2006-01-01

    Given that climate influences forest biogeographic distribution, many researchers have created models predicting shifts in tree species range with future climate change scenarios. The objective of this study is to investigate the forest carbon consequences of shifts in stand species composition with current and future climate scenarios using such a model.

  1. Canopy transpiration of pure and mixed forest stands with variable abundance of European beech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    SummaryThe importance of tree species identity and diversity for biogeochemical cycles in forests is not well understood. In the past, forestry has widely converted mixed forests to pure stands while contemporary forest policy often prefers mixed stands again. However, the hydrological consequences of these changes remain unclear. We tested the hypotheses (i) that significant differences in water use per ground area exist among the tree species of temperate mixed forests and that these differences are more relevant for the amount of stand-level canopy transpiration (Ec) than putative complementarity effects of tree water use, and (ii) that the seasonal patterns of Ec in mixed stands are significantly influenced by the identity of the present tree species. We measured xylem sap flux during 2005 (average precipitation) and 2006 (relatively dry) synchronously in three nearby old-growth forest stands on similar soil differing in the abundance of European beech (pure beech stand, 3-species stand with 70% beech, 5-species stand with <10% beech). In summer 2005 with average rainfall, Ec was 50% higher in the beech-poor 5-species stand than in the two stands with moderate to high beech presence (158 vs. 97 and 101 mm yr-1); in the dry summer 2006, all stands converged toward similar Ec totals (128-139 mm yr-1). Species differences in Ec were large on a sapwood area basis, reflecting a considerable variation in hydraulic architecture and leaf conductance regulation among the co-existing species. Moreover, transpiration per crown projection area (ECA) also differed up to 5-fold among the different species in the mixed stands, probably reflecting contrasting sapwood/crown area ratios. We conclude that Ec is not principally higher in mixed forests than in pure beech stands. However, tree species-specific traits have an important influence on the height of Ec and affect its seasonal variation. Species with a relatively high ECA (notably Tilia) may exhaust soil water reserves

  2. Ecological indicators of forest degradation after forest fire and clear-cutting in the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) stand of Mongolia

    Treesearch

    Y.D. Park; D.K. Lee; J.A. Stanturf; S.Y. Woo; D. Zoyo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate ecological indicators of forest degradation after forest fire and clear-cutting in the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) stand of Mongolia. The species abundance and biodiversity indices were higher in burned and clear-cut stands than those of reference stand, but boreal understory species, such as Vaccinium vitis-idaea,...

  3. How fast will trees die? A transition matrix model of ash decline in forest stands infested by emerald ash borer

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Knight; Robert P. Long; Joanne Rebbeck; Annemarie Smith; Kamal Gandhi; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We recorded Fraxinus spp. tree health and other forest stand characteristics for 68 plots in 21 EAB-infested forest stands in Michigan and Ohio in 2005 and 2007. Fraxinus spp. were a dominant component of these stands, with more than 900 ash trees (including Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus profunda...

  4. Estimating structural attributes of Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest stands from Landsat and SPOT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Spies, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between spectral and texture variables derived from SPOT HRV 10 m panchromatic and Landsat TM 30 m multispectral data and 16 forest stand structural attributes is evaluated to determine the utility of satellite data for analysis of hemlock forests west of the Cascade Mountains crest in Oregon and Washington, USA. Texture of the HRV data was found to be strongly related to many of the stand attributes evaluated, whereas TM texture was weakly related to all attributes. Data analysis based on regression models indicates that both TM and HRV imagery should yield equally accurate estimates of forest age class and stand structure. It is concluded that the satellite data are a valuable source for estimation of the standard deviation of tree sizes, mean size and density of trees in the upper canopy layers, a structural complexity index, and stand age.

  5. Estimating structural attributes of Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest stands from Landsat and SPOT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Spies, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between spectral and texture variables derived from SPOT HRV 10 m panchromatic and Landsat TM 30 m multispectral data and 16 forest stand structural attributes is evaluated to determine the utility of satellite data for analysis of hemlock forests west of the Cascade Mountains crest in Oregon and Washington, USA. Texture of the HRV data was found to be strongly related to many of the stand attributes evaluated, whereas TM texture was weakly related to all attributes. Data analysis based on regression models indicates that both TM and HRV imagery should yield equally accurate estimates of forest age class and stand structure. It is concluded that the satellite data are a valuable source for estimation of the standard deviation of tree sizes, mean size and density of trees in the upper canopy layers, a structural complexity index, and stand age.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics during forest stand development: a global synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanhe; Luo, Yiqi; Finzi, Adrien C

    2011-06-01

    Our knowledge of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics during stand development is not only essential for evaluating the role of secondary forests in the global terrestrial C cycle, but also crucial for understanding long-term C-N interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. However, a comprehensive understanding of forest C and N dynamics over age sequence remains elusive due to the diverse results obtained across individual studies. Here, we synthesized the results of more than 100 studies to examine C and N dynamics during forest stand development. Our results showed that C accumulated in aboveground vegetation, litter and forest floor pools, while the mineral soil C pool did not exhibit significant changes in most studies. The rate of C changes declined with stand age and approached equilibrium during the later stage of stand development. The rate of N changes exhibited linear increases with that of C changes, indicating that N also accrued in various ecosystem components except mineral soil. These results demonstrate that substantial increases in C pools over age sequence are accompanied by N accretion in forest ecosystems. The concurrent C and N dynamics suggest that forest ecosystems may have an intrinsic ability to preclude progressive N limitation during stand development.

  7. Bark Beetles as Significant Forest Disturbances: Estimating Susceptibility Based On Stand Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicke, J. A.; Jenkins, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, bark beetle outbreaks affect millions of hectares of forests. These disturbances have multiple effects on ecosystems, including modifications to biogeochemical cycles, interactions with fire, and changes in land cover type and species composition. In recent years, extensive outbreaks have occurred in multiple forest ecosystems in the West, thought to be caused by climate variability and stand structure. In this study, we focus on epidemics of mountain pine beetle. We used USDA Forest Service inventories and a model to estimate lodgepole pine susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack in the West. The model considers stand age, stem density, and percentage of large lodgepole pine to estimate stand susceptibility. Over 150,000 trees in 4454 plots across the western United States were used to compute susceptibility at the plot scale as well as map susceptibility at the county scale. We found that regional susceptibility was high (estimated potential of losses of 34% of stand basal area) for 2.8 Mha, or 46%, of lodgepole pine forests. The highest susceptibility occurred in the Rocky Mountains, with lower susceptibility in coastal states. This study reveals that a substantial fraction of lodgepole pine forest could be subjected to bark beetle outbreaks under current climate conditions. Because climate and weather affect beetle populations, projected future warming will influence outbreak regimes. Thus, forest ecosystems in the West may experience more frequent, extensive, and/or severe disturbances than in recent decades due to current stand structure, and these disturbances may be intensified under climate change.

  8. Forest volume-to-biomass models and estimates of mass for live and standing dead trees of U.S. forests.

    Treesearch

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2003-01-01

    Includes methods and equations for nationally consistent estimates of tree-mass density at the stand level (Mg/ha) as predicted by growing-stock volumes reported by the USDA Forest Service for forests of the conterminous United States. Developed for use in FORCARB, a carbon budget model for U.S. forests, the equations also are useful for converting plot-, stand- and...

  9. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Treesearch

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  10. Understory plant development in artificial canopy gaps in an 81-year-old forest stand on Chichagof Island, southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Scott Harris; Jeffrey Barnard

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the understory plant response and associated effects on forage resources available to Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis), to the creation of artificial canopy gaps in a young-growth forest stand in the coastal temperate rain forest of southeast Alaska. The forest stand was approximately 58 years old when gaps were created and...

  11. Test of four stand growth simulators for the northeastern United States. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, T.M.; Marquis, D.A.; Ernst, R.L.; Simpson, B.T.

    1993-09-01

    SILVAH, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and OAKSIM simulators, commonly used in the northeastern United States, were evaluated by comparing predicted stand development with actual stand development records for periods ranging from 15 to 50 years. Results varied with stand parameter, forest type, projection length, and geographic area. Except in the spruce-fir forest type where FIBER stands out as the best simulator, no single simulator is clearly superior to the others for all locations within a forest type. In general, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and SILVAH performed best in the northern hardwood (beech-birch-maple) forest type: NE-TWIGS and SILVAH performed best in the Allegheny hardwood (cherry-maple) forest type; SILVAH and OAKSIM performed best in the oak-hickory forest type; and SILVAH was most suitable in the transition hardwood (mixture of northern hardwoods and oaks) forest type. The results give growth and yield model users more information for selecting the simulator most suitable for their particular needs. The results also can be used as a diagnostic tool for growth and yield model development.

  12. Variation in carbon storage and its distribution by stand age and forest type in boreal and temperate forests in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yawei; Li, Maihe; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Fang, Xiangmin; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern forest region of China is an important component of total temperate and boreal forests in the northern hemisphere. But how carbon (C) pool size and distribution varies among tree, understory, forest floor and soil components, and across stand ages remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we selected three major temperate and two major boreal forest types in northeastern (NE) China. Within both forest zones, we focused on four stand age classes (young, mid-aged, mature and over-mature). Results showed that total C storage was greater in temperate than in boreal forests, and greater in older than in younger stands. Tree biomass C was the main C component, and its contribution to the total forest C storage increased with increasing stand age. It ranged from 27.7% in young to 62.8% in over-mature stands in boreal forests and from 26.5% in young to 72.8% in over-mature stands in temperate forests. Results from both forest zones thus confirm the large biomass C storage capacity of old-growth forests. Tree biomass C was influenced by forest zone, stand age, and forest type. Soil C contribution to total forest C storage ranged from 62.5% in young to 30.1% in over-mature stands in boreal and from 70.1% in young to 26.0% in over-mature in temperate forests. Thus soil C storage is a major C pool in forests of NE China. On the other hand, understory and forest floor C jointly contained less than 13% and <5%, in boreal and temperate forests respectively, and thus play a minor role in total forest C storage in NE China.

  13. Variation in Carbon Storage and Its Distribution by Stand Age and Forest Type in Boreal and Temperate Forests in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yawei; Li, Maihe; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J.; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Fang, Xiangmin; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern forest region of China is an important component of total temperate and boreal forests in the northern hemisphere. But how carbon (C) pool size and distribution varies among tree, understory, forest floor and soil components, and across stand ages remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we selected three major temperate and two major boreal forest types in northeastern (NE) China. Within both forest zones, we focused on four stand age classes (young, mid-aged, mature and over-mature). Results showed that total C storage was greater in temperate than in boreal forests, and greater in older than in younger stands. Tree biomass C was the main C component, and its contribution to the total forest C storage increased with increasing stand age. It ranged from 27.7% in young to 62.8% in over-mature stands in boreal forests and from 26.5% in young to 72.8% in over-mature stands in temperate forests. Results from both forest zones thus confirm the large biomass C storage capacity of old-growth forests. Tree biomass C was influenced by forest zone, stand age, and forest type. Soil C contribution to total forest C storage ranged from 62.5% in young to 30.1% in over-mature stands in boreal and from 70.1% in young to 26.0% in over-mature in temperate forests. Thus soil C storage is a major C pool in forests of NE China. On the other hand, understory and forest floor C jointly contained less than 13% and <5%, in boreal and temperate forests respectively, and thus play a minor role in total forest C storage in NE China. PMID:23977252

  14. Downed woody material in southeast Alaska forest stands.

    Treesearch

    Frederic R. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Data collected in conjunction with the multiresource inventory of southeast Alaska in 1985-86 included downed wood along 234 transects at 60 locations. Transects occurred in 11 forest types and 19 plant associations within the entire southeastern Alaska archipelago. Downed wood weights in forest types ranged from 1232 kilograms per hectare (0.6 ton per acre) in muskeg...

  15. Estimating tree grades for Southern Appalachian natural forest stands

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    1998-01-01

    Log prices can vary significantly by grade: grade 1 logs are often several times the price per unit of grade 3 logs. Because tree grading rules derive from log grading rules, a model that predicts tree grades based on tree and stand-level variables might be useful for predicting stand values. The model could then assist in the modeling of timber supply and in economic...

  16. Scaling Hydrologic Processes in Boreal Forest Stands: New Eco-hydrological Perspectives or Deja vu?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.; Landhausser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Gan, T. Y.

    2006-12-01

    The leaf area of forest canopies is both main attribute of stands controlling water balance through transpiration and interception, and "engine" driving stand growth, stand dynamics, and forest succession. While transpiration and interception dynamics are classic themes in forest hydrology, we present results from our eco-hydrological research on boreal trees to highlight how more recent eco-physiological insights into species specific controls over water use and leaf area such as hydraulic architecture, cavitation, sapwood-leaf area relationships, and root system controls over water uptake are providing new insights into integrated atmospheric-autecological controls over these hydrologic processes. These results are discussed in the context of newer eco-hydrological frameworks which may serve to aid in exploring how forest disturbance and subsequent trajectories of hydrologic recovery are likely to affect both forest growth dynamics and hydrology of forested landscapes in response to forest management, severe forest pest epidemics such as the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, and climate change.

  17. Expansion of forest stands into tundra in the Noatak National Preserve, northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez, F.; Binkley, D.; Kaye, M.W.; Stottlemyer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures across the northern regions of North America have been increasing for 150 years, and forests have responded to this increase. In the Noatak National Preserve in Alaska, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) forests reach their northern limit, occurring primarily on well-drained sites and as gallery forests along streams. Rolling plateaus of tundra separate the white spruce forests into disjunct stands. We examined patterns of tree age, tree growth, and tree encroachment into tundra ecosystems in six stands along the Agashashok River. Warming over the past 150 years appears to have increased tree growth and resulted in forest expansion into adjacent tundra ecosystems. The forest/tundra ecotone shifted by about 80 to 100 m into the tundra in the past 200 years, as evidenced by declining maximum tree age with distance towards the tundra. The decadal-scale pattern of tree establishment at the farthest extent of trees into the tundra (the tundra-forest ecotone) correlated with the detrended growth index for trees within the forests; climate conditions that led to higher tree growth appeared to foster tree establishment in the tundra. This recent forest expansion has occurred across topographic boundaries, from well-drained soils on slopes onto poorly drained, flatter areas of tundra. Further expansion of the forests may be limited by more severe wind exposure and poor drainage that make the majority of tundra less suitable for trees.

  18. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: IV. Forest Stand Hazard Ratings for Gypsy Moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; William B. White

    1978-01-01

    Provides a practical method for rating the potential hazard of impending gypsy moth attacks to forest stands. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to develop equations for estimating tree mortality from easy-to-measure key characteristics of stand condition.

  19. Invistigation on Canopy Height and Density Differentiations in the Managed and Unmanaged Forest Stands Using LIDAR Data (case Study: Shastkalateh Forest, Gorgan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shataee, Sh.; Mohammadi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forest management plans are interesting to keep the forest stand natural composite and structure after silvicultural and management treatments. In order to investigate on stand differences made by management treatments, comparing of these stands with unmanaged stands as natural forests is necessary. Aerial laser scanners are providing suitable 3D information to map the horizontal and vertical characteristics of forest structures. In this study, different of canopy height and canopy cover variances between managed and unmanaged forest stands as well as in two dominant forest types were investigated using Lidar data in Dr. Bahramnia forest, Northern Iran. The in-situ information was gathered from 308 circular plots by a random systematic sampling designs. The low lidar cloud point data were used to generate accurate DEM and DSM models and plot-based height statistics metrics and canopy cover characteristics. The significant analyses were done by independent T-test between two stands in same dominant forest types. Results showed that there are no significant differences between canopy cover mean in two stands as well as forest types. Result of statistically analysis on height characteristics showed that there are a decreasing the forest height and its variance in the managed forest compared to unmanaged stands. In addition, there is a significant difference between maximum, range, and mean heights of two stands in 99 percent confidence level. However, there is no significant difference between standard deviation and canopy height variance of managed and unmanged stands. These results showd that accomplished management treatments and cuttings could lead to reducing of height variances and converting multi-layers stands to two or single layers. Results are also showed that the canopy cover densities in the managed forest stands are changing from high dense cover to dense cover.

  20. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842-1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century. ?? 2007 NRC.

  1. Aspects of Boreal Forest Hydrology: From Stand to Watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nijssen, B.

    2000-01-01

    This report evaluates land surface hydrologic processes in the boreal forest using observations collected during the Boreal Ecosystem Atmospheric Study (BOREAS), carried out in the boreal forest of central Canada from 1994 to 1996. Three separate studies, each of which constitutes a journal publication, are included. The first study describes the application of a spatially-distributed hydrologic model, originally developed for mid-latitude forested environments, to selected BOREAS flux measurement sites. Compared to point observations at the flux towers, the model represented energy and moisture fluxes reasonably well, but shortcomings were identified in the soil thermal submodel and the partitioning of evapotranspiration into canopy and subcanopy components. As a first step towards improving this partitioning, the second study develops a new parameterization for transmission of shortwave radiation through boreal forest canopies. The new model accounts for the transmission of diffuse and direct shortwave radiation and accounts for multiple scattering in the canopy and multiple reflections between the canopy layers.

  2. Aspects of Boreal Forest Hydrology: From Stand to Watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nijssen, B.

    2000-01-01

    This report evaluates land surface hydrologic processes in the boreal forest using observations collected during the Boreal Ecosystem Atmospheric Study (BOREAS), carried out in the boreal forest of central Canada from 1994 to 1996. Three separate studies, each of which constitutes a journal publication, are included. The first study describes the application of a spatially-distributed hydrologic model, originally developed for mid-latitude forested environments, to selected BOREAS flux measurement sites. Compared to point observations at the flux towers, the model represented energy and moisture fluxes reasonably well, but shortcomings were identified in the soil thermal submodel and the partitioning of evapotranspiration into canopy and subcanopy components. As a first step towards improving this partitioning, the second study develops a new parameterization for transmission of shortwave radiation through boreal forest canopies. The new model accounts for the transmission of diffuse and direct shortwave radiation and accounts for multiple scattering in the canopy and multiple reflections between the canopy layers.

  3. Stand-level forest structure and avian habitat: Scale dependencies in predicting occurrence in a heterogeneous forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.M.; Keeton, W.S.; Donovan, T.M.; Mitchell, B.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the role of stand-level forest structure and spatial extent of forest sampling in models of avian occurrence in northern hardwood-conifer forests for two species: black-throated blue warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus). We estimated site occupancy from point counts at 20 sites and characterized the forest structure at these sites at three spatial extents (0.2, 3.0, and 12.0 ha). Weight of evidence was greatest for habitat models using forest stand structure at the 12.0-ha extent and diminished only slightly at the 3.0-ha extent, a scale that was slightly larger than the average territory size of both species. Habitat models characterized at the 0.2-ha extent had low support, yet are the closest in design to those used in many of the habitat studies we reviewed. These results suggest that the role of stand-level vegetation may have been underestimated in the past, which will be of interest to land managers who use habitat models to assess the suitability of habitat for species of concern. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Society of American Foresters.

  4. Taiga forest stands and SAR: Monitoring for subarctic global change

    SciTech Connect

    Way, J.; Kwok, R.; Viereck, L.; Slaughter, C.; Dobson, C.

    1992-03-01

    In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska in March 1988. Significant change in radar backscatter was observed over the two-week experimental period due to changing environmental conditions. These preliminary results are presented to illustrate the opportunity afforded by the ERS-1 SAR to monitor temporal change in forest ecosystems.

  5. The long-term hydrological effect of forest stands on the stability of slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, T. A.; Meng, W.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-04-01

    Forest is widely known to improve slope stability as a result of mechanical and hydrological effects. While the mechanics underlying the stabilizing process of root reinforcement are well understood and quantified, the influence of forest on the occurrence of critical hydrological conditions in terms of suction or pore pressure remains uncertain. Due to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations, the stabilizing influence of evaporation and transpiration is difficult to isolate from the overall noise of the hydrological signal. More long-term effects of forest stands on soil development are highly variable and thus difficult to observe and quantify. Often these effects are ambivalent, having potentially a stabilizing or destabilizing influence on a slope under particular conditions (e.g., more structured soils leading to both rapid infiltration and drainage). Consequently, it can be postulated that forests will hydrologically influence the magnitude-frequency distribution of landsliding, not only at the stand level but also on a regional scale through the groundwater system. The overall aim of this research is to understand and quantify the stabilizing hydrological effect of forests on potentially unstable slopes. To this end, we focus on the changes in the magnitude-frequency distribution of landsliding that arise as a result of variations in evapotranspiration losses over the life cycle of stands. Temporal variations in evapotranspiration comprise first of all the interception that can account for an important amount of evaporation from a forest, and that changes with seasonal and annual variations in the interception capacity of the canopy and forest floor. Transpiration also represents an important loss that varies over the various growth stages of a forest stand. Based on a literature review of water consumption by tree species and water balance studies of forested catchments we defined the potential transpiration for different growth stages. This information we

  6. Hawaiian native forest conserves water relative to timber plantation: species and stand traits influence water use.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Aurora; Sack, Lawren; Duarte, Ka'eo; James, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    Tropical forests are becoming increasingly alien-dominated through the establishment of timber plantations and secondary forests. Despite widespread recognition that afforestation results in increased evapotranspiration and lower catchment yields, little is known of the impacts of timber plantations on water balance relative to native forest. Native forest trees have been claimed to use water conservatively and enhance groundwater recharge relative to faster-growing alien species, and this argument should motivate native forest preservation and restoration. However, data have been available primarily for leaf-level gas exchange rather than for whole-plant and stand levels. We measured sap flow of dominant tree and tree fern species over eight weeks in native Metrosideros polymorpha forest and adjacent alien timber plantations on the island of Hawai'i and estimated total stand transpiration. Metrosideros polymorpha had the lowest values of sap flux density and whole-tree water use (200 kg m(-2) sapwood d(-1), or 8 kg/d for trees of 35 cm mean diameter at breast height, D), substantially less than timber species Eucalyptus saligna or Fraxinus uhdei (33 and 34 kg/d for trees of 73 and 30 cm mean D, respectively). At the stand level, E. saligna and F. uhdei trees had three- and ninefold higher water use, respectively, than native M. polymorpha trees. Understory Cibotium tree ferns were most abundant in M. polymorpha-dominated forest where they accounted for 70% of water use. Overall, F. uhdei plantation had the highest water use at 1.8 mm/d, more than twice that of either E. saligna plantation or M. polymorpha forest. Forest water use was influenced by species composition, stem density, tree size, sapwood allocation, and understory contributions. Transpiration varied strongly among forest types even within the same wet tropical climate, and in this case, native forest had strikingly conservative water use. Comparisons of vegetation cover in water use should provide

  7. Characterizing forest stands with multi-incidence angle and multi-polarized SAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Lozano-Garcia, D. F.; Gillespie, D. D.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for using HH-polarized L-band SAR data obtained at different incidence angles from satellite altitudes to identify and map different forest cover types and stand density classes is studied. Reasonably accurate results are obtained if the speckle characteristics of the data are suppressed by low-pass spatial filters and a contextual classification algorithm. Multipolarized L-band SAR data obtained from aircraft altitudes over the same test site are also analyzed to assess the relationships between polarization and forest stand characteristics. It is found that incidence angle controls, to a very large extent, the characteristics of the data and the type of information that can be obtained from L-band, HH-polarized satellite SAR data. Cross-polarization of L-band SAR data enhances and differentiates various forest stand characteristics which cannot be defined using only the like-polarized data, and vice-versa.

  8. Forest stand dynamics of shortleaf pine in the Ozarks

    Treesearch

    David R. Larsen

    2007-01-01

    Much has been written on the management of shortleaf pine in the Ozarks (Brinkman et al. 1965, Brinkman 1967, Brinkman and Smith 1968, Seidel and Rogers 1965, Seidel and Rogers 1966). In large portions of the Ozarks, shortleaf pine does not grow in pure stands but rather in mixes with various oak species. These mixes present unique challenges in finding the set of...

  9. Spatial and thematic assessment of object-based forest stand delineation using an OFA-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, A.; Tiede, D.; Albrecht, F.; Lang, S.

    2012-10-01

    The delineation and classification of forest stands is a crucial aspect of forest management. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) can be used to produce detailed maps of forest stands from either orthophotos or very high resolution satellite imagery. However, measures are then required for evaluating and quantifying both the spatial and thematic accuracy of the OBIA output. In this paper we present an approach for delineating forest stands and a new Object Fate Analysis (OFA) matrix for accuracy assessment. A two-level object-based orthophoto analysis was first carried out to delineate stands on the Dehesa Boyal public land in central Spain (Avila Province). Two structural features were first created for use in class modelling, enabling good differentiation between stands: a relational tree cover cluster feature, and an arithmetic ratio shadow/tree feature. We then extended the OFA comparison approach with an OFA-matrix to enable concurrent validation of thematic and spatial accuracies. Its diagonal shows the proportion of spatial and thematic coincidence between a reference data and the corresponding classification. New parameters for Spatial Thematic Loyalty (STL), Spatial Thematic Loyalty Overall (STLOVERALL) and Maximal Interfering Object (MIO) are introduced to summarise the OFA-matrix accuracy assessment. A stands map generated by OBIA (classification data) was compared with a map of the same area produced from photo interpretation and field data (reference data). In our example the OFA-matrix results indicate good spatial and thematic accuracies (>65%) for all stand classes except for the shrub stands (31.8%), and a good STLOVERALL (69.8%). The OFA-matrix has therefore been shown to be a valid tool for OBIA accuracy assessment.

  10. Forest Stand Segmentation Using Airborne LIDAR Data and Very High Resolution Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechesne, Clément; Mallet, Clément; Le Bris, Arnaud; Gouet, Valérie; Hervieu, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Forest stands are the basic units for forest inventory and mapping. Stands are large forested areas (e.g., ≥ 2 ha) of homogeneous tree species composition. The accurate delineation of forest stands is usually performed by visual analysis of human operators on very high resolution (VHR) optical images. This work is highly time consuming and should be automated for scalability purposes. In this paper, a method based on the fusion of airborne laser scanning data (or lidar) and very high resolution multispectral imagery for automatic forest stand delineation and forest land-cover database update is proposed. The multispectral images give access to the tree species whereas 3D lidar point clouds provide geometric information on the trees. Therefore, multi-modal features are computed, both at pixel and object levels. The objects are individual trees extracted from lidar data. A supervised classification is performed at the object level on the computed features in order to coarsely discriminate the existing tree species in the area of interest. The analysis at tree level is particularly relevant since it significantly improves the tree species classification. A probability map is generated through the tree species classification and inserted with the pixel-based features map in an energetical framework. The proposed energy is then minimized using a standard graph-cut method (namely QPBO with α-expansion) in order to produce a segmentation map with a controlled level of details. Comparison with an existing forest land cover database shows that our method provides satisfactory results both in terms of stand labelling and delineation (matching ranges between 94% and 99%).

  11. Use of remotely sensed data for assessing forest stand conditions in the Eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Nelson, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for the detection, classification, and measurement of forest disturbances, using digital Landsat data for three study areas (Pennsynvania, North Carolina, and Maine) are reported. Results with respect to (1) the delineation and assessment of forest damage due to the use of two forest insect defoliators, and (2) qualitative assessment of the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper data for delineating forest stand characteristics are presented. Key results include a development of a statewide MSS digital data base and associated image-processing techniques for accurately delineating insect-damaged and healthy forest areas. For classification of broad land-cover classes which are spectrally homogeneous, the accuracy yielded by the use of either MSS data or TM Simulator data is similar. However, the TMS data provided 20 percent accuracy improvement over the MSS results when detailed (Level III) forest classes were mapped.

  12. Soil mesofauna in disturbed spruce forest stands near Čertovo and Plešné Lakes, the Bohemian Forest: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuchta, Peter; Starý, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    The soil microarthropod communities were studied in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo (CT) and Plešné (PL) Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study is focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Within the soil microarthropods, two main groups, Collembola (Hexapoda) and Oribatida (Acari) are analysed. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: CT1 and PL1 stands - undamaged control forest stands, CT2 and PL2 stands - "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, CT3 and PL3 stands - slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and CT4 and PL4 stands - harvested windthrown stands. Soil samples were taken in June (CT1/PL1 - CT3/PL3), July and October (CT1/PL1 - CT4/PL4) 2012 from each treatment. Microarthropods were subsequently extracted in a modified high-gradient apparatus in the laboratory for seven days. Finally, the comparison of the microarthropod assemblages found at different treatment stands was performed. The most abundant groups in both study areas (Čertovo and Plešné Lakes) were Collembola and Oribatida with considerable diferences within particular treatments and in time as well.

  13. A method of evaluating crown fuels in forest stands.

    Treesearch

    Rodney W. Sando; Charles H. Wick

    1972-01-01

    A method of describing the crown fuels in a forest fuel complex based on crown weight and crown volume was developed. A computer program is an integral part of the method. Crown weight data are presented in graphical form and are separated into hardwood and coniferous fuels. The fuel complex is described using total crown weight per acre, mean height to the base of...

  14. Predicting forested catchment evapotranspiration and streamflow from stand sapwood area and Aridity Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the water balance of ungauged catchments has been the subject of decades of research. An extension of the fundamental problem of estimating the hydrology is then understanding how do changes in catchment attributes affect the water balance component? This is a particular issue in forest hydrology where vegetation exerts such a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET), and consequent streamflow (Q). Given the primacy of trees in the water balance, and the potential for change to species and density through logging, fire, pests and diseases and drought, methods that directly relate ET/Q to vegetation structure, species, and stand density are very powerful. Plot studies on tree water use routinely use sapwood area (SA) to calculate transpiration and upscale to the stand/catchment scale. Recent work in south eastern Australian forests have found stand-wide SA to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with long term mean annual loss (P-Q), and hence, long term mean annual catchment streamflow. Robust relationships can be built between basal area (BA), tree density and stand SA. BA and density are common forest inventory measurements. Until now, no research has related the fundamental stand attribute of SA to streamflow. The data sets include catchments that have been thinned and with varying age classes. Thus far these analyses have been for energy limited systems in wetter forest types. SA has proven to be a more robust biometric than leaf area index which varies seasonally. That long term ET/Q is correlated with vegetation conforms to the Budyko framework. Use of a downscaled (20 m) Aridity Index (AI) has shown distinct correlations with stand SA, and therefore T. Structural patterns at a the hillslope scale not only correlate with SA and T, but also with interception (I) and forest floor evaporation (Es). These correlations between AI and I and Es have given R2 > 0.8. The result of these studies suggest an ability to estimate mean annual ET fluxes at sub

  15. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure

    PubMed Central

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G.; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity. PMID:26919456

  16. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    PubMed

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  17. Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, Krystyna; Godzik, Barbara; Fraczek, Witold; Badea, Ovidiu; Oszlányi, Július; Postelnicu, Daniela; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the project "Effects of forest health on biodiversity with emphasis on air pollution in the Carpathian Mountains" 26 permanent study sites were established in the vicinity of the ozone monitoring sites. The study sites were located on the NW-SE transect through the Western (12 sites), Eastern (11 sites) and Southern (3 sites) Carpathians in forest ecosystems typical of each area. Some of the forest monitoring sites were located in national parks, biosphere reserves and areas of protected landscape. Each permanent site of 0.7 ha area consisted of 5 small 500m(2) circular plots, arranged in the form of a cross, i.e. four placed on the cardinal points (N, E, S, W) and one in the center. Phytosociological records were done twice during the 1998 growing season using the Braun-Blanquet's method. The study sites represented various types of forest: Picea abies stands (8), beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands (10), fir (Abies alba) stands (2) and mixed beech-fir, spruce-fir and beech-spruce stands (6). Age of most stands was 80-100 years. Degree of crown damage varied greatly between sites, a percentage of damaged trees decrease in Carpathians from West to East. It corresponds well with the O(3) level in these areas. Typical damage by O(3) in herb layer species in several Carpathian sites were found. Land-use map for the entire Carpathian Mountains and two detailed land use maps for Tatras (Western Carpathians) and Retezat (Southern Carpathians) are presented. A little more than half of the Carpathian territory is forested. The most densely forested are Eastern Carpathians, while the most sparsely Western Carpathians. Arable lands occupy 22.6% of the Carpathians, pastures and meadows 6.2%, water bodies 1.9%, and build up areas several percent. In the highest elevation of the Carpathians alpine meadows (11.3%) and rocks (3.5%) are distributed.

  18. Estimating Mixed Broadleaves Forest Stand Volume Using Dsm Extracted from Digital Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, H.

    2012-07-01

    In mixed old growth broadleaves of Hyrcanian forests, it is difficult to estimate stand volume at plot level by remotely sensed data while LiDar data is absent. In this paper, a new approach has been proposed and tested for estimating stand forest volume. The approach is based on this idea that forest volume can be estimated by variation of trees height at plots. In the other word, the more the height variation in plot, the more the stand volume would be expected. For testing this idea, 120 circular 0.1 ha sample plots with systematic random design has been collected in Tonekaon forest located in Hyrcanian zone. Digital surface model (DSM) measure the height values of the first surface on the ground including terrain features, trees, building etc, which provides a topographic model of the earth's surface. The DSMs have been extracted automatically from aerial UltraCamD images so that ground pixel size for extracted DSM varied from 1 to 10 m size by 1m span. DSMs were checked manually for probable errors. Corresponded to ground samples, standard deviation and range of DSM pixels have been calculated. For modeling, non-linear regression method was used. The results showed that standard deviation of plot pixels with 5 m resolution was the most appropriate data for modeling. Relative bias and RMSE of estimation was 5.8 and 49.8 percent, respectively. Comparing to other approaches for estimating stand volume based on passive remote sensing data in mixed broadleaves forests, these results are more encouraging. One big problem in this method occurs when trees canopy cover is totally closed. In this situation, the standard deviation of height is low while stand volume is high. In future studies, applying forest stratification could be studied.

  19. Approximations of stand water use versus evapotranspiration from three mangrove forests in southwest Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Victor C.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Wang, Hongqing

    2014-01-01

    Leaves from mangrove forests are often considered efficient in the use of water during photosynthesis, but less is known about whole-tree and stand-level water use strategies. Are mangrove forests as conservative in water use as experimental studies on seedlings imply? Here, we apply a simple model to estimate stand water use (S), determine the contribution of S to evapotranspiration (ET), and approximate the distribution of S versus ET over annual cycles for three mangrove forests in southwest Florida, USA. The value of S ranged from 350 to 511 mm year−1 for two mangrove forests in Rookery Bay to 872 mm year−1 for a mangrove forest along the Shark River in Everglades National Park. This represents 34–49% of ET for Rookery Bay mangroves, a rather conservative rate ofS, and 63–66% of ET for the Shark River mangroves, a less conservative rate of S. However, variability in estimates of S in mangroves is high enough to require additional study on the spatial changes related to forest structural shifts, different tidal regimes, and variable site-specific salinity concentrations in multiple mangrove forests before a true account of water use conservation strategies can be understood at the landscape scale. Evidence does suggest that large, well-developed mangrove forests have the potential to contribute considerably to the ET balance; however, regionally most mangrove forests are much smaller in stature in Florida and likely contribute less to regional water losses through stand-level transpiration.

  20. [Simulation of the competition for light in forest stands of the same age].

    PubMed

    Kolobov, A N; Frisman, E Ya

    2013-01-01

    A model simulating the growth and interaction of trees during their competition for light has been proposed and verified. Qualitative analys of the model behavior at various values of parameters determining the tree growth rate has been performed. The model verification shows a sufficiently high accuracy of the model approximation of empirical tree growth data. To study interspecific interactions in forest communities, some computing experiments on the development of mixed forest stands, represented by the main forest-forming wood species of the Far East, have been carried out.

  1. Recent changes in the estimation of standing dead tree biomass and carbon stocks in the U.S. forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; James E. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, standing dead tree biomass and carbon (C) has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. Traditional estimates of standing dead tree biomass/C attributes were based on merchantability standards that did not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to...

  2. Sustaining northern red oak forests: managing oak from regeneration to canopy dominance in mature stands

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Gary W. Miller; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Across the range of northern red oak, managers have problems sustaining current stocking of northern red oak in forests. Oak species are adapted to frequent stand disturbances that reduce the abundance of shade tolerant competitors and control fast-growing pioneer species. A widely recommended approach to regenerating northern red oak is to develop relatively large...

  3. Percent canopy cover and stand structure statistics from the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Crookston; Albert R. Stage

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of percent canopy cover generated by the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) are corrected for crown overlap using an equation presented in this paper. A comparison of the new cover estimate to some others is provided. The cover estimate is one of several describing stand structure. The structure descriptors also include major species, ranges of diameters, tree...

  4. Timber, Browse, and Herbage on Selected Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Treesearch

    Gale L. Wolters; Alton Martin; Warren P. Clary

    1977-01-01

    A thorough vegetation inventory was made on loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood stands scheduled by forest industry for clearcutting, site preparation, and planting to pine in north central Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Overstory timber, on the average, contained about equal proportions of softwood and hardwood basal area. Browse plants ranged from 5,500 to over 70,...

  5. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived
    estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can a...

  6. Stand level impacts of Ips and Dendroctonus bark beetles in pine forest types of northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Joel McMillin; John Anhold; Jose Negron

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an extended abstract only) Extensive tree mortality occurred in ponderosa pine forests and pinon-juniper woodlands of Arizona from 2001-2004. This mortality has been attributed to a combination of an extensive drought, overstocked stands of pine, and increased bark beetle populations. A complex of Ips and Dendroctonus species worked in concert to...

  7. Influence of soil thickness on stand characteristics in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Andrew N. Gray; Harold S. J. Zald

    2007-01-01

    Soil thickness can be an important factor influencing vegetation, yet few spatially explicit studies have examined soil horizon thickness and vegetation composition in summer drought forests. We compared seismic and soil penetration measurements of combined A + C and Cr horizon thickness, soil moisture and temperature, and stand variables in a contiguous 4-ha mixed-...

  8. Logging impact in uneven-aged stands of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    John P. Dwyer

    1999-01-01

    Today, there is keen interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like individual-tree selection, group openings and shelterwood because the general public feels these systems are more acceptable than clearcutting. Consequently, due to repeated entries into forest stands and the fact that residual crop trees have to be carried for a long period of time between...

  9. Economic analysis of the gypsy moth problem in the northeast: I. applied to commercial forest stands

    Treesearch

    Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1973-01-01

    A method of calculating immediate and future losses caused by the gypsy moth is presented, using examples of pulpwood and sawtimber stands. Discounting of future losses to evaluate their cost in terms of current expenditure is explained. The effect of infestation on forest management is discussed and a format is given for considering control decisions.

  10. Suggested stocking levels for forest stands in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran; J.M. Geist; D.L. Clemens; Rodrick R. Clausnitzer; David C. Powell

    1993-01-01

    Catastrophes and manipulation of stocking levels are important determinants of stand development and the appearance of future forest landscapes. Managers need stocking level guides, particularly for sites incapable of supporting stocking levels presented in normal yield tables. Growth basal area (GBA) has been used by some managers in attempts to assess inherent...

  11. Western spruce budworm as related to stand characteristics in the bitterroot national forest

    Treesearch

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Gerald S. Walton

    1971-01-01

    Relation of population density to certain stand conditions and damage indicators was analyzed in four drainages on the Bitterroot National Forest of Montana. Western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations were strongly related to plot basal area, tree species, and tree crown levels, and also to current and past levels of tree defoliation....

  12. Semantic Segmentation of Forest Stands of Pure Species as a Global Optimization Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechesne, C.; Mallet, C.; Le Bris, A.; Gouet-Brunet, V.

    2017-05-01

    Forest stand delineation is a fundamental task for forest management purposes, that is still mainly manually performed through visual inspection of geospatial (very) high spatial resolution images. Stand detection has been barely addressed in the literature which has mainly focused, in forested environments, on individual tree extraction and tree species classification. From a methodological point of view, stand detection can be considered as a semantic segmentation problem. It offers two advantages. First, one can retrieve the dominant tree species per segment. Secondly, one can benefit from existing low-level tree species label maps from the literature as a basis for high-level object extraction. Thus, the semantic segmentation issue becomes a regularization issue in a weakly structured environment and can be formulated in an energetical framework. This papers aims at investigating which regularization strategies of the literature are the most adapted to delineate and classify forest stands of pure species. Both airborne lidar point clouds and multispectral very high spatial resolution images are integrated for that purpose. The local methods (such as filtering and probabilistic relaxation) are not adapted for such problem since the increase of the classification accuracy is below 5%. The global methods, based on an energy model, tend to be more efficient with an accuracy gain up to 15%. The segmentation results using such models have an accuracy ranging from 96% to 99%.

  13. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived
    estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can a...

  14. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Treesearch

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  15. Habitat use by forest bats in South Carolina in relation to local, stand, and landscape characteristics

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O' Keefe

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding of bat habitat associations and the responses of bats to forest management are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important local, stand, and...

  16. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can account from 0-40%...

  17. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  18. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can account from 0-40%...

  19. Forest Stand Canopy Structure Attribute Estimation from High Resolution Digital Airborne Imagery

    Treesearch

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2006-01-01

    A study of forest stand canopy variable assessment using digital, airborne, multispectral imagery is presented. Variable estimation involves stem density, canopy closure, and mean crown diameter, and it is based on quantification of spatial autocorrelation among pixel digital numbers (DN) using variogram analysis and an alternative, non-parametric approach known as...

  20. Tree specific traits vs. stand level characteristics - assessing the source depths of plant water uptake in a mixed forest stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Stefan; Brinkmann, Nadine; Kahmen, Ansgar; Weiler, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Due to differences in fine root distributions, physiological root characteristics and plant plasticity, the spatial and temporal characteristics of plant water uptake are expected to vary between different tree species. This has implications on the overall water budget of a forest stand as well as on the drought sensitivity of particular trees. A four-year time series of climate data, soil moisture, and stable water isotopes in soil and tree xylem was used to investigate plant water uptake dynamics of four tree species (beech - Fagus sylvatica, spruce - Picea abies, ash - Fraxinus excelsior and maple - Acer pseudoplatanus) in a mixed forest stand. Modeling with a modified version of the soil hydrological model Hydrus-1D allowed us to simulate continuous time series of stable water isotopes in plant water uptake, which were compared to the measured values in tree xylem water and soil water. We found that different estimated species specific fine root distributions and root water uptake parameters lead to very similar simulated water balances and soil water isotope depth profiles for all four species. According to our simulations, differences in evaporative demand (i.e. LAI) had the biggest influence on water uptake and soil water distributions. Comparing the isotopic signatures of simulated root water uptake and measured xylem water, the simulations for beech were most suited to predict the observed signatures of all four species. This indicates that isolated, tree specific parametrized 1-D simulations are not suited to predict actual water uptake of different trees in a mixed stand. Due to overlapping root spaces dominant trees (in our case beeches with an LAI of around 5.5) may influence the soil water storage below accompanying trees (spruces, ashes and maples with LAIs between 1.8 and 3.1) in a degree that their actual water uptake cannot be predicted with 1-D simulations based on their smaller LAI values. Consequently, for a mixed forest stand the interplay of

  1. A composite L-band HH radar backscattering model for coniferous forest stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoquing; Simonett, David S.

    1988-01-01

    The radar backscattering model developed by Richards et al. (1987), has been improved and further tested in this research. The trunk term may now be calculated from the exact solution to the electromagnetic wave equations instead of the corner reflector equation. Rough surface models have been introduced into the radar model, so that the forward reflectance and the backscattering from the ground surface are now calculated from the same model and, thus, are consistent. The number of trees in an individual pixel is assumed to be Poisson distributed, with tree height in a stand log-normally distributed. The simulated results show that the match of backscattering coefficients for eight forest stands between SIR-B image data and the simulated results are satisfying, and that the trunk term now seems to be convincingly established as the dominant term in the L-band HH radar return from coniferous forest stands.

  2. [Litterfalls of major forest stands at Baiyunshan scenic spot of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shucai; Su, Zhiyao; Gu, Yankun; Xie, Zhengsheng; Liu, Yuexiu

    2003-01-01

    The productions, seasonal dynamics, macronutrient contents and decomposition rates of the litterfalls of four typical stands, e.g., Pinus massoniana plantation, secondary evergreen broadleaved forest, Acacia mangium plantation and Schima superba-Acacia mangium plantation at the scenic Baiyunshan of Guangzhou were studied. The litterfall productions of four stands in 1998 were 8.34, 6.77, 6.31 and 11.54 t.hm-2, respectively. The seasonal dynamics of litterfall amounts demonstrated the single-peak model with the peak period in June and July. The total amounts of macronutrients returned to the forest land by means of litters in the four stands in 1998 were 26.30, 69.81, 54.9 and 152.24 kg.hm-2, respectively. The annual decomposition rates of the litterfalls were 24.4%, 53.4%, 52.4% and 57.4%.

  3. A composite L-band HH radar backscattering model for coniferous forest stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoquing; Simonett, David S.

    1988-01-01

    The radar backscattering model developed by Richards et al. (1987), has been improved and further tested in this research. The trunk term may now be calculated from the exact solution to the electromagnetic wave equations instead of the corner reflector equation. Rough surface models have been introduced into the radar model, so that the forward reflectance and the backscattering from the ground surface are now calculated from the same model and, thus, are consistent. The number of trees in an individual pixel is assumed to be Poisson distributed, with tree height in a stand log-normally distributed. The simulated results show that the match of backscattering coefficients for eight forest stands between SIR-B image data and the simulated results are satisfying, and that the trunk term now seems to be convincingly established as the dominant term in the L-band HH radar return from coniferous forest stands.

  4. Phylogenetic structure of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of western hemlock changes with forest age and stand type.

    PubMed

    Lim, SeaRa; Berbee, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    On Vancouver Island, British Columbia, fertilization with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) following clearcutting increases growth of western hemlock. To explore whether fertilization also resulted in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities that were more or less similar to neighboring unlogged stands, we sampled roots from western hemlock from three replicate plots from each of five different, well-characterized, forest stand types that differed in site type, and in logging and fertilization history. We harvested four samples of 100 ectomycorrhizal root tips from each plot, a total of 60 samples per stand type. From each sample, we analyzed fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and 28S DNA, sequencing 15-29 clones per sample and 60-116 clones per plot. We detected 147 fungal operational taxonomic units among a total of 1435 sequences. Craterellus tubaeformis was frequently present and resulted in a pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion in the fungal communities. Fungal species composition was strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen concentration. However, other site quality factors were also important because the fertilized regenerating hemlock and mature hemlock-amabilis fir forests had similar foliar nitrogen content but little overlap in fungal species. Compared with unfertilized regenerating forests, fungal communities in N + P-fertilized regenerating forests had significantly more species overlap with old growth forests. However, the fungal communities of all regenerating forest were similar to one another and all differed significantly from older forests. By correlating fungal clades with habitats, this research improves understanding of how forest management can contribute to maintaining diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across a landscape.

  5. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, Doug, P.; Coyle, David, R. Coleman, Mark, D.

    2011-08-26

    Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus deltoides Bartr. and Platanus occidentalis L.) and broad (Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Pinus taeda L.) site requirements while grown with a range of nutrient and water resources. We constructed N budgets by measuring N concentration ([N]) and N content (N{sub C}) of above- and belowground perennial and ephemeral tissues, determined N uptake (N{sub UP}), and calculated N use efficiency (NUE). Forest stands regulated [N] within species-specific operating ranges without clear temporal or treatment patterns, thus demonstrating equilibrium between tissue [N] and biomass accumulation. Forest stand N{sub C} and N{sub UP} increased with stand development and paralleled treatment patterns of biomass accumulation, suggesting productivity is tightly linked to N{sub UP}. Inclusion of above- and belowground ephemeral tissue turnover in N{sub UP} calculations demonstrated that maximum N demand for narrow-sites adapted species exceeded 200 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} while demand for broad-site adapted species was below this level. NUE was species dependent but not consistently influenced by N availability, suggesting relationships between NUE and resource availability were species dependent. Based on early stand development, species with broad site adaptability are favored for woody cropping systems because they maintain high above- and belowground productivity with minimal fertilization requirements due to higher NUE than narrow site adapted species.

  6. Stochastically generating tree diameter lists to populate forest stands based on the linkage variables forest type and stand age

    Treesearch

    Bernard R. Parresol; F. Thomas Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    Forest inventory data were used to develop a standage-driven, stochastic predictor of unit-area, frequency weighted lists of breast high tree diameters (DBH). The average of mean statistics from 40 simulation prediction sets of an independent 78-plot validation dataset differed from the observed validation means by 0.5 cm for DBH, and by 12 trees/h for density. The 40...

  7. Species Effects on Stand-Level Nutrient Economy of a Costa Rican Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, T. E.; Emanuel, R. E.; Tully, K.; Lawrence, D.

    2007-12-01

    In tropical ecosystems, successional forests are rapidly replacing old growth forests as the dominant forest type. This shift in successional status combined with projected changes in climate could result in a significant change in the species composition of tropical forests. How changes in species composition could affect stand-level nutrient economy is not well understood. Using species-specific leaf litter nutrient and productivity data combined with randomly generated dominance scenarios, we investigated species effects on leaf litter nutrient inputs. We conducted this research in a 1-ha secondary forest stand (30-yr in 2003) in northeastern Costa Rica. We measured senesced leaf N and P contents of the nine dominant canopy tree species within the study plot and scaled the results to the stand level using % basal area (BA) as a proxy for relative litter contribution (Sum[total leaf litterfall x % BAsp x nutrient concentrationsp]). We created different dominance scenarios using Monte Carlo generated BA distributions of the nine species. We then selected all scenarios in which one of the nine species accounted for greater than 30% of the BA. This allowed us to create communities with each of the nine species as dominant while varying the composition of the remaining tree community. Both N and P leaf litter inputs differed significantly when the dominant species changed from the current forest community. The change in N inputs was relatively small in relation to the potential change in leaf litter P inputs. P inputs decreased by 23% when Vochysia ferruginea, a shade-intolerant late pioneer species, was dominant. When Casearia arborea, a shade-tolerant species, was the dominant species there was 6% increase in leaf litter P inputs. Our results demonstrate that changes in leaf litter N and P cycling will likely occur as land use and climate change alter forest community composition.

  8. Influences of stand structure and fuel treatments on wildfire severity at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, northeastern California

    Treesearch

    Julie N. Symons; Dean H. K. Fairbanks; Carl N. Skinner

    2008-01-01

    This study utilizes forest stand structures and fuel profiles to evaluate the influence of different types of silvicultural treatments on fire severity in the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest (BMEF), located within Lassen National Forest of northeastern California. We compare the severity of fire, assessed based on tree crown and bole scorch on 100 ha experimental...

  9. Statistical properties of mean stand biomass estimators in a LIDAR-based double sampling forest survey design.

    Treesearch

    H.E. Anderson; J. Breidenbach

    2007-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) can be a valuable tool in double-sampling forest survey designs. LIDAR-derived forest structure metrics are often highly correlated with important forest inventory variables, such as mean stand biomass, and LIDAR-based synthetic regression estimators have the potential to be highly efficient compared to single-stage estimators, which...

  10. Comparison of riparian and upland forest stand structure and fuel loads in beetle infested watersheds, southern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Robert Hubbard; Roberto Bazan

    2015-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB), spruce beetle (SB), and other insects are altering forest stand structure throughout western North America, and thereby contributing to the heterogeneity of fuel distribution. In forested watersheds, conifer-dominated riparian forests frequently occur as narrow linear features in the landscape mosaic and contribute to...

  11. Consequences of stand age and species’ functional trait changes on ecosystem water use of forests

    SciTech Connect

    Ewers, Brent; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mackay, D. Scott

    2011-07-22

    We tested whether using stomatal conductance could capture the dynamic in transpiration with forest age. To do this we by answered the question “If we chose a reference stomatal conductance from one stand age of the entire chronosequence to put into a model, would modeled transpiration be biased from the other ages?” with a resounding yes. We found that obtaining the right stomatal conductance was crucial for accurate models in two different chronosequences. This strongly suggests that stomatal conductance is the appropriate integrator of inter- and intra-species change in tree transpiration with forest age. If we had tried to use a single reference canopy stomatal conductance, it would not have been able to capture the variability in transpiration with stand age despite the suggestion that hydraulic limitation was consistently acting on the trees; the situation is even more complex in many boreal systems, where a transition to nonstomatal bryophytes may occur over the course of succession. Because we used a biophysical approach, even if our and other researchers’ chronosequences do not fit the assumptions, the results are still useful. Further, our synthesis of sap flux based estimates of tree transpiration showing a large dynamic suggest that our approach to modeling is crucial in the face of anthropogenic changes to forest age structure. We have now provided the framework for a mechanistically rigorous yet simple approach based on simple tree hydraulics to measuring and modeling stand transpiration with changing forest age and/or species composition.

  12. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age derived from Forest Inventory and Analysis data and remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Chen, J. M.; Pan, Y.; Birdsey, R.

    2010-12-01

    Forest net primary productivity (NPP) varies greatly with stand age, and quantitative information on NPP-age relationship is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We may use four terms to calculate NPP: annual accumulation of live biomass, annual mortality of aboveground and belowground biomass, foliage turnover to soil, and fine root turnover in soil. To derive NPP-age relationships for US forests, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data are used to estimate the first two terms. The last two terms make up more than 50% of total NPP, but their estimates are highly uncertain based on limited available empirical relationships between aboveground biomass and foliage or fine root biomass. These estimates are mostly confounded by unknown variations of the turnover rates (TR) related to stand age because such field information is rare. To resolve this problem, we developed a new approach by using a leaf area index (LAI) map and a forest age map at 1 km resolution to derive LAI-age relationships for 18 major forest species groups in the USA. These relationships are then used to derive foliage TR using species-specific leaf longevity values. These relationships are also used for estimating the fine root TR based on reliable relationships between fine root and foliage TR. This combination of FIA and remote sensing data allows us for the first time to derive reliable NPP-age relationships for different forest types in USA (Figure 1). The derived relationships show a general temporal pattern of rapid increase in NPP in early ages, peak growth in mid-ages, and slow decline in old ages. The patterns are subjected to climate conditions, and can also be influenced by forest management. These relationships are further generalized for three major forest biomes for continental-scale carbon cycle modeling in conjunction with remotely sensed land cover types. The NPP relationships derived here may have many uses for analysis of management and climate

  13. Post-fire stand structure impacts carbon storage within Siberian larch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2015-12-01

    Increased fire severity within boreal forests of the Siberian Arctic has the potential to alter forest stand development thereby altering carbon (C) accumulation rates and storage during the post-fire successional interval. One potential change is increased stand density, which may result from fire consumption of the soil organic layer and changes to the seedbed that favor germination and establishment of larch trees during early succession. In this study, we evaluated above- and belowground C pools across 12 stands of varying tree density within a single 75-year old fire scar located near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, Russia. In each stand, we inventoried the size and density of larch trees and large shrubs (Salix and Betula spp.), and in combination with with allometric equations, estimated aboveground contribution to C pools. We quantified woody debris C pools using the line intercept method. We sampled belowground C pools in the soil organic layer + upper (0-10 cm) mineral soil and coarse roots (> 2 mm diameter) using sediment cores and 0.25 x 0.25-m trenches, respectively. We found that high density stands store ~ 20% more C (~7,500 g C m-2) than low density stands (~5,800 g C m-2). In high density stands, about 35% more C is stored aboveground within live larch trees (1650 g C m-2) compared to low density stands (940 g C m-2), and about 15% more C is stored in the soil organic layer and upper mineral soil. Coarse root C was 20% higher in high density stands (~475 g C m-2) compared to those with low density (~350 g C m-2). Less C was stored in large shrubs in high density stands, both in aboveground portions and coarse roots, but these amounts were relatively small (< 10% of total C pools). A fire-driven shift to denser larch stands could increase C storage, leading to a negative feedback to climate, but the combined effects of density on C dynamics, summer and winter albedo, and future fire regimes will interact to determine the magnitude of any vegetation

  14. Variability in Albedo Associated with Fire-Mediated Controls on Stand Density in Siberian Larch Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, M. M.; Fullmer, J.; Nguyen, C. L.; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Bunn, A. G.; Davydov, S. P.; Goetz, S. J.; Mack, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is an integral component of boreal forests, and exerts strong control over ecosystem structure and function. The frequency and spatial extent of fire controls the age-class distribution of forests on the landscape. In addition, recent evidence from North American boreal forests has show that fire severity influences post-fire succession via impacts on seedling recruitment that manifest in mature ecosystems dominated by either deciduous or coniferous tree species. The effects of fire on ecosystem structure have important climate feedback implications; changes in forest density or leaf habit can influence surface net radiation by altering the snow-masking effects of vegetation. Although Siberian larch forests occupy a more than 2.8 million km2 of the boreal biome, and are the most prevalent forests in Russia, the influence of fire severity on succession and associated surface energy dynamics are less well understood in comparison to North American boreal forests. There is evidence suggesting that increased fire severity may lead to higher density of post-fire regrowth, but the influence of stand density on surface energy dynamics remains poorly quantified. Here, we quantify the effects of stand density on albedo across the Kolyma River basin using satellite-derived albedo and fire history in conjunction with maps and field observations of ecosystem structure. During snow-free periods albedo varies little with stand density. During periods of snow cover we find consistent negative correlations between multiple metrics of canopy cover and albedo. Albedo decreased with fire recovery over the forty-year fire record for the study area. However, the range of albedo observed within individual fire scars was similar to the magnitude of albedo recovery during the study period. This result indicates the importance of variability in post-fire regrowth within individual fire scars, potentially associated with fire severity, for understanding fire effects on surface energy

  15. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  16. Forest Structure, Stand Composition, and Climate-Growth Response in Montane Forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Schwartz, Ari C.; Williams, John N.; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

  17. Transpiration of A Mixed Forest Stand: Field Measurements and Model Estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltchev, A.; Cermak, J.; Nadezhdina, N.; Tatarinov, F.; Gravenhorst, G.

    Transpiration of a mixed spruce-aspen-birch forest stand at the southern part of the Valday Hills in Russia was determined using sap flow measurements and SVAT mod- els. The measurements showed a significant variability of transpiration rates between different species and different trees. Under non-limited soil water conditions broadleaf trees transpired about 10-20% more than spruces trees. Deficit of available water in the upper soil layers had a more pronounced influence on water uptake of spruce than of deciduous tree species due to the shallow spruce root system. Under surplus wa- ter in the upper soil layers the transpiration rates were slightly suppressed both for spruce and for broadleaf tree species. Two one-dimensional multi-layer SVAT mod- els were applied to describe energy and water exchanges between mixed forest stand and the atmosphere. A more simplified MLOD-SVAT model uses averaged biophys- ical properties of different tree species. Estimation of forest water uptake in a more sophisticated EWE-MF model is based on separate description of water uptakes for individual tree species. Comparisons of modelling and measuring results show that under non-limited soil water conditions both modelling approaches allow to describe in a representative way the water uptake and transpiration rates. Under limited soil water conditions more sophisticated model could deduce more representatively the effect of different tree species on forest transpiration. Application of more simplified MLOD-SVAT model can result in an overestimation of daily total forest transpiration up to 50%.

  18. Species richness and stand stability in conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada.

    PubMed

    DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Barbour, Michael G; Sawyer, John O

    2006-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies have long suggested that stability and complexity are intimately related, but evidence from long-lived systems at large scales is lacking. Stability can either be driven by complex species interactions, or it can be driven by the presence/absence and abundance of a species best able to perform a specific ecosystem function. We use 64 years of stand productivity measures in forest systems composed of four dominant conifer tree species to contrast the effect of species richness and abundance on three stability measures. To perform this contrast, we measured the annual growth increments of > 900 trees in mixed and pure forest stands to test three hypotheses: increased species richness will (1) decrease stand variance, (2) increase stand resistance to drought events, and (3) increase stand resilience to drought events. In each case, the alternate hypothesis was that species richness had no effect, but that species composition and abundance within a stand drove variance, resistance, and resilience. In pure stands, the four species demonstrated significant differences in productivity, and in their resistance and resilience to drought events. The two pine species were the most drought resistant and resilient, whereas mountain hemlock was the least resistant and resilient, and red fir was intermediate. For community measures we found a moderately significant (P = 0.08) increase in the community coefficient of variation and a significant (P = 0.03) increase in resilience with increased species richness, but no significant relationship between species richness and community resistance, though the variance in community resistance to drought decreased with species richness. Community resistance to drought was significantly (P = 0.001) correlated to the relative abundance of lodgepole pine, the most resistant species. We propose that resistance is driven by competition for a single limiting resource, with negative diversity effects. In contrast

  19. Spatial pulses of water inputs in deciduous and hemlock forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, A. J.; Mussehl, M.; Pecht, A.; Spence, C.

    2010-12-01

    Trees intercept and redistribute precipitation in time and space. While spatial patterns of throughfall are challenging to link to plant and canopy characteristics, many studies have shown that the spatial patterns persist through time. This persistence leads to wet and dry spots under the trees, creating spatial pulses of moisture that can affect infiltration, transpiration, and biogeochemical processes. In the northeast, the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid poses a significant threat to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and replacement of hemlock forests by other species, such as birch, maple, and oak, has the potential to alter throughfall patterns and hydrologic processes. During the summers of 2009 and 2010, we measured throughfall in both hemlock and deciduous plots to assess its spatial distribution and temporal persistence. From 3 June to 25 July 2009, we measured throughfall in one hemlock and one deciduous plot over fourteen events with rainfall totaling 311 mm. From 8 June through 28 July 2010, we measured throughfall in the same two plots plus an additional hemlock stand and a young black birch stand, and rainfall totaled 148 mm over eight events. Averaged over space and time, throughfall was 81% of open precipitation in the hemlock stands, 88% in the mixed deciduous stand, and 100% in the young black birch stand. On an event basis, spatial coefficients of variation are similar among the stands and range from 11% to 49% for rain events greater than 5 mm. With the exception of very light events, coefficients of variation are insensitive to precipitation amount. Spatial patterns of throughfall persist through time, and seasonal coefficients of variation range from 13% to 33%. All stands indicate localized concentrations of water inputs, and there were individual collectors in the deciduous stands that regularly received more than twice the stand-average throughfall.

  20. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea; Thomas, Frank M

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acer platanoides) revealed a "home field advantage" of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself.

  1. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acerplatanoides) revealed a “home field advantage” of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself. PMID:20596729

  2. Douglas-fir forests in the Oregon and Washington Cascades: relation of the herpetofauna to stand age and moisture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Corn, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pitfall traps effectively sampled amphibians but not reptiles in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests. The abundance of only one amphibian species varied across an age gradient or a moisture gradient. Salamanders and frogs that breed in ponds or streams were captured in large numbers in some stands, likely due to the presence of nearby breeding habitat rather than forest conditions. Lizards occurred mostly in dry stands and clearcuts. Time-constrained searches showed different use of downed woody debris among terrestrial salamanders. The occurrence and abundance of species in naturally regenerated forests markedly differed from clearcut stands.

  3. Spatial patterns in forest composition and standing dead red spruce in montane forests of the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Craig, B W; Friedland, A J

    1991-08-01

    The decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in montane forests of the northeastern United States has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess spatial patterns, if any, in standing dead red spruce stems in the Adirondacks of New York and northern Appalachians of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. A stratified random sample of 19 mountains along a west to east transect in the Adirondacks and the northern Appalachians showed that the live basal area of all species was highest in the White Mountains (34.6 m(2) ha(-1)) and lowest in the Adirondack Mountains (23.7 m(2) ha(-1)) in the Green Mountains was significantly lower than in any other region. Intact standing dead red spruce in the Adirondack and Green Mountains (30%) was significantly higher than that in the three eastern clusters (14%). The amount of intact standing dead red spruce trees increased with elevation in only the western part of the region. With the exception of the Adirondacks, there was a greater average percent dead red spruce on the west side than on the east side of each mountain. The sum of standing dead for other tree species (average 13%) showed no statistically significant patterns with region, elevation or aspect, and was significantly lower than the amount of total dead red spruce (average 42%). The standing dead red spruce patterns we observed cannot be associated with any specific causal factors at this time.

  4. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  5. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/ western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Tepley, Alan J; Swanson, Frederick J; Spies, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    Forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have strongly influenced concepts and policy concerning old-growth forest conservation. Despite the attention to their old-growth characteristics, a tendency remains to view their disturbance ecology in relatively simple terms, emphasizing infrequent, stand-replacing (SR) fire and an associated linear pathway toward development of those old-growth characteristics. This study uses forest stand- and age-structure data from 124 stands in the central western Cascades of Oregon to construct a conceptual model of stand development under the mixed-severity fire regime that has operated extensively in this region. Hierarchical clustering of variables describing the age distributions of shade-intolerant and shade-tolerant species identified six groups, representing different influences of fire frequency and severity on stand development. Douglas-fir trees > 400 years old were found in 84% of stands, yet only 18% of these stands (15% overall) lack evidence of fire since the establishment of these old trees, whereas 73% of all stands show evidence of at least one non-stand-replacing (NSR) fire. Differences in fire frequency and severity have contributed to multiple development pathways and associated variation in contemporary stand structure and the successional roles of the major tree species. Shade-intolerant species form a single cohort following SR fire, or up to four cohorts per stand in response to recurring NSR fires that left living trees at densities up to 45 trees/ha. Where the surviving trees persist at densities of 60-65 trees/ha, the postfire cohort is composed only of shade-tolerant species. This study reveals that fire history and the development of old-growth forests in this region are more complex than characterized in current stand-development models, with important implications for maintaining existing old-growth forests and restoring stands subject to timber

  6. Impacts of fire on greenhouse gas emissions in larch forest stands in northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, M. A.; Schade, J. D.; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.

    2016-12-01

    Fire severity and frequency in boreal regions underlain by permafrost have increased over the last few decades leading to amplified permafrost thaw, land slumping, and organic matter combustion. While most boreal forests are considered sinks for methane (CH4), little research has been done to determine how fire may alter methane fluxes in these systems. The goal of our research was to examine how CH4 emissions vary along a fire severity gradient in Siberian larch forests underlain by permafrost. In July 2016 we measured physical and chemical parameters and emissions of CH4 and CO2 in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in high severity, low severity, and unburned larch stands in a lowland region along the Kolyma River in Northeast Siberia. Results show significantly lower pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen from ponds in the unburned stand. While the ponds in the low-severity and high-severity stands had similar conductivity and pH, the low-severity ponds showed higher concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Interestingly, the rates of CH4 emissions from ponds in the unburned stand (mean = 120 mg C m-2 d-1) were 2-3x higher than from the high severity stand (mean = 45 mg C m-2 d-1) and two orders of magnitude higher than the low severity ponds (mean = 1 mg C m-2 d-1). We hypothesize that carbon content and water depth may be responsible for the observed differences. The unburned ponds were significantly shallower than the other stands, which may allow a quicker path for CH4 to reach the surface without oxidizing. Results also show higher carbon content in the soils underlying the unburned ponds. Additionally, high algal biomass in the ponds in the low-severity stand may be responsible for the increased dissolved oxygen concentrations and extremely low CH4 fluxes. Understanding how boreal forest fires affect the fate of soil carbon in northern permafrost regions is critical to our overall understanding of global climate change. These results suggest that not all

  7. The effects of partial cutting practices on forest stand structure in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Shawn T. Grushecky

    1997-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests originated after catastrophic disturbances around the turn of the century and are currently an even-aged, maturing resource. The increasing value of sawlogs, especially those of particular species and quality, has prompted many forest landowners to increase their harvesting efforts. Most harvesting appears to be economically driven, focusing on...

  8. Canopy structure on forest lands in western Oregon: differences among forest types and stand ages

    Treesearch

    Anne C.S. McIntosh; Andrew N. Gray; Steven L. Garman

    2009-01-01

    Canopy structure is an important attribute affecting economic and ecological values of forests in the Pacific Northwest. However, canopy cover and vertical layering are rarely measured directly; they are usually inferred from other forest measurements. In this study, we quantified and compared vertical and horizontal patterns of tree canopy structure and understory...

  9. Variability in early height growth rate of forest trees: implications for retrospective studies of stand dynamics

    Treesearch

    Brain J. Palik; Kurt S. Pregitzer

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective studies of forest stand dynamics may rely on estimates of tree ages. In some of these studies, trees are aged near the stem base, while in other studies trees may be aged at breast height. An age correction may be added to breast-height ages in an attempt to account for average time to reach breast height and thus provide better estimates of total ages....

  10. Forest age stands affect soil respiration and litterfall in a Black pine forest managed by a shelterwood system in the Central Spain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Candel, David; Viñegla Pérez, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure generates on soil respiration and litterfall quantity. The effect of stand age on these variables was studied in a shelterwood system Spanish Black pine chronosequence in central Iberian Peninsula composed of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100-year-old. For each stand age, six forest stands with similar characteristics of soil type and site preparation were used. Also, a forest area ranging 80-120 years old and without forest intervention was selected and used as control. We also measured organic matter, C:N ratio, soil moisture and pH in the top 10 mineral soil at each compartment. Soil respiration measurements were carried out in three time points (3, 8 and 12 days). Results showed a clear trend in soil respiration, comparing all the experimental areas. Soil respiration showed the same trend in all stands. It initially showed higher rates, reaching stability in the middle of the measurement process and finally lightly increasing the respiration rate. The older stands had significantly higher soil respiration than the younger stands. Soil organic matter values were also higher in the more mature stands. C:N ratio showed the opposite trend, showing lower values in the less mature stands. More mature stands clearly showed more quantity of litterfall than the younger ones and there was a positive correlation between soil respiration and litterfall. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differenced groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40 years old and from 39 to 1 years old, taking into account both soil respiration and litterfall quantity, also separately. Our results suggest that the control plot has a better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1 years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil respiration.

  11. [Wood transformation in dead-standing trees in the forest-tundra of Central Siberia].

    PubMed

    Mukhortova, L V; Kirdianov, A V; Myglan, V S; Guggenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the composition of wood organic matter in dead-standing spruce and larch trees depending on the period after their death have been studied in the north of Central Siberia. The period after tree death has been estimated by means of cross-dating. The results show that changes in the composition of wood organic matter in 63% of cases are contingent on tree species. Wood decomposition in dead-standing trees is accompanied by an increase in the contents of alkali-soluble organic compounds. Lignin oxidation in larch begins approximately 80 years after tree death, whereas its transformation in spruce begins not earlier than after 100 years. In the forest-tundra of Central Siberia, the rate of wood organic matter transformation in dead-standing trees is one to two orders of magnitude lower than in fallen wood, which accounts for their role as a long-term store of carbon and mineral elements in these ecosystems.

  12. Movements of northern flying squirrels in different-aged forest stands of western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, K.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    In western Oregon, northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) are the primary prey species for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), an old-growth associated species. To assess differences between old-growth and second-growth habitat, we livetrapped and radiotagged 39 northern flying squirrels to estimate their home range sizes and describe movements in 2 old-growth and 2 second-growth conifer forest stands in the Cascade Mountains of central Oregon. Sampling periods were summer and fall of 1991-92. Home range sizes averaged 4.9 ha and did not differ (P > 0.30) between the 2 stand types. Male northern flying squirrels had larger (P ??? 0.03) mean home ranges (5.9 ?? 0.8 ha; ?? ?? SE; n = 20) than females (3.9 ?? 0.4 ha; n = 19). Northern flying squirrel movement distances between successive, noncorrelated telemetry locations averaged 71 m (n = 1,090). No correlation was found between distances moved and stand type or sex. Northern flying squirrel's home range sizes, movements, and densities were similar between the 2 stand types. We suggest abundance and movements of northern flying squirrels are not influencing the preferential selection of oldgrowth forests by northern spotted owls.

  13. The influence of forest stand and site characteristics on the composition of exotic dominated ambrosia beetle communities (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Muzika, R M

    2010-10-01

    Economic and biological consequences are associated with exotic ambrosia beetles and their fungal associates. Despite this, knowledge of ambrosia beetles and their ecological interactions remain poorly understood, especially in the oak-hickory forest region. We examined how forest stand and site characteristics influenced ambrosia beetle habitat use as evaluated by species richness and abundance of ambrosia beetles, both the native component and individual exotic species. We documented the species composition of the ambrosia beetle community, flight activity, and habitat use over a 2-yr period by placing flight traps in regenerating clearcuts and older oak-hickory forest stands differing in topographic aspect. The ambrosia beetle community consisted of 20 species with exotic ambrosia beetle species dominating the community. Similar percentages of exotic ambrosia beetles occurred among the four forest habitats despite differences in stand age and aspect. Stand characteristics, such as stand age and forest structure, influenced ambrosia beetle richness and the abundances of a few exotic ambrosia beetle species and the native ambrosia beetle component. Topographic aspect had little influence on ambrosia beetle abundance or species richness. Older forests typically have more host material than younger forests and our results may be related to the amount of dead wood present. Different forms of forest management may not alter the percent contribution of exotic ambrosia beetles to the ambrosia beetle community.

  14. Effect of Forest Structural Change on Carbon Storage in a Coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides Stand

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiangrong; Yu, Mukui; Wu, Tonggui

    2013-01-01

    Forest structural change affects the forest's growth and the carbon storage. Two treatments, thinning (30% thinning intensity) and underplanting plus thinning, are being implemented in a coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides forest shelterbelt in Eastern China. The vegetation carbon storage significantly increased in the underplanted and thinned treatments compared with that in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The soil and litterfall carbon storage in the underplanted treatment were significantly higher than those in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The total forest ecosystem carbon storage in the underplanted and thinned treatments increased by 35.3% and 26.3%, respectively, compared with that in the unthinned treatment, an increase that mainly came from the growth of vegetation aboveground. Total ecosystem carbon storage showed no significant difference between the underplanted and thinned treatments (P > 0.05). The soil light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) was significantly higher at the 0–15 cm soil layer in the thinned and underplanted stands compared with that in the unthinned stand (P < 0.05). The soil respiration of the underplanted treatment was significantly higher than that of the unthinned treatment only in July (P < 0.05). This study concludes that 30% thinning and underplanting after thinning could be more favorable to carbon sequestration for M. glyptostroboides plantations in the coastal areas of Eastern China. PMID:24187525

  15. Tree Diversity Enhances Stand Carbon Storage but Not Leaf Area in a Subtropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Castro-Izaguirre, Nadia; Chi, Xiulian; Baruffol, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2016-01-01

    Research about biodiversity-productivity relationships has focused on herbaceous ecosystems, with results from tree field studies only recently beginning to emerge. Also, the latter are concentrated largely in the temperate zone. Tree species diversity generally is much higher in subtropical and tropical than in temperate or boreal forests, with reasons not fully understood. Niche overlap and thus complementarity in the use of resources that support productivity may be lower in forests than in herbaceous ecosystems, suggesting weaker productivity responses to diversity change in forests. We studied stand basal area, vertical structure, leaf area, and their relationship with tree species richness in a subtropical forest in south-east China. Permanent forest plots of 30 x 30 m were selected to span largely independent gradients in tree species richness and secondary successional age. Plots with higher tree species richness had a higher stand basal area. Also, stand basal area increases over a 4-year census interval were larger at high than at low diversity. These effects translated into increased carbon stocks in aboveground phytomass (estimated using allometric equations). A higher variability in tree height in more diverse plots suggested that these effects were facilitated by denser canopy packing due to architectural complementarity between species. In contrast, leaf area was not or even negatively affected by tree diversity, indicating a decoupling of carbon accumulation from leaf area. Alternatively, the same community leaf area might have assimilated more C per time interval in more than in less diverse plots because of differences in leaf turnover and productivity or because of differences in the display of leaves in vertical and horizontal space. Overall, our study suggests that in species-rich forests niche-based processes support a positive diversity-productivity relationship and that this translates into increased carbon storage in long-lived woody

  16. Tree Diversity Enhances Stand Carbon Storage but Not Leaf Area in a Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Izaguirre, Nadia; Chi, Xiulian; Baruffol, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Research about biodiversity–productivity relationships has focused on herbaceous ecosystems, with results from tree field studies only recently beginning to emerge. Also, the latter are concentrated largely in the temperate zone. Tree species diversity generally is much higher in subtropical and tropical than in temperate or boreal forests, with reasons not fully understood. Niche overlap and thus complementarity in the use of resources that support productivity may be lower in forests than in herbaceous ecosystems, suggesting weaker productivity responses to diversity change in forests. We studied stand basal area, vertical structure, leaf area, and their relationship with tree species richness in a subtropical forest in south-east China. Permanent forest plots of 30 x 30 m were selected to span largely independent gradients in tree species richness and secondary successional age. Plots with higher tree species richness had a higher stand basal area. Also, stand basal area increases over a 4-year census interval were larger at high than at low diversity. These effects translated into increased carbon stocks in aboveground phytomass (estimated using allometric equations). A higher variability in tree height in more diverse plots suggested that these effects were facilitated by denser canopy packing due to architectural complementarity between species. In contrast, leaf area was not or even negatively affected by tree diversity, indicating a decoupling of carbon accumulation from leaf area. Alternatively, the same community leaf area might have assimilated more C per time interval in more than in less diverse plots because of differences in leaf turnover and productivity or because of differences in the display of leaves in vertical and horizontal space. Overall, our study suggests that in species-rich forests niche-based processes support a positive diversity–productivity relationship and that this translates into increased carbon storage in long-lived woody

  17. An unsupervised two-stage clustering approach for forest structure classification based on X-band InSAR data - A case study in complex temperate forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullahi, Sahra; Schardt, Mathias; Pretzsch, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Forest structure at stand level plays a key role for sustainable forest management, since the biodiversity, productivity, growth and stability of the forest can be positively influenced by managing its structural diversity. In contrast to field-based measurements, remote sensing techniques offer a cost-efficient opportunity to collect area-wide information about forest stand structure with high spatial and temporal resolution. Especially Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which facilitates worldwide acquisition of 3d information independent from weather conditions and illumination, is convenient to capture forest stand structure. This study purposes an unsupervised two-stage clustering approach for forest structure classification based on height information derived from interferometric X-band SAR data which was performed in complex temperate forest stands of Traunstein forest (South Germany). In particular, a four dimensional input data set composed of first-order height statistics was non-linearly projected on a two-dimensional Self-Organizing Map, spatially ordered according to similarity (based on the Euclidean distance) in the first stage and classified using the k-means algorithm in the second stage. The study demonstrated that X-band InSAR data exhibits considerable capabilities for forest structure classification. Moreover, the unsupervised classification approach achieved meaningful and reasonable results by means of comparison to aerial imagery and LiDAR data.

  18. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  19. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jens T.; Safford, Hugh D.; North, Malcolm P.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gray, Andrew N.; Brown, Peter M.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Falk, Donald A.; Farris, Calvin A.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Hagmann, R. Keala; Knapp, Eric E.; Miller, Jay D.; Smith, Douglas F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Taylor, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the “stand age” variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical “mixed-severity” fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data. PMID:27196621

  20. Temporal changes in radiocesium deposition in various forest stands following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Hisadome, Keigo; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The (137)Cs content of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantations of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous mixed broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine) from July 2011 to December 2012. The forest floor of cedar stands had received higher levels of additional (137)Cs deposition compared with the mixed broad-leaved stand during the sampling period. The cumulative (137)Cs deposition during the study period was 119 kBq m(-2) for the mature cedar stand, 105 kBq m(-2) for the young cedar stand, and 41.5 kBq m(-2) for the broad-leaved stand. The deposition of (137)Cs to the forest floor occurred mainly in throughfall during the first rainy season, from July to September 2011 (<200 d after the initial fallout); thereafter, the transfer of (137)Cs from the canopy to forest floor occurred mainly through litterfall. A double exponential field-loss model, which was used to simulate the removal of (137)Cs from canopies, was the best fit for the temporal changes in the canopy (137)Cs inventory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of stand density on soil CO2 efflux for a Pinus densiflora forest in Korea.

    PubMed

    Noh, Nam Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue Kyoung; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Choonsig; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Bae, Sang Won; Hwang, Jaehong

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the influence of stand density [938 tree ha(-1) for high stand density (HD), 600 tree ha(-1) for medium stand density (MD), and 375 tree ha(-1) for low stand density (LD)] on soil CO(2) efflux (R (S)) in a 70-year-old natural Pinus densiflora S. et Z. forest in central Korea. Concurrent with R (S) measurements, we measured litterfall, total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA), leaf area index (LAI), soil temperature (ST), soil water content (SWC), and soil nitrogen (N) concentration over a 2-year period. The R (S) (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) and leaf litterfall (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) values varied with stand density: 6.21 and 2.03 for HD, 7.45 and 2.37 for MD, and 6.96 and 2.23 for LD, respectively. In addition, R (S) was correlated with ST (R (2) = 0.77-0.80, P < 0.001) and SWC (R (2) = 0.31-0.35, P < 0.001). It appeared that stand density influenced R (S) via changes in leaf litterfall, LAI and SWC. Leaf litterfall (R (2) = 0.71), TBCA (R (2) = 0.64-0.87), and total soil N contents in 2007 (R (2) = 0.94) explained a significant amount of the variance in R (S) (P < 0.01). The current study showed that stand density is one of the key factors influencing R (S) due to the changing biophysical and environmental factors in P. densiflora.

  2. Stand-level variation in evapotranspiration in non-water-limited eucalypt forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyon, Richard G.; Nolan, Rachael H.; Hawthorn, Sandra N. D.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2017-08-01

    To better understand water and energy cycles in forests over years to decades, measurements of spatial and long-term temporal variability in evapotranspiration (Ea) are needed. In mountainous terrain, plot-level measurements are important to achieving this. Forest inventory data including tree density and size measurements, often collected repeatedly over decades, sample the variability occurring within the geographic and topographic range of specific forest types. Using simple allometric relationships, tree stocking and size data can be used to estimate variables including sapwood area index (SAI), which may be strongly correlated with annual Ea. This study analysed plot-level variability in SAI and its relationship with overstorey and understorey transpiration, interception and evaporation over a 670 m elevation gradient, in non-water-limited, even-aged stands of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. to determine how well spatial variation in annual Ea from forests can be mapped using SAI. Over the 3 year study, mean sap velocity in five E. regnans stands was uncorrelated with overstorey sapwood area index (SAI) or elevation: annual transpiration was predicted well by SAI (R2 0.98). Overstorey and total annual interception were positively correlated with SAI (R2 0.90 and 0.75). Ea from the understorey was strongly correlated with vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and net radiation (Rn) measured just above the understorey, but relationships between understorey Ea and VPD and Rn differed between understorey types and understorey annual Ea was not correlated with SAI. Annual total Ea was also strongly correlated with SAI: the relationship being similar to two previous studies in the same region, despite differences in stand age and species. Thus, spatial variation in annual Ea can be reliably mapped using measurements of SAI.

  3. Development, succession, and stand dynamics of upland oak forests in the Wisconsin Driftless Area: Implications for oak regeneration and management

    Treesearch

    Megan L. Buchanan; Kurt F. Kipfmueller; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the deciduous forests of the eastern United States, oak (Quercus) regeneration has declined in stands historically dominated by oak species. In the Wisconsin Driftless Area, the level of decline in oak regeneration is variable and influenced by stand structural development, historical disturbance regime, abiotic site characteristics, and...

  4. Mark-recapture estimation of snag standing rates in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; Gary C. White; Jeffrey S. Jenness; Scott C. Vojta

    2015-01-01

    Snags (standing dead trees) are important components of forests that provide resources for numerous species of wildlife and contribute to decay dynamics and other ecological processes. Managers charged with managing populations of snags need information about standing rates of snags and factors influencing those rates, yet such data are limited for ponderosa pine (...

  5. Severity of a mountain pine beetle outbreak across a range of stand conditions in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, United States

    Treesearch

    Anthony G. Vorster; Paul H. Evangelista; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Sunil Kumar; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Antony S. Cheng; Kelly Elder

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks had unprecedented effects on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) in western North America. We used data from 165 forest inventory plots to analyze stand conditions that regulate lodgepole pine mortality across a wide range of stand structure and species composition at the Fraser...

  6. Snag densities in old-growth stands on the Gasquet Ranger District, Six Rivers National Forest, California

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Jimerson

    1989-01-01

    Baseline levels for densities of snags (standing dead trees) wered etermined in undisturbed old-growth stands on the Gasquet Ranger District. Six Riven National Forest, California. Snag species, number, diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), height, cavity type, cavity use, decay class, and snag origin were recorded on 317 plots over a 2-year period. The 2121 snags...

  7. Surface fuel treatments in young, regenerating stands affect wildfire severity in a mixed conifer forest, eastside Cascade Range, Washington, USA

    Treesearch

    Christina Lyons-Tinsley; David L. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have debated the flammability of young regenerating stands, especially those in a matrix of mature forest, and no consensus has emerged as to whether young stands are inherently prone to high-severity wildfire. This topic has recently been addressed using spatial imagery, and weak inferences were made given the scale mismatch between the coarse...

  8. Stand dynamics of an oak woodland forest and effects of a restoration treatment on forest health

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    Woodland restoration has been conducted in many countries, primarily in Mediterranean regions, but has only recently been attempted on publically and privately owned lands in the eastern United States. We reconstructed historical stand dynamics and tested the immediate effects of an oak

  9. Can the functional stability of forest ecosystems be evaluated from the spatial analysis of stands? A case study from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)

    Treesearch

    Andrzej Bobiec

    2000-01-01

    Variability of external and internal factors entails specific spatial patterns and functional dynamics of communities. The study of the oak-lime-hornbeam (Quercus robur-Tilia cordata-Carpimus) forest in the Bialowieza Primeval Forest supports the concept of silvatic unit, determining the minimal structural area. To find out if the dynamics of a stand...

  10. Using Lidar and color infrared imagery to successfully measure stand characteristics on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey Stephens; Luben Dimov; Callie Schweitzer; Wubishet Tadesse

    2008-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (Lidar) and color infrared imagery (CIR) were used to quantify forest structure and to distinguish deciduous from coniferous trees for selected stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest in Alabama. Lidar bare ground and vegetation point clouds were used to determine tree heights and tree locations. Lidar accuracy was assessed by...

  11. The Sylview graphical interface to the SYLVAN STAND STRUCTURE model with examples from southern bottomland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    David R. Larsen; Ian Scott

    2010-01-01

    In the field of forestry, the output of forest growth models provide a wealth of detailed information that can often be difficult to analyze and perceive due to presentation either as plain text summary tables or static stand visualizations. This paper describes the design and implementation of a cross-platform computer application for dynamic and interactive forest...

  12. Carbon stocks and accumulation rates in Pacific Northwest forests: role of stand age, plant community, and productivity

    Treesearch

    Andrew N. Gray; Thomas R. Whittier; Mark E. Harmon

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are removing significant amounts of carbon from the atmosphere. Both abiotic resource availability and biotic interactions during forest succession affect C accumulation rates and maximum C stocks. However, the timing and controls on the peak and decline in C accumulation rates as stands age, trees increase in size, and canopy gaps become prevalent...

  13. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    A.J. Tepley; F.J. Swanson; T.A. Spies

    2013-01-01

    Forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have strongly influenced concepts and policy concerning old-growth forest conservation. Despite the attention to their old-growth characteristics, a tendency remains to view their disturbance ecology in relatively simple terms, emphasizing infrequent, stand-replacing (SR...

  14. Changes in stand structure and composition after restoration treatments in low elevation dry forests of northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Andrew Youngblood; Kerry L. Metlen; Kent. Coe

    2006-01-01

    In many fire-dependent forests in the United States, changes occurring in the last century have resulted in overstory structures, conifer densities, down woody structure and understory plant communities that deviate from those described historically. With these changes, many forests are presumed to be unsustainable. Broad-scale treatments are proposed to promote stand...

  15. Cause-Effect Relations with Regard to Functional and Morphological Humus Characteristics in Mixed Forest Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schua, K.; Feger, K.-H.; Wagner, S.; Eisenhauer, D.-R.; Raben, G.

    2009-04-01

    A major argument brought forward when giving reasons for the admixture of deciduous tree species into coniferous forest stands is the amelioration and stabilization of biogeochemical cycles. An ecologically oriented silviculture relies on detailed knowledge about the ecosystem effects of practical measures. Thus, it focuses on the ‘amelioration potential' of a specific tree species with respect to changes of topsoil characteristics in typical monocultural situations. Up-to-now, few data is available concerning the percentages of deciduous species (degree of admixture) or type of admixture (single-tree, small or large groups) required to achieve desired effects, e.g. faster decomposition and incorporation of organic matter in the mineral soil. Thus, the objective of this study is (1) to analyze the impact of admixtures on topsoil properties and processes, and (2) to establish spatial models of such effects. The experiments are conducted in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] KARST.) stands with a variable admixture of Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, SE Germany). The approach starts with explanation of single-tree-effects and approves in a next step the enlargement to forest stand ("from-point-to-area-approach"). This attempt is expected to provide models with few parameters which can be used to modify the common exclusive growth models.

  16. Estimating canopy cover in forest stands used by Mexican spotted owls: Do stand-exam routines provide estimates comparable to field-based techniques?

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; Regis H. Cassidy; William M. Block

    2008-01-01

    Canopy cover has been identified as an important correlate of Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) habitat, yet management guidelines in a 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery plan for the Mexican spotted owl did not address canopy cover. These guidelines emphasized parameters included in U.S. Forest Service stand exams, and...

  17. Growth and yield of all-aged Douglas-fir -- western hemlock forest stands: a matrix model with stand diversity effects.

    Treesearch

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buonglorno; Robert A. Monserud

    2005-01-01

    A density-dependent matrix model was developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) -- western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest stands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The model predicted the number and volume of trees for 4 species groups and 19 diameter classes. The parameters...

  18. Current stand characteristics of Louisiana Timberland Harvested between 1975 and 1991. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rosson, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A study population, using 1,216 forest survey continuous forest inventory (C.F.I.) plots, was constructed to analyze the current stocking trends and performance of timberland harvested in Louisiana between 1975 and 1991. A total of 6,888,000 acres was harvested; 4,011,600 acres by partial harvest, 219,900 acres by seed tree and shelterwood methods, 2,562,000 acres by clearcut, and 94,500 acres by salvage cut. Of the 2,454,700 acres of clearcut upland forest types, 640,500 acres converted to the oak-hickory type. It is taking 6 to 7 years, after harvesting, for softwoods to reach the 3.0-inch diameter threshold. Additionally, softwood stand volume 13 to 17 years after clearcut harvest is below that expected for normal sites. Low softwood stocking levels and lengthy regeneration lag time are cited as two possible reasons for low yields at this stage of stand development.

  19. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    Treesearch

    T. W. Giesen; S. S. Perakis; K. Cromack

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-frr (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western . Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-tenn impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)...

  20. Fuel management strategies in 60-year-old douglas-fir/ponderosa pine stands in the Squamish Forest district, British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Gray; Bruce A. Blackwell

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of dry forest ecosystems in the Squamish Forest District in the past has focused on treating stands with no prior history of selective harvest and containing a large population of remnant historical stand structure. Many 60 to 90 year old stands that date...

  1. Quercus stellata growth and stand characteristics in the Quercus stellata-Quercus marilandica forest type in the Cross Timbers region of Central Oklahoma

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson

    1994-01-01

    The author reports a baseline forest survey of Central and West Oklahoma to obtain tree and stand growth rates for harvest sustainability, standing volume estimates for biomass assessments, and stand structure to provide other pertinent data for exploring management options. This report focused on the Quercus stellata-Quercus marilandica forest type in the Cross...

  2. Tree microhabitat structures as indicators of biodiversity in Douglas-fir forests of different stand ages and management histories in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Alexa K. Michel; Susanne. Winter

    2009-01-01

    In this study, microhabitat structures in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests were defined and their frequency and abundance in natural stands and stands of varying active management histories and stand ages was compared. Indicator microhabitat structures for natural forests were determined and the relationship of the abundance of...

  3. Optimal co-allocation of carbon and nitrogen in a forest stand at steady state.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Annikki; Valentine, Harry T; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is essential for plant production, but N uptake imposes carbon (C) costs through maintenance respiration and fine-root construction, suggesting that an optimal C:N balance can be found. Previous studies have elaborated this optimum under exponential growth; work on closed canopies has focused on foliage only. Here, the optimal co-allocation of C and N to foliage, fine roots and live wood is examined in a closed forest stand. Optimal co-allocation maximizes net primary productivity (NPP) as constrained by stand-level C and N balances and the pipe model. Photosynthesis and maintenance respiration increase with foliar nitrogen concentration ([N]), and stand-level photosynthesis and N uptake saturate at high foliage and fine-root density. Optimal NPP increases almost linearly from low to moderate N availability, saturating at high N. Where N availability is very low or very high, the system resembles a functional balance with a steady foliage [N]; in between, [N] increases with N availability. Carbon allocation to fine roots decreases, allocation to wood increases, and allocation to foliage remains stable with increasing N availability. The predicted relationships between biomass density and foliage [N] are in reasonable agreement with data from coniferous stands across Finland. All predictions agree with our qualitative understanding of N effects on growth.

  4. Functional assessment and remote-sensing upscaling of coastal erosion damages on forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddi, Sabrina; Magnani, Federico; Pippi, Ivan

    1998-12-01

    Simple models relating growth to photosynthetically active solar radiation absorbed by forest canopies are a necessary tool for scaling-up functional parameters to ecosystem scale. The present study examined the effects of coastal erosion and of distance from the seaside on the physiology and growth of 63-year-old Pinus pinea stands. The effects of radiation interception, stomatal limitations and carbon allocation on stand above-ground increments were analyzed. The assessment of the relative importance of each term and the relation between growth and intercepted light by the canopy was the starting point for RS analysis by means of vegetation indices based on TM images, once confounding effects had been eliminated by pairwise analysis. The analysis of reflectance spectra also allowed to quantify the impact of erosion on ecosystem diversity and integrity.

  5. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    Sonia Wharton; Matt Schroeder; Ken Bible; Matthias Falk; Kyaw Tha Paw U

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0 to 15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (~450 to 500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest,...

  6. Stand-replacing wildfires increase nitrification for decades in southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Valerie J; Hart, Stephen C; Ross, Christopher S; Kaye, Jason P; Fulé, Peter Z

    2014-05-01

    Stand-replacing wildfires are a novel disturbance within ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of the southwestern United States, and they can convert forests to grasslands or shrublands for decades. While most research shows that soil inorganic N pools and fluxes return to pre-fire levels within a few years, we wondered if vegetation conversion (ponderosa pine to bunchgrass) following stand-replacing fires might be accompanied by a long-term shift in N cycling processes. Using a 34-year stand-replacing wildfire chronosequence with paired, adjacent unburned patches, we examined the long-term dynamics of net and gross nitrogen (N) transformations. We hypothesized that N availability in burned patches would become more similar to those in unburned patches over time after fire as these areas become re-vegetated. Burned patches had higher net and gross nitrification rates than unburned patches (P < 0.01 for both), and nitrification accounted for a greater proportion of N mineralization in burned patches for both net (P < 0.01) and gross (P < 0.04) N transformation measurements. However, trends with time-after-fire were not observed for any other variables. Our findings contrast with previous work, which suggested that high nitrification rates are a short-term response to disturbance. Furthermore, high nitrification rates at our site were not simply correlated with the presence of herbaceous vegetation. Instead, we suggest that stand-replacing wildfire triggers a shift in N cycling that is maintained for at least three decades by various factors, including a shift from a woody to an herbaceous ecosystem and the presence of fire-deposited charcoal.

  7. TCP Final Report: Measuring the Effects of Stand Age and Soil Drainage on Boreal Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Goulden

    2007-05-02

    This was a 6-year research project in the Canadian boreal forest that focused on using field observations to understand how boreal forest carbon balance changes during recovery from catastrophic forest fire. The project began with two overarching goals: (1) to develop techniques that would all the year round operation of 7 eddy covariance sites in a harsh environment at a much lower cost than had previously been possible, and (2) to use these measurements to determine how carbon balance changes during secondary succession. The project ended in 2006, having accomplished its primary objectives. Key contributions to DOE during the study were: (1) Design, test, and demonstrate a lightweight, fully portable eddy flux system that exploits several economies of scale to allow AmeriFlux-quality measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange at many sites for a large reduction in cost (Goulden et al. 2006). (2) Added seven year-round sites to AmeriFlux, at a relatively low per site cost using the Eddy Covariance Mesonet approach (Goulden et al. 2006). These data are freely available on the AmeriFlux web site. (3) Tested and rejected the conventional wisdom that forests lose large amounts of carbon during the first decade after disturbance, then accumulate large amounts of carbon for {approx}several decades, and then return to steady state in old age. Rather, we found that boreal forests recovers quickly from fire and begins to accumulate carbon within {approx}5 years after disturbance. Additionally, we found no evidence that carbon accumulation declines in old stands (Goulden et al. 2006, Goulden et al. in prep). (4) Tested and rejected claims based on remote sensing observations (for example, Myneni et al 1996 using AVHRR) that regions of boreal forest have changed markedly in the last 20 years. Rather, we assembled a much richer data set than had been used in the past (eddy covariance observations, tree rings, biomass, NPP, AVHRR, and LandSat), which we used to establish that the

  8. Land use history and population dynamics of free-standing figs in a maturing forest

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Figs (Ficus sp.) are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years) and maturing (about 90–150 year old) secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973–2011), with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha). The original distribution of the fig trees shortly after the construction of the Panama Canal was derived from an aerial photograph from 1927 and was compared with previous land use and forest status. The distribution of both fig species (~850 trees) is restricted to secondary forest. Of the original 119 trees observed in Lutz Catchment in 1973, >70% of F. insipida and >90% of F. yoponensis had died by 2011. Observations in other areas on BCI support the trend of declining free-standing figs. We interpret the decline of these figs on BCI as a natural process within a maturing tropical lowland forest. Senescence of the fig trees appears to have been accelerated by severe droughts such as the strong El Niño event in the year 1982/83. Because figs form such an important food resource for frugivores, this shift in resource availability is likely to have cascading effects on frugivore populations. PMID:28542161

  9. [Soil soluble organic nitrogen content in different forest stands in Wanmulin Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Gao, Ren; Yang, Yu-sheng; Yang, Zhi-jie; Chen, Guang-shui

    2010-07-01

    An investigation was made on the soil soluble organic nitrogen (SON) in two natural forests Altingia gracilies (ALG) and Castanopsis carlesii (CAC) and an adjacent 35-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata (CUL) plantation in Wanmulin Nature Reserve in Jianou, Fujian Province. Among the three forest stands, ALG had a significantly higher content of soil SON, being 95.3, 78.3, and 72.5 mg x kg(-1) in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm soil layers, respectively (P<0.05), while CAC and CUL had lesser differences in their soil SON content, which was 74.5, 70.1, and 65.6 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CAC, and 78.6, 68.9, and 69.1 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CUL, respectively. The proportion of SON to total soluble nitrogen (TSN) in 0-20 cm soil layer was 79.17-80.78% for CAC, 68.64%-74.51% for CUL, and 59.97%-69.66% for ALG. With increasing soil depth, the proportion of soil SON to soil TSN and total nitrogen (TN) for the three forest stands all increased. Soil SON content had a significant positive correlation with soil organic carbon (r=0.982, P<0.01), and also, had definite correlations with soil TSN, TN, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N. It also correlated with the factors such as forest type, topography, altitude, and tree age.

  10. Standing crop and aboveground biomass partitioning of a dwarf mangrove forest in Taylor River Slough, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Reyes, E.; Perez, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and standing crop biomass of a dwarf mangrove forest, located in the salinity transition zone ofTaylor River Slough in the Everglades National Park, were studied. Although the four mangrove species reported for Florida occurred at the study site, dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees dominated the forest. The structural characteristics of the mangrove forest were relatively simple: tree height varied from 0.9 to 1.2 meters, and tree density ranged from 7062 to 23 778 stems haa??1. An allometric relationship was developed to estimate leaf, branch, prop root, and total aboveground biomass of dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees. Total aboveground biomass and their components were best estimated as a power function of the crown area times number of prop roots as an independent variable (Y = B ?? Xa??0.5083). The allometric equation for each tree component was highly significant (p<0.0001), with all r2 values greater than 0.90. The allometric relationship was used to estimate total aboveground biomass that ranged from 7.9 to 23.2 ton haa??1. Rhizophora mangle contributed 85% of total standing crop biomass. Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans contributed the remaining biomass. Average aboveground biomass allocation was 69% for prop roots, 25% for stem and branches, and 6% for leaves. This aboveground biomass partitioning pattern, which gives a major role to prop roots that have the potential to produce an extensive root system, may be an important biological strategy in response to low phosphorus availability and relatively reduced soils that characterize mangrove forests in South Florida.

  11. Land use history and population dynamics of free-standing figs in a maturing forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albrecht, Larissa; Stallard, Robert F.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.

    2017-01-01

    Figs (Ficus sp.) are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years) and maturing (about 90–150 year old) secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973–2011), with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha). The original distribution of the fig trees shortly after the construction of the Panama Canal was derived from an aerial photograph from 1927 and was compared with previous land use and forest status. The distribution of both fig species (~850 trees) is restricted to secondary forest. Of the original 119 trees observed in Lutz Catchment in 1973, >70% of F. insipida and >90% of F. yoponensis had died by 2011. Observations in other areas on BCI support the trend of declining free-standing figs. We interpret the decline of these figs on BCI as a natural process within a maturing tropical lowland forest. Senescence of the fig trees appears to have been accelerated by severe droughts such as the strong El Niño event in the year 1982/83. Because figs form such an important food resource for frugivores, this shift in resource availability is likely to have cascading effects on frugivore populations.

  12. Mapping forest stand complexity for woodland caribou habitat assessment using multispectral airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Hu, B.; Woods, M.

    2014-11-01

    The decline of the woodland caribou population is a result of their habitat loss. To conserve the habitat of the woodland caribou and protect it from extinction, it is critical to accurately characterize and monitor its habitat. Conventionally, products derived from low to medium spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as land cover classification and vegetation indices are used for wildlife habitat assessment. These products fail to provide information on the structure complexities of forest canopies which reflect important characteristics of caribou's habitats. Recent studies have employed the LiDAR system (Light Detection And Ranging) to directly retrieve the three dimensional forest attributes. Although promising results have been achieved, the acquisition cost of LiDAR data is very high. In this study, utilizing the very high spatial resolution imagery in characterizing the structural development the of forest canopies was exploited. A stand based image texture analysis was performed to predict forest succession stages. The results were demonstrated to be consistent with those derived from LiDAR data.

  13. Long term trends of stand transpiration in a remnant forest during wet and dry years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M. O.; Yunusa, Isa A. M.; Whitley, Rhys J.; Eamus, Derek

    2008-01-01

    SummaryDaily and annual rates of stand transpiration in a drought year and a non-drought year are compared in order to understand the adaptive responses of a remnant woodland to drought and predict the effect of land use change. Two methods were used to estimate stand transpiration. In the first, the ratio of sap velocity of a few trees measured for several hundred days to the mean sap velocity of many trees measured during brief sampling periods (generally 6-7 trees for 5 or 6 days), called the Esv method is used to scale temporally from the few intensive study periods. The second method used was the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation (called the EPM method). Weather variables and soil moisture were used to predict canopy conductance, which in turn was used to predict daily and annual stand transpiration. Comparisons of daily transpiration estimated with the two methods showed larger values for the EPM method during a drought year and smaller values for the EPM when the rainfall was above average. Generally, though, annual estimates of stand transpiration were similar using the two methods. The Esv method produced an estimate of 318 mm (61% of rainfall) in the drought year and 443 mm (42%) in the year having above average rainfall. The EPM method estimated stand transpiration as 379 mm (73%) and 398 mm (37%), respectively, for the two years. Both estimates of annual stand transpiration demonstrated that the remnant forest showed resilience to an extreme and long-term drought. More importantly, the annual estimates showed that in dry years a larger proportion of rainfall was used as transpiration, and groundwater recharge was absent but in years with above average rainfall recharge was significantly increased. Changes in leaf area index were minimal between years and changes in stomatal conductance were the dominant mechanism for adapting to the drought. The remnant forest rapidly responded to increased water availability after the drought through a new flush of leaves

  14. Measuring Effective Leaf Area Index, Foliage Profile, and Stand Height in New England Forest Stands Using a Full-Waveform Ground-Based Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Schull, Mithcell A.; Roman-Colon, Miguel O.; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Zhang, Qingling; Jupp, David L. B.; Lovell, Jenny L.; Culvenor, Darius; hide

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaf area index (LAI) retrievals from a scanning, ground-based, near-infrared (1064 nm) lidar that digitizes the full return waveform, the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI), are in good agreement with those obtained from both hemispherical photography and the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. We conducted trials at 28 plots within six stands of hardwoods and conifers of varying height and stocking densities at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, and Howland Experimental Forest, Maine, in July 2007. Effective LAI values retrieved by four methods, which ranged from 3.42 to 5.25 depending on the site and method, were not significantly different ( b0.1 among four methods). The LAI values also matched published values well. Foliage profiles (leaf area with height) retrieved from the lidar scans, although not independently validated, were consistent with stand structure as observed and as measured by conventional methods. Canopy mean top height, as determined from the foliage profiles, deviated from mean RH100 values obtained from the Lidar Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) airborne large-footprint lidar system at 27 plots by .0.91 m with RMSE=2.04 m, documenting the ability of the EVI to retrieve stand height. The Echidna Validation Instrument is the first realization of the Echidna lidar concept, devised by Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), for measuring forest structure using full-waveform, ground-based, scanning lidar.

  15. Measuring Effective Leaf Area Index, Foliage Profile, and Stand Height in New England Forest Stands Using a Full-Waveform Ground-Based Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Schull, Mithcell A.; Roman-Colon, Miguel O.; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Zhang, Qingling; Jupp, David L. B.; Lovell, Jenny L.; Culvenor, Darius; Newnham, Glenn J.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Schaaf, Crystal L.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaf area index (LAI) retrievals from a scanning, ground-based, near-infrared (1064 nm) lidar that digitizes the full return waveform, the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI), are in good agreement with those obtained from both hemispherical photography and the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. We conducted trials at 28 plots within six stands of hardwoods and conifers of varying height and stocking densities at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, and Howland Experimental Forest, Maine, in July 2007. Effective LAI values retrieved by four methods, which ranged from 3.42 to 5.25 depending on the site and method, were not significantly different ( b0.1 among four methods). The LAI values also matched published values well. Foliage profiles (leaf area with height) retrieved from the lidar scans, although not independently validated, were consistent with stand structure as observed and as measured by conventional methods. Canopy mean top height, as determined from the foliage profiles, deviated from mean RH100 values obtained from the Lidar Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) airborne large-footprint lidar system at 27 plots by .0.91 m with RMSE=2.04 m, documenting the ability of the EVI to retrieve stand height. The Echidna Validation Instrument is the first realization of the Echidna lidar concept, devised by Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), for measuring forest structure using full-waveform, ground-based, scanning lidar.

  16. Viewing forests from below: fine root mass declines relative to leaf area in aging lodgepole pine stands.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, A S; Lieffers, V J; Landhäusser, S M

    2016-07-01

    In the continued quest to explain the decline in productivity and vigor with aging forest stands, the most poorly studied area relates to root system change in time. This paper measures the wood production, root and leaf area (and mass) in a chronosequence of fire-origin lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loudon) stands consisting of four age classes (12, 21, 53, and ≥100 years), each replicated ~ five times. Wood productivity was greatest in the 53-year-old stands and then declined in the ≥100-year-old stands. Growth efficiency, the quantity of wood produced per unit leaf mass, steadily declined with age. Leaf mass and fine root mass plateaued between the 53- and ≥100-year-old stands, but leaf area index actually increased in the older stands. An increase in the leaf area index:fine root area ratio supports the idea that older stand are potentially limited by soil resources. Other factors contributing to slower growth in older stands might be lower soil temperatures and increased self-shading due to the clumped nature of crowns. Collectively, the proportionally greater reduction in fine roots in older stands might be the variable that predisposes these forests to be at a potentially greater risk of stress-induced mortality.

  17. Influence of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Stand Structural Complexity in Andean Temperate Forests: Implications for Managing Key Habitat for Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Forest attributes and their abundances define the stand structural complexity available as habitat for faunal biodiversity; however, intensive anthropogenic disturbances have the potential to degrade and simplify forest stands. In this paper we develop an index of stand structural complexity and show how anthropogenic disturbances, namely fire, logging, livestock, and their combined presence, affect stand structural complexity in a southern Global Biodiversity Hotspot. From 2011 to 2013, we measured forest structural attributes as well as the presence of anthropogenic disturbances in 505 plots in the Andean zone of the La Araucanía Region, Chile. In each plot, understory density, coarse woody debris, number of snags, tree diameter at breast height, and litter depth were measured, along with signs of the presence of anthropogenic disturbances. Ninety-five percent of the plots showed signs of anthropogenic disturbance (N = 475), with the combined presence of fire, logging, and livestock being the most common disturbance (N = 222; 44% of plots). The lowest values for the index were measured in plots combining fire, logging, and livestock. Undisturbed plots and plots with the presence of relatively old fires (> 70 years) showed the highest values for the index of stand structural complexity. Our results suggest that secondary forests < 70-year post-fire event, with the presence of habitat legacies (e.g. snags and CWD), can reach a structural complexity as high as undisturbed plots. Temperate forests should be managed to retain structural attributes, including understory density (7.2 ± 2.5 # contacts), volume of CWD (22.4 ± 25.8 m3/ha), snag density (94.4 ± 71.0 stems/ha), stand basal area (61.2 ± 31.4 m2/ha), and litter depth (7.5 ± 2.7 cm). Achieving these values will increase forest structural complexity, likely benefiting a range of faunal species in South American temperate forests. PMID:28068349

  18. Influence of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Stand Structural Complexity in Andean Temperate Forests: Implications for Managing Key Habitat for Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Caviedes, Julián; Ibarra, José Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Forest attributes and their abundances define the stand structural complexity available as habitat for faunal biodiversity; however, intensive anthropogenic disturbances have the potential to degrade and simplify forest stands. In this paper we develop an index of stand structural complexity and show how anthropogenic disturbances, namely fire, logging, livestock, and their combined presence, affect stand structural complexity in a southern Global Biodiversity Hotspot. From 2011 to 2013, we measured forest structural attributes as well as the presence of anthropogenic disturbances in 505 plots in the Andean zone of the La Araucanía Region, Chile. In each plot, understory density, coarse woody debris, number of snags, tree diameter at breast height, and litter depth were measured, along with signs of the presence of anthropogenic disturbances. Ninety-five percent of the plots showed signs of anthropogenic disturbance (N = 475), with the combined presence of fire, logging, and livestock being the most common disturbance (N = 222; 44% of plots). The lowest values for the index were measured in plots combining fire, logging, and livestock. Undisturbed plots and plots with the presence of relatively old fires (> 70 years) showed the highest values for the index of stand structural complexity. Our results suggest that secondary forests < 70-year post-fire event, with the presence of habitat legacies (e.g. snags and CWD), can reach a structural complexity as high as undisturbed plots. Temperate forests should be managed to retain structural attributes, including understory density (7.2 ± 2.5 # contacts), volume of CWD (22.4 ± 25.8 m3/ha), snag density (94.4 ± 71.0 stems/ha), stand basal area (61.2 ± 31.4 m2/ha), and litter depth (7.5 ± 2.7 cm). Achieving these values will increase forest structural complexity, likely benefiting a range of faunal species in South American temperate forests.

  19. Validation of the Integrated Biosphere Simulator over Canadian deciduous and coniferous boreal forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Maayar, Mustapha; Price, David T.; Delire, Christine; Foley, Jonathan A.; Black, T. Andrew; Bessemoulin, Pierre

    2001-07-01

    Data collected during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) at four different forest stands were used to test surface energy and carbon fluxes simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS). These stands included deciduous and conifer species and were located in both the BOREAS northern and southern study areas. Two runs were made: one using the original IBIS model and the other using a version modified to consider an organic soil layer (OSL) covering the mineral soil surface. Results show that the inclusion of the OSL substantially improved the simulation of soil heat flux, as well as of temperature and moisture in the topmost soil layer. Simulations show that latent and sensible heat fluxes, and net ecosystem exchange of carbon, were not affected appreciably by the presence of a thin (10 cm or less) OSL covering the forest floor. With a thick (50 cm) OSL, however, simulation of latent heat flux and net ecosystem exchange of carbon was substantially improved. Consideration of the OSL in the model also led to better simulation of the onsets of soil thawing. Correct estimation of heat diffusion to deep soil through thick organic layers requires a parameterization that accounts for the state of the organic material decomposition. Simulations presented here also show the necessity for using detailed information on soil physical properties for better evaluation of model performance.

  20. The role of forest stand density in controlling soil erosion: implications to sediment-related disasters in Japan.

    PubMed

    Razafindrabe, Bam H N; He, Bin; Inoue, Shoji; Ezaki, Tsugio; Shaw, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    The role of forest stand density in controlling soil erosion was investigated in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. The main objective was to compare soil erosion under different forest conditions including forest type, species composition, and stand density as influenced by thinning operations. Relative yield index (Ry) was used as an indicator of stand density to reflect the degree of management operations in the watershed. Eleven treatments were established based on the above forest conditions. Soil loss was collected in each of the 11 treatments after each rainfall event for a period of 1 year. The paper presents summary data on soil loss as affected by forest conditions and rainfall patterns. Findings showed that an appropriate forest management operation, which can be insured by stand density control, is needed to reduce soil loss. The present study plays an important role in clarifying technical processes related to soil erosion, while it helps linking these elements to current Japanese forestry issues and bringing new inputs to reducing sediment-related disasters in Japan.

  1. Salmonberry and salal annual aerial stem production: The maintenance of shrub cover in forest stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C.; Zasada, J.; Huffman, D.; Ganio, L.

    2001-01-01

    Annual sprouting of aerial stems and ramets enables populations of salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis Pursh), salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh), and probably other forest shrubs to maintain dense covers (>20 000 stems/ha). We studied annual stem production of salmonberry on cut (all stems cut within 15 cm of the ground) and uncut (stems were not treated) plots for 8 years and salal for 5 years in the understories of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), alder, and riparian stands, as well as clearcuts, which are all common stand types in western Oregon. Mean salmonberry stem production on uncut plots ranged from 4.7 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 2.9a??7.4) in alder stands and clearcuts to 1.6 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 1.0a??2.6) in conifer stands. Mean salal production was greater, ranging from 58 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 25a??135) to 8.6 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 3.7a??20.1) on uncut plots in clearcuts and unthinned Douglas-fir stands, respectively. Annual production of both species was somewhat greater on cut plots. Most stems produced in early spring die by December, but enough are recruited to replace mortality of older stems. Stem density was maintained for 8 years for salmonberry and 5 years for salal on both cut and uncut plots. Based on length of rhizomes and bud density we estimate that only 1a??5% of the buds in the rhizomes are needed to support this annual stem production. Although these species sprout vigorously after their aerial stems are killed, disturbance is not necessary for maintaining a dense cover. It appears that, once established, salal, salmonberry, and probably other clonal forest shrubs can maintain a dense cover that can interfere with establishment of trees and other shrubs in canopy gaps or other openings.

  2. Does the developmental stage and composition of riparian forest stand affect ecosystem functioning in streams?

    PubMed

    Seena, Sahadevan; Carvalho, Francisco; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2017-08-07

    A common watershed restoration practice to improve water quality and stream ecosystem functions and services is replanting riparian corridors with plant species that may differ from those of natural communities. This restoration practice may have consequences on the aquatic ecosystem processes because organisms obtain energy from leaf litter inputs of the riparian zones. Leaf litter decomposition in streams is a vital ecosystem-level process, which depends on the activity of microorganisms and invertebrates. In the current study, we examined whether the type and developmental stage of riparian forest affect stream ecosystem functioning. We selected three widespread tree species in the Northwest Portugal, namely alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), oak (Quercus robur L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) and conducted stream litter decomposition experiments with leaf litter from trees differing in developmental stage to assess leaf mass loss, fungal and invertebrate biomass and diversity. Both type and developmental stage of riparian stand significantly affected leaf mass loss, biomass of fungi and benthic invertebrates, sporulation of fungi, and abundance of invertebrates. However, only developmental stage of the riparian stand had an impact on the richness and diversity of fungi, whereas invertebrate diversity and richness was influenced by both stage and type classes. Overall our study provides the novel information that stream ecosystem processes are dictated not only by the composition but also by the developmental stage of the riparian stand. Moreover, this study provides an insight into how by altering riparian forest community composition through restoration practices may have an impact on a key ecosystem process and may have implications for successfully implementing future management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Colville study: Wood utilization for ecosystem management. Preliminary results of study of product potential from small-diameter stands. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, S.; Barbour, R.J.; Tesch, S.; Ryland, D.; McNeel, J.

    1996-12-01

    The Colville Study was developed in 1994 to identify and evaluate a series of management options for achieving ecosystem objectives in dense stands of small diameter trees while also producing wood products. The Colville National Forest selected the Rocky II Timber Sale as an example of this type of stand that needed management to achieve the following goals: (1) create late successional forest structure, (2) decrease forest health risk from fire, insects, and disease, (3) improve wildlife habitat by providing large green trees and snags, and (4) improve stand aesthetics by decreasing stand density. The Colville Study was divided into four technical focus areas: Silviculture and Ecology, Forest Operations, Timber Conversion, and Economics.

  4. Bark beetle effects on fuel profiles across a range of stand structures in Douglas-fir forests of Greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Donato, Daniel C; Harvey, Brian J; Romme, William H; Simard, Martin; Turner, Monica G

    2013-01-01

    Consequences of bark beetle outbreaks for forest wildfire potential are receiving heightened attention, but little research has considered ecosystems with mixed-severity fire regimes. Such forests are widespread, variable in stand structure, and often fuel limited, suggesting that beetle outbreaks could substantially alter fire potentials. We studied canopy and surface fuels in interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii v. glauca) forests in Greater Yellowstone, Wyoming, USA, to determine how fuel characteristics varied with time since outbreak of the Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). We sampled five stands in each of four outbreak stages, validated for pre-outbreak similarity: green (undisturbed), red (1-3 yr), gray (4-14 yr), and silver (25-30 yr). General linear models were used to compare variation in fuel profiles associated with outbreak to variation associated with the range of stand structures (dense mesic forest to open xeric parkland) characteristic of interior Douglas-fir forest. Beetle outbreak killed 38-83% of basal area within stands, generating a mix of live trees and snags over several years. Canopy fuel load and bulk density began declining in the red stage via needle drop and decreased by approximately 50% by the silver stage. The dead portion of available canopy fuels peaked in the red stage at 41%. After accounting for background variation, there was little effect of beetle outbreak on surface fuels, with differences mainly in herbaceous biomass (50% greater in red stands) and coarse woody fuels (doubled in silver stands). Within-stand spatial heterogeneity of fuels increased with time since outbreak, and surface-to-crown continuity decreased and remained low because of slow/sparse regeneration. Collectively, results suggest reduced fire potentials in post-outbreak stands, particularly for crown fire after the red stage, although abundant coarse fuels in silver stands may increase burn residence time and heat release. Outbreak

  5. [Identification of gastrodia elata blume by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Dong, Qin; Yu, Fan; Liu, Jian-hong; Sun, Shi-zhong

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, a method of rapid and undamaged identification of wild and cultivated Gastrodia elata Blume, and one of its fakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is reported. The results show that Gastrodia elata Blume and its fake have different characteristic infrared spectra, by which Gastrodia elata Blume can be identified from its fake. Wild winter, wild spring, and cultivated Gastrodia elata Blume can be discriminated by FTIR, according to the differences of their spectral peaks and absorbance ratios. By the differences of absorbance ratios of several peaks, different grade of Gastrodia elata Blume may be classified. FTIR has proved to be a rapid, simple and nondestructive method for the identification of Gastrodia elata Blume.

  6. Quantifying Components of Soil Respiration and Their Response to Abiotic Factors in Two Typical Subtropical Forest Stands, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Yujie; Wang, Yunqi; Sun, Suqi; Liu, Liziyuan

    2015-01-01

    Separating the components of soil respiration and understanding the roles of abiotic factors at a temporal scale among different forest types are critical issues in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. This study quantified the proportions of autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic (RH) in total soil (RT) respiration using trenching and litter removal. Field studies were conducted in two typical subtropical forest stands (broadleaf and needle leaf mixed forest; bamboo forest) at Jinyun Mountain, near the Three Georges Reservoir in southwest China, during the growing season (Apr.–Sep.) from 2010 to 2012. The effects of air temperature (AT), soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) at 6cm depth, solar radiation (SR), pH on components of soil respiration were analyzed. Results show that: 1) SR, AT, and ST exhibited a similar temporal trend. The observed abiotic factors showed slight interannual variability for the two forest stands. 2) The contributions of RH and RA to RT for broadleaf and needle leaf mixed forest were 73.25% and 26.75%, respectively, while those for bamboo forest were 89.02% and 10.98%, respectively; soil respiration peaked from June to July. In both stands, CO2 released from the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM), the strongest contributor to RT, accounted for over 63% of RH. 3) AT and ST were significantly positively correlated with RT and its components (p<0.05), and were major factors affecting soil respiration. 4) Components of soil respiration were significantly different between two forest stands (p<0.05), indicating that vegetation types played a role in soil respiration and its components. PMID:25680112

  7. Quantifying components of soil respiration and their response to abiotic factors in two typical subtropical forest stands, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Yujie; Wang, Yunqi; Sun, Suqi; Liu, Liziyuan

    2015-01-01

    Separating the components of soil respiration and understanding the roles of abiotic factors at a temporal scale among different forest types are critical issues in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. This study quantified the proportions of autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic (RH) in total soil (RT) respiration using trenching and litter removal. Field studies were conducted in two typical subtropical forest stands (broadleaf and needle leaf mixed forest; bamboo forest) at Jinyun Mountain, near the Three Georges Reservoir in southwest China, during the growing season (Apr.-Sep.) from 2010 to 2012. The effects of air temperature (AT), soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) at 6 cm depth, solar radiation (SR), pH on components of soil respiration were analyzed. Results show that: 1) SR, AT, and ST exhibited a similar temporal trend. The observed abiotic factors showed slight interannual variability for the two forest stands. 2) The contributions of RH and RA to RT for broadleaf and needle leaf mixed forest were 73.25% and 26.75%, respectively, while those for bamboo forest were 89.02% and 10.98%, respectively; soil respiration peaked from June to July. In both stands, CO2 released from the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM), the strongest contributor to RT, accounted for over 63% of RH. 3) AT and ST were significantly positively correlated with RT and its components (p<0.05), and were major factors affecting soil respiration. 4) Components of soil respiration were significantly different between two forest stands (p<0.05), indicating that vegetation types played a role in soil respiration and its components.

  8. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Net primary productivity of forest stands in New Hampshire estimated from Landsat and MODIS satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Christopher; Gross, Peggy; Genovese, Vanessa; Smith, Marie-Louise

    2007-01-01

    Background A simulation model that relies on satellite observations of vegetation cover from the Landsat 7 sensor and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate net primary productivity (NPP) of forest stands at the Bartlett Experiment Forest (BEF) in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Results Net primary production (NPP) predicted from the NASA-CASA model using 30-meter resolution Landsat inputs showed variations related to both vegetation cover type and elevational effects on mean air temperatures. Overall, the highest predicted NPP from the NASA-CASA model was for deciduous forest cover at low to mid-elevation locations over the landscape. Comparison of the model-predicted annual NPP to the plot-estimated values showed a significant correlation of R2 = 0.5. Stepwise addition of 30-meter resolution elevation data values explained no more than 20% of the residual variation in measured NPP patterns at BEF. Both the Landsat 7 and the 250-meter resolution MODIS derived mean annual NPP predictions for the BEF plot locations were within ± 2.5% of the mean of plot estimates for annual NPP. Conclusion Although MODIS imagery cannot capture the spatial details of NPP across the network of closely spaced plot locations as well as Landsat, the MODIS satellite data as inputs to the NASA-CASA model does accurately predict the average annual productivity of a site like the BEF. PMID:17941989

  10. Net primary productivity of forest stands in New Hampshire estimated from Landsat and MODIS satellite data.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christopher; Gross, Peggy; Genovese, Vanessa; Smith, Marie-Louise

    2007-10-17

    A simulation model that relies on satellite observations of vegetation cover from the Landsat 7 sensor and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate net primary productivity (NPP) of forest stands at the Bartlett Experiment Forest (BEF) in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Net primary production (NPP) predicted from the NASA-CASA model using 30-meter resolution Landsat inputs showed variations related to both vegetation cover type and elevational effects on mean air temperatures. Overall, the highest predicted NPP from the NASA-CASA model was for deciduous forest cover at low to mid-elevation locations over the landscape. Comparison of the model-predicted annual NPP to the plot-estimated values showed a significant correlation of R2 = 0.5. Stepwise addition of 30-meter resolution elevation data values explained no more than 20% of the residual variation in measured NPP patterns at BEF. Both the Landsat 7 and the 250-meter resolution MODIS derived mean annual NPP predictions for the BEF plot locations were within +/- 2.5% of the mean of plot estimates for annual NPP. Although MODIS imagery cannot capture the spatial details of NPP across the network of closely spaced plot locations as well as Landsat, the MODIS satellite data as inputs to the NASA-CASA model does accurately predict the average annual productivity of a site like the BEF.

  11. Ecological stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanbo; Wang, Baitian; Wei, Tingting; Ma, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Populus davidiana, Leuchtenbergia principis, and Pinus tabulaeformis are important greening tree species with a cosmopolitan distribution. However, the stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of stands of these three species are not particularly clear. In this study, we conducted a plot-level investigation of forest stands of these species in the loess area; these have been closed forest stands more than 28 years. Trees were sampled from an area of 50 m × 20 m (in 6, 8, and 9 plots, respectively), which was sufficient for shrub (2 m × 2 m), herbal species, and litter (1 m × 1 m) investigations. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in five different soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) and in the leaves, stems, branches, and roots of the plants were examined. The soil element concentrations and density were affected by soil depth. The element content had a significantly negative correlation with soil depth, and element density differed significantly among the soil layers. A particular element in a particular organ differed significantly between the forest stands, and the same element in different organs of the same stand was also significantly different. The C, N, and P element reserves in the soil were considerably higher than in the plants. Our results indicate that there are different stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of the three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau, which may provide a reference when we develop and optimize the structure of forest stands.

  12. Response of old-growth conifers to reduction in stand density in western Oregon forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latham, P.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The positive growth response of healthy young trees to density reduction is well known. In contrast, large old trees are usually thought to be intrinsically limited in their ability to respond to increased growing space; therefore, density reduction is seldom used in stands of old-growth trees. We tested the null hypothesis that old-growth trees are incapable of responding with increased growth following density reduction. The diameter growth response of 271 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) trees ranging in age from 158 to 650 years was examined 20 to 50 years after density reduction. Density reduction involved either light thinning with removal of less vigorous trees, or shelterwood treatments in which overstory trees were not removed. Ratios of basal area growth after treatment to basal area growth before treatment, and several other measures of growth, all indicated that the old trees sometimes benefited and were not harmed by density reduction. Growth increased by 10% or more for 68% of the trees in treated stands, and nearly 30% of trees increased growth by over 50%. This growth response persisted for at least 20 years. During this 20-year period, only three trees in treated stands (1.5%) exhibited a rapid decrease in growth, whereas growth decreased in 64% of trees in untreated stands. The length of time before a growth response to density reduction occurred varied from 5 to 25 years, with the greatest growth response often occurring 20 to 25 years after treatment. These results have important implications both for the basic biology of aging in woody plants as well as for silvicultural practices in forests with old-growth trees.

  13. Root standing crop and chemistry after six years of soil warming in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumei; Tang, Jianwu; Melillo, Jerry M; Butler, Sarah; Mohan, Jacqueline E

    2011-07-01

    Examining the responses of root standing crop (biomass and necromass) and chemistry to soil warming is crucial for understanding root dynamics and functioning in the face of global climate change. We assessed the standing crop, total nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) compounds in tree roots and soil net N mineralization over the growing season after 6 years of experimental soil warming in a temperate deciduous forest in 2008. Roots were sorted into four different categories: live and dead fine roots (≤1mm in diameter) and live and dead coarse roots (1-4 mm in diameter). Total root standing crop (live plus dead) in the top 10 cm of soil in the warmed area was 42.5% (378.4 vs. 658.5 g m(-2)) lower than in the control area, while live root standing crop in the warmed area was 62% lower than in the control area. Soil net N mineralization over the growing season increased by 79.4% in the warmed relative to the control area. Soil warming did not significantly change the concentrations of C and C compounds (sugar, starch, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) in the four root categories. However, total N concentration in the live fine roots in the warmed area was 10.5% (13.7 vs. 12.4 mg g(-1)) higher and C:N ratio was 8.6% (38.5 vs. 42.1) lower than in the control area. The increase in N concentration in the live fine roots could be attributed to the increase in soil N availability due to soil warming. Net N mineralization was negatively correlated with both live and dead fine roots in the mineral soil that is home to the majority of roots, suggesting that soil warming increases N mineralization, decreases fine root biomass and thus decreases C allocation belowground.

  14. Field studies to evaluate stand-scale effects of forest management on ecosystem carbon storage. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bormann, B.T.; Homann, P.S.; Bednar, L.; Cairns, M.A.; Barker, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    This research plan provides new knowledge on the range of possibilities--available by managing forests differently--to store more carbon (C) to meet the climate-change action plan (Clinton and Gore 1993) target of returning emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States to 1990 emissions by the year 2000. Specific goals will evaluate effects of forest management strategies on stand-scale C conservation and sequestration, improve the quality and applicability of stand-scale C budgets and methods, and blend research programs within the Corvallis U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Pacific Northwest (PNW) labs.

  15. Assessment of tropical forest stand characteristics with multipolarization SAR data acquired over a mountainous region in Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shih-Tseng

    1990-01-01

    A digital terrain elevation data set was coregistered with radar data for assessing tropical forest stand characteristics. Both raw and topographically corrected L-band polarimetric radar data acquired over the tropical forests of Costa Rica were analyzed and correlated with field-collected tree parameter data to study the stand characteristics. The results of analyses using 18 out of 81 plots for sites A and B indicated that per-plot bole volume and tree volume are related to SAR data, particularly at site A. The topographically corrected SAR data appear to produce the same findings as those of uncorrected data.

  16. Semantic segmentation of forest stands of pure species combining airborne lidar data and very high resolution multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechesne, Clément; Mallet, Clément; Le Bris, Arnaud; Gouet-Brunet, Valérie

    2017-04-01

    Forest stands are the basic units for forest inventory and mapping. Stands are defined as large forested areas (e.g., ⩾ 2 ha) of homogeneous tree species composition and age. Their accurate delineation is usually performed by human operators through visual analysis of very high resolution (VHR) infra-red images. This task is tedious, highly time consuming, and should be automated for scalability and efficient updating purposes. In this paper, a method based on the fusion of airborne lidar data and VHR multispectral images is proposed for the automatic delineation of forest stands containing one dominant species (purity superior to 75%). This is the key preliminary task for forest land-cover database update. The multispectral images give information about the tree species whereas 3D lidar point clouds provide geometric information on the trees and allow their individual extraction. Multi-modal features are computed, both at pixel and object levels: the objects are individual trees extracted from lidar data. A supervised classification is then performed at the object level in order to coarsely discriminate the existing tree species in each area of interest. The classification results are further processed to obtain homogeneous areas with smooth borders by employing an energy minimum framework, where additional constraints are joined to form the energy function. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides very satisfactory results both in terms of stand labeling and delineation (overall accuracy ranges between 84 % and 99 %).

  17. Current forest conditions of older stands of the mixed mesophytic forest region on the Appalachian Plateaus Province of eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    James F. Jr. Rosson

    2008-01-01

    E. Lucy Braun coined the term "mixed mesophytic forest" in 1916. These forests are structurally complex and occur extensively across the Appalachian Plateaus Province. This region is considered the epicenter of highest development of the eastern deciduous forest. I used U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to study current forest...

  18. Forest floor bryophytes of Pseudotsuga menziesii-Tsuga heterophylla stand in Oregon: Influences of substrate and overstory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rambo, T.; Muir, Patricia S.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness and abundance of bryophytes inhabiting forest floor substrates were assessed at two sites in western Oregon. Bryophyte diversity, abundance, and community composition were compared between sites, and between young forest stands (~55 yrs) and old-growth stands (400 + yrs) within each site. Relationships of stand structural features to diversity and community composition were assessed by stratifying sampling between 'diversity' plots placed in areas of greater structural diversity, such as hardwood openings and remnant old-growth trees, and 'matrix' plots situated within the remaining more homogeneous conifer-dominated forest matrix. Richness, particularly for liverworts, was significantly higher in old-growth than young stands, and the two ages differed significantly in community composition. Substrate (ground versus coarse woody debris) and overstory (conifers versus hardwoods) were most strongly correlated with variation in community composition. Relatively open hardwood-dominated diversity plots differed in composition from matrix plots. Bryophyte abundance was lower in denser stands and plots, and positively correlated with canopy gaps, percentage of hardwoods, and incident solar radiation. These results suggest that availability of light may limit bryophyte productivity in these stands.

  19. Overland flow generation processes in sub-humid Mediterranean forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. J. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Forest soils in north and central Portugal have suffered and continue to suffer major structural changes as a result of forest management techniques, such as clear-felling and as a result of wildfire and rip-ploughing, which is carried out to prepare the ground for planting tree seedlings. In soils that have undergone these changes, the characteristics tend to be different for coniferous plantations, where the root system tends to die when the trees are cut following fire and subsequently may be consumed by fire to form a macropore network, and other types of tree plantations where the root system remains alive and allows regrowth from the sawn tree stumps. Overland flow thresholds decrease sharply as a result of rip-ploughing and forest fires and increase following clear-felling. The time taken for trees to reach maturity after wildfire differs markedly betwen the two main species (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) stands. In this paper, overland flow is considered in relation to rainfall, throughfall and throughflow, both in terms of hydrology and hydrochemistry in an attempt to understand overland flow generation mechanisms for a variety of forest land uses (mature pine and eucalyptus, pine seedling regrowth and eucalyptus regrowth from tree stumps, eucalyptus plantations and burned pine). Overland flow generation processes change sharply, even within a single rainfall event, as reflected in the soil hydrological processes and the hydrochemical fingerprints. These effects result from the different contact times for water and soil, which cause differences in the absorption and exhudation processes for the two species

  20. Relationships between net primary productivity and stand age for several forest types and their influence on China's carbon balance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jingming; Ju, Weimin; Feng, Xianfeng; Wu, Weixing

    2011-06-01

    Affected by natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as forest fires, insect-induced mortality and harvesting, forest stand age plays an important role in determining the distribution of carbon pools and fluxes in a variety of forest ecosystems. An improved understanding of the relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and stand age (i.e., age-related increase and decline in forest productivity) is essential for the simulation and prediction of the global carbon cycle at annual, decadal, centurial, or even longer temporal scales. In this paper, we developed functions describing the relationship between national mean NPP and stand age using stand age information derived from forest inventory data and NPP simulated by the BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) model in 2001. Due to differences in ecobiophysical characteristics of different forest types, NPP-age equations were developed for five typical forest ecosystems in China (deciduous needleleaf forest (DNF), evergreen needleleaf forest in tropic and subtropical zones (ENF-S), deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), and mixed broadleaf forest (MBF)). For DNF, ENF-S, EBF, and MBF, changes in NPP with age were well fitted with a common non-linear function, with R(2) values equal to 0.90, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.67, respectively. In contrast, a second order polynomial was best suitable for simulating the change of NPP for DBF, with an R(2) value of 0.79. The timing and magnitude of the maximum NPP varied with forest types. DNF, EBF, and MBF reached the peak NPP at the age of 54, 40, and 32 years, respectively, while the NPP of ENF-S maximizes at the age of 13 years. The highest NPP of DBF appeared at 122 years. NPP was generally lower in older stands with the exception of DBF, and this particular finding runs counter to the paradigm of age-related decline in forest growth. Evaluation based on measurements of NPP and stand age at the plot-level demonstrates the reliability

  1. Simulation of L-band and HH microwave backscattering from coniferous forest stands - A comparison with SIR-B data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guo-Qing; Simonett, David S.

    1988-01-01

    SIR-B images of the Mt. Shasta region of northern California are used to evaluate a composite L-band HH backscattering model of coniferous forest stands. It is found that both SIR-B and simulated backscattering coefficients for eight stands studied have similar trends and relations to average tree height and average number of trees per pixel. Also, the dispersion and distribution of simulated backscattering coefficients from each stand broadly match SIR-B data from the same stand. Although the limited quality and quantity of experimental data makes it difficult to draw any strong conclusions, the comparisons indicate that a stand-based L-band HH composite model seems promising for explaining backscattering features.

  2. Simulation of L-band and HH microwave backscattering from coniferous forest stands - A comparison with SIR-B data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guo-Qing; Simonett, David S.

    1988-01-01

    SIR-B images of the Mt. Shasta region of northern California are used to evaluate a composite L-band HH backscattering model of coniferous forest stands. It is found that both SIR-B and simulated backscattering coefficients for eight stands studied have similar trends and relations to average tree height and average number of trees per pixel. Also, the dispersion and distribution of simulated backscattering coefficients from each stand broadly match SIR-B data from the same stand. Although the limited quality and quantity of experimental data makes it difficult to draw any strong conclusions, the comparisons indicate that a stand-based L-band HH composite model seems promising for explaining backscattering features.

  3. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-04-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forest and leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. To accurately quantify the role of fire in historical and current regional forest carbon balance using models, one needs to explicitly simulate the new forest cohort that is established after fire. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate boreal forest fire CO2 emissions and follow-up recovery after a stand-replacing fire, with representation of postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the following self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against three clusters of postfire forest chronosequence observations in Canada and Alaska. Evaluation variables for simulated postfire carbon dynamics include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index (LAI), and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). The model simulation results, when forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history on each chronosequence site, generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m-2 yr-1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m-2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m-2). We find that current postfire forest carbon sink on evaluation sites observed by chronosequence methods is mainly driven by historical atmospheric CO2 increase when forests recover from fire disturbance. Historical climate generally exerts a negative effect, probably due to increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increase without sufficient increase in precipitation. Our simulation results demonstrate that a global

  4. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-12-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m-2 yr-1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m-2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m-2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation results

  5. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m−2 yr−1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m−2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m−2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation

  6. Parametric analysis of synthetic aperture radar data for characterization of deciduous forest stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shih-Tseng

    1987-01-01

    The SAR sensor parameters that affect the estimation of deciduous forest stand characteristics were examined using data sets for the Gulf Coastal Plain region, acquired by the NASA/JPL multipolarization airborne SAR. In the regression analysis, the mean digital-number values of the three polarization data are used as the independent variables to estimate the average tree height (HT), basal area (BA), and total-tree biomass (TBM). The following results were obtained: (1) in the case of simple regression and using 28 plots, vertical-vertical (VV) polarization yielded the largest correlation coefficients (r) in estimating HT, BA, and TBM; (2) in the case of multiple regression, the horizontal-horizontal (HH) and VV polarization combination yielded the largest r value in estimating HT, while the VH and HH polarization combination yielded the largest r values in estimating BA and TBM. With the addition of a third polarization, the increase in r values is insignificant.

  7. Stand characteristics of 65-year-old planted and naturally regenerated stands near Sequim, Washington. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Anderson, H.W.

    1995-04-01

    Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsunga menziesii) (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these plantations were compared to those from matched plots in adjacent, naturally regenerated stands with the same history of logging, wildfire, and absence of further siviculture after regeneration. Planting resulted in well-stocked Douglas-fir stands with volunteers of other tree species. Natural seeding resulted in similarly stocked stands of western hemlock (Tsunga heterophylla) (Raf.) (Sarg.) with Douglas-fir in the dominant crown class.

  8. Stand structure, recruitment and growth dynamics in mixed subalpine spruce and Swiss stone pine forests in the Eastern Carpathians.

    PubMed

    Popa, Ionel; Nechita, Constantin; Hofgaard, Annika

    2017-11-15

    Natural subalpine forests are considered to be sensitive to climate change, and forest characteristics are assumed to reflect the prevalent disturbance regime. We hypothesize that stand history determines different stand structures. Based on large full inventory datasets (including tree biometric data, spatial coordinates, tree age, and basal area increment) we assessed the size structure, tree recruitment dynamics and radial growth patterns in three permanent plots along an altitudinal gradient in a mixed coniferous forest (Picea abies and Pinus cembra) in the Eastern Carpathians. Both discrete disturbances (large scale or small scale) and chronic disturbances (climate change) were identified as drivers of stand structure development in the studied plots. A stand replacing wind disturbance generated a unimodal bell-shaped size and age distribution for both species characterized by a sharp increase in post-disturbance recruitment. By contrast, small-scale wind-caused gaps led to a negative exponential diameter distribution for spruce and a left-asymmetric unimodal for pine. Climate-driven infilling processes in the upper subalpine forest were reflected as J-shaped size and age distributions for both species, but with pine predating spruce. The growth patterns for both species demonstrated an increased basal area increment since the early 1900s, with an emphasis in the last few decades, irrespective of stand history. Pine demonstrated a competitive advantage compared to spruce due to the higher growth rate and size at the same age. Recognition of combined discrete and chronic disturbances as drivers of the tree layer characteristics in a subalpine coniferous forest is essential in both stand history analyses and growth predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stand age, tree location and depth impacts on the hydrophobicity of forested dune soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Richard; McCreath, Iain; Ogden, Mike; Hallett, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of a forest is one of the key mechanisms needed for its productivity. Paradoxically, biomass from forests such as decomposing needles and soil micro-organisms, may result in hydrophobic substances that impede water flow and decrease water retention. At the same time, the decomposition of plant biomass may alter soil pore structure to improve flow and retention of water. Although water repellency has been widely reported in boreal forests, including in unlikely locations in northern maritime climates, the effect of stand age and soil location in relation to trees has not been investigated. In this study it was hypothesised that water repellency would increase with stand age, and would be greater at the interface between the litter layer and soil than in the subsoil or the litter layer itself. Measurements were conducted with soil from Culbin Forest, which is located on the northeast coast of the UK. The forest was planted in phases, starting over 100 years ago, as a means to stabilise eroding sand dunes that were initially highly hydrophilic. Soils were sampled from the litter layer, at the interface between the litter and sand and in the subsoil at locations under the tree, in the drip line and outside of the tree. Field replicated areas planted with Scots Pine in 1888, 1925, 1969, 1992 and 2000 were selected to provide a chronosequence. A series of tests were carried out both in the field and the laboratory to determine the influence that the age of Scots pine trees have on the water repellency of the soil. These included the water drop penetration test and infiltration measurements within the field, while a modified Wilhelmy plate test and capillary rise measurements were measured in the laboratory. The soil was found to possess non-significant water repellency features within the field, likely due to high water content levels of the soil at the time of testing. But after drying, the soil was highly water repellent. The contact angle or repellency

  10. Revised paradigms of forest production over stand development: Why does carbon storage increase as trees die in aging mixed temperate forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Curtis, P.; Hardiman, B. S.; Scheuermann, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The broad emergence of century-old forests in the US upper Midwest and Northeast has large potential implications for carbon (C) storage, as the long-assumed future decline of production in aging stands is expected to reduce continental C sink strength. As mixed temperate forests in the region broadly transition from early to middle stages of succession, short-lived canopy trees are dying and giving way to more structurally complex forests. At the same time, disturbances in the region are shifting from severe events to more moderate disturbances resulting in only partial canopy defoliation. We review new evidence that temperate deciduous forests, against prior expectations, are likely to maintain their capacity to store C over the next several decades even as diffuse mortality of canopy trees increases with advancing age. Forest production data from long-term observational studies and experimental chronosequences in the region do not support a decline in C storage during middle succession. Instead, sustained forest C storage in intermediate-aged forests corresponds with the accrual of structural complexity over time from small-scale, non-stand replacing disturbances such as age-related mortality. Increasing complexity with age gives rise to more efficient use of growth-limiting light and nutrient resources, which may offset, in part or whole, the lost contribution of senescent canopy trees to forest production. These findings indicate that older, structurally complex forests that emerge following diffuse mortality may store C at rates comparable to their younger counterparts. We conclude that regional land-use decisions permitting age-related senescence in maturing forests or, alternatively, management outcomes emulating the structural features of older forests will support goals to maintain the region's C sink strength.

  11. Evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for remote sensing of forest stand conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Five pairs of plots were established in forest stands with one of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from reaching the tree roots. High winds and falling limbs destroyed the covers on three of the plots. The two remaining plots were in a red pine plantation and in a natural stand of sugar maple. Trees in both plots developed levels of moisture stress more than nine bars higher than control trees on the dates of overflights with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) and the Collins' Airborne Spectroradiometer (CAS). Hemispherical reflectance from stressed and control trees was measured with a Beckman DK2A spectrophotometer. On the day of the AIS overflight, stressed maple foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1300 nm, but more reflective at wavelengths longer than 1300 nm. Pine foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1600 nm, but the difference was small at wavelengths longer than 1350 nm. AIS data collected showed brightness values for both maple and pine to be lower than for the controls from 1000 to 1300 nm. CAS data were used to determine the gain in species identification accuracy obtainable with high spectral resolution data.

  12. Aggregating pixel-level basal area predictions derived from LiDAR data to industrial forest stands in North-Central Idaho

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Jeffrey S. Evans; Nicholas L. Crookston; Michael J. Falkowski; Brant K. Steigers; Rob Taylor; Halli Hemingway

    2008-01-01

    Stand exams are the principal means by which timber companies monitor and manage their forested lands. Airborne LiDAR surveys sample forest stands at much finer spatial resolution and broader spatial extent than is practical on the ground. In this paper, we developed models that leverage spatially intensive and extensive LiDAR data and a stratified random sample of...

  13. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    PubMed

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  14. Effects of Dwarf Mistletoe on Stand Structure of Lodgepole Pine Forests 21-28 Years Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Central Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Agne, Michelle C.; Shaw, David C.; Woolley, Travis J.; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E.

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21–28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  15. Pure stands of temperate forest tree species modify soil respiration and N turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Pilegaard, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2005-04-01

    The effects of five different tree species common in the temperate zone, i.e. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis [Sichold and Zucc.] Gordon) and mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra), on soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates were investigated. Soils were sampled in spring and summer 2002 at a forest trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, where pure stands of the five tree species of the same age were growing on the same soil. Soil respiration, gross rates of N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in the organic layers than in the Ah horizons for all tree species and both sampling dates. In summer (July), the highest rates of soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification were found in the organic layer under spruce, followed by beech > larch > oak > pine. In spring (April), these rates were also higher under spruce compared to the other tree species, but were significantly lower than in summer. For the Ah horizons no clear seasonal trend was observed for any of the processes examined. A linear relationship between soil respiration and gross N mineralization (r2=0.77), gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates (r2=0.72), and between soil respiration and gross nitrification (r2=0.81) was found. The results obtained underline the importance of considering the effect of forest type on soil C and N transformations.

  16. Phosphorus cycling in deciduous forest soil differs between stands dominated by ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal trees.

    PubMed

    Rosling, Anna; Midgley, Meghan G; Cheeke, Tanya; Urbina, Hector; Fransson, Petra; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Although much is known about how trees and their associated microbes influence nitrogen cycling in temperate forest soils, less is known about biotic controls over phosphorus (P) cycling. Given that mycorrhizal fungi are instrumental for P acquisition and that the two dominant associations - arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi - possess different strategies for acquiring P, we hypothesized that P cycling would differ in stands dominated by trees associated with AM vs ECM fungi. We quantified soil solution P, microbial biomass P, and sequentially extracted inorganic and organic P pools from May to November in plots dominated by trees forming either AM or ECM associations in south-central Indiana, USA. Overall, fungal communities in AM and ECM plots were functionally different and soils exhibited fundamental differences in P cycling. Organic forms of P were more available in ECM plots than in AM plots. Yet inorganic P decreased and organic P accumulated over the growing season in both ECM and AM plots, resulting in increasingly P-limited microbial biomass. Collectively, our results suggest that P cycling in hardwood forests is strongly influenced by biotic processes in soil and that these are driven by plant-associated fungal communities. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Foliar free polyamine and inorganic ion content in relation to soil and soil solution chemistry in two fertilized forest stands at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts

    Treesearch

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Alison H. Magill; John Aber; William H. McDowell

    2000-01-01

    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight, open-chained, organic polycations which are found in all organisms and have been linked with stress responses in plants. The objectives of our study were to investigate the effects of chronic N additions to pine and hardwood stands at Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA on foliar polyamine and...

  18. Developments to the Sylvan stand structure model to describe wood quality changes in southern bottomland hardwood forests because of forest management

    Treesearch

    David R. Larsen; Ian R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Growth models can produce a wealth of detailed information that is often very difficult to perceive because it is frequently presented either as summary tables, stand view or landscape view visualizations. We have developed new tools for use with the Sylvan model (Larsen 1994) that allow the analysis of wood-quality changes as a consequence of forest management....

  19. Structural characteristics of forest stands within home ranges of Mexican spotted owls in Arizona and New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Steven H. Ackers

    2003-01-01

    As part of a set of studies evaluating home-range size and habitat use of radio-marked Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida), we sampled structural characteristics of forest stands within owl home ranges on two study areas in Arizona and New Mexico. Study areas were dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-Gambel...

  20. Comparing field- and model-based standing dead tree carbon stock estimates across forests of the US

    Treesearch

    Chistopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; David W. MacFarlane; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2012-01-01

    As signatories to the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, the US has been estimating standing dead tree (SDT) carbon (C) stocks using a model based on live tree attributes. The USDA Forest Service began sampling SDTs nationwide in 1999. With comprehensive field data now available, the objective of this study was to compare field- and model-based...

  1. A field test of point relascope sampling of down coarse woody material in managed stands in the Acadian Forest

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; Mark J. Ducey; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2003-01-01

    We field tested a new method for sampling down coarse woody material (CWM) using an angle gauge and compared it with the more traditional line intersect sampling (LIS) method. Permanent sample locations in stands managed with different silvicultural treatments within the Penobscot Experimental Forest (Maine, USA) were used as the sampling locations. Point relascope...

  2. Fuel reduction in residential and scenic forests: A comparison of three treatments in a western Montana ponderosa pine stand

    Treesearch

    Joe H. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Three contrasting thinning treatments to reduce fire hazard were implemented in a 100-year-old ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menzesii) stand on the Lolo National Forest, MT. All treatments included a commercial thinning designed to reduce crown fuels and provide revenue to offset costs. The treatments are...

  3. Developing a stand hazard index for oak decline in upland Oak forests of the Ozark Highlands, Missouri

    Treesearch

    Fan Zhaofei; Fan Xiuli; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2011-01-01

    Black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.)--two major components (44% of total stand basal area) of upland oak forests--are suffering severe decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands, Missouri. However, factors influencing their survival (mortality) are not well understood. In this study we...

  4. INSTAR: simulating the biological cycle of a forest pest in Mediterranean pine stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Muñoz, María; Bonet García, Francisco J.; Hódar, José A.

    2017-04-01

    model, which feed the functions that simulate the processionary life cycle. Model's executions in two different areas and for relatively long time frames (1993-2014 and 2000-2014) yield relevant information about the biological cycle of the forest pest: the simulated peaks of larvae are followed by minimal values of pine biomass and pine infections are more abundant at the edge of the stands. Moreover, emerging patterns such as denso-dependency can be observed. To sum up, INSTAR is a promising tool for modeling T. pityocampa population dynamics. The obtained model will help to improve the decision making process regarding the control of the forest pest. Moreover, its simple structure of functions will facilitate the design of new models simulating other forest pests.

  5. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  6. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Terry L; Sayler, Kristi L; Bouchard, Michelle A; Reker, Ryan R; Friesz, Aaron M; Bennett, Stacie L; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Sleeter, Rachel R; Wilson, Tamara; Soulard, Chris; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-07-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the forecasting scenarios of land-use change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit data sets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both the proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting had relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less forest cutting. Stand ages differed substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand-age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes.

  7. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan R.; Friesz, Aaron M.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Wilson, Tamara; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on 5 Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the Forecasting Scenarios of Land-use Change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit datasets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of 10 anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting have relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less 15 forest cutting. Stand ages differ substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, 20 biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes.

  8. Effect of stand densities on stand dynamics in white fir (Abies concolor) forests in northeast California, USA

    Treesearch

    Jianwei Zhang; William W. Oliver; Martin W. Ritchie

    2007-01-01

    Six white fir trials were established during the last half-century to develop guidelines for managing the existing natural stands across northeastern California. We analyzed data collected from these trials at about 5-year intervals since their installation. Because these trials were independent of each other, the design and treatments varied among the sites....

  9. The process-based stand growth model Formix 3-Q applied in a GIS environment for growth and yield analysis in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Ditzer, T.; Glauner, R.; Förster, M.; Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2000-03-01

    Managing tropical rain forests is difficult because few long-term field data on forest growth and the impact of harvesting disturbance are available. Growth models may provide a valuable tool for managers of tropical forests, particularly if applied to the extended forest areas of up to 100,000 ha that typically constitute the so-called forest management units (FMUs). We used a stand growth model in a geographic information system (GIS) environment to simulate tropical rain forest growth at the FMU level. We applied the process-based rain forest growth model Formix 3-Q to the 55,000 ha Deramakot Forest Reserve (DFR) in Sabah, Malaysia. The FMU was considered to be composed of single and independent small-scale stands differing in site conditions and forest structure. Field data, which were analyzed with a GIS, comprised a terrestrial forest inventory, site and soil analyses (water, nutrients, slope), the interpretation of aerial photographs of the present vegetation and topographic maps. Different stand types were determined based on a classification of site quality (three classes), slopes (four classes), and present forest structure (four strata). The effects of site quality on tree allometry (height-diameter curve, biomass allometry, leaf area) and growth (increment size) are incorporated into Formix 3-Q. We derived allometric relations and growth factors for different site conditions from the field data. Climax forest structure at the stand level was shown to depend strongly on site conditions. Simulated successional pattern and climax structure were compared with field observations. Based on the current management plan for the DFR, harvesting scenarios were simulated for stands on different sites. The effects of harvesting guidelines on forest structure and the implications for sustainable forest management at Deramakot were analyzed. Based on the stand types and GIS analysis, we also simulated undisturbed regeneration of the logged-over forest in the DFR at

  10. Significant Emissions of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Following Clear-cutting of a Boreal Forest Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Hellström, M.; Båth, A.; Klemedtsson, L. K.; Lindroth, A.

    2011-12-01

    Clear-cutting and subsequent site preparation is common forest management practice in Sweden. According to the Swedish National Forest Inventory, an average of 196 000 ha were clear-cut annually during the period 2005-2009. The net effects of final fellings on greenhouse gas fluxes are not well understood. Increased substrate availability for decomposers following harvest may result in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils and in increased nitrogen mineralization. This may be further enhanced by increased soil temperatures after site preparation. In addition, removal of trees causes reduced evapotranspiration and subsequently a raised ground water table, which may have consequences for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes. The net effects of clear-cutting on CH4, N2O, CO2 and H2O fluxes were studied at Norunda forest in central Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e. flux-gradient and eddy covariance) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O fluxes at two different plots on a new clear-cut. Measurements of CH4, CO2 and H2O fluxes started in May 2010 while N2O flux measurements begun in June 2011. Soil chamber measurements (CO2, CH4 and H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand during the main growing season of 2010 and at the clear-cut during October-November 2010. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest (more pronounced at plot 1) and preliminary results indicate a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant CH4 source at both plots. Daily average fluxes during the period 20 May through 30 November 2010 were of the order of -6.3 - +142.5 μmol m-2h-1 (Fig.1) with mean values of 39.0 μmol m-2h-1 (plot 1) and 16.3 μmol m-2h-1 (plot 2). The preliminary results also indicate enhanced CO2 emissions and increased soil temperatures at disturbed microsites. Raw N2O data imply N2O fluxes of the order of 1-10 μmol m-2h-1 during daytime (well-mixed) conditions. Available data, including 2011, will be further analyzed

  11. Size of clearcut opening affects species composition, growth rate, and stand characteristics. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.E.; Smith, H.C.; Pearcy, J.N.

    1995-05-22

    In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s, a series of studies was installed in the central hardwood forest to determine if size of clearcut opening affects the growth rate and species composition of new stands. In 1991, about 30 years after cutting, stand data were collected in 89 openings ranging in size from 0.04 to 1.61 acres. The number of stems per acre increased with opening size; however, the number of shade-tolerant species constituted a greater proportion of the stand in small openings (<0.5 acre), while the porportion of shade-intolerant species increased in larger openings. Results of this study indicate that opening size has a major influence on stand characteristics after about 30 years.

  12. Overmature periurban Quercus-Carpinus coppice forests in Austria and Japan: a comparison in view of carbon stocks, stand characteristics and conversion to high forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Terada, Toru; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Periurban coppice forests have a long history and tradition in Austria, as well as in Japan. Although developed in a slightly different context, such forests faced nearly the same fate during the last century. While these once served biomass almost exclusively as a feedstock for thermal energy, their significance decreased with the increasing use of fossil fuels and coppice management was consequently abandoned and the area developed, or these forests were converted into high forests with different management aims. This study tries to assess the status of periurban forests that were previously managed as coppice in a comparative approach between Austria and Japan. The focus is stand structure, biomass and C stocks, as well as a comparison with high forest. In Japan, we further directly assessed the consequences of coppice to high forest conversion on soil chemistry. We found remarkable similarities in species distribution and total C stocks. While lower diameter classes are dominated by Carpinus, Quercus is only found in larger diameter classes, indicating the overmature character of both stands due to the lapse from a recognized system of coppice management with occasional fuelwood harvesting in the past decades. Total C stocks are comparable, but SOC is significantly higher in Japanese Andosols. The conversion of coppice to high forest in the 1960's in Japan had a notable impact on soil chemistry. This concerns especially the N cycle and we also observed fewer phenolic compounds in mineral soil after conversion. The authors find that there may be multiple benefits for restoring coppice management to these periurban forests. This includes increased biomass production capabilities and carbon sequestration as well as a better habitat provision and a higher biodiversity.

  13. Calibration and Validation of The Soil Water Balance Model Wave For Forest Stands In Flanders: 1. Experimental Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Minnaert, M.; Meiresonne, L.; van Slycken, J.; Lust, N.; Muys, B.; Feyen, J.

    Knowledge on hydrology and particularly on water use in forest ecosystems is rather scarce in Flanders. In order to assess the impact of forests in catchment hydrology, a model approach is required based on available or easily measurable parameters on me- teorology, forest patrimonium and soil cover. A pragmatic approach to calculate water use by forests is to implement a soil water balance model, which enables a reasonable estimate of the evapotranspiration (ET) despite of the fragmented forest, and therefore the strong boundary effects, typically for Flanders. The scientific objectives of this project are multiple: the calibration (i) and validation (ii) of the water balance model WAVE (Water and Agrochemicals in soil, crop and Vadose Environment) to calculate indirectly evapotranspiration of forests (for oak, beech, ash, poplar and pine) on 17 in- tensely and extensively sampled plots. Verification of the evapotranspiration from the WAVE-output with sap-flow measurements (iii). Comparison of evapotranspiration of forests to that of pasture and cropland will also be made (iv). Measurements of rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, capillary rise from the groundwater table (possibly recharge), percolation and changes in soil water content are conducted on weekly base, except for winter time (every two weeks). From these water balance terms the forest evapo- transpiration is derived. The Leaf-Area-Index was gained using hemispherical canopy images. This parameter is used for determining the soil evaporation and tree transpi- ration component from the simulated evaptranspiration. Sap-flow measurements are gathered using the Heat Field Deformation Method (Cermàk and Nadezhdina, 1998) in four plots (2 pine stands, popular, beech/oak). The preliminary results of the cal- ibration and validation of the soil water balance model WAVE for forest stands in Flanders are shown in part 2.

  14. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  15. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program

    Treesearch

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  16. Stand Structural Controls on Evapotranspiration in Native and Invaded Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Delay, J. K.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Nullet, M. A.; Huang, M.; Mudd, R. G.; Takahashi, M.

    2008-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) in Hawai'i are important zones of water input and stores of critically important native plant and animal species. Invasion by alien tree species threatens these forests and may alter the hydrological services they provide. At two TMCF sites in Hawai'i, one within native Metrosideros polymorpha forest and the other at a site heavily invaded by Psidium cattleianum, we are conducting measurements of stand-level evapotranspiration (ET), transpiration (using sapflow techniques), energy balance, and related processes. Previously presented results showed that ET as a function of available energy was 27% higher at the invaded site than the native site, with the difference rising to 53% during dry- canopy periods. In this presentation, mechanisms for the observed higher ET rate at the invaded site are explored. The difference in measured xylem flow velocities of native and alien trees cannot explain the observed stand level ET difference. Tree basal area is lower at the invaded site than the native site, again contrary to the ET difference. However, the alien trees have much smaller stem diameters, on average, than the native trees, with little or no heartwood. Hence, the cross-sectional xylem area is much greater in the invaded stand, facilitating higher transpiration rates. These results demonstrate the importance of stand structural controls on ET and raise questions about whether higher ET is a transient feature of the succession or a persistent characteristic of invasive trees.

  17. How do long dry spells affect soil moisture in different forest stands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbüchel, Ingo; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture conditions under forests are subject to numerous influences that are directly linked to the tree species composition and age. On the one hand, there are characteristic traits of individual tree species such as the way they funnel intercepted water towards their stems or the way they use water from the soil at different depths and times. On the other hand, there is also the influence of inter- and intra-species competition which may considerably affect the water use behavior of the involved tree species. In order to get insights into these complex relationships we studied spatial and temporal soil moisture patterns under pure and mixed forest stands of beech and pine of different ages in the TERENO observatory in northeastern Germany. We also specifically compared soil moisture conditions in the close vicinity of tree stems with conditions at greater distance from the trees (>1.5 m). The dataset used here derives from 450 sensors measuring soil moisture for 2.5 years at six different soil depths (from 10 cm down to 200 cm). Inspecting the entire time series we found considerable differences between many of the locations (young vs. mature, pine vs. beech, mixed vs. pure). These differences became more or less pronounced during certain weather periods. In particular, we studied the effect of dry spells of different preconditions and length during the three summers 2014, 2015 and 2016. While 2014 was a relatively wet summer, 2015 was dry and warm. Generally speaking, the dry spell in the summer of 2015 led to a decrease in soil moisture differences between locations that was still observable in the following winter and even in the following summer. For example, in the summer of 2014 volumetric water content close to the soil surface under mature pine trees was almost 8% higher compared to beech trees, however, in the dry summer of 2015 this difference disappeared. Contrary to this observation, volumetric water content differences between young stands of

  18. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forests, deciduous trees such as birches may in future climate become more abundant due to their large biomass production capacity, relatively good resource use ability and large acclimation potential to elevated CO2 levels and warmer climate. Increase in birch abundance may lead to unpredicted consequences in atmospheric composition. Currently it is acknowledged that conifers such as Scots pine and Norway spruce are important sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially monoterpenes, throughout the year, although the strong temperature relationships implies that emissions are highest in summertime. However, the dynamics of the deciduous birch foliage VOC emissions and their relationship with environmental drivers during the development, maturation and senescence of foliage has not been well analyzed. Long-term measurements of birch, which are unfortunately very sparse, can provide very useful information for the development of biosphere-atmosphere models that simulate boreal and subarctic forested areas where birch is often a sub-canopy species, occurs as a mixture among conifers or forms even pure stands in the higher latitudes. We measured the branch level VOC emissions from a mature Silver birch with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer during 2014 and 2015 at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), southern Finland. Our results showed that the Silver birch foliage is a huge source for both short-chained volatiles such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone, as well as for monoterpenes. The mean emission rates from birch leaves were 5 to 10 times higher than the corresponding emissions from Scots pine shoots. We compared several semi-empirical model approaches for determining the birch foliage monoterpene standardized emission potentials, and utilized the continuous emission measurements from the two growing seasons for development of a novel algorithm which accounts for the leaf development and

  19. Douglas-fir forests in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington: is the abundance of small mammals related to stand age and moisture?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coen, P.S.; Bury, R.B.; Spies, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Red tree voles (Arborimus longicaudus) were the only small mammal strongly associated with old-growth forests, whereas vagrant shrews (Sorex vagrans) were most abundant in young forests. Pacific marsh shrews (S. bendirii) were most abundant in wet old-growth forests, but abundance of this species in young (wet) forests needs further study. Clearcuts had a mammalian fauna distinct from young forest stands. Abundance of several species was correlated to habitat features unique to naturally regenerated forests, indicated an urgent need to study the long-term effects of forest management to nongame wildlife.

  20. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Loskotová, Tereza; Horák, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species' responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production.

  1. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests

    PubMed Central

    Loskotová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species’ responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production. PMID:26793425

  2. Estimating stand structure using discrete-return lidar: an example from low density, fire prone ponderosa pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, S. A.; Burke, I.C.; Box, D. O.; Kaufmann, M. R.; Stoker, Jason M.

    2005-01-01

    The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA, have historically been subjected to wildfires. Recent large burns have increased public interest in fire behavior and effects, and scientific interest in the carbon consequences of wildfires. Remote sensing techniques can provide spatially explicit estimates of stand structural characteristics. Some of these characteristics can be used as inputs to fire behavior models, increasing our understanding of the effect of fuels on fire behavior. Others provide estimates of carbon stocks, allowing us to quantify the carbon consequences of fire. Our objective was to use discrete-return lidar to estimate such variables, including stand height, total aboveground biomass, foliage biomass, basal area, tree density, canopy base height and canopy bulk density. We developed 39 metrics from the lidar data, and used them in limited combinations in regression models, which we fit to field estimates of the stand structural variables. We used an information–theoretic approach to select the best model for each variable, and to select the subset of lidar metrics with most predictive potential. Observed versus predicted values of stand structure variables were highly correlated, with r2 ranging from 57% to 87%. The most parsimonious linear models for the biomass structure variables, based on a restricted dataset, explained between 35% and 58% of the observed variability. Our results provide us with useful estimates of stand height, total aboveground biomass, foliage biomass and basal area. There is promise for using this sensor to estimate tree density, canopy base height and canopy bulk density, though more research is needed to generate robust relationships. We selected 14 lidar metrics that showed the most potential as predictors of stand structure. We suggest that the focus of future lidar studies should broaden to include low density forests, particularly systems where the vertical structure of the canopy is important

  3. Change in lignin content during litter decomposition in tropical forest soils (Congo): comparison of exotic plantations and native stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard-Reversat, France; Schwartz, Dominique

    1997-09-01

    Fast-growing tree plantations are being extended in tropical countries resulting in new forest ecosystems, the functioning of which is yet not well known. In particular, few data are available concerning lignin decay rate. Lignin, nitrogen and tannin contents of fresh and decaying litter were measured in natural rain forest and in planted stands of Eucalyptus hybrids. Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformisin Congo, together with litter-fall and forest-floor accumulation. Lignin evolution in aging litter exhibited different patterns. Lignin was accumulated under Eucalyptus plantation, but disappeared under natural forest, and was intermediate under Acaciaplantations. The relationships with decomposition rates and lignin degradation factors, such as white rot fungi and termites, are also discussed.

  4. Effects of stand age on the demography of a temperate forest herb in post-agricultural forests.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein

    2008-12-01

    Changes in land use have been shown to have profound effects on forest plant community structure and diversity. Dispersal limitation has been invoked as a major factor hampering colonization of forest plant species, while seed-sowing experiments and performance observations have provided some evidence for recruitment limitation determining forest plant distribution in post-agricultural forests. However, most of these studies were relatively short-term, and very few studies have investigated long-term growth rates of populations occurring in recent and ancient forests. In this study, matrix models using demographic data collected for four consecutive years were used to study the effect of forest age on population dynamics of the temperate forest herb Primula elatior. A life table response experiment (LTRE) and elasticity analysis were used to analyze the effect of forest age on population growth rate (lambda) and to decompose the effect of forest age on lambda into contributions from each matrix element. Population growth increased logarithmically with increasing forest age. Bootstrap analyses showed that populations located in very recent forests (< 50-years-old) had growth rates that were significantly < 1, whereas populations located in forests > 150-years-old had growth rates that were significantly > 1. Summed elasticities for individual growth significantly decreased with increasing forest age, whereas summed elasticities for survival and fertility significantly increased with increasing forest age. The LTRE analysis showed that the increase in lambda with increasing forest age was mainly due to increased seedling and juvenile growth and increased juvenile and adult survival. Our results indicate that past agricultural land use has long-lasting effects on the demography of forest herbs and may provide an additional mechanistic explanation for the poor colonization capacity of many forest herbs in post-agricultural forests.

  5. Highly stocked coniferous stands on the Olympic Peninsula: chemical composition and implications for harvest strategy. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Waddell, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents an assessment of macronutrients and their distribution within highly stocked, stagnant stands of mixed conifers on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest, northwest Washington. These stands consisted of predominantly three species: western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata). Preliminary investigation suggests that the living crown contains a small portion of the nutrient capital on the site. Extracting this material from the site during harvest or site preparation should not pose a threat to future production of biomass. Bioassays suggested that no macronutrients were deficient for growth of Douglas-fir seedlings.

  6. Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation.

    PubMed

    Shen, You-xin; Liu, Wei-li; Li, Yu-hui; Guan, Hui-lin

    2014-01-01

    A large number of small-sized samples invariably shows that woody species are absent from forest soil seed banks, leading to a large discrepancy with the seedling bank on the forest floor. We ask: 1) Does this conventional sampling strategy limit the detection of seeds of woody species? 2) Are large sample areas and sample sizes needed for higher recovery of seeds of woody species? We collected 100 samples that were 10 cm (length) × 10 cm (width) × 10 cm (depth), referred to as larger number of small-sized samples (LNSS) in a 1 ha forest plot, and placed them to germinate in a greenhouse, and collected 30 samples that were 1 m × 1 m × 10 cm, referred to as small number of large-sized samples (SNLS) and placed them (10 each) in a nearby secondary forest, shrub land and grass land. Only 15.7% of woody plant species of the forest stand were detected by the 100 LNSS, contrasting with 22.9%, 37.3% and 20.5% woody plant species being detected by SNLS in the secondary forest, shrub land and grassland, respectively. The increased number of species vs. sampled areas confirmed power-law relationships for forest stand, the LNSS and SNLS at all three recipient sites. Our results, although based on one forest, indicate that conventional LNSS did not yield a high percentage of detection for woody species, but SNLS strategy yielded a higher percentage of detection for woody species in the seed bank if samples were exposed to a better field germination environment. A 4 m2 minimum sample area derived from power equations is larger than the sampled area in most studies in the literature. Increased sample size also is needed to obtain an increased sample area if the number of samples is to remain relatively low.

  7. Contributions of tree stand and understory phenological development to seasonal development of forest floor respiration and it's spatial variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupek, Boris; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Peltoniemi, Mikko

    2017-04-01

    Forest floor respiration is a major component of the forest ecosystem C balance. Forest floor respiration is often estimated using non-linear regressions between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and/or moisture measurements. Although it's known that plant's autotrophic respiration contributes to CO2 emissions, the role of phenological phases of vegetation to soil respiration components has been rarely evaluated. We evaluated the impact of the understory vegetation cover and phenology of forest stand and understory vegetation to forest floor respiration at 72 plots situated within two Norway spruce forests in Finland. Understory vegetation cover and it's phenology estimates was derived from time series of camera images taken weekly during vegetative season. Tree phenology was recorded hourly at stand scale with digital cameras focused to tree crowns (http://monimet.fmi.fi), and with dendrometer bands monitoring circumference growth of the trees. From time series of digital images, we visually analyses growth phases of vegetation and also a green color fraction that was used as a quantitative estimate of potential vegetation contribution. Preliminary results suggest that soil temperature and/or moisture are stronger predictors of the forest floor respiration than the plant phenological developments of color indices of vegetation. However, direct observations of phenological contribution based on color development of vegetation indices stood out when i) soil moisture was not at extremes, ii) the variation in greenness helped to explain spatial patterns of respiration at measurement plots, and iii) leaves helped to identify contribution of autotrophic respiration to the total forest floor respiration.

  8. Effect of long-term understory prescribed burning on standing and down dead woody material in dry upland oak forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polo, John A.; Hallgren, S.W.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Dead woody material, long ignored or viewed as a nuisance for forest management, has gained appreciation for its many roles in the forest including wildlife habitat, nutrient storage and cycling, energy for trophic webs, protection of soil, fuel for fire and carbon storage. The growing interest in managing dead woody material has created strong demand for greater understanding of factors controlling amounts and turnover. Prescribed burning, an important management tool, may have strong effects of dead woody material given fire’s capacity to create and consume dead woody material. We determined effects of long-term understory prescribed burning on standing and down woody material in upland oak forests in south-central North America. We hypothesized that as frequency of fire increased in these stands the amount of deadwood would decrease and the fine woody material would decrease more rapidly than coarse woody material. The study was conducted in forests dominated by post oak (Quercus stellata) and blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica) in wildlife management areas where understory prescribed burning had been practiced for over 20 years and the range of burn frequencies was 0 (unburned) fires per decade (FPD) to 4.6 FPD. The amount of deadwood was low compared with more productive forests in southeastern North America. The biomass (24.7 Mg ha-1) and carbon stocks (11.7 Mg ha-1) were distributed among standing dead (22%), coarse woody debris (CWD, dia. > 7.5 cm., 12%), fine woody debris (FWD, dia. < 7.5 cm., 23%), and forest floor (43%). There was no evidence that understory prescribed burning influenced the amount and size distribution of standing and down dead woody material. There were two explanations for the lack of a detectable effect. First, a high incidence of severe weather including ice storms and strong winds that produce large amounts of deadwood intermittently in an irregular pattern across the landscape may preclude detecting a strong effect of understory

  9. Assessing stand water use in four coastal wetland forests using sapflow techniques: annual estimates, errors and associated uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Duberstein, Jamie A.; Conner, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Forests comprise approximately 37% of the terrestrial land surface and influence global water cycling. However, very little attention has been directed towards understanding environmental impacts on stand water use (S) or in identifying rates of S from specific forested wetlands. Here, we use sapflow techniques to address two separate but linked objectives: (1) determine S in four, hydrologically distinctive South Carolina (USA) wetland forests from 2009–2010 and (2) describe potential error, uncertainty and stand-level variation associated with these assessments. Sapflow measurements were made from a number of tree species for approximately 2–8 months over 2 years to initiate the model, which was applied to canopy trees (DBH > 10–20 cm). We determined that S in three healthy forested wetlands varied from 1.97–3.97 mm day−1 or 355–687 mm year−1 when scaled. In contrast, saltwater intrusion impacted individual tree physiology and size class distributions on a fourth site, which decreased S to 0.61–1.13 mm day−1 or 110–196 mm year−1. The primary sources of error in estimations using sapflow probes would relate to calibration of probes and standardization relative to no flow periods and accounting for accurate sapflow attenuation with radial depth into the sapwood by species and site. Such inherent variation in water use among wetland forest stands makes small differences in S (<200 mm year−1) difficult to detect statistically through modelling, even though small differences may be important to local water cycling. These data also represent some of the first assessments of S from temperate, coastal forested wetlands along the Atlantic coast of the USA.

  10. Testing a simulation model for reconstruction of prehistoric forest-stand dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.; Delcourt, H.R.; West, D.C.; Blasing, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Three characteristics of the output of a forest-stand simulation model were matched to pollen records of actual vegetation in central Tennessee. Temporal shifts of individual pollen taxon frequencies were compared to shifts of individual plant species frequencies in simulated biomass for the last 16,000 y. Individual pollen profiles (temporally ordered species frequencies) were also compared to simulated biomass profiles during that period. Modern ratios of pollen to vegetation composition (R values) were compared with those calculated from simulated biomass percentages and fossil pollen percentages. The model output was similar to the comparable characteristics of the pollen record. The model output is therefore a plausible description of vegetation characteristics at the site of pollen deposition in central Tennessee. The model produced information unavailable from other sets of prehistoric data. This information describes the invasion and growth of the yellow-poplar which produces no windborne pollen, and of palynologically indistinguishable oak and pine species. These results suggest that many paleoecological questions can be answered through appropriate simulation modeling studies.

  11. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil available nitrogen forms and their contents in typical temperate forest stands].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-xin; Duan, Wen-biao

    2011-08-01

    An indoor experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the soil available N in typical temperate forest stands. During the experiment period, nitrogen deposition increased the soil NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, and available N contents, as compared with the control, but the increments differed with stand types, soil layers, nitrogen treatment types, and treatment duration. Mixed forest soil had weaker responses in its available N contents to the nitrogen deposition than broad-leaved forest soil but stronger responses than artificially pure coniferous forest soil, and soil A horizon was more sensitive to nitrogen deposition than soil B horizon. Ammonium nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NH4+ -N content, nitrate nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NO3- -N content, while mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition increased the contents of both soil NH4+ -N and soil NO3- -N, and the increments were higher than those of ammonium nitrogen deposition and nitrate nitrogen deposition, suggesting the additive effects of the mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition on the forest soil available N.

  12. Spider assemblages in the overstory, understory, and ground layers of managed stands in the western boreal mixedwood forest of Canada.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Jaime; Spence, John R; Langor, David W

    2011-08-01

    Logging is the main human disturbance in the boreal forest; thus, understanding the effects of harvesting practices on biodiversity is essential for a more sustainable forestry. To assess changes in spider composition because of harvesting, samples were collected from three forest layers (overstory, understory, and ground) of deciduous and conifer dominated stands in the northwestern Canadian boreal mixedwood forest. Spider assemblages and feeding guild composition were compared between uncut controls and stands harvested to 20% retention. In total, 143 spider species were collected, 74 from the ground, 60 from the understory, and 71 from the overstory, and species composition of these three pools differed considerably among layers. Distinctive spider assemblages were collected from the canopy of each forest cover type but these were only slightly affected by harvesting. However, logging had a greater impact on the species composition in the understory and ground layers when compared with unharvested controls. Guild structure differed among layers, with wandering and sheet-weaving spiders dominant on the ground while orb-weaving and ambush spiders were better represented in the understory and overstory, respectively. Given the ecological importance of spiders and the expectation of faunal changes with increased harvesting, further efforts toward the understanding of species composition in higher strata of the boreal forest are needed.

  13. Preparing for the gypsy moth - design and analysis for stand management Dorr Run, Wayne National Forest

    Treesearch

    J. J. Colbert; Phil Perry; Bradley Onken

    1997-01-01

    As the advancing front of the gypsy moth continues its spread throughout Ohio, silviculturists on the Wayne National Forest are preparing themselves for potential gypsy moth outbreaks in the coming decade. Through a cooperative effort between the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station and Northeastern Area, Forest Health Protection, the Wayne National Forest, Ohio, is...

  14. Volume and weight characteristics of a typical Douglas-fir/ western larch stand, Coram Experimental Forest, Montana

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1980-01-01

    An over-mature Douglas-fir/western larch stand on the Coram Experimental Forest in Montana averaged about 7,300 ft3/acre (511 rn3/ha) of wood over 3 inches (7.62 cm) in diameter, and an additional 57 tons/acre (128/ha) of fine material, before harvest. After logging, using three different cutting methods and four different levels of utilization, wood residues ranged...

  15. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with global forest data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESM). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first generation Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second generation DVMs, that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to a range of forest types around the globe, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 yr. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents a preferable alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody biomass turnover, typically used in current ESMs.

  16. Financial constraints to `sustainable` selective harvesting of forests in the eastern Amazon: Bioeconomic modeling of a forest stand in the state of Para, Brazil. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardner, J.J.; Rice, R.E.

    1994-06-01

    A key issue in the debate over sustainable forest management is the trade-off between the short-term economic benefits of extracting timber aggressively for commercial sale and the long-term economic and ecological benefits of allowing natural forests to stand. The study presents a general methodology for assessing the feasibility of long-term forest management considering natural timber growth rates, mortality, and changes in timber prices and interest rates. Focusing on a 100-ha stand in the Paragominas region of the Eastern Amazon in the State of Para, Brazil, the study simulates the short-term costs and benefits of various levels of harvesting intensity on trees at various stages of growth, and compares the results with the potential returns on 30-day CDs invested over 25 years to determine the opportunity cost of holding mature stands of commercial trees between cutting cycles. Results show improved financial returns as a function of increasing harvest intensity due to the high discount rate in Brazil.

  17. Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Felton, Adam; Nilsson, Urban; Sonesson, Johan; Felton, Annika M; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Ranius, Thomas; Ahlström, Martin; Bergh, Johan; Björkman, Christer; Boberg, Johanna; Drössler, Lars; Fahlvik, Nils; Gong, Peichen; Holmström, Emma; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Klapwijk, Maartje J; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lundmark, Tomas; Niklasson, Mats; Nordin, Annika; Pettersson, Maria; Stenlid, Jan; Sténs, Anna; Wallertz, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  18. Stand structure and composition provide differential tree-ring growth signals in eastern U.S. forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. R.; Rollinson, C.; Dye, A.; Pederson, N.; Moore, D. J.; Trouet, V.

    2016-12-01

    The assumption that a single dominant climatic factor synchronizes regional forest growth response is the foundation of annually resolved climate reconstructions. However, growth-limiting factors affect individual trees and in complex forests, such as those in the eastern U.S., these limitations may not be uniform across the entire stand. Forest structure and composition can influence climate growth responses and result in multiple growth signals recorded in the tree rings that may not be isolated using conventional techniques. To address this issue, we collected tree cores from five eastern U.S. forest stands that are influenced by large-scale climate factors as well as small-scale ecological pressures, such as competition between individuals. We used generalized additive mixed models to form multivariate models of tree growth at the site-, species-, and canopy class-levels that account for the simultaneous influences that climate and size factors exert on growth through time. Species- and canopy position-specific models adhere more closely to observations (R2 = 0.73 and R2 = 0.71, respectively) than the site-level model (R2 = 0.60). Across all models, sensitivities to temperature and size are more dynamic through time than precipitation sensitivity. Size is the primary limiting factor as trees establish during the juvenile phase and temperature and precipitation limit growth as stands mature and individuals emerge into the canopy. We see that the species response to climate is relatively well conserved across all sites, but the dynamic nature of the size effect unique to each site alters the expressed limiting factor. We find that sub-canopy individuals show an opposite response to temperature than that the dominant and intermediate strata, likely due to the microclimate conditions created by a stratified canopy. Tree growth is thus limited by a combination of climatological and forest structural factors (i.e. canopy class) and growth limitations vary through

  19. Stand age and habitat influences on salamanders in Appalachian cove hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Brian R. Chapman; Michael A. Menzel; Richard H. Odom

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed cove hardwood stands aged 15, 25, 50, and ≥85 years following clearcutting in the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia to assess the effects of stand age and stand habitat characteristics on salamander communities using drift-fence array and pitfall methodologies from May 1994 to April 1995. Over a 60,060 pitfall trapnight effort, we...

  20. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Domke, Grant M; Woodall, Christopher W; Smith, James E

    2011-11-24

    Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C) pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates) began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks) by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog portions). Incorporating density reductions and structural

  1. Initial characterization of processes of soil carbon stabilization using forest stand-level radiocarbon enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanston, C W; Torn, M S; Hanson, P J; Southon, J R; Garten, C T; Hanlon, E M; Ganio, L

    2004-01-15

    Although the rates and mechanisms of soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization are difficult to observe directly, radiocarbon has proven an effective tracer of soil C dynamics, particularly when coupled with practical fractionation schemes. To explore the rates of C cycling in temperate forest soils, we took advantage of a unique opportunity in the form of an inadvertent stand-level {sup 14}C-labeling originating from a local industrial release. A simple density fractionation scheme separated SOM into inter-aggregate particulate organic matter (free light fraction, free LF), particulate organic matter occluded within aggregates (occluded LF), and organic matter that is complexed with minerals to form a dense fraction (dense fraction, DF). Minimal agitation and density separation was used to isolate the free LF. The remaining dense sediment was subjected to physical disruption and sonication followed by density separation to separate it into occluded LF and DF. The occluded LF had higher C concentrations and C:N ratios than the free LF, and the C concentration in both light fractions was ten times that of the DF. As a result, the light fractions together accounted for less than 4% of the soil by weight, but contained 40% of the soil C in the 0-15 cm soil increment. Likewise, the light fractions were less than 1% weight of the 15-30 cm increment, but contained more than 35% of the soil C. The degree of SOM protection in the fractions, as indicated by {Delta}{sup 14}C, was different. In all cases the free LF had the shortest mean residence times. A significant depth by fraction interaction for {sup 14}C indicates that the relative importance of aggregation versus organo-mineral interactions for overall C stabilization changes with depth. The rapid incorporation of {sup 14}C label into the otherwise depleted DF shows that this organo-mineral fraction comprises highly stable material as well as more recent inputs.

  2. Tree species diversity and its relationship to stand parameters and geomorphology features in the eastern Black Sea region forests of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Ramazan; Gul, Altay Ugur; Merganic, Jan; Merganicova, Katarina

    2008-05-01

    We studied the effects of stand parameters (crown closure, basal area, stand volume, age, mean stand diameter number of trees, and heterogeneity index) and geomorphology features (elevation, aspect and slope) on tree species diversity in an example of untreated natural mixed forest stands in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Tree species diversity and basal area heterogeneity in forest ecosystems are quantified using the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices. The relationship between tree species diversity basal area heterogeneity stand parameters and geomorphology features are examined using regression analysis. Our work revealed that the relationship between tree species diversity and stand parameters is loose with a correlation coefficient between 0.02 and 0.70. The correlation of basal area heterogeneity with stand parameters fluctuated between 0.004 and 0.77 (R2). According to our results, stands with higher tree species diversity are characterised by higher mean stand diameter number of diameter classes, basal area and lower homogeneity index value. Considering the effect of geomorphology features on tree species or basal area heterogeneity we found that all investigated relationships are loose with R < or = 0.24. A significant correlation was detected only between tree species diversity and aspect. Future work is required to verify the detected trends in behaviour of tree species diversity if it is to estimate from the usual forest stand parameters and topography characteristics.

  3. Old growth ponderosa pine and western larch stand structures: Influences of pre-1900 fires and fire exclusion. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Arno, S.F.; Smith, H.Y.; Krebs, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    We present data from two old growth stands on Lolo National Forest representing habitats that contrast with larch stand. One of the stands is a mixture of pine and larch on a steep upland slope and the other is larch dominated in a frost-prone valley bottom evidently at the cold limits of ponderosa pine. We also synthesize and compare age-class data, basal areas (BA), and Stand Density Indexes (SDI) for the entire range of old growth stands that we have sampled to represent the historical frequent fire types in western Montana.

  4. Habitat Preferences of Boros schneideri (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the Natural Tree Stands of the Białowieża Forest

    PubMed Central

    Gutowski, Jerzy M.; Sućko, Krzysztof; Zub, Karol; Bohdan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed habitat requirements of Boros schneideri (Panzer, 1796) (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the natural forests of the continental biogeographical region, using data collected in the Białowieża Forest. This species has been found on the six host trees, but it preferred dead, standing pine trees, characterized by large diameter, moderately moist and moist phloem but avoided trees in sunny locations. It occurred mostly in mesic and wet coniferous forests. This species demonstrated preferences for old tree stands (over 140-yr old), and its occurrence in younger tree-stand age classes (minimum 31–40-yr old) was not significantly different from random distribution. B. schneideri occupied more frequently locations distant from the forest edge, which were less affected by logging. Considering habitat requirements, character of occurrence, and decreasing number of occupied locations in the whole range of distribution, this species can be treated as relict of primeval forests. PMID:25527586

  5. Habitat preferences of Boros schneideri (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the natural tree stands of the Białowieża Forest.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jerzy M; Sućko, Krzysztof; Zub, Karol; Bohdan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed habitat requirements of Boros schneideri (Panzer, 1796) (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the natural forests of the continental biogeographical region, using data collected in the Białowieża Forest. This species has been found on the six host trees, but it preferred dead, standing pine trees, characterized by large diameter, moderately moist and moist phloem but avoided trees in sunny locations. It occurred mostly in mesic and wet coniferous forests. This species demonstrated preferences for old tree stands (over 140-yr old), and its occurrence in younger tree-stand age classes (minimum 31-40-yr old) was not significantly different from random distribution. B. schneideri occupied more frequently locations distant from the forest edge, which were less affected by logging. Considering habitat requirements, character of occurrence, and decreasing number of occupied locations in the whole range of distribution, this species can be treated as relict of primeval forests.

  6. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesen, T.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Cromack, K.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-term impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics within the forest floor (FF, Oe and Oa horizons) and the mineral soil (0-10 cm). Twelve of our stands burned approximately 150 years ago ('young'), and the other 12 burned approximately 550 years ago ('old'). Forest floor mean C and N pools were significantly greater in old stands than young stands (N pools: 1823 ?? 132 kg??ha-1 vs. 1450 ?? 98 kg??ha -1; C pools: 62 980 ?? 5403 kg??ha-1 vs. 49 032 ?? 2965 kg??ha-1, mean ?? SE) as a result of significant differences in FF mass. Forest floor C and N concentrations and C/N ratios did not differ by time since fire, yet potential N mineralization rates were significantly higher in FF of old sites. Old and young mineral soils did not differ significantly in pools, concentrations, C/N ratios, or cycling rates. Our results suggest that C and N are sequestered in FF of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests over long (???400 year) intervals, but that shorter fire return intervals may prevent that accumulation. ?? 2008 NRC.

  7. Seeing the forest for the heterogeneous trees: stand-scale resource distributions emerge from tree-scale structure.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Suzanne; Montgomery, Rebecca; Reich, Peter B; Palik, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Forest ecosystem processes depend on local interactions that are modified by the spatial pattern of trees and resources. Effects of resource supplies on processes such as regeneration are increasingly well understood, yet we have few tools to compare resource heterogeneity among forests that differ in structural complexity. We used a neighborhood approach to examine understory light and nutrient availability in a well-replicated and large-scale variable-retention harvesting experiment in a red pine forest in Minnesota, USA. The experiment included an unharvested control and three harvesting treatments with similar tree abundance but different patterns of retention (evenly dispersed as well as aggregated retention achieved by cutting 0.1- or 0.3-ha gaps). We measured light and soil nutrients across all treatments and mapped trees around each sample point to develop an index of neighborhood effects (NI). Field data and simulation modeling were used to test hypotheses that the mean and heterogeneity of resource availability would increase with patchiness because of greater variation in competitive environments. Our treatments dramatically altered the types and abundances of competitive neighborhoods (NI) in each stand and resulted in significantly nonlinear relationships of light, nitrogen and phosphorus availability to NI. Hence, the distribution of neighborhoods in each treatment had a significant impact on resource availability and heterogeneity. In dense control stands, neighborhood variation had little impact on resource availability, whereas in more open stands (retention treatments), it had large effects on light and modest effects on soil nutrients. Our results demonstrate that tree spatial pattern can affect resource availability and heterogeneity in explainable and predictable ways, and that neighborhood models provide a useful tool for scaling heterogeneity from the individual tree to the stand. These insights are needed to anticipate the outcomes of

  8. Modeling the impacts of organic layer depth on forest stand recovery from disturbance in the North American boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Medvigy, D.; Fenton, N.; Bergeron, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The boreal forest contains over 30 percent of Earth's terrestrial carbon, stored mainly as organic matter in soils. Warming temperatures have decreased the fire return interval at many locations, potentially opening more boreal forest space to early-successional deciduous species. However, previous observational studies have shown that the residual forest organic layer depth after a fire can be directly related to fire severity and that this organic layer depth plays a critical role in determining post-fire secondary succession in the North American boreal forest. In this study, we use a numerical model constrained by field data to evaluate: (1) the extent to which the organic layer inhibits deciduous seedling establishment; (2) whether differences in seedling establishment after mild and severe burns affect mature forest structure and composition on decadal to century time scales. Our modeling experiments were carried out with the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 (ED2) terrestrial biosphere model. ED2 is designed to explicitly track the growth and mortality of individual trees, which compete for light, water, and nutrients using an open nitrogen cycle. Our simulations feature parameterizations for aspen and black spruce species-types as well as a new dynamic soil organic layer module with species-specific litter decay rates. The updated boreal forest model is validated using several datasets across the North American boreal forest that range from daily carbon and energy fluxes to multi-century basal area chronosequences including: (1) sub-daily to monthly eddy covariance measurements taken in Delta Junction, Alaska and Manitoba, Canada; (2) decade-long forest inventory data from the Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory taken throughout the Alaskan boreal forest; and (3) multi-century basal area chronosequences measured in Manitoba and Quebec. We then use the model to identify the controls that the soil organic layer exerts on secondary succession between aspen

  9. Climate and biodiversity effects on standing biomass in Puerto Rican forests

    Treesearch

    R. Muscarella; M. Uriarte; D.L. Erickson; N.G. Swenson; J.K. Zimmerman; W.J. Kress

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is a major ecosystem service provided by tropical forests. Especially in light of global climate change, understanding the drivers of forest productivity is of critical importance. Although abiotic conditions (e.g., precipitation) are known to influence forest productivity, ecological theory predicts that biodiversity may also have independent...

  10. The Abundance of Salamanders in Forest Stands with Different Histories of Disturbance

    Treesearch

    F. Harvey Pough; Donald H. Rhodes; Andres Collazo

    1987-01-01

    Because of the importance of salamanders in forest food chains, the effects of forest management practices on populations of these animals warrant consideration. We compared the numbers and activity patterns of salamanders in areas of a deciduous forest in central New York State that had been cut selectively for firewood, or c1earcut, or planted with conifers. Numbers...

  11. Trends in standing biomass in Interior West forests: Reassessing baseline data from periodic inventories

    Treesearch

    Sara A. Goeking

    2012-01-01

    Trends in U.S. forest biomass and carbon are assessed using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data relative to baseline assessments from the 1990s. The integrity of baseline data varies by state and depends largely on the comparability of periodic versus annual forest inventory data. In most states in the Interior West FIA region, the periodic inventory's sample...

  12. The effects of forest fires on the stand history of New Jersey's pine region

    Treesearch

    S. Little

    1946-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present knowledge on the effects of forest fires in the Pine Region of New Jersey. It is not the result of any one research project, but the combined result of research and observations. Its purpose is to acquaint foresters and others having some knowledge of forestry and conservation with the importance of forest fires and the part they have...

  13. Will more nitrogen enhance carbon storage in young forest stands in central Appalachia?

    Treesearch

    Zachariah K. Fowler; Mary Beth Adams; William T. Peterjohn

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate deciduous forests in the Eastern US are secondary, regrowing forests and have experienced decades of elevated inputs of acidic compounds and biologically available nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere. These young forests play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle as C sinks, and it is possible that acidic deposition will influence the strength...

  14. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in monitored stands of windthrown forest in the Tatra National Park (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Čuchta, Peter; Miklisová, Dana; Kováč, Lubomír

    2013-06-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure 4 years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands, the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands, the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The ordination method used demonstrated a significant influence of treatment on the abundance of Collembola. ANOVA used confirmed significant differences for all dominant species between treatments. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance 3 years after the event. Moreover, we show that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  15. Species composition, diameter distribution, and crown class at initiation of a thinning study of pole-size hardwood stands in the Hoosier National Forest

    Treesearch

    Ryan L. Woods; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2008-01-01

    During the spring of 2007, a low thinning was implemented in stands on the Hoosier National Forest that had been clearcut harvested between 1975 and 1979; treatments consisted of 60- and 75-percent residual stocking, as well as control plots with no thinning. The 60-percent treatment increased the relative oak density per acre in all stands with the exception of one...

  16. Research on stand management options for reducing fuels and restoring two-aged lodgepole pine communities on the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey

    2003-01-01

    Fire-dependent lodgepole pine stands comprise significant acreages of midand upper-elevation forests in the Northern Rockies, providing wood products, wildlife habitat, livestock forage, water, recreational opportunities, and expansive viewsheds. Many lodgepole pine stands are in late-successional stages and at risk to pests and catastrophic-scale fires. Tenderfoot...

  17. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Arno, S.F.; Scott, J.H.; Hartwell, M.G.

    1995-04-01

    Describes age structure of nine old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands in western Montana. Interprets the influence of past fires and 20th century five exclusion on stand structure. Gives implications for management to restore and maintain these forests for multiple resource values.

  18. Overstory tree status following thinning and burning treatments in mixed pine-hardwood stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Yong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Prescribed burning and thinning are intermediate stand treatments whose consequences when applied in mixed pine-hardwood stands are unknown. The William B. Bankhead National Forest in northcentral Alabama has undertaken these two options to move unmanaged, 20- to 50-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations towards upland hardwood-dominated...

  19. Estimation of crown biomass of Pinus pinaster stands and shrubland above-ground biomass using forest inventory data, remotely sensed imagery and spatial prediction models

    Treesearch

    H. Viana; J. Aranha; D. Lopes; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Spatially crown biomass of Pinus pinaster stands and shrubland above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation was carried-out in a region located in Centre-North Portugal, by means of different approaches including forest inventory data, remotely sensed imagery and spatial prediction models. Two cover types (pine stands and shrubland) were inventoried and...

  20. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

    Treesearch

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; James E. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C) pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated...

  1. L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) response to the tropical forest stands for carbon stock assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Hamdan; Che Mat, Nur Laila; Hamzah, Khali Aziz; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi

    2013-05-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain forest stand parameters such as stand volume, stand density, basal area, biomass, and carbon stock from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. However the relationship between these parameters and radar backscatter has been a challenging issue since the last few years. In this study, L-band ALOS PALSAR satellite image with a spatial resolution of 12.5 m was utilized to identify the most ideal relationship between radar backscatter and aboveground carbon stock (ACS) atdifferent strata of tropical forest stands. The Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) campus which has about 420 ha of forest area was selected as the study area. Field survey was conducted in which ten (10) test plots (50 × 50 m, 0.25 ha) were established and all trees with the diameter at breast height (dbh) of 5 cm and above were inventoried. The calculated plot-based ACS was divided into six diameter classes - which is defined as strata - ofthe trees within the plot, which are i) 5 cm and above, ii) 10 cm and above, iii) 15 cm and above, iv) 20 cm and above, v) 25 cm and above, and vi) 30 cm and above. The total ACS of each class was correlated to the pixels of SAR backscatter corresponding to the plot location on the ground. Results showed that the forest was sensitive to the backscatter on horizontal-vertical polarized (HV) image as compared with horizontal-horizontal polarized (HH) image and a combination of both HH and HV polarizations. However, only ACS that was calculated based on diameter class of 15 cm and above gave the strongest correlation to the SAR signal. The signals also tend to saturate when carbon stock starts to increase from 180 t ha-1 at around -8 dB. The experiment from the study suggested that only mature trees (i.e. of diameter more than 15 cm) with sufficient canopy height can be included in inventory to obtain accurate carbon stock estimation when using satellite based L-band SAR data.

  2. Forest attributes and fuel loads of riparian vs. upland stands in mountain pine beetle infested watersheds, southern Rocky Mountains [Chapter 13

    Treesearch

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Roberto A. Bazan; Robert Hubbard

    2015-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB), spruce beetle (SB), and other insects are altering forest stand structure throughout the Western United States, and thereby increasing the natural heterogeneity of fuel distribution. Riparian forests frequently occur as narrow linear features in the landscape mosaic and can contribute to the spatial complexity of...

  3. Environmental influences on tree and stand increment, proceedings of the mensuration, growth and yield instruments and methods in forest mensuration workshop

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; Thomas B. Brann

    1986-01-01

    An international conference on Environmental Influences on Tree and Stand Increment was held at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA between September 23 and 27, 1985. The meeting included recommendations from a previous I.U.F.R.O. meeting in Vienna, Austria. Demands for forest resources are increasing but the forest land base is constantly...

  4. Assessing the role of natural disturbance and forest management on dead wood dynamics in mixed-species stands of central Maine, USA

    Treesearch

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Shawn Fraver; Matthew B. Russell; Laura S. Kenefic

    2016-01-01

    Dead wood pools are strongly influenced by natural disturbance events, stand development processes, and forest management activities. However, the relative importance of these influences can vary over time. In this study, we evaluate the role of these factors on dead wood biomass pools across several forest management alternatives after 60 years of treatment on the...

  5. Variation in Surface and Crown Fire Hazard With Stand Age in Managed Coastal Western Hemlock Zone Forests in Southwestern British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Feller; Stefanie L. Pollock

    2006-01-01

    Surface and crown fuels were measured in 186 stands ranging in age from 0 years after clearcutting to old-growth forests > 300 years old in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) – western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) – western redcedar (Thuja plicata) – dominated forests in southwestern British Columbia. Indexes...

  6. Species Composition, Tree Quality and Wood Properties of Southern Pine Stands Under Ecosystemm Management on National Forests in the Peidmont and Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; James W. McMinn

    1999-01-01

    National Forests in the United States are under sustainable ecosystem management to conserve biodiversity, achieve sustainable conditions and improve the balance among forest values. This paper reports on a study established to identify the implications of ecosystem management strategies on natural stands in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. The impact of partial...

  7. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon

    Treesearch

    Michelle C. Agne; David C. Shaw; Travis J. Woolley; Mónica E. Queijeiro-Bolaños; Mai-He. Li

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes....

  8. Trace gas emissions from a chronosequence of bark beetle-infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, U.; Pendall, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    Severe outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) and associated blue stain fungi have killed millions of hectares of coniferous forests in Western North America. This unprecedented disturbance has critically impacted ecosystem biogeochemistry and net carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes. However, the effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and drivers of biogeochemical processes that trigger GHG emissions following MPB infestations are not well understood. Such information can help assess regional-level changes in ecosystem C and N budgets and large-scale disturbance impacts on gas exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. The overall objective of this research was to assess the immediate responses of GHG fluxes and soil C and N mineralization rates along a chronosequence of recently infested (1-yr, 3-yr and 4-yr ago) and uninfested (150-yr, 20-yr and 15-yr old) lodgepole pine stands in Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. We hypothesize that MPB-induced tree mortality significantly changes stand-level hydrology, soil organic matter quality and chemistry of aboveground and belowground plant inputs. Consequently, these modifications influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) assimilation. Biweekly GHG measurements using static chambers were carried out during three consecutive snow-free growing seasons. Our results suggest that a stand infested within a year already shows a 20% increase in spring N2O production and a small decline in summer CH4 assimilation when compared to uninfested stands. Stands infested three and four years prior to our measurements produce over three times more N2O and assimilate three to five times less CH4 when compared to uninfested stands. In addition, a notable increase in soil moisture content and soil mineral N concentrations following early onset of the MPB infestation was also observed. An overall increase in N2O production and decline in CH4 assimilation following MPB infestation may

  9. Rapid rebound of soil respiration following partial stand disturbance by tree girdling in a temperate deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Levy-Varon, Jennifer H; Schuster, William S F; Griffin, Kevin L

    2014-04-01

    Forests serve an essential role in climate change mitigation by removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Within a forest, disturbance events can greatly impact C cycling and subsequently influence the exchange of CO2 between forests and the atmosphere. This connection makes understanding the forest C cycle response to disturbance imperative for climate change research. The goal of this study was to examine the temporal response of soil respiration after differing levels of stand disturbance for 3 years at the Black Rock Forest (southeastern NY, USA; oaks comprise 67% of the stand). Tree girdling was used to mimic pathogen attack and create the following treatments: control, girdling all non-oaks (NOG), girdling half of the oak trees (O50), and girdling all the oaks (OG). Soil respiratory rates on OG plots declined for 2 years following girdling before attaining a full rebound of belowground activity in the third year. Soil respiration on NOG and O50 were statistically similar to the control for the duration of the study although a trend for a stronger decline in respiration on O50 relative to NOG occurred in the first 2 years. Respiratory responses among the various treatments were not proportional to the degree of disturbance and varied over time. The short-lived respiratory response on O50 and OG suggests that belowground activity is resilient to disturbance; however, sources of the recovered respiratory flux on these plots are likely different than they were pre-treatment. The differential taxon response between oaks and non-oaks suggests that after a defoliation or girdling event, the temporal response of the soil respiratory flux may be related to the C allocation pattern of the affected plant group.

  10. Influence of forest stands on soil and ecosystem carbon stocks in the conditions of the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Forest stands are one of the most important components of ecosystems, both in Russia and around the world and at the same time forest vegetation is able to provide environment-modifying effect on the occupied landscape and, in particular, on the soil cover. Currently, due to the large interest in the carbon cycle, there is a question about the influence of forest vegetation on carbon stocks in ecosystems and in particular in the soil cover. To perform the study we selected 9 objects located in the European part of Russia from the area of the southern taiga to the semi-desert zone: Novgorod region, Kostroma region, Moscow region (2 objects), Penza region, Voronezh region, Volgograd region (2 objects) and Astrakhan region. For studying the influence of forest vegetation on the soil`s carbon, we organized the following experiment scheme: in each of the objects two key sites were selected, so that they originally were in the same soil conditions and the difference between them was only in a course development of vegetation - forest or grass. One part of the experimental sites, presenting forest vegetation, were the restored forests on abandoned lands with the age of 70-200 years. The second part of the experimental sites were artificial forest plantations aged from 60 to 112 years planted on the originally treeless forest-steppe or steppe landscapes. Perennial hayfields, perennial abandoned agricultural landscapes and virgin steppe areas were used as reference sites with grass vegetation. For each forest site we estimated the major carbon pools: phytomass, mortmass (dead wood, dry grass), debris, litter and soil. All data were recalculated using the conversion factors in carbon stocks in t C ha-1. We collected soil samples every 10 cm until the depth of 50 cm, and then at 50-75 and 75-100 cm soil layers. Bulk density and total organic carbon were determined by CHN analyzer. As a result, the soil`s carbon was also calculated into t C ha-1. We found out that the total

  11. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Noe, Steffen M; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ulle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ulo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2011-07-15

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies.

  12. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Steffen M.; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ülle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ülo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies. PMID:24347809

  13. Vegetation structure in old-growth stands in the Coram Research Natural Area in northwestern Montana. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elzinga, C.L.; Shearer, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    Forest stand structure, understory composition, and tree seedling composition are described for eight permanent tenth-hectare plots established in Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir, western larch, and interior Douglas-fir forest cover types in northwestern Montana. Sites have been protected as examples of old-growth stands since the establishment of the Coram Research Natural Area in 1937. Plot data clearly illustrate a successional trend toward shade-tolerant conifiers, placing old-growth stands at risk of loss from succession or catastrophic fire. Management issues associated with use of prescribed fire to maintain old-growth characteristics in natural areas are discussed.

  14. A new method for evaluating forest thinning: growth dominance in managed Pinus resinosa stands

    Treesearch

    John B. Bradford; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Shawn. Fraver

    2010-01-01

    Growth dominance is a relatively new, simple, quantitative metric of within-stand individual tree growth patterns, and is defined as positive when larger trees in the stand display proportionally greater growth than smaller trees, and negative when smaller trees display proportionally greater growth than larger trees. We examined long-term silvicultural experiments in...

  15. Relationship between herbaceous layer, stand, and site variables in the Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Treesearch

    Joel C. Zak; Luben D. Dimov; Callie Jo Schweitzer; Stacy L. Clark

    2010-01-01

    We studied herbaceous layer richness, diversity and cover in stands on the southern Cumberland Plateau. The stands are mixed pine-hardwoods dominated by 25-40-year-old planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Scheduled future treatments combining thinning and fire are designed to restore the hardwood component, particularly oak (Quercus...

  16. Selected yield tables for plantations and natural stands in Inland Northwest Forests

    Treesearch

    Albert R. Stage; David L. Renner; Roger C. Chapman

    1988-01-01

    Yields arrayed by site index and age have been tabulated for plantations of 500 trees per acre, with five thinning regimes, for Douglas-fir, grand fir, and western larch. Yields were also tabulated for naturally regenerated stands of the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the Inland Empire. All yields were estimated with the Prognosis Model for Stand Development,...

  17. Is evapotranspiration and its components from boreal forests constant with stand age after fire and drainage conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Barker, C.; Angstmann, J.; Amiro, B.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Kwon, H.; Gower, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in the global C cycle, but our understanding of how the feedbacks from the boreal water cycle will affect regional and global climate is limited. In addition, boreal fire return intervals are shortening but the impact of shifting successional and soil drainage patterns on evapotranspiration is not known. We quantified evapotranspiration and its components across a chronosequence of three sites ages 42, 76 and 156 years in 2007, with each site containing separate well- and poorly-drained stands (bogs). Estimates of evapotranspiration, tree canopy transpiration and bryophyte evaporation were made using energy balance, sap flux and chamber measurements respectively. Energy balance measurements (net radiation and sensible and ground heat flux) were inter-calibrated across sites to minimize instrument biases. Daily average growing season evapotranspiration increased 15 percent with stand age from 1.61 to 1.85 mm/day and 14 percent with improved soil drainage from 1.61 to 1.84 mm/day. These increases in evapotranspiration were driven by tree transpiration increasing from 0.59 to 0.69 mm/day with stand age and from 0.24 to 0.61 mm/day with improved soil drainage. Bryophyte contributions to evapotranspiration were larger than tree sources averaging 0.75 and 1.0 mm/day for the well and poorly drained stands respectively, but did not change significantly within the three site ages. To independently test our scaling of component fluxes to evapotranspiration, stable isotope measurements of water sources and fluxes were made in the 76 year old site. Keeling plot analyses agreed with evapotranspiration estimates with higher gradients in the well-drained stand and a source signature dominated by trees in the poorly drained stand. Our results clearly show that evapotranspiration is not constant with increasing stand age or soil drainage conditions after fire. These changes in evapotranspiration are due to varying tree species contributions to

  18. Integrating Stand and Soil Properties to Understand Foliar Nutrient Dynamics during Forest Succession Following Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, Eben N.; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Soriano, Marlene; Field, Christopher B.; de Souza, Harrison Ramos; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Adams, Rachel I.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Giles, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ13C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ13C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ15N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, – most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil 15N and 13C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession. PMID:24516525

  19. Integrating stand and soil properties to understand foliar nutrient dynamics during forest succession following slash-and-burn agriculture in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Eben N; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Asner, Gregory P; Soriano, Marlene; Field, Christopher B; de Souza, Harrison Ramos; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Adams, Rachel I; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Giles, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ(13)C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ(13)C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ(15)N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, - most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil (15)N and (13)C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession.

  20. Bat activity in harvested and intact forest stands in the allegheny mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, S.F.; Menzel, M.A.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.; Menzel, J.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, K.V.

    2004-01-01

    We used Anabat acoustical monitoring devices to examine bat activity in intact canopy forests, complex canopy forests with gaps, forests subjected to diameter-limit harvests, recent deferment harvests, clearcuts and unmanaged forested riparian areas in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia in the summer of 1999. We detected eight species of bats, including the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). Most bat activity was concentrated in forested riparian areas. Among upland habitats, activity of silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) was higher in open, less cluttered vegetative types such as recent deferment harvests and clearcuts. Our results suggest that bat species in the central Appalachians partially segregate themselves among vegetative conditions based on differences in body morphology and echolocation call characteristics. From the standpoint of conserving bat foraging habitat for the maximum number of species in the central Appalachians, special emphasis should be placed on protecting forested riparian areas.

  1. Forest Resource Management System by Standing Tree Volume Estimation Using Aerial Stereo Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, T.; Koizumi, H.; Wang, J.; Itaya, A.

    2012-07-01

    Forest resource management usually requires much human labour for the field survey to keep the data up-to-date especially for the mountainous area. Furthermore, forest resources start to draw more and more attention not only as lumber resources but also as biomass resources in terms of alternative energy. This paper describes a novel system for forest resource management based on threedimensional data acquired from stereo matching of aerial photographs. The proposed system consists of image analysis of aerial photograph for forest resource estimation, and a GIS system aiming at better management of the forest resources. We have built a prototype GIS system and applied it to the experiment forest in Mie prefecture, Japan.

  2. Species and stand traits of broadleaf deciduous and evergreen trees and its role on hydrologic processes in a semiarid forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, T.; Perez Suarez, M.; Rodriguez Robles, U.

    2013-05-01

    Empirical and modelling studies have pointed out to the importance of morphologic, physiologic and chemical traits of plant species on the control of functional aspects of ecosystems. Land use change exerts a pervasive effect on ecosystems through its effects on plant cover, species composition and the arrangement of vegetation. Species footprint influence on ecosystem processes occurs through their functional plant traits, understanding their role might be possible to predict alterations in ecosystem functioning. Using the concept of functional matrix we examined how traits of two dominant forest species, one broadleaf (Quercus potosina) and one evergreen (Pinus cembroides) observed as mixed and monospecific stands, exerted an influence on ecohydrological processes. Thus, differences in plant height, canopy structure, litter production and quality, root system distribution, etc. determined differences in vertical and horizontal rain fluxes. Oak monospecif stands showed 20% higher throughfall compared to mixex and pure pine stands as a consequence of exhibiting a monolayered canopy. On the other hand, runoff was 67 and 33 % in pine compared to oak and mixed stands a result that arosing from observed differences in litter decomposition stage as well as its proportion. Differences between root systems accounted for less negative plant water potentials in oak in contrast to pine. These differences together with leaf phenology allowed oak trees to reduce the plant water potential during the drought period. Similar pattern observed for pine is attributed to foraging capabilities of an extensive root system.

  3. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Kevin J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Siegert, Nathan W; Bohne, Michael J

    2013-12-31

    Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs), two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007) and A. platanoides (2010) were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18%) or A. saccharum (14% and 9%).

  4. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Kevin J.; Hull-Sanders, Helen M.; Siegert, Nathan W.; Bohne, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs), two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007) and A. platanoides (2010) were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18%) or A. saccharum (14% and 9%). PMID:26462582

  5. Litter production, soil organic matter dynamics and microbial activity in two coeval forest stands on Mount Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marco, Anna; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giordano, Maria; Vittozzi, Paola; Virzo de Santo, Amalia

    2010-05-01

    Forest ecosystems in different climatic zones may accumulate different amounts of soil organic matter (SOM) with different chemical-physical properties. C inputs to SOM are related to net primary production, however C accumulation in the soil largely depends on the balance between net primary production and decomposition. On the other side rates of SOM decomposition are the major control over the supply of mineral nutrients to vegetation and thus over primary production. This study was performed in two coeval (36 years old), adjacent forest stands, a Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) and a Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forest (Atrio del Cavallo, 40° 49'N, 14° 26'E; 810 a.s.l.). The two forests were implanted in 1970 on piroclastic material of the last eruption of Mount Vesuvius (1944). We assessed the quantity and the quality of SOM in a vertical gradient in the continuum of the litter layer, humus layer and mineral soil for the whole soil profile. Moreover we estimated litter production and decomposition, litter and mineral soil (0-5cm) respiration as well as microbial biomass and total and active fungal biomass. Litter fall (measured throughout the years 2006-2008) was higher in the Corsican pine than in the Black locust stand (5234 vs. 2396 g/m2/y). Black locust leaf litter and Corsican pine needle litter reached respectively 60 % and 50% of initial mass after 600 days in situ decomposition. Consistently with the lower litter input and the higher decomposition of black locust, the amount of organic C in the organic soil layers (litter + humus), was significantly higher in the Corsican pine as compared to the Black locust stand (2702 vs. 1636 g/m2). In contrast, in the mineral layers (0-15 cm) the amount of soil organic C was slightly higher in Black locust than in Corsican pine stand (136 vs. 116 g/m2). Litter quality, decomposition dynamics, and SOM quality and activity may help to understand the reason for the uneven distribution of organic carbon

  6. Assessing stand-level climate change risk using forest inventory data and species distribution models

    Treesearch

    Maria K. Janowiak; Louis R. Iverson; Jon Fosgitt; Stephen D. Handler; Matt Dallman; Scott Thomasma; Brad Hutnik; Christopher W. Swanston

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is having important effects on forest ecosystems, presenting a challenge for natural resource professionals to reduce climate-associated impacts while still achieving diverse management objectives. Regional projections of climate change and forest response are becoming more readily available, but managers are still searching for practical ways to apply...

  7. Chapter 11: Patterns of Seasonal Variation of Activity of Marbled Murrelets in Forested Stands

    Treesearch

    Brian P. O’Donnell; Nancy L. Naslund; C. John Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Determining the annual cycles of Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) behavior is crucial both for understanding the life history and for management of this species. In this paper we review available information on the annual patterns of behavior in forests throughout its range, with special emphasis on California. Data were derived from standardized forest...

  8. Stand conditions associated with tree regeneration in sierran mixed-conifer forests.

    Treesearch

    Andrew N. Gray; Harold S.J. Zald; Ruth A. Kern; Malcolm. North

    2005-01-01

    Fire suppression has significantly increased canopy cover, litter depth, and stem density in many western forests, altering microsite conditions that affect tree seedling establishment. We conducted studies in a mixed-conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada, California, to determine relationships between established understory trees and microsite quality, and to examine...

  9. Huckleberry abundance, stand conditions, and use in western Oregon: evaluating the role of forest management.

    Treesearch

    Becky K Kerns; Susan J. Alexander; John D. Bailey

    2004-01-01

    Huckleberries are major components of the understory vegetation in coniferous Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. Vaccinium species also have a long history of human use. However, little research has been done to ascertain how they respond to common forest management practices. We used data obtained from old-growth, young thinned, and...

  10. Preliminary guidelines for prescribed burning under standing timber in western larch/douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Rodney A. Norum

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines are offered for safe, effective fire treatments in western larch/Douglas-fir forests. Describes procedures for estimating and limiting the scorching of tree crows. Provides a method for predicting percentage of the forest floor that will be burned down to mineral soil.

  11. Geographic variability in lidar predictions of forest stand structure in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew T. Hudak; Warren B. Cohen; S. A. Acker

    2005-01-01

    Estimation of the amount of carbon stored in forests is a key challenge for understanding the global carbon cycle, one which remote sensing is expected to help address. However, carbon storage in moderate to high biomass forests is difficult to estimate with conventional optical or radar sensors. Lidar (light detection and ranging) instruments measure the vertical...

  12. Standing crop and animal consumption of fungal sporocarps in Pacific Northwest forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; James Trappe; Jerry Franklin

    1997-01-01

    Although fungal fruiting bodies are a common food supplement for many forest animals and an important dietary staple for several small mammals, changes in their abundance and consumption with forest succession or disturbance have not been quantified. Above- and belowground fungal fruiting bodies (epigeous and hypogeous sporocarps) were sampled for 46 mo in managed-...

  13. Stand structure in eastside old-growth ponderosa pine forests of Oregon and northern California.

    Treesearch

    Andrew Youngblood; Timothy Max; Kent. Coe

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative metrics of horizontal and vertical structural attributes in eastside old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson var. ponderosa) forests were measured to guide the design of restoration prescriptions. The age, size structure, and the spatial patterns were investigated in old-growth ponderosa pine forests at three...

  14. The effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in Western forests.

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Alan E. Harvey; Theresa B. Jain; Jonalea R. Tonn

    1999-01-01

    In the West, thinning and partial cuttings are being considered for treating millions of forested acres that are overstocked and prone to wildfire. The objectives of these treatments include tree growth redistribution, tree species regulation, timber harvest, wildlife habitat improvement, and wildfire-hazard reduction. Depending on the forest type and its structure,...

  15. Changes in stand structure and tree vigor with repeated prescribed fire in an Appalachian hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Mary A. Arthur; Beth A. Blankenship; Angela Schörgendorfer; David L. Loftis; Heather D. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Without large scale disturbances to alter forest structure and open the canopy, historically oak-dominated forests of the central and Appalachian hardwood regions of eastern North America are shifting to dominance by shade-tolerant, ‘mesophytic’ species. In response, prescribed fire is applied with increasing frequency and spatial extent to decrease non-oak species and...

  16. Response of Northwest Douglas-fir stands to urea: correlations with forest soil properties.

    Treesearch

    C.E. Peterson; P.J. Ryan; S.P. Gessel

    1984-01-01

    Replicated forest floor and surface soil (0–15 cm) samples were obtained from control plots at 160 field installations to western Washington and Oregon. Six year growth responses of thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in stallations treated with 0, 224, and 448 kg of urea-N ha-1 were correlated with 18 forest...

  17. Land application of hydrofracturing fluids damages a deciduous forest stand in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fluid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fluid application,...

  18. Stand conditions associated with truffle abundance in western hemlock/Douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Joshua Greenberg

    1998-01-01

    Truffles are a staple food source for many forest small mammals yet the vegetation or soil conditions associated with truffle abundance are unknown. We examined the spatial distribution of forest structures, organic layer depth, root density, and two of the most common western North American truffles (Elaphomyces granulatus and Rhizopogon...

  19. Allometric equations for estimating tree biomass in restored mixed-species Atlantic Forest stands

    Treesearch

    Lauro Rodrigues Nogueira; Vera Lex Engel; John A. Parrotta; Antonio Carlos Galvão de Melo; Danilo. Scorzoni Ré

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Forests is receiving increasing attention because of its role in both biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration for global climate change mitigation. This study was carried out in an Atlantic Forest restoration project in the south-central region of São Paulo State – Brazil to develop allometric equations to estimate tree biomass of...

  20. Guide to the stand-damage model interface management system. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Racin, G.; Colbert, J.J.

    1995-08-16

    Describes the Gypsy Moth Stand-Damage interface management system. Management of stand-damage data made it necessary to define structures to store data and provide the mechanisms to manipulate these data. The software is used to manipulate files, graph and manage outputs, and edit input data. The interface was built using pop-up windows, menuing systems, text editing and validation, mouse support, and context-sensitive help. The interface is written in the C language for DOS microcomputers.

  1. Forest stand dynamics and sudden oak death: Mortality in mixed-evergreen forests dominated by coast live oak

    Treesearch

    L.B. Brown; B. Allen-Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the recently discovered non-native invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has already killed tens of thousands of native coast live oak and tanoak trees in California. Little is known of potential short and long term impacts of this novel plant–pathogen interaction on forest structure and composition. Coast live...

  2. The role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide exchange and decomposition in boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forest stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forest stands range from well drained to poorly drained, typically contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), and are often underlain by permafrost. To better understand the role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange and decomposition, we measured soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes, litter decomposition and litterfall rates, and SOC stocks above permafrost in three Alaska black spruce forest stands characterized as well drained (WD), moderately drained (MD), and poorly drained (PD). Soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes were not significantly different among sites, although the relation between soil respiration rate and temperature varied with site (Qw: WD > MD > PD). Annual estimated soil respiration, litter decomposition, and groundcover photosynthesis were greatest at PD. These results suggest that soil temperature and moisture conditions in shallow organic horizon soils at PD were more favorable for decomposition compared with the better drained sites. SOC stocks, however, increase from WD to MD to PD such that surface decomposition and C storage are diametric. Greater groundcover vegetation productivity, protection of deep SOC by permafrost and anoxic conditions, and differences in fire return interval and (or) severity at PD counteract the relatively high near-surface decomposition rates, resulting in high net C accumulation.

  3. Detection of spatio-temporal changes of Norway spruce forest stands in Ore Mountains using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misurec, J.; Kopačková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Campbell, P. K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mountains are an example of the region that suffered from severe environmental pollution caused by long-term coal mining and heavy industry leading to massive dieback of the local Norway spruce forests between the 1970's and 1990's. The situation became getting better at the end of 1990's after pollution loads significantly decreased. In 1998 and 2013, airborne hyperspectral data (with sensor ASAS and APEX, respectively) were used to study recovery of the originally damaged forest stands and compared them with those that have been less affected by environmental pollution. The field campaign (needle biochemical analysis, tree defoliation etc.) accompanied hyperspectral imagery acquisition. An analysis was conducted assessing a set of 16 vegetation indices providing complex information on foliage, biochemistry and canopy biophysics and structure. Five of them (NDVI, NDVI705, VOG1, MSR and TCARI/OSAVI) showing the best results were employed to study spatial gradients as well as temporal changes. The detected gradients are in accordance with ground truth data on representative trees. The obtained results indicate that the original significant differences between the damaged and undamaged stands have been generally levelled until 2013, although it is still possible to detect signs of the previous damages in several cases.

  4. Illustrating harvest effects on site microclimate in a high-elevation forest stand. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, W.B.; Anderson, T.D.

    1987-08-01

    Three-dimensional contour surfaces were drawn for physiologically active radiation (PAR) and air and soil temperatures from measurements taken at a high-elevation site (145 m) near the crest of the Cascade Range in central Washington. Measurements in a clearcut were compared with measurements from an adjacent uncut stand. Data for 31 days in July and August 1985 illustrated the rapid changes as storms off the Pacific Ocean displaced the dominant high pressure of summer.

  5. Species differences in timing of leaf fall and foliage chemistry modify nutrient resorption efficiency in deciduous temperate forest stands.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo; Tamm, Ulo

    2005-08-01

    Extensive variation in fractional resorption of mineral elements from plant leaves is still not fully understood. In multi-species forest stands, species leaf fall phenology and leaf constitution may significantly modify the timing of nutrient return to the soil and overall plant nutrient loss. We studied leaf fall and nutrient loss kinetics, and leaf composition in three natural, temperate, deciduous broadleaf forest stands to determine the role of timing of leaf abscission and nutrient immobilization in cell walls on nutrient resorption efficiency of senescing leaves. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus and potassium contents decreased continuously in attached leaves after peak physiological activity during mid-season. Changes in nutrient contents of attached leaves were paralleled by decreases in nutrient contents in freshly fallen leaf litter. In different species and for different nutrients, resorption of nutrients from senescing leaves proceeded with different kinetics. The maximum nutrient resorption efficiency (the fraction of specific nutrient resorbed from the leaves at the end of leaf fall) did not depend on the mid-seasonal nutrient concentration. Species with earlier leaf fall resorbed leaf nutrients at a faster rate, partly compensating for the earlier leaf fall. Nevertheless, the litter-mass weighted mean nutrient contents in leaf litter were still larger in species with earlier leaf fall, demonstrating an inherent trade-off between early leaf fall and efficient nutrient resorption. This trade-off was most important for N. Losses of the non-mobile nutrients calcium and magnesium were unaffected by the timing of leaf fall. There was large variation in the maximum N resorption efficiency among species. Correlations among leaf chemical variables suggested that the maximum N resorption efficiency decreased with the increasing fraction of cell walls in the leaves, possibly due to a greater fraction of N occluded in cell wall matrix. We conclude that species leaf

  6. Simulating stand-level water and carbon fluxes in beetle-attacked conifer forests in the Western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, S. D.; Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E. G.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, forest mortality due to bark beetle infestation in conifer forests of western North America has reached epidemic levels, which may have profound effects on both present and future water and carbon cycling. The responses of evaporation, transpiration, and net photosynthesis to changing climate and disturbance are a major concern as they control the carbon balance of forests and the hydrologic cycle in a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine forest systems. Tree mortality during bark beetle infestation in this region is due to hydraulic failure resulting from fungal infection spread by the beetles. We modified the terrestrial regional ecosystem exchange simulator (TREES) model to incorporate xylem-occlusion effects on hydraulic conductance to simulate beetle attack over the period 2005-2012 in a subalpine conifer forest at the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiment Site (GLEES) and over 2008-2012 at a lodgepole pine dominated site in southeast Wyoming. Model simulations with and without beetle effects were compared to eddy-covariance and sap-flux data measured at the sites. The simulations were run at a 30-minute time step and covered the pre- to post-beetle infestation period. Simulated NEE at GLEES ranged from 200 to -625 g C m-2 yr-1, annual ET ranged from 250 to 800 mm yr-1 over the seven years and standard error in predicted half-hourly NEE was <3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and <2e-05 mm s-1 for ET. The stand transitioned from a C sink to C source during the beetle attack and our modified model captured this dynamic, while simulations without the beetle effect did not (i.e. continued C sink). However, simulated NEE was underestimated compared to flux data later in the infestation period (2011) by over 100 g C m-2 yr-1. ET decreased during beetle attack in both the observed and simulated data, but the modified model underestimated ET in the later phase of attack (2010-2011). These results suggest that ET and NEE in these conifer forests may

  7. Snow ablation modeling at the stand scale in a boreal jack pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. P.; Davis, R. E.; Jordan, R.; Li, X.; Woodcock, C.; Ni, W.; McKenzie, J. C.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to predict spatial distributions of snow properties important to the hydrology and the remote sensing signatures of the boreal ecosystem. This study is part of the Boreal Ecosystems Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) of central Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba. Forested environments provide unique problems for snow cover process modeling due to the complex interactions among snow, energy transfer, and trees. These problems are approached by coupling a modified snow process model with a model of radiative interactions with forest canopies. Additionally, a tree well model describes the influence of individual trees on snow distribution on the ground. The snow process and energy budget model calculates energy exchange at the snow surface, in-pack snow processes, melting and liquid water flow, heat conduction, and vapor diffusion. The surface radiation model provides input on the radiation receipt at the snow surface for model runs in the jack pine forest. Field data consisted of measured meteorological parameters above and within the canopy, spatial variability of snow properties, and variations of incoming solar irradiance beneath the forest canopy. Results show that the area beneath tree canopies accumulated 60% of the snow accumulated in forest openings. Peak solar irradiance on the snow cover was less than one half that measured above the canopy. Model runs are compared between the open and the forested sites and show the open area ablating four days before areas beneath the canopy and eight days before forest openings and compare favorably with measured data. Physically based modeling of snow ablation was successful at the forested site and nearby open area.

  8. [Relationship between decline disease of exotic pines(Pinus taeda and P. eliottii) and forest stand and environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Shu, Q; Zou, Y; Yang, G; Zhu, Q; Huang, C

    2001-06-01

    The relationship between decline disease of exotic pines(Pinus taeda and P. eliottii) plantations in Anhui Province and forest stand status and environmental factors was quantitatively analyzed. Among 18 variable factors from 4 types of factors(climate, soil, stand status, and other diseases and insect pests), 10 factors contributed greatly to the state of illness. These were tree age, stand density, resin-tapping, rainfall, temperature, clay soil, stone soil, soil depth, water-logging, and other diseases and insect pests. Of them soil depth and rainfall negatively, and others positively related with the severity of disease. Accordingly, a linear multiple regression model was derived, which might predict the developmental level of decline disease at any given conditions of exotic pine plantation. In addition, the spiral chart of decline disease was mapped based on the action size and time order of various nosogenetic factors during the incidence of decline disease, which was used to visually describe and quantitatively analyze the disease with complicated causes.

  9. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  10. Direct vs. Microclimate-Driven Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Litter Decomposition in Young Subtropical Forest Stands

    PubMed Central

    Seidelmann, Katrin N.; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Niklaus, Pascal A.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of tree species diversity on decomposition can operate via a multitude of mechanism, including alterations of microclimate by the forest canopy. Studying such effects in natural settings is complicated by the fact that topography also affects microclimate and thus decomposition, so that effects of diversity are more difficult to isolate. Here, we quantified decomposition rates of standard litter in young subtropical forest stands, separating effects of canopy tree species richness and topography, and quantifying their direct and micro-climate-mediated components. Our litterbag study was carried out at two experimental sites of a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning field experiment in south-east China (BEF-China). The field sites display strong topographical heterogeneity and were planted with tree communities ranging from monocultures to mixtures of 24 native subtropical tree species. Litter bags filled with senescent leaves of three native tree species were placed from Nov. 2011 to Oct. 2012 on 134 plots along the tree species diversity gradient. Topographic features were measured for all and microclimate in a subset of plots. Stand species richness, topography and microclimate explained important fractions of the variations in litter decomposition rates, with diversity and topographic effects in part mediated by microclimatic changes. Tree stands were 2–3 years old, but nevertheless tree species diversity explained more variation (54.3%) in decomposition than topography (7.7%). Tree species richness slowed litter decomposition, an effect that slightly depended on litter species identity. A large part of the variance in decomposition was explained by tree species composition, with the presence of three tree species playing a significant role. Microclimate explained 31.4% of the variance in decomposition, and was related to lower soil moisture. Within this microclimate effect, species diversity (without composition) explained 8.9% and topography 34.4% of

  11. Direct vs. Microclimate-Driven Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Litter Decomposition in Young Subtropical Forest Stands.

    PubMed

    Seidelmann, Katrin N; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2016-01-01

    Effects of tree species diversity on decomposition can operate via a multitude of mechanism, including alterations of microclimate by the forest canopy. Studying such effects in natural settings is complicated by the fact that topography also affects microclimate and thus decomposition, so that effects of diversity are more difficult to isolate. Here, we quantified decomposition rates of standard litter in young subtropical forest stands, separating effects of canopy tree species richness and topography, and quantifying their direct and micro-climate-mediated components. Our litterbag study was carried out at two experimental sites of a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning field experiment in south-east China (BEF-China). The field sites display strong topographical heterogeneity and were planted with tree communities ranging from monocultures to mixtures of 24 native subtropical tree species. Litter bags filled with senescent leaves of three native tree species were placed from Nov. 2011 to Oct. 2012 on 134 plots along the tree species diversity gradient. Topographic features were measured for all and microclimate in a subset of plots. Stand species richness, topography and microclimate explained important fractions of the variations in litter decomposition rates, with diversity and topographic effects in part mediated by microclimatic changes. Tree stands were 2-3 years old, but nevertheless tree species diversity explained more variation (54.3%) in decomposition than topography (7.7%). Tree species richness slowed litter decomposition, an effect that slightly depended on litter species identity. A large part of the variance in decomposition was explained by tree species composition, with the presence of three tree species playing a significant role. Microclimate explained 31.4% of the variance in decomposition, and was related to lower soil moisture. Within this microclimate effect, species diversity (without composition) explained 8.9% and topography 34.4% of

  12. Does Hawaiian native forest conserve water? Lower uptake rates at tree and stand scale by Metrosideros polymorpha relative to plantation species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A. K.; Sack, L.; Duarte, T. K.; James, S. A.

    2007-12-01

    Native plants are often claimed to be conservative water users that enhance groundwater recharge compared to faster-growing non-native species that tend to dominate watersheds. This argument would have implications for motivating conservation and restoration of native forest in Hawai'i. However, few studies have examined differences in native and non-native plant transpiration (water use) at species or at stand level. Our aim was determine whether species matter to stand-level water use. We measured plant transpiration in a continuous mosaic of native forest and non-native tree plantation in Honaunau, Hawaii, focusing on endemic dominant tree Metrosideros polymorpha, alien timber trees Eucalyptus saligna and Fraxinus uhdei, and dominant understory Cibotium tree ferns. We measured xylem sap flow for six individuals of each species continuously for over eight weeks, and we estimated stand water use by scaling up these measurements using stand sapwood area and tree fern leaf area values obtained through vegetation surveys. Native forest dominant Metrosideros had the lowest rates of whole-tree daily water use at 8 kg day-1 (200kg m-2sapwood day-1), less than half the daily rates for Eucalyptus or Fraxinus; Metrosideros also had the lowest maximum transpiration rates of the three tree species. At the stand level, Fraxinus-dominated stands had higher water use than Eucalyptus- and Metrosideros- dominated stands due to the species' high sap flow rates, five-fold greater sapwood allocation, and the stands' two-fold greater dominant tree density. In Metrosideros-dominated stands, high Cibotium tree fern leaf area contributed to nearly 60% of water use, indicating the fern's critical role in forest water balance. Stand water use was influenced by factors at various scales, including species composition, stem density, tree sizes, and tree species' sapwood allocation, and was affected significantly by understory contributions. These findings highlight the importance of

  13. Estimating linkages between forest structural variables and rainfall interception parameters in semi-arid deciduous oak forest stands.

    PubMed

    Fathizadeh, O; Hosseini, S M; Zimmermann, A; Keim, R F; Darvishi Boloorani, A

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the relationship between canopy structure and the water balance is needed for predicting how forest structure changes affect rainfall partitioning and, consequently, water resources. The objective of this study was to predict rainfall interception (I) and canopy storage capacity (S) using canopy structure variables and to investigate how seasonal changes influence their relationship. The study was conducted in twelve 50m×50m plots in the Zagros forest in the western Iranian state of Ilam, protected forests of Dalab region. Average cumulative I was 84.2mm, accounting for 10.2% of cumulative gross precipitation (GP) over a 1-year period. Using a regression based method, S averaged ~1mm and 0.1mm in the leafed and leafless periods, respectively. There were no relationships between tree density and I:GP or S, but I:GP and S increased with leaf area index, canopy cover fraction, basal area, tree height, and diameter at breast height in the leafed period. In addition, wood area index and canopy cover fraction were related to I:GP or S in the leafless period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The deduction of forest stand attributes by the means of microwave data - a contribution to assess landscape functionality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeling, Stephan; Vohland, Michael; Buddenbaum, Henning

    2010-05-01

    Steadily rising number of satellites in space equipped with different microwave instruments result in a fast-growing range of microwave data. Meanwhile data in X-, C- and L- band, in different polarisations and shorter than ever time steps is operational and even commercial available. Because L-band data with deeper penetration in forest stands and X-band data with a very high spatial resolution is disposable, the answer for the calculation of biomass even for forest of middle Europe seams to be tangible. It seams to be about the time to investigate in the question if these new data sets are also useful for the calculation of further, more structural variables in woody areas that can be interpreted as indicators for the functional roles of forests within the landscape. In our case study at the Idarwald, Southwest Germans, we used a multi data set, consisting out of LIDAR, SAR and multispectral data to give and overview on the opportunities offered by microwave data or the fusion with other data types. As far as possible this results have been assigned in to indicators relevant for landscape function analysis (LFA).

  15. Illustrating harvest effects on site microclimate in a high-elevation forest stand.

    Treesearch

    W.B. Fowler; T.D. Anderson

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional contour surfaces were drawn for physiologically active radiation (PAR) and air and soil temperatures from measurements taken at a high-elevation site (1450 m) near the crest of the Cascade Range in central Washington. Measurements in a clearcut were compared with measurements from an adjacent uncut stand. Data for 31 days in July and August 1985...

  16. Height development of shade-tolerant conifer saplings in multiaged Acadian forest stands

    Treesearch

    Andrew R. Moores; Robert S. Seymour; Laura S. Kenefic

    2007-01-01

    Understory growth dynamics of northern conifer species were studied in four stands managed under multiaged silvicultural systems in eastern Maine. Height growth of Picea rubens Sarg., Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., and Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. saplings between 0.5 and 6.0 m in height was related to the proportion...

  17. Stand structure and local distribution of Phytophthora ramorum in Oregon forests

    Treesearch

    E. Peterson; M. Botts; E. Hansen

    2009-01-01

    The Phytophthora ramorum eradication program in effect in Oregon has allowed for the rapid detection of new infection foci, typically before they develop within each stand and expand into adjacent sites. Yet despite gallant efforts, new locations that previously harbored no apparent infection have been identified each year since the original...

  18. Modeling forest stand dynamics from optimal balances of carbon and nitrogen

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine; Annikki. Makela

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a dynamic evolutionary optimization problem to predict the optimal pattern by which carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are co-allocated to fine-root, leaf, and wood production, with the objective of maximizing height growth rate, year by year, in an even-aged stand. Height growth is maximized with respect to two adaptive traits, leaf N concentration and the ratio...

  19. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sonia; Schroeder, Matt; Bible, Ken; Falk, Matthias; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2009-08-01

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (approximately 450-500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F(NEE)), latent energy (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E(T)), Bowen ratio (beta), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G(c)), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (alpha) and a canopy decoupling factor (Omega). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to find out how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in relative soil water content ((r)) and vapour pressure deficit (deltae), differ among the two forest successional stages. Despite different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed site-specific diurnal patterns of E(T), alpha, G(c), deltae and (r) during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) at the OG forest high morning G(c) (> 10 mm s(-1)) coincided with high net CO(2) uptake (F(NEE) = -9 to -6 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), but a strong negative response in OG G(c) to moderate deltae was observed later in the afternoons and subsequently reduced daily E(T) and (2) at the ES stands total E(T) was higher (+72 mm) because midday G(c) did not decrease until very low water availability levels ((r) < 30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that ES stands are more likely than mature forests to experience constraints on gas exchange if the dry season becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were observed in the youngest stands only at the very end of the seasonal drought.

  20. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Keeley, Jon E.; Stephens, Scott L.; Roller, Gary B.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, after large stand-replacing fires in mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests, dense shrub fields occupy sites formerly occupied by mature conifers, until eventually conifers overtop and shade out shrubs. Attempting to reduce fuel loads and expedite forest regeneration in these areas, the USDA Forest Service often disrupts this cycle by the logging of fire-killed trees, replanting of conifers and killing of shrubs. We measured the effects of these treatments on live and dead fuel loads and alien species and modeled potential fire behavior and fire effects on regenerating forests. Sampling occurred in untreated, logged and herbicide-treated stands throughout the Sierra Nevada in four large fire areas 4–21 years after stand-replacing fires. Logging fire-killed trees significantly increased total available dead fuel loads in the short term but did not affect shrub cover, grass and forb cover, alien species cover or alien species richness. Despite the greater available dead fuel loads, fire behavior was not modeled to be different between logged and untreated stands, due to abundant shrub fuels in both logged and untreated stands. In contrast, the herbicide treatment directed at shrubs resulted in extremely low shrub cover, significantly greater alien species richness and significantly greater alien grass and forb cover. Grass and forb cover was strongly correlated with solar radiation on the ground, which may be the primary reason that grass and forb cover was higher in herbicide treated stands with low shrub and tree cover. Repeat burning exacerbated the alien grass problem in some stands. Although modeled surface fire flame lengths and rates of spread were found to be greater in stands dominated by shrubs, compared to low shrub cover conifer plantations, surface fire would still be intense enough to kill most trees, given their small size and low crown heights in the first two decades after planting.

  1. Taxation indices of forest stand as the basis for cadastral valuation of forestlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovyazin, V.; Belyaev, V.; Pasko, O.; Romanchikov, A.

    2014-08-01

    Cadastral valuation of forestlands is one of the problems of the modern economy. Valuation procedures depend either on the profitability of timbering or forest areas are not differentiated according to value. The authors propose the procedure based on taxation indices of strata. The most important factors influencing the valuation are determined. The dependence that allows establishing the relative cost of a certain forest area is defined. Knowing the cadastral value of a model area, it is possible to determine the values of all other sites. The evaluation results correlate with the Faustman procedure with slight difference in the absolute value.

  2. Treatments that enhance the decomposition of forest fuels for use in partially harvested stands in the moist forests of the northern Rocky Mountains (Priest River Experimental Forest)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2007-01-01

    The moist forests of the Rocky Mountains typically support late seral western hemlock, moist grand fir, or western redcedar forests. In addition to these species, Douglas-fir, western white pine, western larch, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine can occur creating a multitude of species compositions, structures, and successional stages that can be arrayed in a variety...

  3. Spatial and temporal variability in forest soil CO2 flux among stands and under elevated [CO2] and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, A. C.; Palmroth, S.; Johnsen, K.; Butnor, J. R.; McCarthy, H. R.; Oren, R.

    2012-12-01

    The magnitude of CO2 flux from soil (Fsoil) varies with primary productivity and environmental drivers of respiration, soil temperature (Tsoil) and moisture, all of which vary temporally and spatially. To quantify the sources of Fsoil variability, we compared Fsoil of three proximate forests in the Southeastern U.S. ranging in age, composition, soil, and environment and, thus, productivity. We collected data during a 10-year period with automated soil respiration chambers in a mid-rotation (PP) and mature (OP) Pinus taeda stands and a mature, mixed-species hardwood (HW) stand; PP and HW were on clay-loam soil and OP on a sandy soil. Productivity in PP was further altered as part of the Duke Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, combining the effects of elevated [CO2] and nitrogen (N) fertilization. Temporally, diurnal to seasonal variation of Fsoil followed Tsoil whereas inter-annual variability was driven by soil moisture. Spatially, among stands Fsoil increased with leaf production such that sensitivity to Tsoil was lowest in OP and highest in PP, resulting in mean annual Fsoil of 1033 (OP), 1206 (HW), and 1383 (PP) g C m-2. Among four ambient [CO2]-unfertilized plots within PP, sensitivity of Fsoil to Tsoil was similar, yet higher leaf area lowered soil temperature, belowground carbon flux, and Fsoil, a pattern contrasting that observed among stands. Among the FACE treatments, soil moisture and temperature were similar, whereas temperature- and moisture-sensitivities of Fsoil were affected by some of the treatments, but only at the height of the summer when temperatures were high and moisture low. The effects of elevated [CO2] and fertilization on annual Fsoil interacted such that Fsoil was similar among unfertilized plots of both [CO2] treatments. N fertilization under ambient [CO2] led to a 20% reduction in Fsoil, while Fsoil of elevated [CO2] plots did not differ from that of unfertilized plots. Among fertilized and unfertilized plots, increasing N

  4. Calibration and Validation of The Soil Water Balance Model Wave For Forest Stands In Flanders: 2. Methods and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Minnaert, M.; Meiresonne, L.; van Slycken, J.; Lust, N.; Muys, B.; Feyen, J.

    This research, stimulated by government policy, is conducted in de framework of the reforestation of agricultural land and its impact on hydrological basins. The integra- tion of the ongoing research efforts in Flanders offers a unique opportunity to calibrate and validate the water balance module of the WAVE-model (Water and Agrochemicals in soil, crop and Vadose Environment; Van Clooster et al., 1994) for the most impor- tant soil and forest types. Hence, the scientific objectives of this project are multiple. This poster will show the first results of the calibrated and validated WAVE-model and the simulated evapotranspiration for forest stands and agricultural land use. Fur- thermore comparison will be made with sap-flow measurements using the Heat Field Deformation Method (Cermàk and Nadezhdina, 1998). The calibration and validation procedure consist of a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters, model calibration using simulated and measured time series of soil water content at different depths of the soil profile (March 2000-August 2001) and multi-site validation (using the cali- brated parameters from one site on other experimental sites). The crop factor (Kc), the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and the root distribution function are the major calibration parameters. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Model efficiency (ME) and Coefficient of Determination (CD) are the simulation statistics implemented during the calibration step. The preliminary results show time series of soil water con- tent (in cm3.cm-3 for the whole soil profile) with a RMSE of 2.97 % (optimal as small as possible), a ME of 0.58 (optimal 1.00) and a CD of 1.01 (optimal 1.00) for a beech stand at a validation site. In case of the popular stand the actual transpiration (Tact), simulated with WAVE is overestimated compared with the sap-flow measure- ments (June-September 2000). The simulation results show more peaks and fall to zero when heavily daily rain showers occur

  5. A Work Flow and Evaluation of Using Unmanned Aerial Systems for Deriving Forest Stand Characteristics in Mixed Hardwoods of West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Henry

    Forest inventory information is a principle driver for forest management decisions. Information gathered through these inventories provides a summary of the condition of forested stands. The method by which remote sensing aids land managers is changing rapidly. Imagery produced from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offer high temporal and spatial resolutions and have added another approach to small-scale forest management. UAS imagery is less expensive and easier to coordinate to meet project needs compared to traditional manned aerial imagery. This study focused on producing an efficient and approachable work flow for producing forest stand board foot volume estimates from UAS imagery in mixed hardwood stands of West Virginia. A supplementary aim of this project was to evaluate which season was best to collect imagery for forest inventory. True color imagery was collected with a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS and was processed in Agisoft Photoscan Professional. Automated segmentation was performed with Trimble eCognition Developer's multi-resolution segmentation function with manual optimization of parameters through an iterative process. Individual tree volume metrics were derived from field data relationships and volume estimates were processed in EZ CRUZ forest inventory software. The software, at best, correctly segmented 43% of the individual tree crowns. No correlation between season of imagery acquisition and quality of segmentation was shown. Volume and other stand characteristics were not accurately estimated and were faulted by poor segmentation. However, the imagery was able to capture gaps consistently and the high resolution imagery was able to provide a visualization of forest health. Difficulties, successes and time required for these procedures were thoroughly noted.

  6. Phenology and recruitment of Ohio buckeye and sugar maple in Illinois forest stands

    Treesearch

    Michelle Henderson; Jeffery O. Dawson; Evan H. DeLucia

    1993-01-01

    Phenological patterns, light conditions, and photosynthetic activity of Ohio buckeye and sugar maple foliage on trees in the forest understory were monitored and compared over two growing seasons in two mesophytic upland woodlands in central Illinois. Ohio buckeye began leaf expansion three to four weeks earlier than sugar maple, started leaf senescence and shedding in...

  7. Stand Dynamics of Coast Redwood/Tanoak Forests Following Tanoak Decline

    Treesearch

    Kristen M. Waring; Kevin L. O' Hara

    2007-01-01

    Current threats to North American forests increasingly include exotic tree pathogens that cause extensive mortality. In California, tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) mortality has increased rapidly since 1995, due to Phytophthora ramorum, believed to be an introduced pathogen. Tanoak frequently grows as a major component of redwood...

  8. Songbird response to alternative forest density management in young Douglas-fir stands

    Treesearch

    Joan C. Hagar

    2013-01-01

    Th inning has been increasingly used in the Pacifi c Northwest to restore structural and biological diversity to densely-stocked young- to mid-aged forests that have been previously intensively managed for timber production. In the short term, thinning promotes development of understory vegetation, which in turn can increase habitat diversity for wildlife, particularly...

  9. Hypotheses for common persimmon stand development in mixed-species bottomland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2013-01-01

    Common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana L.) is a shade-tolerant tree species found in southern bottomland hardwood forests. It is a desired species due primarily to its large fruit used by many wildlife species. While it has been observed as a component in natural reproduction, persimmon is rarely found as an overstory species in maturing bottomland...

  10. Stand Structure and Yield in the Tabonuco Forest of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    C. B. Briscoe; F. H. Wadsworth

    1970-01-01

    Permanent plots were establised beginning in 1943 to study growth in the Tabonuco forest type in Puerto Rico. Initially, the most common species were Dacryodes excelsa; Euterpe globosa, 11%; Sloanea berteriana, 7%; Cordia borinquensis, 4%; and Manilkara bidentata, 4%. Species diversity was less than in mainland British Guiana. For canopy species the relation of overall...

  11. Sensitivity of stand transpiration to wind velocity in a mixed broadleaved deciduous forest

    Treesearch

    Dohyoung Kim; Ram Oren; A. Christopher Oishi; Cheng-I Hsieh; Nathan Phillips; Kimberly A. Novick; Paul C. Stoy

    2014-01-01

    Wind velocity (U) within and above forest canopies can alter the coupling between the vapor-saturated sub-stomatal airspace and the drier atmosphere aloft, thereby influencing transpiration rates. In practice, however, the actual increase in transpiration with increasing U depends on the aerodynamic resistance (RA) to vapor transfer compared to canopy resistance to...

  12. Effects of site on the demographics of standing dead trees in eastside pine forests

    Treesearch

    William F. Jr. Laudenslayer

    2005-01-01

    In the last several decades there has been a growing awareness of the value of snags in forests. Recent work has resulted in management standards and guidelines that set objectives for species such as cavity-nesting birds, but the numbers of snags required may not be attainable or sustainable across the landscape. Work reported here on snag demography in eastside pine...

  13. Snowpack dynamics in an opening and a thinned stand in a ponderosa pine forest

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2009-01-01

    Snow that accumulates in high-elevation forested watersheds is an important source of water for downstream municipalities, industries, and agricultural activities. Streamflow and water storage impoundments in the drier regions of the western United States depend on snowmelt. Troendle (1983) estimated that almost 90 percent of the total annual water yields in the Rocky...

  14. Vegetation and disturbance history of two forest stands in northern New York using paleoecological data from small forest hollows

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, J.B.; Jackson, S.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pollen, macrofossils and charcoal from two small hollows (<0.05 ha) were analyzed to reconstruct the vegetational history of an outwash plain in the central Adirondack upland of New York. The basins are located 700 meters apart in contrasting modern vegetation at 461 in elevation. Dave`s Lost Hollow (DLH) is in a hemlock-dominated old-growth forest with yellow birch, red spruce and red maple, and Valhalla Hollow (VH) is surrounded by second-growth forest of white pine, balsam fir, paper birch and red maple. The record from DLH spans the entire Holocene, while VH provides data for the late Holocene. Modem pollen-vegetation data from 26 closed-canopy sites in the area provide evidence for the fine-scale sensing properties of closed- canopy pollen assemblages. We found abundant jack pine needles during the early Holocene at DLH. In contrast, data from the High Peaks, 30 km to the east, show white pine as the dominant pine species during that time period. DLH provides an early Holocene record for yellow birch in the region, whereas yellow birch was not present in the High Peaks until 6,000 yrs. B.P.

  15. [Dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in typical forest stand at different spatial levels in Simian Mountain, mid-subtropical region].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong; Huang, Li-xin

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in subtropical forest ecosystem, one typical forest stand, evergreen broad-leaved forest, at Simian Mountain located in Chongqing was selected in this research. Based on field monitoring, effects of precipitation, throughfall, litterfall, and groundwater runoff of the typical forest stand on the quality of water of Simian Mountain were investigated from September 2012 to August 2013. Results showed that the rainfall of Simian Mountain was apparently acidic, with average pH of 4.89 and maximum pH of 5.14. The soil, canopies and trunks could increase pH of precipitation, with soils having the maximum increment, followed by the forest canopy. Forest canopy had the function of adsorption and purification of NO3-, NO2- and SO4(2-), and the average entrapment rate was 56.68%, 45.84% and 35.51%, respectively. Moreover, the degradation of litter was probably the main reason for the increase of ion concentrations in the surface litter water. Forest soils could absorb and neutralize NO3-, SO2- and NH4+, and release NO2-. The evergreen broad-leaf forest of mid-subtropical region had the function of interception on NO3-, NO2-, NH4+ and SO4(2-), and the total entrapment rate was 92.86%, 57.86%, 87.24% and 87.25%, respectively, and it had a certain buffering function for the acid rain.

  16. Microbial diversity during cellulose decomposition in different forest stands: I. microbial communities and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kubartová, Ariana; Moukoumi, Judicaël; Béguiristain, Thierry; Ranger, Jacques; Berthelin, Jacques

    2007-10-01

    We studied the effect of forest tree species on a community of decomposers that colonize cellulose strips. Both fungal and bacterial communities were targeted in a native forest dominated by beech and oak and 30-year-old beech and spruce plantations, growing in similar ecological conditions in the Breuil-Chenue experimental forest site in Morvan (France). Microbial ingrowths from the 3rd to 10th month of strip decomposition (May to December 2004) were studied. Community composition was assessed using temperature gradient gel electrophoresis with universal fungal (ITS1F, ITS2) and bacterial (1401r, 968f) primers. Soil temperature and moisture as well as fungal biomass were also measured to give additional information on decomposition processes. Changing the dominant tree species had no significant influence in the number of decomposer species. However, decomposer community composition was clearly different. If compared to the native forest, where community composition highly differed, young monocultures displayed similar species structure for fungi and bacteria. Both species numbers and community composition evolved during the decay process. Time effect was found to be more important than tree species. Nevertheless, the actual environmental conditions and seasonal effect seemed to be even more determining factors for the development of microbial communities. The course and correlations of the explored variables often differed between tree species, although certain general trends were identified. Fungal biomass was high in summer, despite that species richness (SR) decreased and conversely, that high SR did not necessarily mean high biomass values. It can be concluded that the growth and development of the microbiological communities that colonized a model material in situ depended on the combination of physical and biological factors acting collectively and interdependently at the forest soil microsite.

  17. Simulation of boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: validation and model evaluation of a global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Cadule, P.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Bellassen, V.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-04-01

    This study simulates boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance, using a process-based vegetation model called ORCHIDEE. The aim is to calibrate the forest stand structure, and carbon flux and carbon pools after fire disturbance. To achieve this aim, we used a new "forestry" module in ORCHIDEE which can explicitly represent forest structure and the process of self-thinning. Observations in three post-fire forest chronosequences in North America (Detla Junction in Alaska, Thompson in Manitoba, Canada and Albert in Saskathewan, Canada) were used as validation data. The validation variables include: stand density and mean diameter at breast height (DBH), annual GPP, NPP, NEP and ecosystem respiration, total biomass carbon (or above-ground biomass carbon), forest floor carbon, coarse woody debris (CWD) carbon, and mineral soil carbon. We chose a fire return interval of 160 years in the simulation. The model results generally compare well with the observation. Following a stand-replacing fire, (1) GPP and NPP increase steadily during forest regrowth until 30-40 years when the increase either stops or slows down. Slight decrease in GPP in the later growth stage occurs and NPP decreases more significantly. The heterotrophic respiration undergoes a surge immediately after burning and then remains relatively stable during the forest regrowth. Consequently, the net ecosystem production remains negative (the ecosystem being a CO2 source for the atmosphere) for 20-30 years after fire, after which the forest begins to function as a CO2 sink. This CO2 sink peaks in the intermediate stage, and it is followed by a decrease again in later stages before the next disturbance event. Over the whole fire return interval, the net carbon exchange is mainly controlled by forest NPP. (2) The biomass carbon stock increases steadily after disturbance and then more slowly in later succession stages. Forest floor carbon (i.e. aboveground litter or soil organic carbon

  18. Modelling of the natural chlorine cycling in a coniferous stand: implications for chlorine-36 behaviour in a contaminated forest environment.

    PubMed

    Hoof, Catherine Van den; Thiry, Yves

    2012-05-01

    Considered as one of the most available radionuclide in soil-plant system, ³⁶Cl is of potential concern for long-term management of radioactive wastes, due to its high mobility and its long half-life. To evaluate the risk of dispersion and accumulation of ³⁶Cl in the biosphere as a consequence of a potential contamination, there is a need for an appropriate understanding of the chlorine cycling dynamics in the ecosystems. To date, a small number of studies have investigated the chlorine transfer in the ecosystem including the transformation of chloride to organic chlorine but, to our knowledge, none have modelled this cycle. In this study, a model involving inorganic as well as organic pools in soils has been developed and parameterised to describe the biogeochemical fate of chlorine in a pine forest. The model has been evaluated for stable chlorine by performing a range of sensitivity analyses and by comparing the simulated to the observed values. Finally a range of contamination scenarios, which differ in terms of external supply, exposure time and source, has been simulated to estimate the possible accumulation of ³⁶Cl within the different compartments of the coniferous stand. The sensitivity study supports the relevancy of the model and its compartments, and has highlighted the chlorine transfers affecting the most the residence time of chlorine in the stand. Compared to observations, the model simulates realistic values for the chlorine content within the different forest compartments. For both atmospheric and underground contamination scenarios most of the chlorine can be found in its organic form in the soil. However, in case of an underground source, about two times less chlorine accumulates in the system and proportionally more chlorine leaves the system through drainage than through volatilisation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stand Dynamics in an Old-Growth Hardwood Forest in Southern Illinois, USA

    Treesearch

    James J. Zaczek; John W. Groninger; J. W. Van Sambeek

    2002-01-01

    Kaskaskia Woods, a 7.4-ha old-growth hardwood forest in southern Illinois, USA, has been managed as a natural area and protected from disturbance since 1933. In 1935, eight 0.1-ha plots were installed and all trees 4 cm dbh or larger were tagged and inventoried. Trees were remeasured for survival, ingrowth (new trees >4 cm), and diameter (dbh) in 1940, 1958, 1965,...

  20. Consumption and reaccumulation of forest fuels in oak shelterwood stands managed with prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose

    2016-01-01

    In the shelterwood-burn technique, a moderate- to high-intensity growing-season prescribed fire is essential to achieve desired oak regeneration goals. These levels of fire intensity are dependent on the increased fuel loadings created by the preceding first removal cut. However, the loadings of forest fuels and their fluctuation during implementation of the...

  1. Intrastorm scale rainfall interception dynamics in a mature coniferous forest stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Shin'ichi; Levia, Delphis F.; Shimizu, Akira; Shimizu, Takanori; Tamai, Koji; Nobuhiro, Tatsuhiko; Kabeya, Naoki; Noguchi, Shoji; Sawano, Shinji; Araki, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Canopy interception of rainfall is an important process in the water balance of forests. The intrastorm dynamics of canopy interception is less well understood than event scale interception. Accordingly, armed with measurements of hourly interception intensity (i) from the field, this study is among the first to examine the differences in canopy interception dynamics between the first and second halves of rainfall events to quantify dynamic storage values for a coniferous forest in Japan. At this site, experimental results demonstrated that: (1) the relationship between interception loss (I) and gross rainfall (GR) at the event scale is better explained by a parabolic curve than a linear relationship, and there is a low correlation between rainfall intensity (gr) and i; (2) the ratio of accumulated i during the first half (IF) to that of gr (GRF) was larger than the second half (IS/GRS), with no significant correlations between potential evaporation during first half (PEF) vs IF or the second half (PES) vs IS; and (3) water storage capacity was similar to the magnitude of maximum I. By emphasizing the comparison between IF and IS, this study concludes that the water storage on tree surface is more important than losses by wet canopy evaporation and splash during rain. This study also adds insights into intrastorm interception dynamics of coniferous forests which are necessary to better model and forecast interception losses.

  2. Estimating Wood Volume for Pinus Brutia Trees in Forest Stands from QUICKBIRD-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patias, Petros; Stournara, Panagiota

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of forest parameters, such as wood volume, is required for a sustainable forest management. Collecting such information in the field is laborious and even not feasible in inaccessible areas. In this study, tree wood volume is estimated utilizing remote sensing techniques, which can facilitate the extraction of relevant information. The study area is the University Forest of Taxiarchis, which is located in central Chalkidiki, Northern Greece and covers an area of 58km2. The tree species under study is the conifer evergreen species P. brutia (Calabrian pine). Three plot surfaces of 10m radius were used. VHR Quickbird-2 images are used in combination with an allometric relationship connecting the Tree Crown with the Diameter at breast height (Dbh), and a volume table developed for Greece. The overall methodology is based on individual tree crown delineation, based on (a) the marker-controlled watershed segmentation approach and (b) the GEographic Object-Based Image Analysis approach. The aim of the first approach is to extract separate segments each of them including a single tree and eventual lower vegetation, shadows, etc. The aim of the second approach is to detect and remove the "noisy" background. In the application of the first approach, the Blue, Green, Red, Infrared and PCA-1 bands are tested separately. In the application of the second approach, NDVI and image brightness thresholds are utilized. The achieved results are evaluated against field plot data. Their observed difference are between -5% to +10%.

  3. A new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thi Hong; Cu, Nguyen Khac Quynh; Quy, Trinh Van; Zidorn, Christian; Ganzera, Markus; Stuppner, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts of Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae), 6'-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1), rutin (2), isoverbascoside (4), isooleoverbascoside (6), apiosylverbascoside (7), astragalin (9), isoquercitrin (10), and verbascoside (11) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR spectroscopy. Amongst 6'-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1) is a new phenylpropanoid glycoside.

  4. Influence of nutrient availability, stand age, and canopy structure on isoprene flux in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Jennifer L.; Giardina, Christian P.; Knohl, Alexander; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2006-06-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy approximately 10 million ha of land in the tropics and, increasingly, afforestation and reforestation projects are relying on this genus to provide rapid occupation of degraded sites, large quantities of high-quality wood products, and high rates of carbon sequestration. Members of the genus Eucalyptus are also very high emitters of isoprene, the dominant volatile organic compound emitted by trees in tropical ecosystems, which significantly influences the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. While fertilization growth response of these trees has been intensively studied, little is known about how fertilization and tree age alter isoprene production from plantations of these trees. Here we examined the effects of fertilization and tree age on leaf-level isoprene flux from 2- and 6-year-old trees in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest in Hawaii. Leaf-level emission at a given canopy height did not differ between fertilized and unfertilized 6-year-old trees likely because leaf nitrogen content did not vary with fertilization. Across treatments, however, the standardized emission rate of isoprene (emission at a standard light and temperature) followed patterns of leaf N content and declined with canopy depth. Although leaf nitrogen content was similar between 2-year and 6-year fertilized trees, leaf-level emission rates declined with stand age. Surprisingly, despite differences in stand leaf area and leaf area distribution, modeled canopy-level isoprene flux was similar across stands varying in fertilization and tree age. Model results suggest that leaf area index was high enough in all treatments to absorb most of the light penetrating the canopy, leading to similar canopy flux rates despite the very different sized canopies.

  5. The rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume - An ethnopharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hong-Dan; Zhou, Hai-Yu; Sui, Yun-Peng; Du, Xin-Liang; Wang, Wei-Hao; Dai, Li; Sui, Feng; Huo, Hai-Ru; Jiang, Ting-Liang

    2016-08-02

    Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae) is commonly called Tian ma in Chinese and mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of eastern Asia, such as China, Korea, Japan and India. It is an extensively used traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine, to treat headache, migraine, dizziness, epilepsy, infantile convulsion, tetany and so on. The present paper reviews the advancements in investigation of botany and ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and quality control of Gastrodia elata Blume. Finally, the possible tendency and perspective for future investigation of this plant are also put forward. The information on Gastrodia elata Blume was collected via piles of resources including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases including Pubmed, Google Scholar, ACS, Web of science, ScienceDirect databases, CNKI and others. Plant taxonomy was validated by the databases "The Plant List", and "Mansfeld's Encyclopedia". Over 81 compounds from this plant have been isolated and identified, phenolics and polysaccharides are generally considered as the characteristic and active constituents of Gastrodia elata Blume. Its active compounds possess wide-reaching biological activities, including sedative, hypnotic, antiepileptic, anticonvulsive, antianxietic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, anti-vertigo, circulatory system modulating, anti-inflammationary, analgesic, antioxidative, memory-improving and antiaging, antivirus and antitumor effects. Despite the publication of various papers on Gastrodia elata Blume, there is still, however, the need for definitive research and clarification of other bioactive compounds using bioactivity-guided isolation strategies, and the possible mechanism of action as well as potential synergistic or antagonistic effects of multi-component mixtures derived from Gastrodia elata Blume need to be evaluated. It is also necessary and

  6. Arsenic accumulation in bark beetles and forest birds occupying mountain pine beetle infested stands treated with monosodium methanearsonate.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Albert, Courtney A; Dods, Patti L; Cullen, William R; Lai, Vivian W M; Elliott, John E

    2007-02-15

    The arsenic-based pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), is presently being evaluated for re-registration in Canada and the United States and has been widely used in British Columbia to help suppress Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) outbreaks. We assessed the availability and exposure of MSMA to woodpeckers and other forest birds that may prey directly on contaminated bark beetles. Total arsenic residues in MPB from MSMA treated trees ranged from 1.3-700.2 microg g(-1) dw (geometric mean 42.0 microg g(-1)) with the metabolite monomethyl arsonic acid (MMAA) contributing 90-97% to the total arsenic extracted. Live adult and larval beetles were collected from treated trees and reached concentrations up to 327 microg g(-1) dw. MPBs from reference trees had significantly lower arsenic concentrations averaging 0.19 microg g(-1) dw. Woodpeckers foraged more heavily on MSMAtreesthat contained beetles with lower arsenic residues, suggesting those trees had reduced MSMAtranslocation and possibly greater live beetle broods. Blood samples from five species of woodpeckers and other forest passerines breeding within 1 km of MSMA stands contained elevated levels of total arsenic but with large individual variability (geometric mean = 0.18 microg g(-1) dw, range 0.02-2.20 microg g(-1). The results indicate that there is significant accumulation and transfer of organic arsenic within the food chain at levels that may present a toxicity risk to avian wildlife.

  7. Sensitivity of ERS-1 and JERS-1 radar data to biomass and stand structure in Alaskan boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, P.A.; Christensen, N.L. Jr.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L.; Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F.

    1995-12-01

    As the boreal system is such an important component of the global carbon budget, it is important that the system and the potential changes be understood, whether from anthropogenic disturbances or global climate change. Thirty-two boreal forest sites were identified and sampled in the central region of Alaska to evaluate the sensitivity of the C-band ERS-1 and the L-band JERS-1 radar platforms to site biophysical properties. The sites selected represent black spruce (Picea mariana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) stands in a post-fire chronosequence. Black spruce biomass ranged from less than 1 kg/m{sup 2} to 5.6 kg/m{sup 2} and white spruce from 8.8 to 21.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Results indicate both ERS-1 and JERS-1 backscatter is responsive to biomass, density, and height, though other factors, principally surface moisture conditions, are often a stronger influence. Sensitivity to forest biomass and structure appears greatest when surface moisture conditions are minimized as a factor. Biomass correlations with the radar backscatter were strongest in the late winter imagery when all sites had a snow cover, and late summer when the surface is most dry. ERS-1 data may be more sensitive to surface moisture conditions than the JERS-1 data due to the shorter wavelength of the C-band sensor, though this is inconclusive because of limited JERS-1 L-band data for comparison.

  8. Thinning to improve growth, bole quality, and forest health in an Inonotus hispidus-infected, red oak-sweetgum stand in the Mississippi Delta: 10-year results

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; David Montwé; T. Evan Nebeker

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.- Liquidambar styraciflua) stand on the Delta National Forest in western Mississippi was subjected to a combination of low thinning and improvement cutting in 1997. Special emphasis was placed on removing all red oaks infected with Inonotus hispidus, a canker decay...

  9. Land classification of the standing stone state forest and state park on the eastern highland rim in Tennessee: the interaction of geology, topography, and soils

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley; Carlie McCowan; S. David Todd; Phillip M. Morrissey; J. Andrew McBride

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of a land classification system developed by the senior author to the Standing Stone State Forest and State Park (SSSF&SP) on the Eastern Highland Rim. Landtypes are the most detailed level in the hierarchical system and represent distinct units of the landscape (mapped at a scale of 1:24,000) as defined by climate, geology,...

  10. Amounts and spatial distribution of downed woody debris, snags, windthrow, and forest floor mass within streamside management zones occurring in shortleaf pine stands five years after harvesting

    Treesearch

    Hal Liechty

    2007-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is a dominant tree species in pine and pine-hardwood forest communities located on ridges and upper- to mid-slope positions in the Ouachita Mountains. The stream reaches located in these stands flow infrequently and are classified as ephemeral or intermittent, have low stream orders, and have relatively narrow...

  11. Modelling diameter distributions of two-cohort forest stands with various proportions of dominant species: a two-component mixture model approach.

    Treesearch

    Rafal Podlaski; Francis Roesch

    2014-01-01

    In recent years finite-mixture models have been employed to approximate and model empirical diameter at breast height (DBH) distributions. We used two-component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution for describing the DBH distributions of mixed-species, two-cohort forest stands, to analyse the relationships between the DBH components,...

  12. Compensating effect of sap velocity for stand density leads to uniform hillslope-scale forest transpiration across a steep valley cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Maik; Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Anke; Guderle, Marcus; Schymanski, Stan; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Roberts (1983) found that forest transpiration is relatively uniform across different climatic conditions and suggested that forest transpiration is a conservative process compensating for environmental heterogeneity. Here we test this hypothesis at a steep valley cross-section composed of European Beech in the Attert basin in Luxemburg. We use sapflow, soil moisture, biometric and meteorological data from 6 sites along a transect to estimate site scale transpiration rates. Despite opposing hillslope orientation, different slope angles and forest stand structures, we estimated relatively similar transpiration responses to atmospheric demand and seasonal transpiration totals. This similarity is related to a negative correlation between sap velocity and site-average sapwood area. At the south facing sites with an old, even-aged stand structure and closed canopy layer, we observe significantly lower sap velocities but similar stand-average transpiration rates compared to the north-facing sites with open canopy structure, tall dominant trees and dense understorey. This suggests that plant hydraulic co-ordination allows for flexible responses to environmental conditions leading to similar transpiration rates close to the water and energy limits despite the apparent heterogeneity in exposition, stand density and soil moisture. References Roberts, J. (1983). Forest transpiration: A conservative hydrological process? Journal of Hydrology 66, 133-141.

  13. Forest growth along a rainfall gradient in Hawaii: Acacia koa stand structure, productivity, foliar nutrients, and water- and nutrient-use efficiencies

    Treesearch

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Frederick C. Meinzer; Paul G. Scowcroft

    1995-01-01

    We tested whether variation in growth of native koa (Acacia koa) forest along a rainfall gradient was attributable to differences in leaf area index (LAI) or to differences in physiological performance per unit of leaf area. Koa stands were studied on western Kauai prior to Hurricane Iniki, and ranged from 500 to 1130 m elevation and from 850 to...

  14. Use of Fouler Transforms to define landscape scales of analysis for disturbances: A case study of thinned and unthinned forest stands

    Treesearch

    J. E. Lundquist; R. A. Sommerfeld

    2002-01-01

    Various disturbances such as disease and management practices cause canopy gaps that change patterns of forest stand structure. This study examined the usefulness of digital image analysis using aerial photos, Fourier Tranforms, and cluster analysis to investigate how different spatial statistics are affected by spatial scale. The specific aims were to: 1) evaluate how...

  15. Identifying Standing Dead Trees in Forest Areas Based on 3d Single Tree Detection from Full Waveform LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Heurich, M.

    2012-07-01

    In forest ecology, a snag refers to a standing, partly or completely dead tree, often missing a top or most of the smaller branches. The accurate estimation of live and dead biomass in forested ecosystems is important for studies of carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and forest management. Therefore, an understanding of its availability and spatial distribution is required. So far, LiDAR remote sensing has been successfully used to assess live trees and their biomass, but studies focusing on dead trees are rare. The paper develops a methodology for retrieving individual dead trees in a mixed mountain forest using features that are derived from small-footprint airborne full waveform LIDAR data. First, 3D coordinates of the laser beam reflections, the pulse intensity and width are extracted by waveform decomposition. Secondly, 3D single trees are detected by an integrated approach, which delineates both dominate tree crowns and understory small trees in the canopy height model (CHM) using the watershed algorithm followed by applying normalized cuts segmentation to merged watershed areas. Thus, single trees can be obtained as 3D point segments associated with waveform-specific features per point. Furthermore, the tree segments are delivered to feature definition process to derive geometric and reflectional features at single tree level, e.g. volume and maximal diameter of crown, mean intensity, gap fraction, etc. Finally, the spanned feature space for the tree segments is forwarded to a binary classifier using support vector machine (SVM) in order to discriminate dead trees from the living ones. The methodology is applied to datasets that have been captured with the Riegl LMSQ560 laser scanner at a point density of 25 points/m2 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany, respectively under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions for Norway spruces, European beeches and Sycamore maples. The classification experiments lead in the best case to an overall accuracy of 73% in a leaf

  16. Evidence for oxidative stress in sugar maple stands growing on acidic, nutrient imbalanced forest soils.

    PubMed

    Clair, Samuel B St; Carlson, John E; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2005-09-01

    Soil acidification and the disruption of nutrient cycles appear to be important factors that weaken sugar maple resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses and predispose it to decline symptoms. Although connections between edaphic stress and decline symptoms have been identified, very little is known about the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underlie this relationship. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that foliar nutrient imbalances impair the photosynthetic apparatus of sugar maple through oxidative stress. We examined leaf nutrition, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity (a biomarker of oxidative stress) from early June to late August in three-paired overstory sugar maple stands on Pennsylvania's Allegheny Plateau that contrast in soil nutrient availability according to slope position. Beginning in early June, trees on upper slopes (nutrient-poor) had significantly lower foliar Ca and Mg concentrations and significantly higher foliar Mn concentrations than trees on lower slopes. These differences increased throughout summer peaking in late August. Photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity closely reflected changes in foliar nutrient status throughout the summer. In the latter half of the summer, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll content were significantly lower and antioxidant enzyme activity was significantly higher in stands on upper slope soils. At the end of August, leaf nutrient imbalances corresponded with lower rates of photosynthesis and higher antioxidant enzyme activity, suggesting that foliar nutrient imbalances may impair sugar maple function through mechanisms of oxidative stress.

  17. Presettlement and modern disturbance regimes in coast redwood forests: Implications for the conservation of old-growth stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorimer, Craig G.; Porter, Daniel J.; Madej, Mary Ann; Stuart, John D.; Veirs, Stephen D.; Norman, Steven P.; O'Hara, Kevin L.; Libby, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), a western North American conifer of ancient lineage, has a paradoxical combination of late-successional characteristics and strong adaptations to disturbance. Despite its shade tolerance and heavy dominance of the canopy on many sites, redwood saplings are uncommon in upland old-growth stands. Information needed to ensure the conservation of old-growth redwood forests has been limited. In this review paper, we integrate evidence on redwood biology with data on the historic and modern disturbance regimes to help clarify the degree to which key attributes of redwood forests may have been dependent upon periodic disturbance. Available evidence suggests that episodes of fire, flooding, and slope failure prior to European settlement were frequent but predominantly of low to moderate severity and extent, resulting in broadly uneven-aged forests. The majority of fires prior to European settlement were apparently of human origin. Frequency and severity of the major disturbance agents have been radically changed in modern times. Fires have been largely excluded, and flooding has been altered in ways that have often been detrimental to old-growth redwoods on alluvial terraces. However, because of the apparent anthropogenic origin of most presettlement fires, the long-term evolutionary role of fire for coast redwood is ecologically ambiguous. With fire exclusion, redwood possibly could be displaced to some extent on upland sites by increasing abundance of fire-sensitive competitors. Alternatively, redwood may be able to maintain dominance by vegetative sprouting and new seedling establishment on root-wad mounds, fallen logs, and on soil exposed by slope failure. Future research priorities are suggested that will help resolve some of the current ambiguities.

  18. Invasion By A Nitrogen-Fixing Tree Increases Decomposition Rates In Hawaiian Lowland Wet Forests: The Importance Of Stand-Level Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. F.; Uowolo, A. L.; Perry, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Decomposition represents the primary pathway that fixed carbon and nutrients move from vegetation to soils; substantial changes to decomposition likely will have associated impacts on soil C storage and nutrient availability. We investigated how invasion by a non-native N-fixing tree, Falcataria moluccana - by increasing N and P inputs via litter fall and soil nutrient availability - altered decomposition processes in lowland wet forests growing on young lava flows of eastern Hawaii. We measured rates of mass loss and N and P dynamics for leaf litter of six native and non-native tree species common to Hawaiian forests. Initial litter quality of the six species varied considerably, with 2-, 4-, 5-, and 7-fold differences in leaf mass per area, %N, lignin:N, and %P values, respectively. Litterbags of each leaf litter type were placed in both native-dominated and Falcataria-invaded stands on a 300-year-old lava flow of Kilauea Volcano, and decomposition rates were determined over a one-year period. Leaf litter of 5 of the 6 species decayed twice as fast in Falcataria-invaded stands compared to native-dominated stands. Although decay rates varied among the 6 litter types within a given stand, significant differences were limited to litter types exhibiting the fastest (in the native-dominated forest) and slowest (in the Falcataria-invaded forest) decay rates, with the majority of litter types decaying at similar rates. Immobilization or release of N and P during decomposition was similarly affected by forest type; in most cases, substantially more initial N and P mass was released from a given litter type in invaded stands compared to native stands. However, such differences primarily were due to differences in mass loss between forest type; when initial N and P remaining were plotted against mass remaining, nutrient dynamics of a given litter type were similar between forest types, and distinct differences among litter types were apparent. While prior research

  19. Effect of environmental variables and stand structure on ecosystem respiration components in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    PubMed

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Rey, Ana; D'Andrea, Ettore; Matteucci, Giorgio; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    The temporal variability of ecosystem respiration (RECO) has been reported to have important effects on the temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange, the net amount of carbon exchanged between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. However, our understanding of ecosystem respiration is rather limited compared with photosynthesis or gross primary productivity, particularly in Mediterranean montane ecosystems. In order to investigate how environmental variables and forest structure (tree classes) affect different respiration components and RECO in a Mediterranean beech forest, we measured soil, stem and leaf CO2 efflux rates with dynamic chambers and RECO by the eddy-covariance technique over 1 year (2007-2008). Ecosystem respiration showed marked seasonal variation, with the highest rates in spring and autumn and the lowest in summer. We found that the soil respiration (SR) was mainly controlled by soil water content below a threshold value of 0.2 m(3) m(-3), above which the soil temperature explained temporal variation in SR. Stem CO2 effluxes were influenced by air temperature and difference between tree classes with higher rates measured in dominant trees than in co-dominant ones. Leaf respiration (LR) varied significantly between the two canopy layers considered. Non-structural carbohydrates were a very good predictor of LR variability. We used these measurements to scale up respiration components to ecosystem respiration for the whole canopy and obtained cumulative amounts of carbon losses over the year. Based on the up-scaled chamber measurements, the relative contributions of soil, stem and leaves to the total annual CO2 efflux were: 56, 8 and 36%, respectively. These results confirm that SR is the main contributor of ecosystem respiration and provided an insight on the driving factors of respiration in Mediterranean montane beech forests.

  20. The effect of wood ash fertilization on soil respiration and tree stand growth in boreal peatland forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liimatainen, Maarit; Maljanen, Marja; Hytönen, Jyrki

    2017-04-01

    Out of Finland's original 10 million hectares of peatlands over half has been drained for forestry. Natural peatlands act as a sink for carbon but when peatland is drained, increased oxygen concentration in the peat accelerates the aerobic decomposition of the old organic matter of the peat leading to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to atmosphere. Increasing use of bioenergy increases also the amount of ash produced as a byproduct in power plants. Wood ash contains all essential nutrients for trees to grow except nitrogen. Therefore, wood ash is ideal fertilizer for nitrogen rich peatland forests where lack of phosphorus or potassium may restrict tree growth. At the moment, wood ash is the only available PK-fertilizer for peatland forests in Finland and areas of peatland forests fertilized with ash are increasing annually. The effects of wood ash on vegetation, soil properties and tree growth are rather well known although most of the studies have been made using fine ash whereas nowadays mostly stabilized ash (e.g. granulated) is used. Transporting and spreading of stabilized ash is easier than that of dusty fine ash. Also, slower leaching rate of nutrients is environmentally beneficial and prolongs the fertilizer effect. The knowledge on the impact of granulated wood ash on greenhouse gas emissions is still very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of granulated wood ash on CO2 emissions from peat and tree stand growth. Field measurements were done in two boreal peatland forests in 2011 and 2012. One of the sites is more nutrient rich with soil carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 18 whereas the other site is nutrient poor with C/N ratio of 82. Both sites were fertilized with granulated wood ash in 2003 (5000 kg ha-1). The effect of fertilization was followed with tree stand measurements conducted 0, 5 and 10 years after the fertilization. The CO2 emissions of the decomposing peat (heterotrophic respiration) were measured from study plots where

  1. Changes in carbon pool and stand structure of a native subtropical mangrove forest after inter-planting with exotic species Sonneratia apetala.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p = 0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration.

  2. Changes in Carbon Pool and Stand Structure of a Native Subtropical Mangrove Forest after Inter-Planting with Exotic Species Sonneratia apetala

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p = 0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration. PMID:24618793

  3. The relationship between productivities of salmonids and forest stands in northern California watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazey, S.L.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Productivities of resident salmonids and upland and riporian forests in 22 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine whether: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using Site Index values for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Salmonid productivity was indexed by back-calculated length at age 1 of the largest individuals sampled and by total biomass. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid productivity. Total salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area. Length of dominant fish was best described by a positive relationship with percentage of hardwoods within riparian areas, which may result from nutrient and/or litter subsidies provided by red older. The inability of forest productivity to predict salmon productivity may reflect insufficient variation in independent variables, limitations of the indices, and the operation of other factors affecting salmonid production. The lack of an apparent relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, management strategies.

  4. Variation in moss-associated nitrogen fixation in boreal forest stands.

    PubMed

    Markham, John H

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally it has been thought that most boreal forest communities lack a significant input of biologically fixed nitrogen. Recent discoveries of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria associated with mosses have resulted in a re-evaluation of this view. While it is recognized that rates of nitrogen fixation in mosses can be highly variable, there is little understanding as to why this occurs. I monitored nitrogen fixation, using acetylene reduction, in wet lowland and dry upland boreal forest communities, in central Canada, over a growing season. At the peak of nitrogen fixation in mid summer, Sphagnum capillifolium had an 11 times higher rate of fixation than Pleurozium schreberi. Variation in canopy openness and precipitation had no effect on rates of fixation over the growing season. In P. schreberi fixation rates did not vary between sites. Temperature had a positive effect on fixation rates in both S. capillifolium and P. schreberi, but the effect was 4 times more pronounced in S. capillifolium. Seasonal rates of nitrogen fixation were estimated at 193 mg N m(-2) for S. capillifolium and 23 mg N m(-2) for P. schreberi. With moderate increases in climate warming, predicted increases in nitrogen fixation in S. capillifolium are sufficient to raise its decomposition rate. Increased temperatures may therefore act synergistically to change boreal systems from a sink to a source of carbon.

  5. Land application of hydrofracturing fluids damages a deciduous forest stand in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fluid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fluid application, 56% of the trees within the fluid application area were dead. Ehrh. was the tree species with the highest mortality, and L. was the least affected, although all tree species present on the site showed damage symptoms and mortality. Surface soils (0-10 cm) were sampled in July and October 2008, June and October 2009, and May 2010 on the fluid application area and an adjacent reference area to evaluate the effects of the hydrofracturing fluid on soil chemistry and to attempt to identify the main chemical constituents of the hydrofracturing fluid. Surface soil concentrations of sodium and chloride increased 50-fold as a result of the land application of hydrofracturing fluids and declined over time. Soil acidity in the fluid application area declined with time, perhaps from altered organic matter cycling. This case study identifies the need for further research to help understand the nature and the environmental impacts of hydrofracturing fluids to devise optimal, safe disposal strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Tropical forest tree stands characterization with L-band polarimetric radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shih-Tseng

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of using L-band polarimetric data to determine tropical tree-stand parameters is discussed with specific attention given to the correction of the radar data. Tree-parameter data from ground studies is compared to L-band polarimetric data (in both uncorrected and topographically corrected forms) for two test areas. The test sites are at two different elevations but both include 81 test plots with topographic data and tree-characteristic data given. Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data are found to be related to bole volume and tree volume, and the topographically corrected data show results similar to the uncorrected data. Similar r-values are given for both data sets because the data with incidence-angle values below 35 and above 55 are removed. Topographical correction is important when local incidence angles exceed the limits.

  7. Stand-yield prediction for managed ocala sand pine. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwood, D.L.; Yang, B.; Outcalt, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    Sand pine is a very important species in Florida, producing significant quantities of fiber. The purpose of this study was to develop the site index and stand-level growth and yield equations managers need to make informed decisions. Data were collected from 35 seeded plots of Ocala sand pine covering a range of site indexes, ages, and densities in 1982-83. These plots were remeasured 5 and 10 years later and the data used to develop growth and yield equations by tree component. Equations for both current and future yields in volume and weight measures are given. These equations gave very good results when tested by comparing actual yields with predicted yields for a second set of 22 sand pine plantations measured in the panhandle area of Florida.

  8. Tropical forest tree stands characterization with L-band polarimetric radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shih-Tseng

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of using L-band polarimetric data to determine tropical tree-stand parameters is discussed with specific attention given to the correction of the radar data. Tree-parameter data from ground studies is compared to L-band polarimetric data (in both uncorrected and topographically corrected forms) for two test areas. The test sites are at two different elevations but both include 81 test plots with topographic data and tree-characteristic data given. Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data are found to be related to bole volume and tree volume, and the topographically corrected data show results similar to the uncorrected data. Similar r-values are given for both data sets because the data with incidence-angle values below 35 and above 55 are removed. Topographical correction is important when local incidence angles exceed the limits.

  9. Influence of stocking, site quality, stand age, low-severity canopy disturbance, and forest composition on sub-boreal aspen mixedwood carbon stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinikainen, Michael; D’Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Low-severity canopy disturbance presumably influences forest carbon dynamics during the course of stand development, yet the topic has received relatively little attention. This is surprising because of the frequent occurrence of such events and the potential for both the severity and frequency of disturbances to increase as a result of climate change. We investigated the impacts of low-severity canopy disturbance and average insect defoliation on forest carbon stocks and rates of carbon sequestration in mature aspen mixedwood forests of varying stand age (ranging from 61 to 85 years), overstory composition, stocking level, and site quality. Stocking level and site quality positively affected the average annual aboveground tree carbon increment (CAAI), while stocking level, site quality, and stand age positively affected tree carbon stocks (CTREE) and total ecosystem carbon stocks (CTOTAL). Cumulative canopy disturbance (DIST) was reconstructed using dendroecological methods over a 29-year period. DIST was negatively and significantly related to soil carbon (CSOIL), and it was negatively, albeit marginally, related to CTOTAL. Minima in the annual aboveground carbon increment of trees (CAI) occurred at sites during defoliation of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner), and minima were more extreme at sites dominated by trembling aspen than sites mixed with conifers. At sites defoliated by forest tent caterpillar in the early 2000s, increased sequestration by the softwood component (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) compensated for overall decreases in CAI by 17% on average. These results underscore the importance of accounting for low-severity canopy disturbance events when developing regional forest carbon models and argue for the restoration and maintenance of historically important conifer species within aspen mixedwoods to enhance stand-level resilience to disturbance agents and maintain

  10. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages inhabiting Scots pine stands of Puszcza Piska Forest: six-year responses to a tornado impact

    PubMed Central

    Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years. PMID:21738422

  11. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages inhabiting Scots pine stands of Puszcza Piska Forest: six-year responses to a tornado impact.

    PubMed

    Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years.

  12. Analysis of multiple incidence angle SIR-B data for determining forest stand characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Lozano-Garcia, D. F.; Gillespie, D. D.; Mueller, P. W.; Ruzek, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    For the first time in the U.S. space program, digital synthetic aperture radar (SR) data were obtained from different incidence angles during Space Shuttle Mission 41-G. Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data were obtained at incidence angles of 58 deg., 45 deg., and 28 deg., on October 9, 10, and 11, 1984, respectively, for a predominantly forested study area in northern Florida. Cloud-free LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (T.M.) data were obtained over the same area on October 12. The SIR-B data were processed and then digitally registered to the LANDSAT T.M. data by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is the only known digitally registered SIR-B and T.M. data set for which the data were obtained nearly simultaneously. The data analysis of this information is discussed.

  13. Assessing the impact of a mountain pine beetle infestation on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests in Colorado using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Annual forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory system began in Colorado in 2002, which coincided with the onset of a major mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic. The mortality event, coupled with 11 years of annual inventory data, provided an opportunity to assess the usefulness of the FIA annual inventory system for quantifying the effects...

  14. Disturbance history and stand dynamics in secondary and old-growth forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Butler; Alan S. White; Katherine J. Elliott; Robert S Seymour

    2014-01-01

    BUTLER, S. M. (Family Forest Research Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003), A. S. WHITE (School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5755), K. J. ELLIOTT (Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Center for Forest Watershed Science, Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Otto, NC 28763) AND R. S. SEYMOUR (School of Forest...

  15. Factors influencing spatial pattern in tropical forest clearance and stand age: Implications for carbon storage and species diversity.

    Treesearch

    E. H. Helmer; Thomas J. Brandeis; Ariel E. Lugo; Todd. Kennaway

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the tropical forests that undergo clearing as urban/built-up and other developed lands spread. This study uses remote sensing-based maps of Puerto Rico, multinomial logit models and forest inventory data to explain patterns of forest age and the age of forests cleared for land development and assess their implications for forest carbon storage and...

  16. Relationships between the attributes of standing live and dead down trees in forests of the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda Nagel

    2007-01-01

    Refining the understanding of the relationship between a stand's standing live and down dead trees in terms of size, density, and biomass attributes may aid efforts to predict fuel loadings based on standing tree attributes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare down dead and standing live tree attributes (size, density, and biomass) for inventory...

  17. Using LiDAR to Estimate Total Aboveground Biomass of Redwood Stands in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; Vuong, H.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating total aboveground biomass of redwood stands in Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California using airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR data owing to its vertical and horizontal accuracy are increasingly being used to characterize landscape features including ground surface elevation and canopy height. These LiDAR-derived metrics involving structural signatures at higher precision and accuracy can help better understand ecological processes at various spatial scales. Our study is focused on two major species of the forest: redwood (Sequoia semperirens [D.Don] Engl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiezii [Mirb.] Franco). Specifically, the objectives included linear regression models fitting tree diameter at breast height (dbh) to LiDAR derived height for each species. From 23 random points on the study area, field measurement (dbh and tree coordinate) were collected for more than 500 trees of Redwood and Douglas-fir over 0.2 ha- plots. The USFS-FUSION application software along with its LiDAR Data Viewer (LDV) were used to to extract Canopy Height Model (CHM) from which tree heights would be derived. Based on the LiDAR derived height and ground based dbh, a linear regression model was developed to predict dbh. The predicted dbh was used to estimate the biomass at the single tree level using Jenkin's formula (Jenkin et al 2003). The linear regression models were able to explain 65% of the variability associated with Redwood's dbh and 80% of that associated with Douglas-fir's dbh.

  18. BOREAS TE-9 In Situ Diurnal Gas Exchange of NAS Boreal Forest Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie; Dang, Qinglai

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. The purpose of the BOREAS TE-09 study was threefold: 1) to provide in situ gas exchange data that will be used to validate models of photosynthetic responses to light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2); 2) to compare the photosynthetic responses of different tree crown levels (upper and lower); and 3) to characterize the diurnal water potential curves for these sites to get an indication of the extent to which soil moisture supply to leaves might be limiting photosynthesis. The gas exchange data of the BOREAS NSA were collected to characterize diurnal gas exchange and water potential of two canopy levels of five boreal canopy cover types: young jack pine, old jack pine, old aspen, lowland old black spruce, and upland black spruce. These data were collected between 27-May-1994 and 17-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Wood-inhabiting fungi in southern Italy forest stands: morphogroups, vegetation types and decay classes.

    PubMed

    Granito, Vito Mario; Lunghini, Dario; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an ecological study of forests subjected to varying management. The aim of the study was to extend and integrate, within a multivariate context, knowledge of how saproxylic fungal communities behave along altitudinal/vegetational gradients in response to the varying features and quality of coarse woody debris (CWD). The intra-annual seasonal monitoring of saproxylic fungi, based on sporocarp inventories, was used to investigate saproxylic fungi in relation to vegetation types and management categories. We analyzed fungal species occurrence, recorded according to the presence/absence and frequency of sporocarps, on the basis of the harvest season, of coarse woody debris decay classes as well as other environmental and ecological variables. Two-way cluster analysis, DCA and Spearman's rank correlations, for indirect gradient analysis, were performed to identify any patterns of seasonality and decay. Most of the species were found on CWD in an intermediate decay stage. The first DCA axis revealed the vegetational/microclimate gradient as the main driver of fungal community composition, while the second axis corresponded to a strong gradient of CWD decay classes. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. Coupled effects of wind-storms and drought on tree mortality across 115 forest stands from the Western Alps and the Jura mountains.

    PubMed

    Csilléry, Katalin; Kunstler, Georges; Courbaud, Benoît; Allard, Denis; Lassègues, Pierre; Haslinger, Klaus; Gardiner, Barry

    2017-06-05

    Damage due to wind-storms and droughts is increasing in many temperate forests, yet little is known about the long-term roles of these key climatic factors in forest dynamics and in the carbon budget. The objective of this study was to estimate individual and coupled effects of droughts and wind-storms on adult tree mortality across a 31-year period in 115 managed, mixed coniferous forest stands from the Western Alps and the Jura mountains. For each stand, yearly mortality was inferred from management records, yearly drought from interpolated fields of monthly temperature, precipitation and soil water holding capacity, and wind-storms from interpolated fields of daily maximum wind speed. We performed a thorough model selection based on a leave-one-out cross-validation of the time series. We compared different critical wind speeds (CWSs) for damage, wind-storm, and stand variables and statistical models. We found that a model including stand characteristics, drought, and storm strength using a CWS of 25 ms(-1) performed the best across most stands. Using this best model, we found that drought increased damage risk only in the most southerly forests, and its effect is generally maintained for up to 2 years. Storm strength increased damage risk in all forests in a relatively uniform way. In some stands, we found positive interaction between drought and storm strength most likely because drought weakens trees, and they became more prone to stem breakage under wind-loading. In other stands, we found negative interaction between drought and storm strength, where excessive rain likely leads to soil water saturation making trees more susceptible to overturning in a wind-storm. Our results stress that temporal data are essential to make valid inferences about ecological impacts of disturbance events, and that making inferences about disturbance agents separately can be of limited validity. Under projected future climatic conditions, the direction and strength of these

  1. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-02-23

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  2. Production, standing biomass and natural abundance of 15N and 13C in ectomycorrhizal mycelia collected at different soil depths in two forest types.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Håkan; Göransson, Hans; Rosengren, Ulrika

    2004-03-01

    Nutrient uptake by forest trees is dependent on ectomycorrhizal (EM) mycelia that grow out into the soil from the mycorrhizal root tips. We estimated the production of EM mycelia in root free samples of pure spruce and mixed spruce-oak stands in southern Sweden as mycelia grown into sand-filled mesh bags placed at three different soil depths (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm). The mesh bags were collected after 12 months and we found that 590+/-70 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of pure mycelia was produced in spruce stands and 420+/-160 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in mixed stands. The production of EM mycelia in the mesh bags decreased with soil depth in both stand types but tended to be more concentrated in the top soil in the mixed stands compared to the spruce stands. The fungal biomass was also determined in soil samples taken from different depths by using phospholipid fatty acids as markers for fungal biomass. Subsamples were incubated at 20 degrees C for 5 months and the amount of fungal biomass that degraded during the incubation period was used as an estimate of EM fungal biomass. The EM biomass in the soil profile decreased with soil depth and did not differ significantly between the two stand types. The total EM biomass in the pure spruce stands was estimated to be 4.8+/-0.9 x 10(3) kg ha(-1) and in the mixed stands 5.8+/-1.1 x 10(3) kg ha(-1) down to 70 cm depth. The biomass and production estimates of EM mycelia suggest a very long turnover time or that necromass has been included in the biomass estimates. The amount of N present in EM mycelia was estimated to be 121 kg N ha(-1) in spruce stands and 187 kg N ha(-1) in mixed stands. The delta13C value for mycelia in mesh bags was not influenced by soil depth, indicating that the fungi obtained all their carbon from the tree roots. The delta13C values in mycelia collected from mixed stands were intermediate to values from pure spruce and pure oak stands suggesting that the EM mycelia received carbon from both spruce and oak trees in

  3. Dynamics of Litter Decomposition, Microbiota Populations, and Nutrient Movement Following Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions to a Deciduous Forest Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.

    2002-10-29

    The objective of this study was quantification of the dynamics of litter decomposition, microbiota populations, and nutrient movement in response to nitrogen and phosphorus additions to a deciduous forest stand. Nitrogen (urea) was applied at rates of 0, 550, and 1100 kg/ha in combination with phosphorus (concentrated superphosphate) at rates of 0, 275, and 550 kg/ha. Total loss of organic material from white oak, red maple, and black gum litter bags over a 16-month period was 34, 35, and 45%, respectively. Phosphorus treatment retarded weight loss from litter bags of all species. Weight loss for the 0-, 275-, and 55-kg/ha levels of phosphorus averaged 23, 20, and 19% for white oak; 26, 25, and 25% for red maple; 29, 27 and 26% for black gum. Weight losses were increased by a small amount (1 to 2%) or not at all by nitrogen treatment. The NP interfaction weight loss means were intermediate to the main treatment means. The increase in decomposition associated with nitrogen was offset by the decrease associated with phosphorus. Litter and soil bacterial populations were significantly increased by nitrogen additions, while litter and soil fungi did not respond to nitrogen. Soil fungal populations were increased by phosphorus addition, while litter bacterial populations were reduced. Litter fungi and soil bacteria did not respond to phosphorus. Combined additions of nitrogen and phosphorus increased bacterial populations, though not as much as nitrogen alone. There was a good correlation (r = 0.70) between bacterial population and litter weight loss.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal diversity and community structure in stands of Quercus oleoides in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Nikhilesh S.; Wilson, Andrew W.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Mueller, Gregory M.; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M.

    2016-12-01

    Most conservation efforts in seasonally dry tropical forests have overlooked less obvious targets for conservation, such as mycorrhizal fungi, that are critical to plant growth and ecosystem structure. We documented the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) fungal communities in Quercus oleoides (Fagaceae) in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica. Soil cores and sporocarps were collected from regenerating Q. oleoides plots differing in stand age (early vs late regeneration) during the wet season. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region in EMF root tips and sporocarps identified 37 taxa in the Basidiomycota; EMF Ascomycota were uncommon. The EMF community was dominated by one species (Thelephora sp. 1; 70% of soil cores), more than half of all EMF species were found only once in an individual soil core, and there were few conspecific taxa. Most EMF taxa were also restricted to either Early or Late plots. Levels of EMF species richness and diversity, and AMF root colonization were similar between plots. Our results highlight the need for comprehensive spatiotemporal samplings of EMF communities in Q. oleoides to identify and prioritize rare EMF for conservation, and document their genetic and functional diversity.

  5. Influence of Human Pressure on Forest Resources and Productivity at Stand and Tree Scales: The Case Study of Yunnan Pine in SW China

    PubMed Central

    HINCKLEY, Thomas M.; CHI, Phillip; HAGMANN, Keala; HARRELL, Stevan; SCHMIDT, Amanda Henck; URGENSON, Lauren; ZENG, Zong-yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines human impact on stands and individual trees of Pinus yunnanensis growing near the small mountain villages of Pianshui and Yangjuan in southwestern Sichuan Province, China. In an effort to assess whether use of these forests was sustainable, we examined the effects of human use in two ways. First, we directly measured the effect of cutting branches, for fuel and fodder, on tree growth. We hypothesized that branch cutting would negatively impact tree growth. We established 12 plots on four hills and compared 14 pairs of trees, one tree in each pair with an apparently full crown and the other with a considerable portion of the crown removed. Second, we assessed stand and tree properties over a 500 m elevation gradient above the villages where we hypothesized that as elevation increases, stand and tree properties should show fewer human impacts. Although extensive branch cutting reduced the live crown, tree height and diameter, compensatory processes likely enabled trees to recover and to add basal area increments (BAIs) similar to those added by trees with full crowns. Trees and stands close to villages showed less growth and lower basal areas, respectively, than stands and trees at intermediate or distant elevations from villages. Areas relatively close to the villages showed considerable effects of human-related disturbances such as branch cutting, grazing, tree and shrub removal, losses of litter, and human and animal trails. Such areas had increased soil erosion and often loss of the ‘A’ horizon. Stands close to villages had younger trees, lower stand basal areas, smaller basal area increments, and more stumps. Our results suggest an increasingly vulnerable interface between occupants of these two villages and their surrounding forests. PMID:26478727

  6. Influence of Human Pressure on Forest Resources and Productivity at Stand and Tree Scales: The Case Study of Yunnan Pine in SW China.

    PubMed

    Hinckley, Thomas M; Chi, Phillip; Hagmann, Keala; Harrell, Stevan; Schmidt, Amanda Henck; Urgenson, Lauren; Zeng, Zong-Yong

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines human impact on stands and individual trees of Pinus yunnanensis growing near the small mountain villages of Pianshui and Yangjuan in southwestern Sichuan Province, China. In an effort to assess whether use of these forests was sustainable, we examined the effects of human use in two ways. First, we directly measured the effect of cutting branches, for fuel and fodder, on tree growth. We hypothesized that branch cutting would negatively impact tree growth. We established 12 plots on four hills and compared 14 pairs of trees, one tree in each pair with an apparently full crown and the other with a considerable portion of the crown removed. Second, we assessed stand and tree properties over a 500 m elevation gradient above the villages where we hypothesized that as elevation increases, stand and tree properties should show fewer human impacts. Although extensive branch cutting reduced the live crown, tree height and diameter, compensatory processes likely enabled trees to recover and to add basal area increments (BAIs) similar to those added by trees with full crowns. Trees and stands close to villages showed less growth and lower basal areas, respectively, than stands and trees at intermediate or distant elevations from villages. Areas relatively close to the villages showed considerable effects of human-related disturbances such as branch cutting, grazing, tree and shrub removal, losses of litter, and human and animal trails. Such areas had increased soil erosion and often loss of the 'A' horizon. Stands close to villages had younger trees, lower stand basal areas, smaller basal area increments, and more stumps. Our results suggest an increasingly vulnerable interface between occupants of these two villages and their surrounding forests.

  7. Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds(ECHO)- Investigation in and above a Mixed Forest Stand: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppmann, R.; FZJ Echo Team; Kesselmeier, J.; Meixner, F. X.; MPI Echo Team; Warnke, J.; Hoffmann, T.; Aubrun, S.; Leitl, B.; Schatzmann, M.; Dlugi, R.; Zelger, M.; Kleffmann, J.; Neftel, A.; Hansel, A.; Thomas, C.; Neininger, B.

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the ECHO project is to provide a better understanding of forest stands as a complex source of reactive trace gases into the troposphere. This will be achieved by a unique combination of field, laboratory, and simulation experiments investigating chemical and dynamical processes within the canopy and thus the forest stand as a net source of reactive trace compounds into the planetary boundary layer. The field experiments were carried out in the Stetternicher Forest on the area of the Research Center J\\x81lich. The area has been a deciduous forest for more than 300 years and is surrounded by farmland. Dominating tree species are oaks, beech, and birch. Prevailing wind direction is from the south west, more seldom from the south east. The site is only weakly influenced by urban air masses. At the site three towers were set up, which were equipped with a large set of instruments to measure micrometeorological parameters, biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and CO, as well as radiation in and above the forest. Additionally, measurements of meteorological parameters were done at the meteorological tower up to a height of 120 m and with a SODAR-RASS system up to 300 m. The first field study took place between June 3 and July 12, 2002, the second field campaign between June 23 and August 1, 2003. As a speciality of the ECHO project, important aspects of the different processes determining the net emission from forest stands into the atmosphere are investigated in laboratory and simulation experiments. The chemical processing of the trace gas mixtures observed in the forest stand is investigated in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR under controlled conditions. This enables a detailed study of the chemical processes under exclusion of transport processes and sensitivity studies by direct modification of individual chemical parameters. Emission and uptake of VOC by plants are investigated in plant chambers

  8. Predicted long-term effects of group selection on species composition and stand structure in northern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Corey R. Halpin; Craig G. Lorimer; Jacob J. Hanson; Brian J. Palik

    2017-01-01

    The group selection method can potentially increase the proportion of shade-intolerant and midtolerant tree species in forests dominated by shade-tolerant species, but previous results have been variable, and concerns have been raised about possible effects on forest fragmentation and forest structure. Limited evidence is available on these issues for forests managed...

  9. A twelve-year comparison of stand changes in a mahogany plantation and a paired natural forest of similar ages.

    Treesearch

    S. Fu; C. Rodr¡guez Pedraza; A. E. Lugo

    1996-01-01

    we compared forest structure over a 12 yr period. 1982-1994 that include measurements before and after a servere hurricaine in two forests: a 64 yr old swietenia macrophylla tree plantantion and a paired natural forest of similar age in a subtropical wet forests

  10. Stand and landscape level effects of a major outbreak of spruce beetles on forest vegetation in the Copper River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Wesser, S.; Markon, C.J.; Winterberger, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    From 1989 to 2003, a widespread outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska, infested over 275,000 ha of forests in the region. During 1997 and 1998, we measured forest vegetation structure and composition on one hundred and thirty-six 20-m ?? 20-m plots to assess both the immediate stand and landscape level effects of the spruce beetle infestation. A photo-interpreted vegetation and infestation map was produced using color-infrared aerial photography at a scale of 1:40,000. We used linear regression to quantify the effects of the outbreak on forest structure and composition. White spruce (Picea glauca) canopy cover and basal area of medium-to-large trees [???15 cm diameter-at-breast height (1.3 m, dbh)] were reduced linearly as the number of trees attacked by spruce beetles increased. Black spruce (Picea mariana) and small diameter white spruce (<15 cm dbh) were infrequently attacked and killed by spruce beetles. This selective attack of mature white spruce reduced structural complexity of stands to earlier stages of succession and caused mixed tree species stands to lose their white spruce and become more homogeneous in overstory composition. Using the resulting regressions, we developed a transition matrix to describe changes in vegetation types under varying levels of spruce beetle infestations, and applied the model to the vegetation map. Prior to the outbreak, our study area was composed primarily of stands of mixed white and black spruce (29% of area) and pure white spruce (25%). However, the selective attack on white spruce caused many of these stands to transition to black spruce dominated stands (73% increase in area) or shrublands (26% increase in area). The post-infestation landscape was thereby composed of more even distributions of shrubland and white, black, and mixed spruce communities (17-22% of study area). Changes in the cover and composition of understory vegetation were less evident in this study

  11. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with inventory data from temperate and boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESMs). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first-generation dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second-generation DVMs that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE (Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange) or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub-grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to wide-ranging temporal and boreal forests, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model, and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 year. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents an ecologically plausible and efficient alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody

  12. Soil carbon and nitrogen pools in mid- to late-successional forest stands of the northwestern United States: Potential impact of fire

    Treesearch

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2006-01-01

    When sampling woody residue (WR) and organic matter (OM) present in forest floor, soil wood, and surface mineral soil (0­30 cm) in 14 mid- to late-successional stands across a wide variety of soil types and climatic regimes in the northwestern USA, we found that 44%-84% of carbon (C) was in WR and surface OM, whereas >80% of nitrogen (N) was in the mineral soil. In...

  13. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  14. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (P<0.001) from that of P. sylvestris (mean value delta13C=-24.6+/-0.7 per thousand). Relationships between the quality of the stand and the C-isotopic composition of the wood were observed, high quality stands having trees more 13C-depleted than low quality ones. A high correlation between wood delta13C and site index values for P. pinaster stands (r=-0.667, P<0.001) was found, this correlation being even clearer when only P. pinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, P<0.001) are considered. Again, the correlation between the site index and the wood delta13C of young P. pinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris

  15. Factors influencing spatial pattern in tropical forest clearance and stand age: Implications for carbon storage and species diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E. H.; Brandeis, Thomas J.; Lugo, Ariel E.; Kennaway, Todd

    2008-06-01

    Little is known about the tropical forests that undergo clearing as urban/built-up and other developed lands spread. This study uses remote sensing-based maps of Puerto Rico, multinomial logit models and forest inventory data to explain patterns of forest age and the age of forests cleared for land development and assess their implications for forest carbon storage and tree species richness. Accessibility, arability and spatial contagion emerge strongly as overriding spatial controls on tropical forest age, determining (1) the pattern of agricultural abandonment that permits forest regrowth, and (2) where humans leave old-growth forest remnants. Covariation between the factors patterning forest age and land development explains why most forest cleared for land development is younger. Forests are increasingly younger in more accessible and fertile areas where agriculture has lasted longer and land development is most common. All else equal, more species-rich older forest on less arable lands are somewhat less likely to undergo development, but they are still vulnerable to clearing for land development if close to urban centers and unprotected. Accounting for forest age leads to a 19% lower estimate of forest biomass cleared for land development than if forest age is not accounted for.

  16. The effects of partial cutting on forest plant communities of western hemlock—Sitka spruce stands in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal

    2001-01-01

    The effects of partial cutting on plant species richness, community structure, and several understory species that are important for deer forage were evaluated on 73 plots in 18 stands throughout southeast Alaska. These partially cut stands were harvested 12–96 years ago when 16- 96% of the former stand basal area was removed. The species richness and community...

  17. Stand basal-area and tree-diameter growth in red spruce-fir forests in Maine, 1960-80

    Treesearch

    S.J. Zarnoch; D.A. Gansner; D.S. Powell; T.A. Birch; T.A. Birch

    1990-01-01

    Stand basal-area change and individual surviving red spruce d.b.h. growth from 1960 to 1980 were analyzed for red spruce-fir stands in Maine. Regression modeling was used to relate these measures of growth to stand and tree conditions and to compare growth throughout the period. Results indicate a decline in growth.

  18. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests.

  19. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km2 of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha−1, which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec’s managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041–2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec’s forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests. PMID:26966680

  20. Structure and function of soil microbial community in artificially planted Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris forests at different stand ages in Shenzhen Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Lei, A P; Li, F L; Liu, L N; Zan, Q J; Shin, P K S; Cheung, S G; Tam, N F Y

    2014-08-30

    The present study examined the relationships between soil characteristics, microbial community structure and function in the forests artificially planted with exotic Sonneratia apetala at stand ages of 1-, 2-, 7-, 10- and 14-years and Sonneratia caseolaris of 1-, 4-, 7-, 10- and 14-years in Futian National Nature Reserve, Shenzhen Bay, China. The 7-years old forests of both Sonneratia species reached peak growth and had the highest content of nitrogen and phosphorus, enzymatic activities, including dehydrogenase, cellulase, phosphatase, urease and ß-glucosidase, except arylsulphatase which increased continuously with stand ages. The microbial community structure reflected by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles also reached the maximum value in the 7-years old forests and soil bacterial PLFAs in both forests were significantly higher than fungal PLFAs. The canonical correlation analysis revealed that differences in microbial structural variables were significantly correlated to the differences in their functional variables, and the highest correlation was found between the soil enzymatic activities and the content of carbon and nitrogen.

  1. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  2. Ecophysiological responses of young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) to different chromium contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Linh; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Richter, Otto; Pham, Minh Thinh; Nguyen, Van Phuoc

    2017-01-01

    Many mangrove forests have suffered from the contaminated environments near industrial areas. This study addresses the question how these environments influence the renewal of mangrove forests. To this end ecophysiological responses of the young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) grown under combinations of the factors heavy metals (here chromium), nutrition and soil/water environment were analyzed. We tested the hypothesis that soil/water conditions and nutrient status of the soil strongly influence the toxic effect of chromium. Seedlings of R. apiculata were grown in three different soil/water environments (natural saline soil with brackish water, salt-leached soil with fresh water and salt-leached-sterilized soil with fresh water) treated with different levels of chromium and NPK fertilizer. The system was inundated twice a day as similar to natural tidal condition in the mangrove wetland in the south of Vietnam. The experiments were carried out for 6months. Growth data of root, leaf and stem, root cell number and stomata number were recorded and analyzed. Results showed that growth of R. apiculata is slower in natural saline soil/water condition. The effect of chromium and of nutrients respectively depends on the soil/water condition. Under high concentrations of chromium, NPK fertilizer amplifies the toxic effect of chromium. Stomata density increases under chromium stress and is largest under the combination of chromium and salty soil/water condition. From the data a nonlinear multivariate regression model was derived capturing the toxicity threshold of R. apiculata under different treatment combinations.

  3. Soil respiration rates and δ13C(CO2) in natural beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L.) in relation to stand structure.

    PubMed

    Cater, Matjaz; Ogrinc, Nives

    2011-06-01

    Soil respiration rates were studied as a function of soil type, texture and light intensity at five selected natural beech forest stands with contrasting geology: stands on silicate bedrock at Kladje and Bricka in Pohorje, a stand on quartz sandstone at Vrhovo and two stands on a carbonate bedrock in the Karstic-Dinaric area in Kocevski Rog, Snezna jama and Rajhenav, Slovenia, during the growing season in 2005-2006. Soil respiration exhibited pronounced seasonal and spatial variations in the studied forest ecosystem plots. The CO(2) flux rates ranged from minimum averages of 2.3 μmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) (winter) to maximum averages of about 7 μmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) (summer) at all the investigated locations. An empirical model describing the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature predicted seasonal variations in soil respiration reasonably well during 2006. Nevertheless, there were also some indications that soil moisture in relation to soil texture could influence the soil CO(2) efflux rates in both sampling seasons. It was shown that spatial variability of mean soil respiration at the investigated sites was high and strongly related to root biomass. Based on the [image omitted]  data, it was shown that new photoassimilates could account for a major part of the total soil respiration under canopy conditions in forest ecosystems where no carbonate rocks are present, indicating that microbial respiration could not always dominate bulk soil CO(2) fluxes. At Snezna jama and Rajhenav, the abiotic CO(2) derived from carbonate dissolution had a pronounced influence on CO(2) efflux accounting, on average, to ∼17%. Further spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration was clearly affected by management practice. Higher respiration rates as well as higher variability in respiration rates were observed in the virgin forest (Rajhenav) than in the management forest (Snezna jama) and could be related to a higher amount of detritus and consequently to less

  4. Twenty years of chronic nitrogen addition to pine and mixed hardwood stands at Harvard Forest: effects on carbon balance and dynamics differ by vegetation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.; Lajtha, K.; Kramer, M. G.; Caldwell, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Twenty years of chronic nitrogen (N) addition to mixed hardwood and red pine stands at the Harvard Forest Long-Term Ecological Research site in MA, USA profoundly impacted forest biogeochemistry and a variety of ecosystem functions. We analyzed carbon (C) and N content in bulk soil and different density fractions to examine changes in both light (active) and heavy (stable, mineral associated) fractions following 20 years of N additions (5 g N m-2 yr-1), hypothesizing that N additions would increase decay of light fractions but decrease decomposition of heavy fractions. We found that N fertilization in red pine stands increased the organic C stock in the top 10 cm of mineral soil from 4.0 ± 0.3 g C m-2 for control to 4.5 ± 0.2 g C m-2. In contrast, N fertilization decreased the C stock in the top 10 cm in mixed hardwood stands, from 3.8 ± 0.3 g C m-2 for control to 3.1 ± 0.2 g C m-2. The C:N ratio of bulk soil was lowest for the red pine stands that received no additional N (19.3 versus 21.4-22.0 for mixed hardwoods). In red pine stands, N fertilization increased the C stock and relative proportion of 0-10 cm soil C and N contained within the lightest density fraction (<1.85 g mL-1), which had a decadal-scale mean residence time as determined by steady-state modeling of radiocarbon concentration. No fertilization effect on the light fraction C was found for the mixed hardwood stands. Instead, N fertilization of the mixed hardwood stands decreased the C stock and relative proportion of C contained within the heaviest fraction (2.4-2.8 g mL-1), which had the greatest mean residence time (centuries-scale). Changes in C stock and pools are likely a result of changes in both litter/root inputs to soils and heterotrophic respiration. Although bulk soil C and N concentrations have not changed, N fertilization affected the C stock and distribution of soil organic matter among soil pools of variable turnover rates that could alter the long-term C storage potential of the

  5. Old and Not-So-Old: Examining Changes in Forest Ecosystem Carbon Exchange With Stand Age in the Upper Midwest U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. R.; Cook, B.; Davis, K. J.; Bolstad, P.; Carey, E.; Martin, J.; Kreller, L.; Wang, W.

    2003-12-01

    Forest stand age is an important determinant of ecosystem carbon uptake. Though there are biometric measurements and ecological models for forests of all ages, there are few stand-scale eddy-flux measurements of net carbon exchange in older forests, though the number is increasing. In order to scale carbon fluxes from sites to regions, where stands of multiple ages may exist, it is necessary to measure to the effect of stand age on carbon exchange. Measuring the effect of stand age on carbon exchange is also necessary when trying to predict future or past carbon exchange (scaling across time). Many researchers have noted that site disturbance history is the fundamental factor in determining carbon uptake by forests over time scales of decades to centuries. The 8,500 ha Sylvania Wilderness in the upper peninsula of Michigan is one of several large tracts of old-growth forest in the Midwest. Trees range from 0-350 years old. Primary species are sugar maple, eastern hemlock and yellow birch. Catastrophic disturbance is rare. A research plot near the wilderness was established in late 2001 to measure the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon and water using eddy-flux, component flux and biometric methods. This site is part of the Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (ChEAS, http://cheas.psu.edu), a loose affiliation of researchers conducting carbon and water research in northern Wisconsin and upper Michigan. Another similar research plot within ChEAS and not far from Sylvania is the Willow Creek mature uplands site. This forest is about 70 years old and the primary species are sugar maple, basswood and green ash. The site had presettlement old-growth vegetation similar to what is currently seen in the Sylvania Wilderness. Thus, the carbon exchange seen at Sylvania may be representative of carbon uptake at Willow Creek had it not been logged in the early 20th century, and may also represent the future (or past) carbon uptake for similar forests in northern Wisconsin

  6. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  7. Biomass removal and its effect on productivity of an artificially regenerated forest stand in the Missouri ozarks

    Treesearch

    Flex Jr. Ponder

    2007-01-01

    Intensive harvesting, which removes a greater proportion of the forest biomass than conventional harvesting and the associated nutrients, may cause a decline in forest productivity. Planted seedling response to three biomass removal levels (1. removal of boles only=OM1, 2. all surface organic matter removed, forest floor not removed=OM2, and 3. removal of all surface...

  8. Potential significance of frost, topographic relief, and Acacia koa stands to restoration of mesic Hawaiian forests on abandoned rangeland

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Jack. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in the 1850s, logging, land clearing, and burning were used to convert high elevation Hawaiian forests to cattle pasture. Recently, declining pro®ts from ranching, the need to expand habitat for endangered species, and diminishing supplies of native saw-timber have prompted interest in restoring native forests. The Forest Service, in cooperation with the...

  9. Long-term impacts of prescribed fire on stand structure, growth, mortality, and individual tree vigor in Pinus resinosa forests

    Treesearch

    Sawyer S. Scherer; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Matthew B. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is increasingly being viewed as a valuable tool for mitigating the ecological consequences of long-term fire suppression within fire-adapted forest ecosystems. While the use of burning treatments in northern temperate conifer forests has at times received considerable attention, the long-term (>10 years) effects on forest structure and...

  10. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2005-01-01

    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  11. Early-seral stand age and forest structural changes in public and private forestlands in Western Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    Robert L Deal; Sharon Stanton; Matthew Betts; Zhiqiang. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Federal forests in the Pacific Northwest region have undergone exceptional changes in management over the past 20 years, and these changes have led to a reduction in regional timber production and significant changes in the management and current age structure of forests. Public lands include large areas of older forests with relatively little younger early-seral...

  12. Stand density, stand structure, and species composition in transition oak stands of northwestern Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    S.L. Stout

    1991-01-01

    Transition stands, those containing species associated with both the northern hardwood and oak-hickory forest types, are important to forest diversity in northwestern Pennsylvania. These stands have high value for a variety of forest uses, including timber production, wildlife habitat, and aesthetics. Diameter distributions are characteristically stratified by species...

  13. Differences in Fine-Root Biomass of Trees and Understory Vegetation among Stand Types in Subtropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Variation of total fine-root biomass among types of tree stands has previously been attributed to the characteristics of the stand layers. The effects of the understory vegetation on total fine-root biomass are less well studied. We examined the variation of total fine-root biomass in subtropical tree stands at two sites of Datian and Huitong in China. The two sites have similar humid monsoon climate but different soil organic carbon. One examination compared two categories of basal areas (high vs. low basal area) in stands of single species. A second examination compared single-species and mixed stands with comparable basal areas. Low basal area did not correlate with low total fine-root biomass in the single-species stands. The increase in seedling density but decrease in stem density for the low basal area stands at Datian and the quite similar stand structures for the basal-area contrast at Huitong helped in the lack of association between basal area and total fine-root biomass at the two sites, respectively. The mixed stands also did not yield higher total fine-root biomasses. In addition to the lack of niche complementarity between tree species, the differences in stem and seedling densities and the belowground competition between the tree and non-tree species also contributed to the similarity of the total fine-root biomasses in the mixed and single-species stands. Across stand types, the more fertile site Datian yielded higher tree, non-tree and total fine-root biomasses than Huitong. However, the contribution of non-tree fine-root biomass to the total fine-root biomass was higher at Huitong (29.4%) than that at Datian (16.7%). This study suggests that the variation of total fine-root biomass across stand types not only was associated with the characteristics of trees, but also may be highly dependent on the understory layer.

  14. Differences in Fine-Root Biomass of Trees and Understory Vegetation among Stand Types in Subtropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Variation of total fine-root biomass among types of tree stands has previously been attributed to the characteristics of the stand layers. The effects of the understory vegetation on total fine-root biomass are less well studied. We examined the variation of total fine-root biomass in subtropical tree stands at two sites of Datian and Huitong in China. The two sites have similar humid monsoon climate but different soil organic carbon. One examination compared two categories of basal areas (high vs. low basal area) in stands of single species. A second examination compared single-species and mixed stands with comparable basal areas. Low basal area did not correlate with low total fine-root biomass in the single-species stands. The increase in seedling density but decrease in stem density for the low basal area stands at Datian and the quite similar stand structures for the basal-area contrast at Huitong helped in the lack of association between basal area and total fine-root biomass at the two sites, respectively. The mixed stands also did not yield higher total fine-root biomasses. In addition to the lack of niche complementarity between tree species, the differences in stem and seedling densities and the belowground competition between the tree and non-tree species also contributed to the similarity of the total fine-root biomasses in the mixed and single-species stands. Across stand types, the more fertile site Datian yielded higher tree, non-tree and total fine-root biomasses than Huitong. However, the contribution of non-tree fine-root biomass to the total fine-root biomass was higher at Huitong (29.4%) than that at Datian (16.7%). This study suggests that the variation of total fine-root biomass across stand types not only was associated with the characteristics of trees, but also may be highly dependent on the understory layer. PMID:26047358

  15. Characterizing stand-level forest canopy cover and height using Landsat time series, samples of airborne LiDAR, and the Random Forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Oumer S.; Franklin, Steven E.; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.

    2015-03-01

    Many forest management activities, including the development of forest inventories, require spatially detailed forest canopy cover and height data. Among the various remote sensing technologies, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) offers the most accurate and consistent means for obtaining reliable canopy structure measurements. A potential solution to reduce the cost of LiDAR data, is to integrate transects (samples) of LiDAR data with frequently acquired and spatially comprehensive optical remotely sensed data. Although multiple regression is commonly used for such modeling, often it does not fully capture the complex relationships between forest structure variables. This study investigates the potential of Random Forest (RF), a machine learning technique, to estimate LiDAR measured canopy structure using a time series of Landsat imagery. The study is implemented over a 2600 ha area of industrially managed coastal temperate forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We implemented a trajectory-based approach to time series analysis that generates time since disturbance (TSD) and disturbance intensity information for each pixel and we used this information to stratify the forest land base into two strata: mature forests and young forests. Canopy cover and height for three forest classes (i.e. mature, young and mature and young (combined)) were modeled separately using multiple regression and Random Forest (RF) techniques. For all forest classes, the RF models provided improved estimates relative to the multiple regression models. The lowest validation error was obtained for the mature forest strata in a RF model (R2 = 0.88, RMSE = 2.39 m and bias = -0.16 for canopy height; R2 = 0.72, RMSE = 0.068% and bias = -0.0049 for canopy cover). This study demonstrates the value of using disturbance and successional history to inform estimates of canopy structure and obtain improved estimates of forest canopy cover and height using the RF algorithm.

  16. From plot to province; scaling field mensuration to stand-level lidar to public GIS data in a hierarchical approach to map regional forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C.; Colville, D.; Bourdeau, D.; Monette, S.; Fox, A.; Maher, R.

    2010-12-01

    As public energy utilities rise to the dual challenge of meeting growing energy demands while attempting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is a clear and urgent need to inventory any ‘green’ energies that are potentially available for energy generation. In heavily forest-covered landscapes such as in the Province of Nova Scotia, forest bio-fuels potentially offer a viable source of carbon-neutral alternative energy that can be exploited with relatively minor modification of existing power generation infrastructure. However, while government GIS databases do contain extensive stand-level forest resource inventory (FRI) data covering the entire Province, the conversion of these data into meaningful estimates of available and sustainable biofuel requires calibration. At the opposite end of the scale, permanent sample plot (PSP) data collected in the field allows accurate calculation of biomass over very small areas but scaling between PSPs and FRI stands is challenged by the large within-stand heterogeneity displayed by Acadian mixed wood forests. Airborne Lidar rapidly samples the 3D structure of forest canopies over large areas at high resolutions and thus offers the perfect opportunity to scale between PSP and FRI data. In this study, approximately 100 PSPs visited within two years of a geographically coincident lidar survey between the years 2005 and 2010, were selected to train a lidar-based model of biomass, which was then used to train an FRI-based model which could be applied to the entire Province. PSP data (species, height, diameter at breast height and stem density) were used to directly quantify green, dry, woody and foliage biomass. Lidar data collected over approximately 30 different survey missions using the same airborne laser terrain mapper (ALTM) 3100 sensor were extracted for each of the PSPS. Summary statistics describing the within-plot vertical lidar frequency distributions were combined with physical lidar intensity and echo

  17. Modeling biophysical properties of broad-leaved stands in the hyrcanian forests of Iran using fused airborne laser scanner data and ultraCam-D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Jahangir; Shataee, Shaban; Namiranian, Manochehr; Næsset, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Inventories of mixed broad-leaved forests of Iran mainly rely on terrestrial measurements. Due to rapid changes and disturbances and great complexity of the silvicultural systems of these multilayer forests, frequent repetition of conventional ground-based plot surveys is often cost prohibitive. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and multispectral data offer an alternative or supplement to conventional inventories in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran. In this study, the capability of a combination of ALS and UltraCam-D data to model stand volume, tree density, and basal area using random forest (RF) algorithm was evaluated. Systematic sampling was applied to collect field plot data on a 150 m × 200 m sampling grid within a 1100 ha study area located at 36°38‧- 36°42‧N and 54°24‧-54°25‧E. A total of 308 circular plots (0.1 ha) were measured for calculation of stand volume, tree density, and basal area per hectare. For each plot, a set of variables was extracted from both ALS and multispectral data. The RF algorithm was used for modeling of the biophysical properties using ALS and UltraCam-D data separately and combined. The results showed that combining the ALS data and UltraCam-D images provided a slight increase in prediction accuracy compared to separate modeling. The RMSE as percentage of the mean, the mean difference between observed and predicted values, and standard deviation of the differences using a combination of ALS data and UltraCam-D images in an independent validation at 0.1-ha plot level were 31.7%, 1.1%, and 84 m3 ha-1 for stand volume; 27.2%, 0.86%, and 6.5 m2 ha-1 for basal area, and 35.8%, -4.6%, and 77.9 n ha-1 for tree density, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that fusion of ALS and UltraCam-D data may be useful for modeling of stand volume, basal area, and tree density and thus gain insights into structural characteristics in the complex Hyrcanian forests.

  18. Random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, Amos; Cieplak, Marek; Swift, Michael R.; Toigo, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    The results are described of studies of a random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 Ising model using mean-field theory, transfer-matrix calculations, and position-space renormalization-group calculations. The interplay between the quenched randomness of the anisotropy and the annealed disorder introduced by the spin-1 model leads to a rich phase diagram with a variety of phase transitions and reentrant behavior. The results may be relevant to the study of the phase separation of He-3 - He-4 mixtures in porous media in the vicinity of the superfluid transition.

  19. Random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, Amos; Cieplak, Marek; Swift, Michael R.; Toigo, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    The results are described of studies of a random-anisotropy Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1 Ising model using mean-field theory, transfer-matrix calculations, and position-space renormalization-group calculations. The interplay between the quenched randomness of the anisotropy and the annealed disorder introduced by the spin-1 model leads to a rich phase diagram with a variety of phase transitions and reentrant behavior. The results may be relevant to the study of the phase separation of He-3 - He-4 mixtures in porous media in the vicinity of the superfluid transition.

  20. Transfer matrix methods in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koza, Zbigniew; Jasiukiewicz, Czesa̵w; Pȩkalski, Andrzej

    1990-03-01

    The critical properties of the plane Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model are analyzed using two transfer matrix approaches. The two methods and the domains of their applicability are discussed. The phase diagram is derived and compared with the one obtained by the position-space renormalization group (PSRG). The critical indices η i and conformal anomaly c are computed at Ising-like and Potts-like critical points and a good agreement with the conformal invariance predictions is found. A new, very effective method of estimating critical points is introduced and an attempt to estimate critical end points is also made.