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  1. Recent Developments in BMW's Diesel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Steinparzer, F

    2003-08-24

    The image of BMW is very strongly associated to high power, sports biased, luxury cars in the premium car segment, however, particularly in the United States and some parts of Asia, the combination of a car in this segment with a diesel engine was up until now almost unthinkable. I feel sure that many people in the USA are not even aware that BMW produces diesel-powered cars. In Europe there is a completely contrary situation which, driven by the relative high fuel price, and the noticeable difference between gasoline and diesel prices, there has been a continuous growth in the diesel market since the early eighties. During this time BMW has accumulated more then 20 years experience in developing and producing powerful diesel engines for sports and luxury cars. BMW started the production of its 1st generation diesel engine in 1983 with a 2,4 l, turbocharged IDI engine in the 5 series model range. With a specific power of 35 kW/l, this was the most powerful diesel engine on the market at this time. In 1991 BMW introduced the 2nd generation diesel engine, beginning with a 2,5 l inline six, followed in 1994 by a 1,7 l inline four. All engines of this 2nd BMW diesel engine family were turbocharged and utilized an indirect injection combustion system. With the availability of high-pressure injection systems such as the common rail system, BMW developed its 3rd diesel engine family which consists of four different engines. The first was the 4-cylinder for the 3 series car in the spring of 1998, followed by the 6-cylinder in the fall of 1998 and then in mid 1999 by the worlds first V8 passenger car diesel with direct injection. Beginning in the fall of 2001 with the 4-cylinder, BMW reworked this DI engine family fundamentally. Key elements are an improved core engine design, the use of the common rail system of the 2nd generation and a new engine control unit with even better performance. Step by step, these technological improvements were introduce d to production for

  2. 78 FR 38799 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... a 30-day public comment period, on September 13, 2012 in the Federal Register (77 FR 56700). No... information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less. BMW has filed...

  3. Optimising BMW four-cylinder two-valve engines Optimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOpt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flierl, R.; Kramer, F.; Rech, H.; Stanski, U.; Wenzel, M.

    1993-11-01

    In model year 1994, BMW will present two essentially redesigned 4-cylinder, 2-valve engines. BMW has upgraded its 1.6 1 and 1.8 1 2-valve engines using technical features previously reserved for the 4-valve engines, such as knock control system, distributorless semiconductor ignition, variable induction system (DISA) and ribbed V-belt accessory drive, along with measures to reduce power losses, noise levels and exhaust emissions. BMW models equipped with these two engines offer customers improved response characteristics and fuel consumption, as well as reduced emissions and maintenance requirements.

  4. Dynamic analysis of the BMW tower in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indacochea-Beltran, Joaquin; Elgindy, Pearl; Lee, Elaine; Vignesh, Thiviya; Ansourian, Peter; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Marroquín, Fernando Alonso

    2016-08-01

    In the 1970s, world famous Austrian architect Karl Schwanzer designed an avant-garde suspended skyscraper for the new BMW headquarters. The BMW Tower was envisioned to resemble a four-cylinder motor and become a symbol for the recent flourishing success of BMW. Throughout its four decades, the BMW Tower has become the main architectural feature of modern Munich and a pride for one of the World leading car manufacturers. The structural design of the BMW Tower represented a major challenge to Germany's finest engineers because the suspended 99.5m-high structure had to whitstand not only static loading but large wind dynamic loading while having deflections within appropriate serviceability limits. Strand7 has been used to determine the stresses and deflections the structure is subjected to in order to analyse its behavior under static and dynamic loadings. Ultimately, this analysis helps to understand the nature of suspended structures in relation to the Eurocode building standards. Finally, thermal resistance has also been analysed using Strand7 to simulate a fire scenario and analyse the behaviour of the cable structure, which is the most critical building component.

  5. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Mottini, M.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2004-08-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalog drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources. Among them, 16758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings, and do not require a non-automated analysis. This makes our catalog the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5--10 keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from ˜ 3× 10-16 to 9×10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 with a median of 7× 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalog consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5--7 keV; soft, 0.5--2 keV; and hard band, 2--7 keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the extension of the source which we refined with a σ -clipping method. We report on the main properties of the sources in our catalog, such as sky coverage ( ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) and cosmological log N--log S for a subset at high Galactic latitude (∣ b ∣ > 20o) for a flux as low as ˜ 1.5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. Support for this work was provided by the Italian MIUR.

  6. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We present the BMW-Chandra Source Catalogue drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by \\citep{Lazzatiea99} and \\citep{Campanaea99}, which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources which were visually inspected and verified. Among them, 16758 are not associated with the targets of the pointings and are considered certain; they have a 0.5-10 keV absorption corrected flux distribution median of ˜ 7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue consists of source positions, count rates, extensions and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7 keV; soft, 0.5-2 keV; and hard band, 2-7 keV), as well as the additional information drawn from the headers of the original files. We also extracted source counts in four additional energy bands, (0.5-1.0 keV, 1.0-2.0 keV, 2.0-4.0 keV and 4.0-7.0 keV). We compute the sky coverage in the soft and hard bands. The complete catalogue provides a sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2 keV, S/N =3) of ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and ˜ 2 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~xanadu/BMC/bmc_home.html

  7. Gaia16bmw is a Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Blagorodnova, N.; Hodgkin, S. T.

    2016-10-01

    We obtained a spectrum of Gaia16bmw with the robotic 2-m Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT, on 2016 Oct 19.1 UT. The spectrum displays both narrow host galaxy lines at z=0.017 (consistent with UGC 3638), and a strong, broad Halpha line with a P-Cygni profile.

  8. The BMW Deep X-Ray Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, Luigi; Moretti, Alberto; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Lazzati, Davide; Longhetti, Marcella; Molinari, Emilio; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    We briely describe the main features and first results of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys.

  9. Distant Compact Clusters of Galaxies from the BMW survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Antonio, Ian; Guzzo, Luigi; Longhetti, Marcella; Moretti, Alberto; Campana, Sergio; Lazzati, Davide; Panzera, Mariarosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2002-02-01

    We propose to use SQIID to identify high-redshift clusters of galaxies from the BMW, an X-ray selected sample of serendipitously detected extended sources from the ROSAT HRI archive. The BMW survey is unique because of the superior angular resolution of the HRI. In fact, this is the only modern sample of distant clusters available that is not based on the low-resolution PSPC. Using 4m optical imaging, we have already identified several high-redshift clusters, two of which have z> 0.8, thus confirming the ability of the survey to peer efficiently into the z~ 1 regime, where only a handful of X-ray clusters are known. To test the evolution of the cluster abundance, we must increase the number of clusters known in this redshift regime. The BMW survey provides us with the only current opportunity to study compact clusters missing in all PSPC surveys. Because z~ 1 ellipticals have very red colors, K-band imaging is the most effective way of identifying these clusters. With SQIID, we also can obtain redshift estimates via the J-K red sequence. We propose near-IR imaging in J,H,K of 30 highest-z cluster candidates from the BMW survey, as indicated by their small size and low flux. This will allow efficient use of 8-meter spectroscopy to follow up the high-end tail of the redshift distribution.

  10. 76 FR 51468 - BMW of North America, LLC, a subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ..., Light Vehicle Brake Systems. BMW has filed an appropriate report pursuant to 49 CFR part 573, Defect and... indicator for application of the parking brake, by applying the parking brake when the ignition is in the... manufacturer shall explain the brake check function test procedure in the owner's manual. S5.5.5. Labeling....

  11. 77 FR 56700 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Statement is available for review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The... information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less. BMW has filed...

  12. Topological basis realization for BMW algebra and Heisenberg XXZ spin chain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Xue, Kang; Wang, Gangcheng; Liu, Ying; Sun, Chunfang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we study three-dimensional (3D) reduced Birman-Murakami-Wenzl (BMW) algebra based on topological basis theory. Several examples of BMW algebra representations are reviewed. We also discuss a special solution of BMW algebra, which can be used to construct Heisenberg XXZ model. The theory of topological basis provides a useful method to solve quantum spin chain models. It is also shown that the ground state of XXZ spin chain is superposition state of topological basis.

  13. The ultimate creativity machine. How BMW turns art into profit.

    PubMed

    Bangle, C

    2001-01-01

    Many companies face the challenge of balancing art with commerce. The conflict between corporate pragmatism and artistic passion and quality is persistent: designers chafe under corporate requirements, budgets, and deadlines, and nondesigners struggle to understand the business value of artistic choices. At German carmaker BMW, the fanaticism about design excellence is matched only by the company's driving desire to remain profitable. Global design director Chris Bangle presides over the intersection of art and commerce at BMW, managing the often-strained relationships among the designers, engineers, and business managers. Bangle goes to great lengths to protect his designers from the unproductive commentary of others in the company, literally posting "Stop: No Entry" signs on the design studio doors. He also protects the design process, making sure that time-to-market pressures do not harm the designs by shifting the focus to engineering too soon. As a mediator, Bangle appeals to the core values of the company and a deeply held sense about BMW-ness--a pride of product shared by everyone in the company that expresses itself in the classic quality of the cars. Every employee, designer and nondesigner alike, understands that if a car doesn't meet this standard of excellence, it's simply not a BMW--and customers won't buy it. Managing at the intersection of art and commerce means translating the language of art into the language of the corporation. In this First Person account, the author describes his inventive techniques for getting the best from his artists--and getting his ideas across to corporate managers. PMID:11189462

  14. The ultimate creativity machine. How BMW turns art into profit.

    PubMed

    Bangle, C

    2001-01-01

    Many companies face the challenge of balancing art with commerce. The conflict between corporate pragmatism and artistic passion and quality is persistent: designers chafe under corporate requirements, budgets, and deadlines, and nondesigners struggle to understand the business value of artistic choices. At German carmaker BMW, the fanaticism about design excellence is matched only by the company's driving desire to remain profitable. Global design director Chris Bangle presides over the intersection of art and commerce at BMW, managing the often-strained relationships among the designers, engineers, and business managers. Bangle goes to great lengths to protect his designers from the unproductive commentary of others in the company, literally posting "Stop: No Entry" signs on the design studio doors. He also protects the design process, making sure that time-to-market pressures do not harm the designs by shifting the focus to engineering too soon. As a mediator, Bangle appeals to the core values of the company and a deeply held sense about BMW-ness--a pride of product shared by everyone in the company that expresses itself in the classic quality of the cars. Every employee, designer and nondesigner alike, understands that if a car doesn't meet this standard of excellence, it's simply not a BMW--and customers won't buy it. Managing at the intersection of art and commerce means translating the language of art into the language of the corporation. In this First Person account, the author describes his inventive techniques for getting the best from his artists--and getting his ideas across to corporate managers.

  15. The BMW Deep X-ray Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Lazzati, D.; Longhetti, M.; Molinari, E.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.; dell'Antonio, I.

    We describe the main features of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep optical CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys and will provide us with a fully independent probe of the evolution of the cluster abundance, in addition to significantly increasing the number of clusters known at z>0.6.

  16. 77 FR 52393 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; BMW of North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... vehicle immobilizer/car access system (EWS/CAS) control unit and a passive immobilizer. BMW's submission... using either the key lock cylinder on the driver's door or the remote frequency remote control. BMW stated that the frequency for the remote control constantly changes to prevent an unauthorized...

  17. 78 FR 44621 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2004 BMW 760I Passenger Cars are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You may read the comments received... Nonconforming 2004 BMW 760I Passenger Cars are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... BMW 760I passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable...

  18. 78 FR 19364 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted... Nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series Passenger Cars are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway... that nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series passenger cars that were not originally manufactured...

  19. 78 FR 21189 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; BMW of North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... coded release signal has been sent by the EWS/CAS control unit to deactivate the device and allow the... remote control. BMW stated that the frequency for the remote control constantly changes to prevent an unauthorized person from opening the vehicle by intercepting the signals of its remote control. BMW stated...

  20. 78 FR 14963 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 38A; Termination of Review of Application for Expansion; BMW Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... application was filed on June 15, 2011 (76 FR 36079-36080, 6-21-2011). The termination is a result of changed...; BMW Manufacturing Co., LLC (Motor Vehicles); Greer, South Carolina Notice is hereby given of... 38, on behalf of BMW Manufacturing Co., LLC (BMWMC), operator of Subzone 38A, requesting authority...

  1. The BMW-Chandra survey. Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Mignani, R. P.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Mottini, M.

    2009-07-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalogue derived from Chandra ACIS-I observations (exposure time > 10ks) public as of March 2003 by using a wavelet detection algorithm (Lazzati et al. 1999; Campana et al. 1999). The catalogue contains a total of 21325 sources, 16758 of which are serendipitous. Our sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2keV, S/N=3) is ~ 8 deg2 for FX ≥ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and ~ 2 deg2 for FX ≥ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue contains information on positions, count rates (and errors) in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7keV; soft, 0.5-2keV; and hard, 2-7keV), and in four additional energy bands, SB1 (0.5-1keV), SB2 (1-2keV), HB1 (2-4keV), and HB2 (4-7keV), as well as information on the source extension, and cross-matches with the FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS, and GSC-2 catalogues.

  2. 77 FR 16892 - BMW of North America, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ....3(c) and S4.3(d) of 49 CFR 571.110, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110, Tire... vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less. BMW filed an appropriate report, dated November 2, 2010, pursuant to 49 CFR Part 573, Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\...

  3. 78 FR 76408 - BMW of North America, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... amount of air pressure to the tires in order to achieve the proper inflation level. b. If the driver were... Register (77 FR 63415). One comment was received from Anne K. Mayer which supported granting BMW's petition... to the proper inflation pressure and the size of the tires installed on the vehicle, there are...

  4. Topological basis associated with B-M-W algebra: Two-spin-1/2 realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gangcheng; Sun, Chunfang; Liu, Bo; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we study the two-spin-1/2 realization for the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl (B-M-W) algebra and the corresponding Yang-Baxter R ˘ (θ , ϕ) matrix. Based on the two-spin-1/2 realization for the B-M-W algebra, the three-dimensional topological space, which is spanned by topological basis, is investigated. By means of such topological basis realization, the four-dimensional Yang-Baxter R ˘ (θ , ϕ) can be reduced to Wigner DJ function with J = 1. The entanglement and Berry phase in the spectral parameter space are also explored. The results show that one can obtain a set of entangled basis via Yang-Baxter R ˘ (θ , ϕ) matrix acting on the standard basis, and the entanglement degree is maximum when the R˘i (θ , ϕ) turns to the braiding operator.

  5. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2011-01-01

    Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dún Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these strategies was devised after interviews with both the residential and commercial sectors to help make optimal waste management the norm for both sectors. Strategy (b), (e) and (f) are detailed in this paper. By integrating a human element into accepted waste management approaches, these strategies will make optimal waste behaviour easier to achieve. Ultimately this will help divert waste from landfill and improve waste management practice as a whole for the region. This method of devising

  6. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  7. The BMW analytic aerodynamic drag method for the Vinti satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. S.; Mistretta, G. D.; Bonavito, N. L.

    1972-01-01

    In order to retain separability in the Vinti theory of earth satellite motion when a non conservative force such as air drag is considered, a set of variational equations for the orbital elements are introduced, and expressed as functions of the transverse, radial, and normal components of the nonconservative forces acting on the system. In particular, the atmospheric density profile is written as a fitted exponential function of the eccentric anomaly, which reproduces tabular values of static model atmospheric densities at all altitudes to within ninety-eight percent and simultaneously reduces the variational equations to indefinite integrals with closed form evaluations, whose limits are in terms of the eccentric anomaly. The values of the limits for any arbitrary time interval are obtained from the Vinti program. Results of the BMW (Bonavito, Mistretta, Watson) theory for the case of the intense air drag satellites San Marco-2 and Air Force Cannonball are given. These results indicate that the satellite ephemerides produced by the BMW theory in conjunction with the Vinti program are of very high accuracy. In addition, since the program is entirely analytic, several months of ephemerides can be obtained within a few seconds of computer time.

  8. The BMW (Brera-Multiscale-Wavelet) Catalogue of Serendipitous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzati, Davide; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; Israel, Gian L.; Guzzo, Luigi; Mignani, Roberto; Moretti, Alberto; Panzera, Maria R.; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    In collaboration with the Observatories of Palermo and Rome and the SAX-SDC we are constructing a multi-site interactive archive system featuring specific analysis tools. In this context we developed a detection algorithm based on the Wavelet Transform (WT) and performed a systematic analysis of all ROSATHRI public data (˜3100 observations +1000 to come). The WT is specifically suitable to detect and characterize extended sources while properly detecting point sources in very crowded fields. Moreover, the good angular resolution of HRI images allows the source extension and position to be accurately determined. This effort has produced the BMW (Brera Multiscale Wavelet) catalogue, with more than 19,000 sources detected at the ˜4.2σ level. For each source detection we have information on the X-ray flux and extension, allowing for instance to select complete samples of extended X-ray sources such as candidate clusters of galaxies or SNR's. Details about the detection algorithm and the catalogue can be found in Lazzati et al. 1999 and Campana et al. 1999. Here we shall present an overview of first results from several undergoing projects which make use of the BMW catalogue.

  9. 78 FR 20385 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2010 BMW Z4 Passenger Cars Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How To... Nonconforming 2010 BMW Z4 Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor...

  10. Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2009-04-01

    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies, leading to policy and practice alterations as a function of demographic changes and development. The household prediction technique gave a more accurate overall estimate of household waste generation than did the social class technique. Both techniques produced estimates that differed from the reported local authority data; however, given that local authority reported figures for the region are below the national average, with some of the waste generated from apartment complexes being reported as commercial waste, predictions arising from this research are believed to be closer to actual waste generation than a comparison to reported data would suggest. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations. Although focusing on waste in the Dublin region

  11. Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2009-04-01

    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies, leading to policy and practice alterations as a function of demographic changes and development. The household prediction technique gave a more accurate overall estimate of household waste generation than did the social class technique. Both techniques produced estimates that differed from the reported local authority data; however, given that local authority reported figures for the region are below the national average, with some of the waste generated from apartment complexes being reported as commercial waste, predictions arising from this research are believed to be closer to actual waste generation than a comparison to reported data would suggest. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations. Although focusing on waste in the Dublin region

  12. Generation of ascending flows in the Big Mantle Wedge (BMW) beneath northeast Asia induced by retreat and stagnation of subducted slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Masanori; Nishioka, Ryoko

    2012-05-01

    We conducted two-dimensional numerical experiments of mantle convection with imposed kinematic motions of cold slabs, in order to study the mechanism for the generation of ascending flows in the “Big Mantle Wedge” (BMW), which has been recently proposed in order to relate the stagnant Pacific slab with the intraplate volcanism in northeast Asia. Our calculations demonstrated that the BMW is expanded oceanward in response to the retreating motion of trench and slab, which strongly affects the flows in the region. In particular, the subducting and retreating motion of slab induces a local but strong circulation near the oceanward end (or a hinge) of the stagnant slab in the BMW. Our findings suggest that ascending flows in the BMW can be triggered most easily near the hinge of the stagnant slab, which is in good agreement with the occurrence of several active intraplate volcanoes above the stagnant Pacific slab.

  13. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. > Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. > Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. > Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  14. Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Arun J; Bhagwat, Vinod R; Patil, Jyotsna A; Dongre, Nilima N; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Jailkhani, Rama; Das, Kusal K

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28) was found to be in the range of 25.8 - 78.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35) the range was 2.8 - 22.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte - ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r = 0.02, p> 1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p < 0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p < 0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 - 78.0 microg / d

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The BMW-HRI source catalogue (Panzera+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzera, M. R.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Lazzati, D.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2002-11-01

    The BMW-HRI catalogue is generated from US and German ROSAT HRI observations for which data have been released to the US ROSAT archive at GSFC and to the German ROSAT archive at MPE up to December 2001. A total number of 4,303 observations with exposure times longer than 100 s were analyzed automatically using a wavelet detection algorithm. The catalogue consists of 29,089 sources (detection probability greater or equal 4.2 sigma). For each source name, position, count rate, flux and extension along with the relative errors are given.The catalogue also reports results of cross-correlations with existing catalogues at different wavelengths (FIRST, GSC2, 2MASS, and IRAS). (1 data file).

  16. A sample of X-ray emitting normal galaxies from the BMW-HRI Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter, A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a sample of 143 normal galaxies with X-ray luminosity in the range 1038{-}1043 erg s-1 from the cross-correlation of the ROSAT HRI Brera Multi-scale Wavelet (BMW-HRI) Catalogue with the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA). We find that the average X-ray properties of this sample are in good agreement with those of other samples of galaxies in the literature. We selected a complete flux limited serendipitous sample of 32 galaxies from which we derived the log N-log S distribution of normal galaxies in the flux range 1.1{-} 110 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. The resulting distribution is consistent with the Euclidean -1.5 slope. Comparisons with other samples, such as the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, the ROSAT All Sky Survey, the XMM-Newton/2dF survey, and the Chandra Deep Field Survey indicate that the log N -log S distribution of normal galaxies is consistent with a Euclidean slope over a flux range of about 6 decades.

  17. The Borden Micrometeorological Experiment 2009 (BMW09): Micrometeorology and Stable Isotopes for Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warland, J. S.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Staebler, R. M.; Lee, X.; Bartlett, P. A.; Brown, S. E.; Kim, K.; Santos, E. A.; Chang, K.

    2009-12-01

    A large collaborative experiment took place during summer 2009 at the Environment Canada tower site on CFB Borden in southern Ontario. The site is a long-term flux monitoring station, instrumented for eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and H2O, soil respiration, canopy profiles of CO2, H2O and temperature, net radiation, and standard meteorological variables. During BMW09, we brought to the site additional instrumentation to monitor gradients of stable isotopes of CO2 and H2O, turbulence profiles in the canopy and additional soil respiration data. Tunable diode laser trace gas analyzers were used to make continuous, high-frequency measurements of 12CO2, 13CO2 and C16O18O and H216O, HDO and H218O. Measurements were made of gradients of these isotopes above the canopy and in the understory. Profiles of CO2, H2O, temperature and turbulence statistics were measured for inverse Lagrangian analysis, where concentration profiles are used to determine source strength profiles through the canopy, thus separating soil, understory and overstory components of the net exchange made by eddy covariance. The project combines stable isotope measurements with novel micrometeorological techniques with the goal of developing improved operational measurements and gaining new insight into carbon and water cycles through this two-pronged approach. The overall goal of this intensive measurement campaign was to provide detailed data on the carbon and water cycles within this natural ecosystem for use in model testing and improvement. Specifically, the project will use this data with the C&N-CLASS model (the Canadian Land Surface Scheme with additional carbon and nitrogen routines) to improve its ability to predict changes to natural ecosystems under a changing climate when used within GCM simulations. This poster will present an overview of the project, highlight preliminary results, and illustrate how these disparate datasets will be tied together to provide new insight into carbon

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BMW17, a Cellulolytic and Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Phragmites karka of Chilika Lake, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Samir R; Ray, Lopamudra; Panda, Ananta Narayan; Sahu, Neha; Xess, Sonal S; Jadhao, Sudhir; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit Kumar; Raina, Vishakha

    2016-01-01

    We report the 3.16 Mb draft genome of Acinetobacter sp. strain BMW17, a Gram-negative bacterium in the class of Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from the rhizospheric region of Phragmites karka, an invasive weed in Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. The strain BMW17(T) is capable of degrading cellulose and is also an efficient plant growth promoter that can be useful for various phytoremedial and commercial applications. PMID:27365343

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BMW17, a Cellulolytic and Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Phragmites karka of Chilika Lake, India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Samir R.; Ray, Lopamudra; Panda, Ananta Narayan; Sahu, Neha; Xess, Sonal S.; Jadhao, Sudhir; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We report the 3.16 Mb draft genome of Acinetobacter sp. strain BMW17, a Gram-negative bacterium in the class of Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from the rhizospheric region of Phragmites karka, an invasive weed in Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. The strain BMW17T is capable of degrading cellulose and is also an efficient plant growth promoter that can be useful for various phytoremedial and commercial applications. PMID:27365343

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray emitting normal galaxies from BMW-HRI (Tajer+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter, A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2006-08-01

    We obtained a sample of 143 normal galaxies with X-ray luminosity in the range 1038-1043erg/s from the cross-correlation of the ROSAT HRI Brera Multi-scale Wavelet (BMW-HRI) Catalogue with the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA). We find that the average X-ray properties of this sample are in good agreement with those of other samples of galaxies in the literature. We selected a complete flux limited serendipitous sample of 32 galaxies from which we derived the logN-logS distribution of normal galaxies in the flux range 1.1-110x10-14erg/cm2/s. The resulting distribution is consistent with the Euclidean -1.5 slope. Comparisons with other samples, such as the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, the ROSAT All Sky Survey, the XMM-Newton/2dF survey, and the Chandra Deep Field Survey indicate that the logN-logS distribution of normal galaxies is consistent with a Euclidean slope over a flux range of about 6 decades. Description: (1 data file).

  1. Transport and dielectric properties of water and the influence of coarse-graining: Comparing BMW, SPC/E, and TIP3P models

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Daniel; Boresch, Stefan; Steinhauser, Othmar

    2014-02-14

    Long-term molecular dynamics simulations are used to compare the single particle dipole reorientation time, the diffusion constant, the viscosity, and the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the coarse-grained big multipole water (BMW) model to two common atomistic three-point water models, SPC/E and TIP3P. In particular, the agreement between the calculated viscosity of BMW and the experimental viscosity of water is satisfactory. We also discuss contradictory values for the static dielectric properties reported in the literature. Employing molecular hydrodynamics, we show that the viscosity can be computed from single particle dynamics, circumventing the slow convergence of the standard approaches. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Kivelson relation connecting single particle and collective reorientation time holds true for all systems investigated. Since simulations with coarse-grained force fields often employ extremely large time steps, we also investigate the influence of time step on dynamical properties. We observe a systematic acceleration of system dynamics when increasing the time step. Carefully monitoring energy/temperature conservation is found to be a sufficient criterion for the reliable calculation of dynamical properties. By contrast, recommended criteria based on the ratio of fluctuations of total vs. kinetic energy are not sensitive enough.

  2. Transport and dielectric properties of water and the influence of coarse-graining: Comparing BMW, SPC/E, and TIP3P models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Daniel; Boresch, Stefan; Steinhauser, Othmar

    2014-02-01

    Long-term molecular dynamics simulations are used to compare the single particle dipole reorientation time, the diffusion constant, the viscosity, and the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the coarse-grained big multipole water (BMW) model to two common atomistic three-point water models, SPC/E and TIP3P. In particular, the agreement between the calculated viscosity of BMW and the experimental viscosity of water is satisfactory. We also discuss contradictory values for the static dielectric properties reported in the literature. Employing molecular hydrodynamics, we show that the viscosity can be computed from single particle dynamics, circumventing the slow convergence of the standard approaches. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Kivelson relation connecting single particle and collective reorientation time holds true for all systems investigated. Since simulations with coarse-grained force fields often employ extremely large time steps, we also investigate the influence of time step on dynamical properties. We observe a systematic acceleration of system dynamics when increasing the time step. Carefully monitoring energy/temperature conservation is found to be a sufficient criterion for the reliable calculation of dynamical properties. By contrast, recommended criteria based on the ratio of fluctuations of total vs. kinetic energy are not sensitive enough.

  3. Transport and dielectric properties of water and the influence of coarse-graining: comparing BMW, SPC/E, and TIP3P models.

    PubMed

    Braun, Daniel; Boresch, Stefan; Steinhauser, Othmar

    2014-02-14

    Long-term molecular dynamics simulations are used to compare the single particle dipole reorientation time, the diffusion constant, the viscosity, and the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the coarse-grained big multipole water (BMW) model to two common atomistic three-point water models, SPC/E and TIP3P. In particular, the agreement between the calculated viscosity of BMW and the experimental viscosity of water is satisfactory. We also discuss contradictory values for the static dielectric properties reported in the literature. Employing molecular hydrodynamics, we show that the viscosity can be computed from single particle dynamics, circumventing the slow convergence of the standard approaches. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Kivelson relation connecting single particle and collective reorientation time holds true for all systems investigated. Since simulations with coarse-grained force fields often employ extremely large time steps, we also investigate the influence of time step on dynamical properties. We observe a systematic acceleration of system dynamics when increasing the time step. Carefully monitoring energy/temperature conservation is found to be a sufficient criterion for the reliable calculation of dynamical properties. By contrast, recommended criteria based on the ratio of fluctuations of total vs. kinetic energy are not sensitive enough. PMID:24527900

  4. The BMW Model: A New Framework for Teaching Monetary Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Although the IS/LM-AS/AD model is still the central tool of macroeconomic teaching in most macroeconomic textbooks, it has been criticized by several economists. Colander (1995) demonstrated that the framework is logically inconsistent, Romer (2000) showed that it is unable to deal with a monetary policy that uses the interest rate as its…

  5. 77 FR 37956 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG; Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000... information specified in S4.3(a) through (g), and may show, at the manufacturer's option, the information... risk of overloading. 4. The vehicle's Monroney label contains a listing of all options that have...

  6. 78 FR 43964 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000... Register (77 FR 37956.) No comments were received. To view the petition and all supporting documents log... the online search instructions to locate docket number ``NHTSA-2012-0075.'' Contact Information:...

  7. 77 FR 63415 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... required by part 567.4 or part 567.5 of this chapter. This information shall be in the English language...-2251. Comments must be written in the English language, and be no greater than 15 pages in length... Statement is available for review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78)....

  8. The "Dornier Mercury" commercial airplane with B.M.W. VI 600 HP. engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    The Dornier Mercury (Merkur) is an outgrowth of the Dornier Komet. It is designed as a passenger aircraft with the Alpine routes in mind. Its fuselage is made of steel for high stressed parts and duraluminum for all others. It can also be outfitted as a seaplane.

  9. 75 FR 71184 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; BMW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention... 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has... the Theft Prevention Standard (49 CFR part 541). DATES: The exemption granted by this notice...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BMW-Chandra source catalog (Romano+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Mottini, M.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2008-09-01

    The catalogue consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7keV; soft, 0.5-2keV; and hard, 2-7keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the extension of the source. We include information drawn from the headers of the original files, as well, and extracted source counts in four additional energy bands, SB1 (0.5-1keV), SB2 (1-2keV), HB1 (2-4keV), and HB2 (4-7keV). We computed the sky coverage for the full catalogue and for a subset at high Galactic latitude (|b|>20deg). The complete catalogue provides a sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2keV, S/N=3) of ~8deg2 at a limiting flux of 10-13erg/cm^2/s, and ~2deg2 at a limiting flux of ~10-15erg/cm^2/s. Furthermore, we present the results of the cross-match with existing catalogues at different wavelengths (FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS, GSC2, and ChaMP). The total numbers of matches with the FIRST, IRASPSC, 2MASS, and GSC2 catalogues obtained after a closest-distance selection are 13, 87, 6700, and 4485, respectively. (2 data files).

  11. New solutions of reflection equation derived from type B BMW algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häring-Oldenburg, Reinhard

    1996-09-01

    We use B-type knot theory to find new solutions of Sklyanin's reflection equation in a systematic way. This generalizes the well known Baxterization of Birman - Wenzl algebras and should describe integrable systems which are restricted to a half plane.

  12. Motivating Entry-Level Employees: When You Can't Give Them a BMW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    Motivating entry-level employees to perform at their highest capabilities is easy. Simply offer lucrative stock options, three-day work weeks, and generous salaries. On the other hand, like most early childhood programs, it takes creativity to motivate employees when the budget is tight. This article provides several ways to motivate entry-level…

  13. 76 FR 12410 - BMW of North America, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... information shall be in the English language and conform in color and format, not including the border... faxed to 1-202-493-2251. Comments must be written in the English language, and be no greater than 15... complete Privacy Act Statement is in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78)....

  14. 78 FR 24463 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2005-2007 BMW 5 Series Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to... for new material. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Coleman Sachs, Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance... Head Restraints, 204 Steering Control Rearward Displacement, 205 Glazing Materials, 206 Door Locks...

  15. 78 FR 65758 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2011-2012 BMW S1000RR Motorcycles Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... reflectors, front head lamp, and rear stop lamp. Standard No. 120 Tire Selection and Rims for Vehicles other... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments Submitted... the following standards, in the manner indicated below: Standard No. 108 Lamps, Reflective Devices...

  16. 78 FR 29810 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2003 BMW K 1200 GT Motorcycles Are Eligible...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    .... Instructions: Comments must be written in the English language, and be no greater than 15 pages in length... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You may read...

  17. 78 FR 29811 - Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2002 BMW R1100S Motorcycles Are Eligible for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... in the English language, and be no greater than 15 pages in length, although there is no limit to the... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65...

  18. 77 FR 76598 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006-2010 BMW M3 Passenger Cars Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You... lamp; and (e) front and rear side reflex reflectors. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection and Rims for...

  19. 77 FR 65769 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... on December 4, 2009 (see 74 FR 63820). In support of its belief that its antitheft device will be as... Mitsubishi Eclipse, BMW 3, Volkswagen Golf/GTI, Volkswagen New Beetle and the MYs 2008-2009 BMW 1...

  20. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  1. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Bhagawati, G; Nandwani, S; Singhal, S

    2015-01-01

    Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW), which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM) and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%), intermediate (50-80%) and unsatisfactory (less than 50%). Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%), mercury waste disposal (37.56%) and definition of BMW (47%). PMID:26470969

  2. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  3. 76 FR 36079 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 38A; Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority (Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Subzone 38A; Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority (Production Capacity); BMW Manufacturing Co., LLC; (Motor Vehicles) A request has been submitted to the... behalf of BMW Manufacturing Co., LLC, (BMWMC), operator of Subzone 38A, BMWMC plant, Greer,...

  4. Measurements of the Air-flow Velocity in the Cylinder of an Airplane Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, Hermann

    1939-01-01

    The object of the present investigation is to determine the velocity in the BMW-VI cylinder of an externally driven single-cylinder test engine at high engine speeds using the hot-wire method of Ulsamer.

  5. 77 FR 22383 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Mercedes-Benz E-Class to its Model S vehicle line. Specifically, the agency's data show that theft rates for the BMW 5 series are 0.9044, 0.6550 and 0.4098 and for the Mercedes- Benz E-Class, 0.5898, 0.6286... that the average theft rate for the BMW 5 series is 0.6564 and 0.7075 for the Mercedes-Benz...

  6. Methanolic extracts of bitter melon inhibit colon cancer stem cells by affecting energy homeostasis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Moran, Elizabeth; Velayutham, Ravichandiran; Mitra, Ashim; Umar, Shahid; Anant, Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Bitter melon fruit is recommended in ancient Indian and Chinese medicine for prevention/treatment of diabetes. However its effects on cancer progression are not well understood. Here, we have determined the efficacy of methanolic extracts of bitter melon on colon cancer stem and progenitor cells. Both, whole fruit (BMW) and skin (BMSk) extracts showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, with BMW showing greater efficacy. In addition, the cells were arrested at the S phase of cell cycle. Moreover, BMW induced the cleavage of LC3B but not caspase 3/7, suggesting that the cells were undergoing autophagy and not apoptosis. Further confirmation of autophagy was obtained when western blots showed reduced Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1, Atg 7 and 12 upon BMW treatment. BMW reduced cellular ATP levels coupled with activation of AMP activated protein kinase; on the other hand, exogenous additions of ATP lead to revival of cell proliferation. Finally, BMW treatment results in a dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonospheres. The extracts also decreased the expression of DCLK1 and Lgr5, markers of quiescent, and activated stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the extracts of bitter melon can be an effective preventive/therapeutic agent for colon cancer. PMID:23533514

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.

    PubMed

    Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

    2013-07-01

    The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502

  8. Numerical modeling of convective erosion and peridotite-melt interaction in big mantle wedge: Implications for the destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijuan

    2014-04-01

    The deep subduction of the Pacific Plate underneath East Asia is thought to have played a key role in the destruction of the North China Craton (NCC). To test this hypothesis, this paper presents a new 2-D model that includes an initial stable equilibrated craton, the formation of a big mantle wedge (BMW), and erosion by vigorous mantle convection. The model shows that subduction alone cannot thin the cold solid craton, but it can form a low-viscosity BMW. The amount of convective erosion is directly proportional to viscosity within the BMW (η0bmw), and the rheological boundary layer thins linearly with decreasing log10(η0bmw), thereby contributing to an increase in heat flow at the lithospheric base. This model also differs from previous modeling in that the increase in heat flow decays linearly with t1/2, meaning that the overall thinning closely follows a natural log relationship over time. Nevertheless, convection alone can only cause a limited thinning due to a minor increase in basal heat flow. The lowering of melting temperature by peridotite-melt interaction can accelerate thinning during the early stages of this convection. The two combined actions can thin the craton significantly over tens of Myr. This modeling, combined with magmatism and heat flow data, indicates that the NCC evolution has involved four distinct stages: modification in the Jurassic by Pacific Plate subduction and BMW formation, destruction during the Early Cretaceous under combined convective erosion and peridotite-melt interaction, extension in the Late Cretaceous, and cooling since the late Cenozoic.

  9. Braids, shuffles and symmetrizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2009-07-01

    Multiplicative analogues of the shuffle elements of the braid group rings are introduced; in local representations they give rise to certain graded associative algebras (b-shuffle algebras). For the Hecke and BMW algebras, the (anti)-symmetrizers have simple expressions in terms of the multiplicative shuffles. The (anti)-symmetrizers can be expressed in terms of the highest multiplicative 1-shuffles (for the Hecke and BMW algebras) and in terms of the highest additive 1-shuffles (for the Hecke algebras). The spectra and multiplicities of eigenvalues of the operators of the multiplication by the multiplicative and additive 1-shuffles are examined. Dedicated to the memory of Aleosha Zamolodchikov.

  10. Reliable on-demand multicast routing with congestion control in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ken; Gerla, Mario

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we address the congestion control multicast routing problem in wireless ad hoc networks through the medium access control (MAC) layer. We first introduce the Broadcast Medium Window (BMW) MAC protocol, which provides reliable delivery to broadcast packets at the MAC layer. We then extend the wireless On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) to facilitate congestion control in ad hoc networks using BMW. Through simulation, we show that ODMRP with congestion control adapts well to multicast sources that are aggressive in data transmissions.

  11. The Albatros L 72A : a German Newspaper Carrier with Slotted Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The Albatros 72A is a normal tractor biplane specifically designed to deliver newspapers by dropping them overboard in bundles for ground transport to pick up. It has a 42 ft. wingspan, and a 220 HP B.M.W. engine.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 Manufacturer Subject lines BMW MINI....

  13. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz USA... longer necessary. \\1\\ 73 FR 38372. Our belief stemmed from the fact that FMVSS No. 219 had succeeded in... standard (73 FR at 38374). Agency Response: Our action today to withdraw the July 7, 2008 NPRM will...

  14. The Bushido Matrix for Couple Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Ginsburg, Phil; Eckstein, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Japanese Bushido and its seven virtues were introduced by the authors in this article for the practice and application of couple communication. The Bushido Matrix Worksheet (BMW) was created for enhancing couple's awareness and understanding of each other's values and experiences. An activity and a case study to demonstrate the use…

  15. Underneath Hypercapitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Allan

    2007-01-01

    As Joel Spring's (2007/this issue) description of Singapore's Orchard Road suggests, Benetton, Zara, Nike, BMW, LG, and Microsoft dominate the visual and textual landscape where signage, advertising, packaging, labeling, and the environments of the connected underground malls and walkways merge into a wall-to-wall, 24/7 print and visual…

  16. Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts…

  17. Training Alcoholism Trainers. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This workbook is to be used in conjunction with the Trainer Manual entitled Training Alcoholism Trainers. The program was developed to upgrade training design and delivery skills of inservice trainers in the field of alcoholism. The workbook contains all the handout sheets necessary for participant sessions. (Author/BMW)

  18. South Carolina Wins the Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in locating new BMW car-manufacturing plant in South Carolina. Discusses state's business environment, transportation, and education system. Describes development process, site selection, and implications for economic development. Describes importance of state's labor-force development via regional technical colleges and…

  19. 78 FR 35094 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition, DP12-001

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... investigation'' into ``the repeated final drive bearing failure and possibly flawed assembly controls of the final drive unit on BMW K1200LT .'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bob Young, Office of Defects... requesting that the agency open an investigation into ``the repeated final drive bearing failure and...

  20. Knowledge and awareness regarding biomedical waste management in dental teaching institutions in India- A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Daljit; Nirola, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Proper handling, treatment and disposal of biomedical wastes are important elements in any health care setting. Not much attention has been paid to the management of Biomedical Waste (BMW) in recent years, in dental colleges and hospitals in India. The present systematic review was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness regarding BMW management among staff and students of dental teaching institutions in India. Material and Methods: A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional studies was conducted regarding BMW management in India in dental teaching institutions in India. Six studies were finally included in the present review after conducting both electronic and manual search like Pubmed, EMBASE etc. and after making necessary exclusions. Potential biases were addressed and relevant data was extracted by the concerned investigators. Results: Six studies were finally included in the review. Colour coding of wastes was not done by 67% of the subjects in one of the studies conducted in Haryana. Almost all the subjects agreed to the fact that exposure to hazardous health care waste can result in disease or infection in another study. According to another study reports, none of the respondents was able to list the legislative act regarding BMW when asked. Conclusions: The results of the present review showed that knowledge and awareness level of subjects was inadequate and there is considerable variation in practice and management regarding BMW. There is a great need for continuing education and training programmes to be conducted in dental teaching institutions in India. Key words:Biomedical waste, knowledge, awareness, dentists, institution. PMID:25593667

  1. Issues in diagnosis of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms involving the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Report on the Bone Marrow Workshop of the XVIIth meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology.

    PubMed

    Porwit, Anna; Fend, Falko; Kremer, Marcus; Orazi, Attilio; Safali, Mükerrem; van der Walt, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Small B cell lymphoid neoplasms are the most common lymphoproliferative disorders involving peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). The Bone Marrow Workshop (BMW) organized by the European Bone Marrow Working Group (EBMWG) of the European Association for Haematopathology (EAHP) during the XVIIth EAHP Meeting in Istanbul, October 2014, was dedicated to discussion of cases illustrating how the recent advances in immunophenotyping, molecular techniques and cytogenetics provide better understanding and classification of these entities. Submitted cases were grouped into following categories: (i) cases illustrating diagnostic difficulties in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); (ii) cases of BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms other than CLL; (iii) transformation of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms in the BM; and (iv) multiclonality and composite lymphomas in the BM. This report summarizes presented cases and conclusions of the BMW and provides practical recommendations for classification of the BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms based on the current state of knowledge. PMID:27208429

  2. Relation between strings and ribbon knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, E.; El-Rifai, E. A.; Abdellatif, R. A.

    1991-02-01

    A ribbon knot can be represented as the propagation of an open string in (Euclidean) space-time. By imposing physical conditions plus an ansatz on the string scattering amplitude, we get invariant polynomials of ribbon knots which correspond to Jones and Wadati et al. polynomials for ordinary knots. Motivated by the string scattering vertices, we derive an algebra which is a generalization of Hecke and Murakami-Birman-Wenzel (BMW) algebras of knots.

  3. Microwave Dielectric Properties for Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 A(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 (A=Ba, Sr, and Ca) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Mitsuru; Ochi, Atsushi

    1994-09-01

    For a high-Q dielectric resonator at microwave frequencies, complex perovskite-structured Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 A(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 (A=Ba, Sr, and Ca) ceramics have been developed. A(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 effects on the crystal structure, microstructure, and microwave characteristic of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BMT) were investigated. Ba(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 (BMW) decreased the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ( TCF) for BMT. Sr(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 (SMW) and Ca(Mg1/2W1/2)O3 (CMW) increased it. Zero TCF was obtained for the BMT/BMW=95/5 composition. With 0.5 mol% BMW content, dielectric loss quality, Q d, reached a maximum (40000 at 10 GHz).

  4. Coarse-grained models for aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsong; Mondal, Jagannath; Yethiraj, Arun

    2014-01-01

    A new coarse-grained force field is developed for polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water. The force field is based on the MARTINI model but with the big multipole water (BMW) model for the solvent. The polymer force field is reparameterized using the MARTINI protocol. The new force field removes the ring-like conformations seen in simulations of short chains with the MARTINI force field; these conformations are not observed in atomistic simulations. We also investigate the effect of using parameters for the end-group that are different from those for the repeat units, with the MARTINI and BMW/MARTINI models. We find that the new BMW/MARTINI force field removes the ring-like conformations seen in the MARTINI models and has more accurate predictions for the density of neat PEG. However, solvent-separated-pairs between chain ends and slow dynamics of the PEG reflect its own artifacts. We also carry out fine-grained simulations of PEG with bundled water clusters and show that the water bundling can lead to ring-like conformations of the polymer molecules. The simulations emphasize the pitfalls of coarse-graining several molecules into one site and suggest that polymer-solvent systems might be a stringent test for coarse-grained force fields. PMID:24350686

  5. Repeated randomization and matching in multi-arm trials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2013-12-01

    Cluster randomized trials with relatively few clusters have been widely used in recent years for evaluation of health-care strategies. The balance match weighted (BMW) design, introduced in Xu and Kalbfleisch (2010, Biometrics 66, 813-823), applies the optimal full matching with constraints technique to a prospective randomized design with the aim of minimizing the mean squared error (MSE) of the treatment effect estimator. This is accomplished through consideration of M independent randomizations of the experimental units and then selecting the one which provides the most balance evaluated by matching on the estimated propensity scores. Often in practice, clinical trials may involve more than two treatment arms and multiple treatment options need to be evaluated. Therefore, we consider extensions of the BMW propensity score matching method to allow for studies with three or more arms. In this article, we propose three approaches to extend the BMW design to clinical trials with more than two arms and evaluate the property of the extended design in simulation studies. PMID:24134592

  6. On Endomorphisms of Quantum Tensor Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrer, Gustav Isaac; Zhang, Ruibin

    2008-12-01

    We give a presentation of the endomorphism algebra End_{mathcal {U}q(mathfrak {sl}2)}(V^{⊗ r}) , where V is the three-dimensional irreducible module for quantum {mathfrak {sl}_2} over the function field {mathbb {C}(q^{1/2})} . This will be as a quotient of the Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra BMW r ( q) : = BMW r ( q -4, q 2 - q -2) by an ideal generated by a single idempotent Φ q . Our presentation is in analogy with the case where V is replaced by the two-dimensional irreducible {mathcal {U}_q(mathfrak {sl}2)} -module, the BMW algebra is replaced by the Hecke algebra H r ( q) of type A r-1, Φ q is replaced by the quantum alternator in H 3( q), and the endomorphism algebra is the classical realisation of the Temperley-Lieb algebra on tensor space. In particular, we show that all relations among the endomorphisms defined by the R-matrices on {V^{⊗ r}} are consequences of relations among the three R-matrices acting on {V^{⊗ 4}}. The proof makes extensive use of the theory of cellular algebras. Potential applications include the decomposition of tensor powers when q is a root of unity.

  7. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass traits in F2 intercross chickens.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, Y; Sato, S; Odawara, S; Nokata, H; Oyamada, Y; Taguchi, Y; Yanai, S; Sasaki, O; Takahashi, H; Nirasawa, K; Kobayashi, E

    2009-03-01

    We constructed a chicken F(2) resource population to facilitate the genetic improvement of economically important traits, particularly growth and carcass traits. An F(2) population comprising 240 chickens obtained by crossing a Shamo (lean, lightweight Japanese native breed) male and White Plymouth Rock breed (fat, heavyweight broiler) females was measured for BW, carcass weight (CW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and thigh muscle weight (TMW) and was used for genome-wide linkage and QTL analysis, using a total of 240 microsatellite markers. A total of 14 QTL were detected at a 5% chromosome-wide level, and 7 QTL were significant at a 5% experiment-wide level for the traits evaluated in the F(2) population. For growth traits, significant and suggestive QTL affecting BW (measured at 6 and 9 wk) and average daily gain were identified on similar regions of chromosomes 1 and 3. For carcass traits, the QTL effects on CW were detected on chromosomes 1 and 3, with the greatest F-ratio of 15.0 being obtained for CW on chromosome 3. Quantitative trait loci positions affecting BMW and TMW were not detected at the same loci as those detected for BMW percentage of CW and TMW percentage of CW. For AFW, QTL positions were detected at the same loci as those detected for AFW percentage of CW. The present study identified significant QTL affecting BW, CW, and AFW. PMID:19211515

  8. Molecular cloning of the perilipin gene and its association with carcass and fat traits in Chinese ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Fan, H J; Liu, X L; Wu, Y; Hou, S S

    2013-01-01

    The perilipin (PLIN) gene is a candidate gene of carcass and fat traits in ducks. In order to study the molecular character of the PLIN gene and its function in different breeds of Chinese ducks, samples were obtained from the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Research Center for Birds, including 95 Peking ducks of the Z2 series, 91 Peking ducks of the Z4 series, 82 hybrid systems (Z2 x Z4), and 93 Cherry Valley ducks. We used RT-PCR and 3'-RACE to clone the duck PLIN gene, detect SNPs and analyze their associations with carcass and fat traits. A 2212-bp sequence was cloned with the complete coding region and a 3'-untranslated region. We found a nucleotide mutation (C → T) in exon 2 of the PLIN gene. There were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (CC, CT, TT) in breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW), subcutaneous fat weight (SFW), and intramuscular fat (IMF) in the Cherry Valley duck. The CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in carcass weight (CW), carcass net weight (CNW), and percentage of abdominal fat weight (AFW); there were significant differences in AFW and percentage of SFW. In Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (TT, CC, and CT) in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF. CNW was significantly different between TT, CC, and CT genotypes. In Z2 x Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF, while the CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in CNW. In Z2, there were no significant differences between the 3 genotypes in all traits. We deduced that the PLIN gene is a potential major gene. It is linked to a major gene affecting meat quality traits. This SNP has potential as a molecular marker for marker-assisted selection.

  9. Attitudes and behaviour towards waste management in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2010-10-01

    The hypothesis of this research was that attitudes about the management of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) are spatially variable, even within a city of modest (1.2 million) population. For a select number of representative electoral districts in the Dublin, Ireland region, residents were surveyed regarding attitudes towards waste management in general, and BMW management in particular. A total of 850 survey responses were collected. Door-to-door interviews produced 688 responses in the residential sector; these were supplemented by 162 responses to a web-based survey. The surveys revealed that the majority of households use local authority, rather than private, waste collection services (both are available). The majority of residents, regardless of the local authority in which they live, were satisfied with their waste management service. "Reducing the quantity of waste generated" was regarded the most important future issue for 28% of residential respondents. Statistical analyses of the survey responses showed that the local authority in which respondents resided significantly influenced most responses (including waste collection service used, waste service satisfaction and backyard composting activity). Many responses (including waste service satisfaction, waste management influences) were also significantly related to the respondents' personal characteristics (e.g., education level, type of accommodation, age, etc.). These statistical results proved the hypothesis of the research and demonstrated that waste management initiatives designed for one area of the city (or, indeed, for uniform application to the city as a whole) could ignore the needs of other areas. The survey responses suggest that targeted intervention strategies would lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC.

  10. Multi-Generational Drinking of Bottled Low Mineral Water Impairs Bone Quality in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wang, Lingqiao; Wang, Dahua; Luo, Jiaohua; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yujing; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse. Objective To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats. Methods Rats continuously drank tap water (TW), bottled natural water (bNW), bottled mineralized water (bMW), or bottled purified water (bPW) for three generations. Results The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups) were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group. Conclusion Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model. PMID:25803851

  11. Innovation through developing consumers communities. Part II: Digitalizing the innovation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avasilcai, S.; Galateanu (Avram, E.

    2015-11-01

    The current research recognises the concept of innovation as the main driver for organisational growth and profitability. The companies seek to develop new ways to engage consumers and customers into co - creation value through the product design, development and distribution processes. However the main concern is manifested for new and creative ways of customization products based on consumers’ requirements and needs. Thus the need for innovative virtual instruments arose as the demand from social communities for personalised products or services increased. Basically companies should develop own innovative platforms, where consumers can participate, with ideas, concepts or other relevant contributions, and interact with designers or engineers for product development. This paper aims to present the most important features of platform development within BMW Group as a concept and as innovative instrument. From this point of view it is important to enhance past experiences of the company in the field of co - creation projects. There will be highlighted the dual consumers’ character as co - creator and co - evaluator based on their involvement in the proposed and developed projects and platform structure. The significant impact on platform functioning it has the diversity of company's concerns for Research & Development and innovation activities. From this point of view there will be assessed the platform structure, the main proposed themes and the evaluation process. The main outcome is to highlight the significance of platform development as innovative tool for consumers’ communities’ enhancement. Based on the analysis of “BMW Co-Creation Lab”, there will be revealed the main consumers concerns in terms of safety, comfort and appearance of the products. Thus it is important to understand the evaluation process of gathered ideas and intellectual property policy. The importance of platform development and implementation will be highlighted by company

  12. Molecular cloning of the perilipin gene and its association with carcass and fat traits in Chinese ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Fan, H J; Liu, X L; Wu, Y; Hou, S S

    2013-01-01

    The perilipin (PLIN) gene is a candidate gene of carcass and fat traits in ducks. In order to study the molecular character of the PLIN gene and its function in different breeds of Chinese ducks, samples were obtained from the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Research Center for Birds, including 95 Peking ducks of the Z2 series, 91 Peking ducks of the Z4 series, 82 hybrid systems (Z2 x Z4), and 93 Cherry Valley ducks. We used RT-PCR and 3'-RACE to clone the duck PLIN gene, detect SNPs and analyze their associations with carcass and fat traits. A 2212-bp sequence was cloned with the complete coding region and a 3'-untranslated region. We found a nucleotide mutation (C → T) in exon 2 of the PLIN gene. There were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (CC, CT, TT) in breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW), subcutaneous fat weight (SFW), and intramuscular fat (IMF) in the Cherry Valley duck. The CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in carcass weight (CW), carcass net weight (CNW), and percentage of abdominal fat weight (AFW); there were significant differences in AFW and percentage of SFW. In Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (TT, CC, and CT) in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF. CNW was significantly different between TT, CC, and CT genotypes. In Z2 x Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF, while the CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in CNW. In Z2, there were no significant differences between the 3 genotypes in all traits. We deduced that the PLIN gene is a potential major gene. It is linked to a major gene affecting meat quality traits. This SNP has potential as a molecular marker for marker-assisted selection. PMID:23765965

  13. A comparison of composition and emulsifying properties of MFGM materials prepared from different dairy sources by microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Miocinovic, Jelena; Le Trung, Thien; Fredrick, Eveline; Van der Meeren, Paul; Pudja, Predrag; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-09-01

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), due to its specific nature and composition, is known as material possessing advantageous nutritional as well as technological properties. In this study MFGM materials were produced from several dairy sources such as buttermilk (BM), butter serum (BS) and buttermilk whey (BMW) by microfiltration (MF). The obtained materials, depending on the sources, were called BM-MFGM, BS-MFGM and BMW-MFGM, respectively. The compositions of starting materials and the isolated MFGM materials as well as their emulsifying properties were analyzed and compared. As expected, the MF resulted in enrichment of polar lipids (PLs), major components of MFGM. On dry matter basis, BM-MFGM and BS-MFGM were about 2.5 times higher in PLs compared to their beginning materials while BMW-MFGM was about 8.3 times compared to buttermilk powder (BMP). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the microfiltered products still contained a high amount of non-MFGM proteins such as caseins, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin. Emulsions of 35% soya oil in water were prepared with the mentioned materials using a homogenizer at various pressures. Generally, emulsions prepared with BMP and butter serum powder had significantly higher particle sizes than those prepared with the MFGM materials. This result along with microscopy observation and viscosity measurement indicated the presence of aggregated particles in the former emulsions, probably as a result of lack of surface-active components. The differences in composition, especially in content of PLs and proteins of the materials were the main reasons for the differences in their emulsifying behaviors. PMID:23751553

  14. Blocking Moving Window algorithm: Conditioning multiple-point simulations to hydrogeological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, Andres; Renard, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    Connectivity constraints and measurements of state variables contain valuable information on aquifer architecture. Multiple-point (MP) geostatistics allow one to simulate aquifer architectures, presenting a predefined degree of global connectivity. In this context, connectivity data are often disregarded. The conditioning to state variables is usually carried out by minimizing a suitable objective function (i.e., solving an inverse problem). However, the discontinuous nature of lithofacies distributions and of the corresponding objective function discourages the use of traditional sensitivity-based inversion techniques. This work presents the Blocking Moving Window algorithm (BMW), aimed at overcoming these limitations by conditioning MP simulations to hydrogeological data such as connectivity and heads. The BMW evolves iteratively until convergence: (1) MP simulation of lithofacies from geological/geophysical data and connectivity constraints, where only a random portion of the domain is simulated at every iteration (i.e., the blocking moving window, whose size is user-defined); (2) population of hydraulic properties at the intrafacies; (3) simulation of state variables; and (4) acceptance or rejection of the MP simulation depending on the quality of the fit of measured state variables. The outcome is a stack of MP simulations that (1) resemble a prior geological model depicted by a training image, (2) honor lithological data and connectivity constraints, (3) correlate with geophysical data, and (4) fit available measurements of state variables well. We analyze the performance of the algorithm on a 2-D synthetic example. Results show that (1) the size of the blocking moving window controls the behavior of the BMW, (2) conditioning to state variable data enhances dramatically the initial simulation (which accounts for geological/geophysical data only), and (3) connectivity constraints speed up the convergence but do not enhance the stack if the number of iterations

  15. The Blocking Moving Window Sampler. Conditioning Stochastic Multiple Point Simulations to non-local Hydrogeological Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, A.; Renard, P.

    2008-12-01

    Geological scenarios often present well connected lithofacies distributions. Multiple Point statistical techniques have been traditionally used to delineate connectivity patterns from local lithofacies data in such scenarios. Yet, little attention has been paid to the conditioning to non-local connectivity data and dependent state variables (e.g., heads). These data sets contain valuable information on the connectivity patterns and must be accounted for in meaningful models. This work is a step in that direction. A novel direct iterative sampler, termed Blocking Moving Window (BMW) is presented. The BMW algorithm couples an MP simulator with a fast groundwater flow simulator. First, an MP simulation of lithofacies is delineated from training images, local lithofacies from available well logs and non-local connectivity data sets. Only a random portion of the domain (the Moving Window) is simulated at a given iteration. This makes the search less random and therefore, more efficient. Second, values of hydraulic properties at the intrafacies are assigned. Next, state variables are simulated. The MP simulation is rejected if the fit of measured state variables is poor. We analyze the performance of the BMW algorithm on a 2D toy example mimicking the groundwater flow to a well in a channel-type geological setting. We explore the sensitivity to the size of the Moving Window and the role of the state variable and non-local connectivity data sets. Results show that, (1) the size of the Moving Window must be optimum; (2) conditioning to state variables enhances dramatically the initial MP characterization (i.e., conditioned to raw geological data only) and (3) the use of non-local connectivity data increases the reliability of the characterization and speeds up the convergence of the algorithm.

  16. The clean energy partnership Berlin-CEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhoff, Klaus

    The clean energy partnership (CEP) is an international cooperation comprising 11 energy and technology companies as well as car manufacturers (Aral/BP, BMW, Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), Daimler, Ford, GM/Opel, Hydro, Linde, TOTAL, Vattenfall Europe and Volkswagen AG). The vision of mobility based on hydrogen is commonly shared by the partners. The objective of the CEP is to prove everyday suitability of hydrogen for transportation purposes by real-life operation of hydrogen stations integrated into conventional filling stations, by efficient and reliable hydrogen vehicles in customer operation and by fast, convenient and safe fuelling of vehicles with liquid an gaseous hydrogen.

  17. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  18. Biomedical wellness standoff screening by unsupervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles; Hoekstra, Philip; Beeney, Jerry

    2009-04-01

    Biomedical Wellness (BMW) surveillance system may become indispensible in public health riding on four confluent trends: (i) The surge of retirement waves of WWII baby boomers; (ii) The longevity of the seniors, thanks to 3 decades steady NIH budgets 23B per year; (iii) The economic melting down is exasperating resources for entitlements; (iv) The emergent Next Gen Internet having the last mile challenges solved entirely and friendly with IT wired and wireless delivery system, thanks to DoD/DARPA pioneer and numerous entrepreneurs visionary efforts. To be effective in job recreation in current economic slag, BMW needs a jump start, WH/HHS should establish a balanced investment policy in health care, not just to illness but to wellness, and a BMW blue ribbon panel (BMWbrp), which must be, however, independent of NIHbrp, recommending additional resources, say 5B budget for BMW infrastructure building that will surely create new jobs to prepare badly needed geriatric caretakers. Being governmental investment, the BMWbrp must come back with a upward-conversion compatible infrastructure Blue-Print, version#1, an open architecture of standard interfaces, workable with distributed data bases and programming languages. The infrastructure must be simple, transparent, scalable, to leverage with a win-win-win(senior) CRADA from the private investments worldwide, e.g. from the insurance companies and home security companies, etc. that can further attract senior community center BOT. To start whenever the rubber meets the road, we shall enlist the military infrastructure, their sensors suite located in DoD & DHS labs supported with their affiliated contractors and universities. However, the down selections should be done under open bids, oversight by BMWbrp, under HHS $5B budget, to translate their sophisticated military persistent and precision surveillance know-how technology to watch out, no longer the enemy of USA but also, the enemy of mankind, the malicious microorganisms

  19. Analyzing the drainage system anomaly of Zagros basins: Implications for active tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Morphometric analysis of hierarchical arrangement of drainage networks allows to evaluate the effects of external controls especially tectonics on basin development. In this study, a quantitative method for calculation of stream's hierarchical anomaly number is introduced. Morphometric parameters such as hierarchal anomaly index (∆a), percent of asymmetry factor (PAF), basin Shape (Bs), basin length to mean width ratio (Bl/Bmw), stream's bifurcation ratio (Rb), bifurcation index (R), drainage density (Dd), drainage frequency (Df) and anticline's hinge spacing (Hs) of 15 basins in Zagros Mountains were examined. Results show that the strong correlations exist between pairs ∆a-PAF (r = 0.844), ∆a-Bs (r = 0.732), ∆a-Bl/Bmw (r = 0.775), ∆a-R (r = 0.517), PAF-Bl/Bmw (r = 0.519), Bs-R (r = 0.659), Bl/Bmw-R (r = 0.703), Hs-∆a (r = - 0.708), Hs-PAF (r = - 0.529) and Hs-Bs (r = - 0.516). The variations in trend of anticlines control the shape of basins so that where anticlines hinges become closer to each other in the downstream direction, basin become narrower downward and hence the ∆a increases. The more uplifted northeastern anticlines cause the trunk river of the basins to migrate toward the younger anticlines in southwest and hence ∆a increases because the trunk river receives a lot of first order streams. Data reveal that the rate of ∆a is higher in elongated synclinal basins. Due to the decrease in the intensity of deformation from northeast toward southwest of Zagros, the hinge spacing of anticlines increases southwestwards. Data reveal that the variation in hinge spacing of anticlines strongly controls the basin's shape and tilting as well as the hierarchical anomaly of drainage system. Since the elongation and tilting of basins are associated with the variations in rates of folding, uplift and hinge spacing of anticlines, it can be concluded that the hierarchical anomaly of drainages in studied basins is controlled by the intensity of Zagros

  20. Nucleon scalar and tensor charges from lattice QCD with light Wilson quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. R.; Negele, J. W.; Pochinsky, A. V.; Syritsyn, S. N.; Engelhardt, M.; Krieg, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present 2+1 flavor lattice QCD calculations of the nucleon scalar and tensor charges. Using the BMW clover-improved Wilson action with pion masses between 149 and 356 MeV and three source-sink separations between 0.9 and 1.4 fm, we achieve good control over excited-state contamination and extrapolation to the physical pion mass. As a consistency check, we also present results from calculations using unitary domain wall fermions with pion masses between 297 and 403 MeV, and using domain wall valence quarks and staggered sea quarks with pion masses between 293 and 597 MeV.

  1. Detection systems for short-time stroboscopic neutron imaging and measurements on a rotating engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, B.; Abele, H.; Brunner, J.; Frei, G.; Gähler, R.; Gildemeister, A.; Hillenbach, A.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

    2005-04-01

    Today's neutron sources do not deliver sufficient flux to examine singular short-time events in the millisecond range by neutron radiography. However, periodic processes can be examined if a triggered accumulating detector collects information of identical time-windows and positions over several cycles of the process. The same problem applies if the source signal itself carries information, like the energy-time dependence in the pulse of a spallation source. Several possible detection methods were considered; measurements were performed at the intense neutron beam H9 of ILL Grenoble, where an electrically driven BMW engine was examined at 1000 rpm with time resolution of 200 μs.

  2. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

  3. The effects of intake valve detergent structure on combustion chamber deposits (CCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Maxey, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been heavily researched in the past with regard to Octane Requirement Increase (ORI). New concerns about their role in combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) and their potential contribution to exhaust emissions have reinforced interest in defining the underlying factors that contribute to CCD. In this study, intake valve detergents were evaluated in the absence of any fluidizer in L-6 1987 BMW 325e engines using 10,000 mile tests run with a BMW IVD driving cycle. The chemical structure of detergents used to reduce Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has been systematically varied to determine its effect on the quantity and the composition of CCD. In general, chemical changes in the intake valve detergent had little effect on the amount and chemical composition of CCD. The composition of CCD was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All CCDs produced with fuels containing intake valve detergents showed the same types and similar levels of organic oxygen, sulfur and aromatic carbon. The CCDs did not contain intact additive backbone fragments or detergent head groups. The only distinguishing feature of these CCDs was the varying nitrogen content that appeared to depend on the type and number of amine groups in the detergent. However, the types of nitrogen present in the CCDs were chemically different from those present in the initial detergent suggesting that, although some of the nitrogen in the detergent head group remains in the CCD, it is chemically transformed.

  4. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery.

  5. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery. PMID:26981316

  6. Comparison of thermal comfort performance of two different types of road vehicle climate control systems.

    PubMed

    Quanten, S; Van Brecht, A; Berckmans, D

    2007-03-01

    The performance of climate control systems in vehicles becomes more and more important, especially against the background of the important relationship between compartment climate and driver mental condition and, thus, traffic safety. The performance of two different types of climate control systems, an un-air-conditioned heating/cooling device (VW) and an air-conditioning climate control unit (BMW), is compared using modern and practical evaluation techniques quantifying both the dynamic 3-D temperature distribution and the local air refreshment rate. Both systems suffer from considerable temperature gradients: temperature gradients in the U-AC (VW) car up to 8-9 degrees C are encountered, while the AC (BMW) delivers clear improvement resulting in temperature gradients of 5-6 degrees C. The experiments clearly demonstrate the effect of the presence of even a single passenger on the thermal regime, increasing the existing thermal discrepancies in the compartment with 15% independent of ventilation rate. Furthermore, in terms of air refreshment rates in the vehicle compartment, an air-conditioning unit halves the air refreshment time at all positions in the vehicle cabin, delivering a significant improvement in terms of human comfort. Similarly, extra air inlets in the back compartment of a car deliver progress in terms of cabin refreshment rate (93 s down to 50 s).

  7. Reactivation and mantle dynamics of North China Craton: insight from P-wave anisotropy tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    We determined the first 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the North China Craton (NCC) using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events, which reveals depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle down to 600 km depth. In the NCC western block, the fast velocity direction (FVD) varies from east-west in the southern part to northeast-southwest in the northern part, which may reflect either the interaction between the Yangtze block and NCC or fossil lithospheric fabrics in the craton. Under the NCC eastern block, a uniform northwest-southeast FVD is revealed in the lower part of the upper mantle (300-410 km depths) and the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depths), which may reflect horizontal and upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. The NCC central block exhibits a northeast-southwest FVD, consistent with the surface tectonic orientation there, suggesting that the cold and thick (>300 km) cratonic root of the NCC western block may obstruct the northwest-southeast trending mantle flow induced by the Pacific Plate subduction, resulting in a northeast-southwest trending mantle flow under the central block. Our present results indicate that the corner flow in the BMW associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific Plate is the main cause of NCC reactivation and mantle dynamics under East China.

  8. Strangeness in the baryon ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semke, A.; Lutz, M. F. M.

    2012-10-01

    We compute the strangeness content of the baryon octet and decuplet states based on an analysis of recent lattice simulations of the BMW, PACS, LHPC and HSC groups for the pion-mass dependence of the baryon masses. Our results rely on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian and large-Nc sum rule estimates of the counter terms relevant for the baryon masses at N3LO. A partial summation is implied by the use of physical baryon and meson masses in the one-loop contributions to the baryon self energies. A simultaneous description of the lattice results of the BMW, LHPC, PACS and HSC groups is achieved. From a global fit we determine the axial coupling constants F ≃ 0.45 and D ≃ 0.80 in agreement with their values extracted from semi-leptonic decays of the baryons. Moreover, various flavor symmetric limits of baron octet and decuplet masses as obtained by the QCDSF-UKQCD group are recovered. We predict the pion- and strangeness sigma terms and the pion-mass dependence of the octet and decuplet ground states at different strange quark masses.

  9. Seismic structure and origin of active intraplate volcanoes in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yonghong; Zhao, Dapeng; Zhang, Xiankang; Xia, Shaohong; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Fuyun; Li, Li

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure beneath the Changbai and other intraplate volcanic areas in Northeast Asia is determined by inverting 1378 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 186 teleseismic events recorded by 61 broadband seismic stations. Low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed beneath the Changbai, Longgan, Xianjindao volcanoes. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies are found in the mantle transition zone, where deep-focus earthquakes under Hunchun occur at depths of 500-600 km. The high-V anomaly reflects the deep subduction of the Pacific slab under NE Asia which may have contributed to the formation of the Changbai, Longgang, Xianjindao and Jingpohu intraplate volcanoes. A low-V anomaly is also revealed in the mantle transition zone, which may have a close relationship with the occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Hunchun area. Our results support the Big Mantle Wedge (BMW) model by Zhao et al. [Zhao, D., Lei, J., Tang, Y., 2004. Origin of the Changbai volcano in northeast China: evidence from seismic tomography, Chin. Sci. Bull. 49, 1401-1408; Zhao, D., Maruyama, S., Omori, S., 2007. Mantle dynamics of western Pacific and East Asia: insight from seismic tomography and mineral physics. Gondwana Res. 11, 120-131.] who proposed that the intraplate volcanoes in NE Asia are caused by the back-arc magmatism associated with the deep dehydration process of the subducting slab and convective circulation process in the BMW above the stagnant Pacific slab.

  10. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery. PMID:26981316

  11. Exciting Reflectionless, Unidirectional Edge Mode in Bianisotropic Meta-waveguide Using Rotating Dipole Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Shvets, Gennady

    Electronic chiral edge states in Quantum Hall Effect systems has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its unique directionality and robustness against scattering from disorder. Its electromagnetic counterpart can be found in photonic crystals, which is a material with periodic dielectric constant. Here we present the experimental results demonstrating the unidirectional edge mode inside a bi-anisotropic meta-waveguide (BMW) structure. It is a parallel plate waveguide with metal rods placed in a hexagonal lattice. Half of the rods are attached to the top plate while the other half are attached to the bottom plate creating a domain wall. The edge mode is excited by two loop antennas placed perpendicular to each other within one wavelength, generating a rotating magnetic dipole that couples to the left or right-going mode. The transmission measurement are taken along the BMW boundary and shows high transmission only around the edge, thus confirming the presence of an edge mode. We also demonstrated that very high directivity can be achieved when the input amplitude and phase of the two loop antennas are tuned properly This work is funded by the ONR under Grants No. N00014130474 and N000141512134, and the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).

  12. Complex brecciation and shock effects in the Buck Mountain Wash (H3-5) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Melinda; Ruzicka, Alex; Pugh, Richard; Sloan, Larry; Thompson, Edwin

    2007-06-01

    Buck Mountain Wash (BMW) is a new genomict breccia (H3-5) found in the Franconia (H5) strewn field in Arizona that shows complex brecciation and shock effects. It contains three distinct chondritic lithologies in sharp contact: a) a main lithology that consists primarily of petrographic type 5 material but which has finely intermixed type 3 and 4 material, b) a shock-blackened (shock stage S5) type 3 lithology (lithology A), and c) a shock-blackened type 3/4 lithology (lithology B). Buck Mountain Wash was lithified after impact-mixing and impact-melting of weakly and strongly metamorphosed materials, possibly at depth in the regolith of the parent body. Shock effects included brecciation on a fine scale, localized impact-melting of silicates, partial melting, and mobilization of metal-sulfide, and chemical fractionations that produced non-H-group composition kamacite by two disequilibrium mechanisms. Shock heating did not cause significant thermal metamorphism in the shock-blackened lithologies of BMW, except possibly in areas adjacent to whole-rock shock melt. During lithification, cooling must have been rapid at high temperatures to preserve glass and inhomogeneous silicate compositions, but not so fast at lower temperatures as to produce dendritic metal-sulfide globules or martensite.

  13. Multiscale seismic imaging of the Western-Pacific subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2011-12-01

    We used multiscale seismic tomography to determine the detailed 3-D structure of the crust and mantle under the Western-Pacific subduction zone. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs are imaged clearly from their entering the mantle at the oceanic trenches to their reaching the mantle transition zone and finally to the core-mantle boundary (CMB). High-resolution local tomography of Northeast Japan has imaged the shallow portion of the slab from the Japan Trench down to about 200 km depth under Japan Sea. The 3-D Vp and Vs structures of the forearc region under the Pacific Ocean are constrained by locating suboceanic events precisely with sP depth phases. Strong structural heterogeneity is revealed in the megathrust zone under the forearc region, and there is a good correlation between the heterogeneity and the distribution of large thrust earthquakes including the great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0). A joint inversion of local and teleseismic data imaged the subducting Pacific slab down to 670 km depth under the Japan Islands and the Japan Sea. The PHS slab is detected down to 500 km depth under SW Japan. A mantle upwelling is found under SW Japan that rises from about 400 km depth right above the Pacific slab up to the PHS slab. Regional and global tomography revealed the Pacific slab that is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Eastern China. A big mantle wedge (BMW) has formed in the upper mantle above the stagnant slab. Convective circulations in the BMW and deep dehydration of the stagnant slab may have caused the intraplate volcanoes in NE Asia, such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes. The active Tengchong volcanism in SW China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma (or Indian) slab. Global tomography shows pieces of fast anomalies in the middle and lower mantle as well as in the D" layer above the CMB, suggesting that the stagnant slab finally collapses down to the lower mantle and CMB as a

  14. Application of silicon piezoresistive stress test chips in electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yida

    In this work, both special (100) and (111) silicon test chips containing an array of optimized piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been successfully applied within several electronic packaging configurations. Unlike (100) silicon test chips, (111) silicon test chips are able to measure the complete stress state on the die surface. After calibration and characterization of the test chips, they were packaged into various assemblies. The post packaging resistances of the sensors were then recorded at room temperature, as a function of temperature excursion, and during long term packaging reliability qualification tests (thermal cycling and thermal aging). The stresses on the die surface were calculated using the measured resistance changes and the appropriate theoretical equations. For comparison purposes, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the packaging processes were also performed, and the stress predictions were correlated with the experimental test chip data. AAA2 (100) silicon test chips containing optimized four element dual polarity rosettes have been applied within 44 pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) packages and 240 pin Quad Flat Packs (QFP's). In these plastic package experiments, comparison of the stress levels induced by various molding compounds was emphasized. Advanced (111) silicon test chips (BMW-1 or BMW-2) comprising an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes were encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's, 160 pin QFP's, Chip on Board (COB) packages, and 281 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) packages. In addition to molding compound evaluations, BMW-1 test chips encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's were used to detect the presence of delaminations between the die surface and the encapsulant. In the wire bonded COB package studies, die surface stress evaluations were conducted after die attachment, and throughout the cure cycle of the liquid encapsulant. The stresses were also studied as a

  15. Situation analysis and issues in management of biomedical waste in select small health care facilities in a ward under Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike, Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Chethana, Thirthahalli; Thapsey, Hemanth; Gautham, Melur Sukumar; Sreekantaiah, Pruthvish; Suryanarayana, Suradhenupura Puttajois

    2014-04-01

    Smaller health care facilities especially clinics though believed to generate lesser quantum/categories of medical waste, the number of clinics/small health care settings are considerable. The movement to manage biomedical waste in a safe and scientific manner has gathered momentum among the medium and large hospitals in Bangalore, but there has been a little understanding and focus on the smaller health care facilities/clinics in this aspect. It is important to gather evidence regarding the current situation of bio-medical waste (BMW) management and issues in smaller health care settings, so as to expand the safe management to all points of generation in Bangalore and will also help to plan relevant interventional strategies for the same. Hence an exploratory study was conducted to assess the current situation and issues in management of BMW among small health care facilities (sHCF). This cross sectional study was conducted in T. Dasarahalli (ward number 15) under Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagar Palike (BBMP) of Bangalore. Data was collected from a convenient sample of 35 nursing homes (<50 beds) and clinics in December 2011. The results of this study indicate that 3 (20 %) of nursing homes had a Policy for Health Care Waste Management, though committees for Infection control and Hospital waste management were absent. Recording system like injury and waste management registers were non-existent. In our study the Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility operator collected waste from 28 (80 %) of the sHCF. Segregation at the point of generation was present in 22 (62.9 %) of the sHCF. Segregation process was compliant as per BMW rules 1998 among 5 (16.1 %) of the sHCF. 18 sHCF workers were vaccinated with hepatitis B and tetanus. Deficiencies were observed in areas of containment, sharps management and disinfection. It was observed that though the quantum and category of waste generated was limited there exist deficiencies which warrant initiation of system development

  16. Towards non-cooperative standoff biometrics using extremely low frequency (ELF) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Kenneth A.; Szu, Harold; Wardlaw, Michael J.

    2009-04-01

    Earth's Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (⊕-NMR) is a novel detection technique that exploits the uniformity of the earth's magnetic field to measure precessing magnetizations of isotope-having objects such as human beings. The ability to provide standoff medical surveillance will increase the Biomedical Wellness (BMW) of not only aging American citizens but also persons we seek to track from healthy to diseased states. Taking advantage of the uniform field in the earth, spatio-temporal integration (3 orders due to time and 4 orders due to space) and Higher Order Statistics (HOS), namely, change detection via kurtosis (ΔK), SNR and the ability to make non-locality measurements may be increased to at least the level of the typical hospital NMR devices. Moreover, we present theoretical calculations of magnitude and consider time dynamics of the resonant/relaxing magnetic fields as a function of 3D human motion and distance.

  17. Geometry and rendering optimizations for the interactive visualization of crash-worthiness simultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Ove; Ertl, Thomas P.

    2000-02-01

    Todays car body models used for crash-worthiness simulations consist of around half a million finite elements. The interactive visualization of these large scale time- dependent geometries with constant topology on workstations platforms requires a variety of modeling an rendering optimizations. We present a memory efficient scene graph design, an algorithm to concatenate the mainly four-sided elements into optical quadrilateral strips, and a simplifier which generates an approximating triangle mesh by using the one-sided Hausdorff distance as an error measure. Furthermore we describe a technique to explore scalar data mapped onto complex scenes by hiding geometry with values outside an interactively specified range of interest. These optimizations allow for the first time interactive visualization of a full car crash on medium range graphics workstations. They are embedded in an application which is based on Cosmo3D/OpenGl Optimizer. It was developed in close cooperation with the BMW Group and it is in productive use.

  18. The open XXZ spin chain model and the topological basis realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingyong; Du, Yangyang; Wu, Chunfeng; Wang, Gangcheng; Sun, Chunfang; Xue, Kang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, it is shown that the Hamiltonian of the open spin-1 XXZ chain model can be constructed from the generators of the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl (B-M-W) algebra. Without the topological parameter d (describing the unknotted loop ◯ in topology) reducing to a fixed value, the topological basis states can be connected with the open XXZ spin chain. Then some particular properties of the topological basis states in this system have been investigated. We find that the topological basis states are the three eigenstates of a four-spin-1 XXZ chain model without boundary term. Specifically, all the spin single states of the system fall on the topological basis subspace. And the number of the spin single states of the system is equal to that of the topological basis states.

  19. Optimisation of driver actions in RWD race car including tyre thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniowski, Michal

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an innovative method for a lap time minimisation by using genetic algorithms for a multi objective optimisation of a race driver-vehicle model. The decision variables consist of 16 parameters responsible for actions of a professional driver (e.g. time traces for brake, accelerator and steering wheel) on a race track part with RH corner. Purpose-built, high fidelity, multibody vehicle model (called 'miMa') is described by 30 generalised coordinates and 440 parameters, crucial in motorsport. Focus is put on modelling of the tyre tread thermodynamics and its influence on race vehicle dynamics. Numerical example considers a Rear Wheel Drive BMW E36 prepared for track day events. In order to improve the section lap time (by 5%) and corner exit velocity (by 4%) a few different driving strategies are found depending on thermal conditions of semi-slick tyres. The process of the race driver adaptation to initially cold or hot tyres is explained.

  20. Broadband VHF observations for lightning impulses from a small satellite SOHLA-1 (Maido 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.; Hidekazu, H.; Aoki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer (DITF) to image precise lightning channels and monitor lightning activity widely. The feature of broadband DITF is its ultrawide bandwidth (from 25MHz to 100MHz) and implicit redundancy for estimating VHF source location. LRG-OU considers an application of the broadband DITF to the spaceborne measurement system and joins the SOHLA (Space Oriented Higashi-Osaka Leading Associate) satellite project. The SOHLA satellite project represents a technology transfer program to expand the range of the space development community in Japan. The objective is to get SMEs (Small and Medium sized manufacturing Enterprises) involved in small space projects and new space technologies. Under the cooperative agreement, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) intends to contribute to socio-economic development by returning its R&D results to society, and SOHLA tries to revitalize the local economy through the commercialization of versatile small satellites. According to the agreement, JAXA provides SOHLA its technical information on small satellites and other technical assistance for the development of the small satellites, SOHLA-1. The prime objective of the SOHLA-1 program is to realize low-cost and short term development of a microsatellite which utilizes the components and bus technologies of JAXA’s MicroLabSat. SOHLA-1 is a spin-stabilized microsatellite of MicroLabSat heritage (about 50 kg). The spin axis is fixed to inertial reference frame. The spin axis (z-axis) lies in the plane containing the solar direction and the normal to the orbital plane. LRG-OU takes responsibility for a science mission of SOHLA-1. To examine the feasibility of the DITF receiving VHF lightning impulses in space, LRG-OU proposes the BMW (Broadband Measurement of Waveform for VHF Lightning Impulses). BMW consists of a single pair of an antenna, a band-pass filter, an amplifier, and an

  1. A Comparison of Bus Architectures for Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We describe and compare the architectures of four fault-tolerant, safety-critical buses with a view to deducing principles common to all of them, the main differences in their design choices, and the tradeoffs made. Two of the buses come from an avionics heritage, and two from automobiles, though all four strive for similar levels of reliability and assurance. The avionics buses considered are the Honeywell SAFEbus (the backplane data bus used in the Boeing 777 Airplane Information Management System) and the NASA SPIDER (an architecture being developed as a demonstrator for certification under the new DO-254 guidelines); the automobile buses considered are the TTTech Time-Triggered Architecture (TTA), recently adopted by Audi for automobile applications, and by Honeywell for avionics and aircraft control functions, and FlexRay, which is being developed by a consortium of BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola, and Philips.

  2. The Earth in Turmoil: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Their Impact on Humankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Seth

    A common complaint among Earth scientists is that much of the public at least if undergraduates satisfying distribution requirements are any indication does not share our fascination with the Earth. However, we generally believe that if we could convey the essence of the Earth sciences, even the most jaded student driving toward an MBA (and BMW) could somehow be excited by the grandeur and elegance of the planets workings. Support for this (perhaps unduly) optimistic view can be found from Sieh and LeVays superb popular account of active tectonic processes. The book takes a virtual field trip across the United States, visiting sites including the Cascadia subduction zone, the San Andreas fault, the Long Valley caldera, the Basin and Range, New Madrid, and Hawaii. At each site, readers are treated to a vivid description of the visible features, an incisive explanation of the tectonics at work, and an entertaining account of how both scientists and local people have been affected.

  3. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  4. Molded GASIR ® infrared optics for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, Y.; Bellec, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Umicore IR Glass has developed an industrial process to manufacture low cost chalcogenide glasses. These materials called GASIR® are transparent in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows which allows to use them in all the sensing and thermal imaging applications where Germanium and ZnSe usually stands. During the past 5 years, Umicore has developed and produced with and for its customers various GASIR ® optics in low and medium volume for military and civilian applications. But from the beginning of last year, the company is also very active in the automotive market. For that reason, a huge work of development on optics quality has been done to comply with automotive requests. Umicore's GASIR ® optics are used for instance in the night vision system that BMW launched in September 2005 on its 7-series. This system which will be described in this paper was developed by Umicore's customer, automotive TIER1 producer Autoliv.

  5. A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

    2006-11-01

    Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

  6. The logN-logS relationship of normal X-ray emitting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We have selected a flux limited serendipitous sample of galaxies from the cross-correlation of the BMW (Brera Multiscale Wavelet) ROSAT HRI and the LEDA (Lyon - Meudon Extragalactic Database) Catalogues. This sample is used to study the X-ray properties of normal galaxies in the local universe. We also find that the logN-logS distribution we derived for a serendipitous subsample, optically and X-ray flux limited, is consistent with the euclidean slope in the flux range FX(0.5 - 2) ˜ 1.1 - 110 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We further show that the same law is valid over 4 decades, from the bright sample derived from the RASS data to the very faint detections in deep XMM-Newton fields.

  7. Contour and pattern recognition of temperature fields with image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gier, Stefan; Scheuerpflug, Wolfgang

    1998-03-01

    BMW Rolls-Royce is developing the civil turbofan engine family BR700 with a thrust range from 12.000 to 23.000 pounds. To improve the efficiency, life time and cycles of an engine it is necessary to know the wall temperature on its components. The distribution of turbine wall temperature is measured with so-called Thermal Paints, which change their color irreversibly according to the local maximum temperature. A CCD color line scan camera system to record and analyze these data is being developed. To understand the thermal distribution across the surface of a component, the paint color change boundary is identified and transformed into calibrated temperature data. This thermal distribution can be used to validate the engineering thermal model.

  8. Biodegradation and flushing of MBT wastes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A A; Richards, D J; Powrie, W

    2013-11-01

    Mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) processes are increasingly being adopted as a means of diverting biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill, for example to comply with the EU Landfill Directive. However, there is considerable uncertainty concerning the residual pollution potential of such wastes. This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on two different MBT waste residues, carried out to investigate the remaining potential for the generation of greenhouse gases and the flushing of contaminants from these materials when landfilled. The potential for gas generation was found to be between 8% and 20% of that for raw MSW. Pretreatment of the waste reduced the potential for the release of organic carbon, ammoniacal nitrogen, and heavy metal contents into the leachate; and reduced the residual carbon remaining in the waste after final degradation from ∼320g/kg dry matter for raw MSW to between 183 and 195g/kg dry matter for the MBT wastes. PMID:23973052

  9. Phase transition and chemical order in the ferroelectric perovskite (1-x)Bi(Mg3/4W1/4)O3-xPbTiO3 solid solution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, C. J.; Eitel, R. E.; Shrout, T. R.; Randall, C. A.; Reaney, I. M.

    2005-01-01

    Building on the ferroelectric family based on the Bi(Me+3)O3-PbTiO3 solid solutions, the complex solid solution (1-x )Bi(Mg3/4W1/4)O3-xPbTiO3 [(1-x)BMW-xPT] was investigated. This system was found to exhibit a broad morphotropic phase boundary at x ˜0.48mol% PbTiO3 with a corresponding Curie temperature of 205°C separating pseudocubic and tetragonal ferroelectric phases. Based on dielectric, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and calorimetric data, a simple dielectric phase field diagram was established. On further structural analysis with diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy along with XRD, evidence of B-site chemical ordering was found for the (1-x )Bi(Me'Me″)O3-xPbTiO3 perovskite family.

  10. State of the art lattice results of QCD with light flavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alberto; Budapest-Marseille-Wuppertal Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    Thanks to recent developments both in our understanding of lattice simulations and in computer power, lattice gauge theory now allows to perform non perturbative QCD computations with all the sources of error under control. I will review some recent results of the Budapest-Marseille-Wuppertal (BMW) collaboration: first computing the mass of the hadrons, an old desire of every particle physicist. Second π and K decay constants can be used to compute CKM matrix elements and constrain physics beyond the standard model. Finally we will see how the lattice can be used to compute quantities not directly accessible to experiments, but anyhow interesting such as the nucleon sigma terms. I will emphasise how the different sources of error are controlled to make physical predictions.

  11. On the consistency of recent QCD lattice data of the baryon ground-state masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, M. F. M.; Semke, A.

    2012-11-01

    In our recent analysis of lattice data of the BMW, LHPC and PACS-CS groups we determined a parameter set of the chiral Lagrangian that allows a simultaneous description of the baryon octet and decuplet masses as measured by those lattice groups. The results on the baryon spectrum of the HSC group were recovered accurately without their inclusion into our six parameter fit. We show that the same parameter set provides an accurate reproduction of the recent results of the QCDSF-UKQCD group probing the baryon masses at quite different quark masses. This shows a remarkable consistency amongst the different lattice simulations. With even more accurate lattice data in the near future it will become feasible to determine all low-energy parameters relevant at N3LO.

  12. Scientific and Technical Information (STI) for Financial Assistance and Non-M&O/M&I

    SciTech Connect

    LaGrandeur, John; Crane, Doug

    2012-07-02

    BSST (hereafter referred to as Amerigon) began work in November 2004 under a cost share contract [1] awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy Freedom Car Office to develop a high efficiency Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. The system increases fuel economy by partially replacing the electric power produced by the alternator with electric power produced by conversion of exhaust gas in a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG). Amerigon’s team members included the BMW Group and Ford Motor Company, with both OEMs demonstrating the TEG system in their vehicles in the final program phase. Significant progress was made in modeling, building and testing the TEG system from the lowest subassembly levels through an entire vehicle system. By the program’s conclusion, the team had successfully overcome the challenges of integrating TE materials into an exhaust system component and evaluated the system behavior in bench and over the road testing for over six months.

  13. Thermal Joining of Thermoplastic Metal Hybrids by Means Of Mono- and Polychromatic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pfindel, S.; Schmidt, M.

    In recent years, joining of plastics and metals for lightweight constructions has become more and more important for industrial applications. This paper presents a novel approach for thermal joining of thermoplastic metal hybrids by means of a combination of mono- and polychromatic radiation. During this work, hybrid joints of aluminum (EN AW-5182) and technical thermoplastics (PC, PA6, PA66-GF30) are studied. Thereby experiments for transmission and heat-conduction joining are performed. Besides, the influences of laser structuring of the metal surface on the joint connections are investigated. Additionally, climate tests according to BMW PR 308.2 from -30 °C to 90 °C and from -40 °C to 120 °C are performed to analyze the long-term durability of the hybrid joint connections.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Identified a Narrow Chromosome 1 Region Associated with Chicken Growth Traits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengguang; Zhang, Rong; Tang, Jun; Nie, Qinghua; Ma, Li; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning; Da, Yang; Zhang, Xiquan

    2012-01-01

    Chicken growth traits are important economic traits in broilers. A large number of studies are available on finding genetic factors affecting chicken growth. However, most of these studies identified chromosome regions containing putative quantitative trait loci and finding causal mutations is still a challenge. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified a narrow 1.5 Mb region (173.5–175 Mb) of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome (GGA) 1 to be strongly associated with chicken growth using 47,678 SNPs and 489 F2 chickens. The growth traits included aggregate body weight (BW) at 0–90 d of age measured weekly, biweekly average daily gains (ADG) derived from weekly body weight, and breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW) and wing weight (WW) at 90 d of age. Five SNPs in the 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region at GGA1 had the highest significant effects for all growth traits in this study, including a SNP at 8.9 Kb upstream of FOXO1A for BW at 22–48 d and 70 d, a SNP at 1.9 Kb downstream of FOXO1A for WW, a SNP at 20.9 Kb downstream of ENSGALG00000022732 for ADG at 29–42 d, a SNP in INTS6 for BW at 90 d, and a SNP in KPNA3 for BMW and LMW. The 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region contained two microRNA genes that could bind to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of IGF1, FOXO1A and KPNA3. It was further indicated that the 1.5 Mb GGA1 region had the strongest effects on chicken growth during 22–42 d. PMID:22359555

  15. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  16. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  17. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  18. Development and application of coarse-grained models for lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    I'll discuss a number of topics that represent our efforts in developing reliable molecular models for describing chemical and physical processes involving biomembranes. This is an exciting yet challenging research area because of the multiple length and time scales that are present in the relevant problems. Accordingly, we attempt to (1) understand the value and limitation of popular coarse-grained (CG) models for lipid membranes with either a particle or continuum representation; (2) develop new CG models that are appropriate for the particular problem of interest. As specific examples, I'll discuss (1) a comparison of atomistic, MARTINI (a particle based CG model) and continuum descriptions of a membrane fusion pore; (2) the development of a modified MARTINI model (BMW-MARTINI) that features a reliable description of membrane/water interfacial electrostatics and its application to cell-penetration peptides and membrane-bending proteins. Motivated specifically by the recent studies of Wong and co-workers, we compare the self-assembly behaviors of lipids with cationic peptides that include either Arg residues or a combination of Lys and hydrophobic residues; in particular, we attempt to reveal factors that stabilize the cubic ``double diamond'' Pn3m phase over the inverted hexagonal HII phase. For example, to explicitly test the importance of the bidentate hydrogen-bonding capability of Arg to the stabilization of negative Gaussian curvature, we also compare results using variants of the BMW-MARTINI model that treat the side chain of Arg with different levels of details. Collectively, the results suggest that both the bidentate feature of Arg and the overall electrostatic properties of cationic peptides are important to the self-assembly behavior of these peptides with lipids. The results are expected to have general implications to the mechanism of peptides and proteins that stimulate pore formation in biomembranes. Work in collaboration with Zhe Wu, Leili Zhang

  19. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  20. Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 μg/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 μg/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 μg/g for Ca, 107-128 μg/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water.

  1. Innovation through developing consumers’ community. Part I: Innovation in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălăţanu (Avram, E.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological changes and need for innovation represents the main concerns for organizational growth and profitability. However the main priority is still about achieving high performance through product development and consumers' engagement activities. As implementation of open innovation applications increased and value co — creation became well known and major process, companies were engaged into value co — innovation activities. From this point of view the need for joint efforts with consumers in product development arose. Thus the primary condition for an organization to be consumer centric is to define clear the vision and mission which reflects the common efforts for co — creation and diffusion of innovation. As Research & Development processes evolved and interest for innovative concepts and products arose, companies started to implement the specific instruments for consumers' attraction and engagement into design and product development. The digitalized innovation became the main source for establishing the direct communication with the consumers. In order to achieve organization growth, profitability and recognition, the companies should be aware of the innovation importance and the need for internal change. From this point of view, there is necessary to assess the organizational structures, to implement new policies and to establish strategic targets. Basically it is justified the need for platform occurrence and development. Based on case study of BMW Group, recognised leader in automotive industry for innovative concepts, there will be analysed main features within organizational context which promotes the innovation implementation. There will be provided the review of the BMW Group experience of innovation activities, main consumers' engagement strategies, the values which promote the consumer — centric product development, new opportunities assessment, major policies and concerns. The foreseen result is to understand how companies are

  2. Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 μg/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 μg/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 μg/g for Ca, 107-128 μg/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water. PMID:24218227

  3. The Brera Multi-scale Wavelet HRI Cluster Survey. I. Selection of the sample and number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Campana, S.; Lazzati, D.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Arena, S.; Braglia, F.; Dell'Antonio, I.; Longhetti, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe the construction of the Brera Multi-scale Wavelet (BMW) HRI Cluster Survey, a deep sample of serendipitous X-ray selected clusters of galaxies based on the ROSAT HRI archive. This is the first cluster catalog exploiting the high angular resolution of this instrument. Cluster candidates are selected on the basis of their X-ray extension only, a parameter which is well measured by the BMW wavelet detection algorithm. The survey includes 154 candidates over a total solid angle of ˜160 deg2 at 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 and ˜80 deg2 at 1.8×10-13 erg s-1 cm-2. At the same time, a fairly good sky coverage in the faintest flux bins (3-5 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2) gives this survey the capability of detecting a few clusters with z˜ 1-1.2, depending on evolution. We present the results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations, providing a complete statistical characterization of the survey selection function and contamination level. We also present a new estimate of the surface density of clusters of galaxies down to a flux of 3× 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2, which is consistent with previous measurements from PSPC-based samples. Several clusters with redshifts up to z=0.92 have already been confirmed, either by cross-correlation with existing PSPC surveys or from early results of an ongoing follow-up campaign. Overall, these results indicate that the excellent HRI PSF (5 arcsec FWHM on axis) more than compensates for the negative effect of the higher instrumental background on the detection of high-redshift clusters. In addition, it allows us to detect compact clusters that could be lost at lower resolution, thus potentially providing an important new insight into cluster evolution. Partially based on observations taken at ESO and TNG telescopes.

  4. Conformational Properties of Sodium Polystyrenesulfonate in Water: Insights from a Coarse-Grained Model with Explicit Solvent.

    PubMed

    Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun

    2015-08-27

    Polymer solutions present a significant computational challenge because chemical realism on small length scales can be important, but the polymer molecules are very large. In polyelectrolyte solutions, there is often the additional complexity that the molecules consist of hydrophobic and charged groups, which makes an accurate treatment of the solvent, water, crucial. One route to achieve this balance is through coarse-grained models where several atoms on a monomer are grouped into one interaction site. In this work, we develop a coarse grained (CG) model for sodium polystyrenesulfonate (NaPSS) in water using a methodology consistent with the MARTINI coarse-graining philosophy, where four heavy atoms are grouped into one CG site. We consider two models for water: polarizable MARTINI (POL) and big multipole water (BMW). In each case, interaction parameters for the polymer sites are obtained by matching the potential of mean force between two monomers to results of atomistic simulations. The force field based on the POL water provides a more reasonable description of polymer properties than that based on the BMW water. We study the properties of single chains using the POL force field. Fully sulfonated chains are rodlike (i.e., the root-mean-square radius of gyration, Rg, scales linearly with degree of polymerization, N). When the fraction of sulfonation, f, is 0.25 or less, the chain collapses into a cylindrical globule. For f = 0.5, pearl-necklace conformations are observed when every second monomer is sulfonated. The lifetime of a counterion around a polymer is on the order of 100 ps, suggesting that there is no counterion condensation. The model is computationally feasible and should allow one to study the effect of local chemistry on the properties of polymers in aqueous solution. PMID:26047770

  5. A study of LNCFS III coal burners on boiler waterwall tube wastage

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, R.C.; Gordon, C.M.; Saunders, M.M.; Bray, A.J.

    1996-07-01

    Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of waterwall tubing of a tangentially-fired, sub-critical boiler at Milliken Station of New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) was undertaken to determine the effects of the newly installed low NO{sub x} firing system on waterwall tube wastage. During a 1993 outage, the pulverized coal-fired boiler was equipped with an ABB CE Low NO, Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) of the third generation (III) including Staged Overfire Air (SOFA) and a coal pulverizing system capable of improving mill fineness by approximately 30 percent. The study was in conjunction with a Department of Energy Clean Coal Demonstration Project. Three separate thickness, surveys were compared using the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Boiler Maintenance Workstation (BMW). The Tube Condition Module of BMW compared a total of 20,556 test locations of the three surveys. The evaluations of the surveys indicate that the short-term effect of low NO{sub x} firing with LNCFS III and increased fineness has moderately reduced the remaining life of the carbon steel boiler tubing in selected locations of the waterfall. Approximately 5 percent of the test locations are experiencing an annual tube wastage of 0.008 inches or greater. Additional testing and analyses are recommended to better understand the longer term effects of the low NO{sub x} firing system and the wastage of selected tubing The influence of boiler operating parameters, such as cyclic duty, proportioning of secondary air, or fuel changes, on waterwall tube wastage should also be evaluated over a longer operating period.

  6. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  7. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2010-12-01

    Recent geophysical studies have provided important constraints on the deep structure and origin of the active intraplate volcanoes in Mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab (e.g., Zhao et al., 2009a), while the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well (Zhao et al., 2009b). The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate) (Lei et al., 2009a). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle (Lei et al., 2009b; Zhao, 2009). The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions (Zhao, 2009). References Lei, J., D. Zhao, Y. Su, 2009a. Insight into the origin of the Tengchong intraplate volcano and seismotectonics in southwest China from local and teleseismic data. J. Geophys. Res. 114, B05302. Lei, J., D. Zhao, B. Steinberger et al., 2009b. New seismic constraints on the upper mantle structure of the Hainan plume. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 33-50. Zhao, D., 2009. Multiscale seismic tomography and mantle dynamics. Gondwana Res. 15, 297-323. Zhao, D., Z. Wang, N. Umino, A. Hasegawa, 2009a. Mapping the mantle wedge and interplate thrust zone of the northeast Japan arc. Tectonophysics 467, 89-106. Zhao, D., Y. Tian, J. Lei, L. Liu, 2009b. Seismic

  8. The Brera Multiscale Wavelet ROSAT HRI Source Catalog. II. Application to the HRI and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Sergio; Lazzati, Davide; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    1999-10-01

    The wavelet detection algorithm (WDA) described in the accompanying paper by Lazzati et al. is suited to a fast and efficient analysis of images taken with the High-Resolution Imager (HRI) instrument on board the ROSAT satellite. An extensive testing is carried out on the detection pipeline: HRI fields with different exposure times are simulated and analyzed in the same fashion as the real data. Positions are recovered with errors of a few arcseconds, whereas fluxes are within a factor of 2 from their input values in more than 90% of the cases in the deepest images. Unlike the ``sliding-box'' detection algorithms, the WDA also provides a reliable description of the source extension, allowing for a complete search of, e.g., supernova remnants or clusters of galaxies in the HRI fields. A completeness analysis on simulated fields shows that for the deepest exposures considered (~120 ks) a limiting flux of ~3×10-15 ergs s-1 cm-2 can be reached over the entire field of view. We test the algorithm on real HRI fields selected for their crowding and/or the presence of extended or bright sources (e.g., clusters of galaxies and stars, supernova remnants). We show that our algorithm compares favorably with other X-ray detection algorithms, such as XIMAGE and EXSAS. Analysis with the WDA of the large set of HRI data will allow us to survey ~400 deg2 down to a limiting flux of ~10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2, and ~0.3 deg2 down to ~3×10-15 ergs s-1 cm-2. A complete catalog will result from our analysis, consisting of the Brera Multiscale Wavelet Bright Source Catalog (BMW-BSC), with sources detected with a significance of >~4.5 σ, and the Faint Source Catalog (BMW-FSC), with sources at >~3.5 σ. A conservative estimate based on the extragalactic log N-log S indicates that at least 16,000 sources will be revealed in the complete analysis of the entire HRI data set.

  9. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary. PMID:24661742

  10. The Brera Multi-scale Wavelet ROSAT HRI source catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzera, M. R.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Lazzati, D.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2003-02-01

    We present the Brera Multi-scale Wavelet ROSAT HRI source catalogue (BMW-HRI) derived from all ROSAT HRI pointed observations with exposure times longer than 100 s available in the ROSAT public archives. The data were analyzed automatically using a wavelet detection algorithm suited to the detection and characterization of both point-like and extended sources. This algorithm is able to detect and disentangle sources in very crowded fields and/or in the presence of extended or bright sources. Images have been also visually inspected after the analysis to ensure verification. The final catalogue, derived from 4303 observations, consists of 29 089 sources detected with a detection probability of >=4.2 sigma . For each source, the primary catalogue entries provide name, position, count rate, flux and extension along with the relative errors. In addition, results of cross-correlations with existing catalogues at different wavelengths (FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS and GSC2) are also reported. Some information is available on the web via the DIANA Interface. As an external check, we compared our catalogue with the previously available ROSHRICAT catalogue (both in its short and long versions) and we were able to recover, for the short version, ~ 90% of the entries. We computed the sky coverage of the entire HRI data set by means of simulations. The complete BMW-HRI catalogue provides a sky coverage of 732 deg2 down to a limiting flux of ~ 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 and of 10 deg2 down to ~ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2. We were able to compute the cosmological log(N)-log(S) distribution down to a flux of =~ 1.2 x 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2. The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/351

  11. TEG On-Vehicle Performance and Model Validation and What It Means for Further TEG Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Doug; LaGrandeur, John; Jovovic, Vladimir; Ranalli, Marco; Adldinger, Martin; Poliquin, Eric; Dean, Joe; Kossakovski, Dmitri; Mazar, Boris; Maranville, Clay

    2013-07-01

    A high-temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG) was recently integrated into two passenger vehicles: a BMW X6 and a Lincoln MKT. This effort was the culmination of a recently completed Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery program for vehicles (award #DE-FC26-04NT42279). During this 7-year program, several generations of thermoelectric generators were modeled, designed, built, and tested at the couple, engine, and full-device level, as well as being modeled and integrated at the vehicle level. In this paper, we summarize the history of the development efforts and results achieved during the project, which is a motivation for ongoing research in this field. Results are presented and discussed for bench, engine dynamometer, and on-vehicle tests conducted on the current-generation TEG. On the test bench, over 700 W of power was produced. Over 600 W was produced in on-vehicle tests. Both steady-state and transient models were validated against the measured performance of these TEGs. The success of this work has led to a follow-on DOE-sponsored TE waste heat recovery program for passenger vehicles focused on addressing key technical and business-related topics that are meant to enable TEGs to be considered as a viable automotive product in the future.

  12. Physical characteristics of experienced and junior open-wheel car drivers.

    PubMed

    Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter; Patterson, Carson

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of open-wheel car racing, scientific literature about the physical characteristics of competitive race car drivers is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare selected fitness parameters of experienced and junior open-wheel race car drivers. The experienced drivers consisted of five Formula One, two GP2 and two Formula 3 drivers, and the nine junior drivers drove in the Formula Master, Koenig, BMW and Renault series. The following fitness parameters were tested: multiple reactions, multiple anticipation, postural stability, isometric upper body strength, isometric leg extension strength, isometric grip strength, cyclic foot speed and jump height. The group differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Because of the multiple testing strategy used, the statistical significance was Bonferroni corrected and set at P < 0.004. Significant differences between the experienced and junior drivers were found only for the jump height parameter (P = 0.002). The experienced drivers tended to perform better in leg strength (P = 0.009), cyclic foot speed (P = 0.024) and grip strength (P = 0.058). None of the other variables differed between the groups. The results suggested that the experienced drivers were significantly more powerful than the junior drivers: they tended to be quicker and stronger (18% to 25%) but without statistical significance. The experienced drivers demonstrated excellent strength and power compared with other high-performance athletes.

  13. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  14. 'NASA Invention of the Year' Controls Noise and Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Developed at NASA's Langley Research Center, the Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) is designed to control vibration, noise, and deflections in composite structural beams and panels. Smart Material Corporation specializes in the development of piezocomposite components, and licensed the MFC technology from Langley in 2002. To date, Smart Material Corporation has sold MFCs to over 120 customers, including such industry giants as Volkswagen, Toyota, Honda, BMW, General Electric, and the tennis company, HEAD. The company estimates that its customers have filed at least 100 patents for their various unique uses of the technology. In addition, the company's product portfolio has grown to include piezoceramic fibers and fiber composites, piezoceramic actuators and sensors, and test equipment for these products. It also offers a compact, lightweight power system for MFC testing and validation. Consumer applications already on the market include piezoelectric systems as part of audio speakers, phonograph cartridges and microphones, and recreational products requiring vibration control, such as skis, snowboards, baseball bats, hockey sticks, and tennis racquets.

  15. Ultralight porous metals: From fundamentals to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianjian, Lu

    2002-10-01

    Over the past few years a number of low cost metallic foams have been produced and used as the core of sandwich panels and net shaped parts. The main aim is to develop lightweight structures which are stiff, strong, able to absorb large amount of energy and cheap for application in the transport and construction industries. For example, the firewall between the engine and passenger compartment of an automobile must have adequate mechanical strength, good energy and sound absorbing properties, and adequate fire retardance. Metal foams provide all of these features, and are under serious consideration for this applications by a number of automobile manufacturers (e.g., BMW and Audi). Additional specialized applications for foam-cored sandwich panels range from heat sinks for electronic devices to crash barriers for automobiles, from the construction panels in lifts on aircraft carriers to the luggage containers of aircraft, from sound proofing walls along railway tracks and highways to acoustic absorbers in lean premixed combustion chambers. But there is a problem. Before metallic foams can find a widespread application, their basic properties must be measured, and ideally modeled as a function of microstructural details, in order to be included in a design. This work aims at reviewing the recent progress and presenting some new results on fundamental research regarding the micromechanical origins of the mechanical, thermal, and acoustic properties of metallic foams.

  16. Finite volume effects in the chiral extrapolation of baryon masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, M. F. M.; Bavontaweepanya, R.; Kobdaj, C.; Schwarz, K.

    2014-09-01

    We perform an analysis of the QCD lattice data on the baryon octet and decuplet masses based on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian. The baryon self-energies are computed in a finite volume at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO), where the dependence on the physical meson and baryon masses is kept. The number of free parameters is reduced significantly down to 12 by relying on large-Nc sum rules. Altogether we describe accurately more than 220 data points from six different lattice groups, BMW, PACS-CS, HSC, LHPC, QCDSF-UKQCD and NPLQCD. Values for all counterterms relevant at N3LO are predicted. In particular we extract a pion-nucleon sigma term of 39-1+2 MeV and a strangeness sigma term of the nucleon of σsN=84-4+28 MeV. The flavor SU(3) chiral limit of the baryon octet and decuplet masses is determined with (802±4) and (1103±6) MeV. Detailed predictions for the baryon masses as currently evaluated by the ETM lattice QCD group are made.

  17. Smartphone home monitoring of ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Landa, Joseph; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    A system of ambulatory, halter, electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system has already been commercially available for recording and transmitting heartbeats data by the Internet. However, it enjoys the confidence with a reservation and thus a limited market penetration, our system was targeting at aging global villagers having an increasingly biomedical wellness (BMW) homecare needs, not hospital related BMI (biomedical illness). It was designed within SWaP-C (Size, Weight, and Power, Cost) using 3 innovative modules: (i) Smart Electrode (lowpower mixed signal embedded with modern compressive sensing and nanotechnology to improve the electrodes' contact impedance); (ii) Learnable Database (in terms of adaptive wavelets transform QRST feature extraction, Sequential Query Relational database allowing home care monitoring retrievable Aided Target Recognition); (iii) Smartphone (touch screen interface, powerful computation capability, caretaker reporting with GPI, ID, and patient panic button for programmable emergence procedure). It can provide a supplementary home screening system for the post or the pre-diagnosis care at home with a build-in database searchable with the time, the place, and the degree of urgency happened, using in-situ screening.

  18. Fuel cell systems for passenger cars - opportunities and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Tachtler, J.; Bourne, C.

    1996-12-31

    From the point of view of energy density, handling and economy, present-day motor fuels are superior to all known alternatives. The internal combustion engine powered by them satisfies the requirements of customers to an excellent degree. The search for alternatives can therefore only be justified if emissions can be avoided totally and non-fossil primary energy sources can be used or at least partially our dependence on mineral oil can be reduced. What was long suspected has been increasingly confirmed, not least by developments at BMW: electricity (stored in batteries) and hydrogen offer the best prerequisites for achieving these goals in the long term. These forms of energy can be produced in sufficient quantities and with relatively little effect on the environment. They promise to produce an absolute minimum of pollutants when used in vehicles. Natural gas, which is very similar to hydrogen, and hybrid systems, that would compensate for battery risks, could perform a valuable function in the transitional phase.

  19. Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, Bryan C.

    2007-01-01

    As fossil fuel supplies decline, hydrogen is quickly becoming an increasingly important fuel source. Currently hydrogen is the prime fuel of today's space vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle) and featured as a fuel for some prototype vehicles such as the BMW seven series model. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas with a 4% lower explosive limit which makes leak detection a priority. In an effort to support the use of hydrogen, a chemochromic (color changing) sensor was developed that is robust, simple to use, and does not require active operation. It can be made into a thin tape which can be conveniently used for leak detection at flanges, valves, or outlets. Chemochromic sensors can be either reversible or irreversible; however, irreversible chemochromic sensors will be analyzed in this report. The irreversible sensor is useful during hazardous operations when personnel cannot be present. To actively monitor leaks, testing of the irreversible sensor against environmental effects was completed and results indicated this material is suitable for outdoor use in the harsh beachside environment of Kennedy Space Center. The experiments in this report will give additional results to the environmental testing by adding solid rocket booster residue as a variable. The primary motivation for these experiments is to prepare the sensors for the launch pad environment at the Kennedy Space Center. In an effort to simulate the atmosphere at the pads before and after launch, the chemochromic sensors are exposed to solid rocket residue under various conditions.

  20. Characterization and characteristics of degradable polymer sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Georgina

    2003-10-15

    This paper reviews the categories and characteristics of degradable polymers used to manufacture sacks for the collection and subsequent treatment of organic wastes from householders. The characteristics of polyethylene (PE) and starch-based sacks were examined using a number of different methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis and mechanical strength testing of the sacks during their use. The analyses revealed that the characteristics of the PE and starch-based sacks were very different. Photomicrographs indicated that the surface of the PE sack was much smoother than the surface of the starch-based sacks. Polyethylene sacks exhibited a greater mechanical strength, both in the unused state and over time during householder use. The severe loss of mechanical strength during use of the starch-based sacks indicated that only thicker gauge sacks were suitable for the fortnightly kerbside collection of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). Chemical analysis of two different PE sacks indicated that transition metals and other elements were commonly incorporated into the PE structure in order to facilitate increased polymer degradation.

  1. Recyclable epoxy resins: An example of green approach for advanced composite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicala, Gianluca; Rosa, Daniela La; Musarra, Marco; Saccullo, Giuseppe; Banatao, Rey; Pastine, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Automotive composite applications are increasingly growing due to demand for lightweight structures to comply to the requirements for fuel reduction. HP-RTM is gaining relevance as one of the preferred production technologies for high volume applications. The BMW i3 life module being a notable example of HP-RTM application. The key aspects of HP-RTM are the short injection times (i.e. less than 1min) and the fast curing of the thermoset resins (i.e. less than 10min). The choice of using thermosets poses relevant issues for their limited recycling options. The standard recycling solution is the incineration but, this solution poses some concerns in terms of global environmental impact. Novel solutions are presented in this work based on the use of recyclable epoxy systems. In our work the results of experimentation carried out by our group with cleavable ammines by Connora Technologies and bioepoxy resins by Entropy Resins will be discussed. The multiple uses of recycled matrices obtained treating the recyclable epoxy resins are discussed in the framework of a "cradle" to "crave" approach. Finally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the environmental benefits of the proposed approach.

  2. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  3. Bethe subalgebras in affine Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras and flat connections for q-KZ equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Kirillov, A. N.; Tarasov, V. O.

    2016-05-01

    Commutative sets of Jucys-Murphy elements for affine braid groups of {A}(1),{B}(1),{C}(1),{D}(1) types were defined. Construction of R-matrix representations of the affine braid group of type {C}(1) and its distinguished commutative subgroup generated by the {C}(1)-type Jucys-Murphy elements are given. We describe a general method to produce flat connections for the two-boundary quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations as necessary conditions for Sklyanin's type transfer matrix associated with the two-boundary multicomponent Zamolodchikov algebra to be invariant under the action of the {C}(1)-type Jucys-Murphy elements. We specify our general construction to the case of the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras (BMW algebras for short). As an application we suggest a baxterization of the Dunkl-Cherednik elements {Y}\\prime {{s}} in the double affine Hecke algebra of type A. Dedicated to Professor Rodney Baxter on the occasion of his 75th Birthday.

  4. Biodegradation and flushing of MBT wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.A.; Richards, D.J.; Powrie, W.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Stabilization was achieved for MBT wastes of different degrees of pretreatment. • About 92% reduction in the gas generation compared with raw MSW. • Pretreatment resulted in reduced TOC, nitrogen and heavy metals in leachate. • A large proportion of carbon and nitrogen remained in the waste material. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) processes are increasingly being adopted as a means of diverting biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill, for example to comply with the EU Landfill Directive. However, there is considerable uncertainty concerning the residual pollution potential of such wastes. This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on two different MBT waste residues, carried out to investigate the remaining potential for the generation of greenhouse gases and the flushing of contaminants from these materials when landfilled. The potential for gas generation was found to be between 8% and 20% of that for raw MSW. Pretreatment of the waste reduced the potential for the release of organic carbon, ammoniacal nitrogen, and heavy metal contents into the leachate; and reduced the residual carbon remaining in the waste after final degradation from ∼320 g/kg dry matter for raw MSW to between 183 and 195 g/kg dry matter for the MBT wastes.

  5. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  6. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism of GHSR and TGFB2 genes with growth and body composition traits in sire and dam lines of a broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Darzi Niarami, Mojtaba; Masoudi, Ali Akbar; Vaez Torshizi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) modulates many physiological processes by binding to its ligand, as well as transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGFB2) regulates cell growth and development in animals and, therefore, are candidate genes for performance in chickens. In the current study, single nucleotide polymorphisms of GHSR C3286 > T and TGFB2 T(-640) > C were genotyped in sire and dam lines of a broiler chicken to evaluate the association with the growth and body composition traits. Least squares means analysis showed that the GHSR C3286 > T SNP was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with growth (DFI and ADG) and body composition traits (AFW and %AFW). In addition, the TGFB2 T(-640) > C SNP was associated with ADG (P < 0.05) and DFI and body composition traits (DW, LBW, BAKWT, %BMW, %HNDWT and %CW) (P < 0.01). Significant associations of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the traits reported in the present study might be the distinct usage of codons in avian, or relating to an enhancer element and modulating the expression of the gene in chicken. The data indicated that these SNPs could be valuable genetic elements for selection of chickens for better performance in the population.

  7. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  8. Getting the Gold Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Epner Technology, Inc., worked with Goddard Space Center to apply gold coating to the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mirror. This partnership resulted in new commercial applications for Epner's LaserGold(R) process in the automotive industry. Previously, the company did not have equipment large enough to handle the plating of the stainless steel panels cost effectively. Seeing a chance to renew this effort, Epner Technology and Goddard entered into an agreement by which NASA would fund the facility needed to do the gold-plating, and Epner Technology would cover all other costs as part of their internal research and development. The VCL mirror project proceeded successfully, fulfilling Goddard's needs and leaving Epner Technology with a new facility to provide LaserGold for the automotive industry. The new capability means increased power savings and improvements in both quality and production time for BMW Manufacturing Corporation of Spartanburg, South Carolina, and Cadillac of Detroit, Michigan, as well as other manufacturers who have implemented Epner Technology's LaserGold process. LaserGold(R) is a registered trademark of Epner Technology, Inc.

  9. Swing motion as a diffusion mechanism of lipid bilayers in a gel phase.

    PubMed

    Oh, Younghoon; Kim, Jeongmin; Yethiraj, Arun; Sung, Bong June

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers are a model system for studying the properties of cell membranes. For lipid bilayers of a single lipid component, there is a phase transition from a fluid phase to a gel phase as the temperature is decreased. The dynamic behavior of lipids in the gel phase is interesting: some models show dynamic heterogeneity with a large disparity in timescales between fast and slow molecules, and a spatial segregation of the slow molecules. In this paper we study the dynamics of coarse-grained models of lipid bilayers using the dry Martini, Lennard-Jones Martini, polarizable Martini, and BMW models. All four models show similar dynamical behaviors in the gel phase although the transition temperature is model-dependent. We find that the primary mode of transport in the gel phase is a hopping of the lipid molecules. Hopping is seen in both the translational and rotational dynamics, which are correlated, i.e., the lipid molecules display a swing-like motion in the gel phase. PMID:26871103

  10. Swing motion as a diffusion mechanism of lipid bilayers in a gel phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Younghoon; Kim, Jeongmin; Yethiraj, Arun; Sung, Bong June

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers are a model system for studying the properties of cell membranes. For lipid bilayers of a single lipid component, there is a phase transition from a fluid phase to a gel phase as the temperature is decreased. The dynamic behavior of lipids in the gel phase is interesting: some models show dynamic heterogeneity with a large disparity in timescales between fast and slow molecules, and a spatial segregation of the slow molecules. In this paper we study the dynamics of coarse-grained models of lipid bilayers using the dry Martini, Lennard-Jones Martini, polarizable Martini, and BMW models. All four models show similar dynamical behaviors in the gel phase although the transition temperature is model-dependent. We find that the primary mode of transport in the gel phase is a hopping of the lipid molecules. Hopping is seen in both the translational and rotational dynamics, which are correlated, i.e., the lipid molecules display a swing-like motion in the gel phase.

  11. Coarse-Grained Model for Water Involving a Virtual Site.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingsen; Shen, Hujun

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose a new coarse-grained (CG) model for water by combining the features of two popular CG water models (BMW and MARTINI models) as well as by adopting a topology similar to that of the TIP4P water model. In this CG model, a CG unit, representing four real water molecules, consists of a virtual site, two positively charged particles, and a van der Waals (vdW) interaction center. Distance constraint is applied to the bonds formed between the vdW interaction center and the positively charged particles. The virtual site, which carries a negative charge, is determined by the locations of the two positively charged particles and the vdW interaction center. For the new CG model of water, we coined the name "CAVS" (charge is attached to a virtual site) due to the involvment of the virtual site. After being tested in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of bulk water at various time steps, under different temperatures and in different salt (NaCl) concentrations, the CAVS model offers encouraging predictions for some bulk properties of water (such as density, dielectric constant, etc.) when compared to experimental ones. PMID:26747089

  12. Coarse-grained models for biological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhe; Cui, Qiang; Yethiraj, Arun

    2011-03-01

    The large timescales and length-scales of interest in biophysics preclude atomistic study of many systems and processes. One appealing approach is to use coarse-grained (CG) models where several atoms are grouped into a single CG site. In this work we describe a new CG force field for lipids, surfactants, and amino acids. The topology of CG sites is the same as in the MARTINI force field, but the new model is compatible with a recently developed CG electrostatic water (Big Multiple Water, BMW) model. The model not only gives correct structural, elastic properties and phase behavior for lipid and surfactants, but also reproduces electrostatic properties at water-membrane interface that agree with experiment and atomistic simulations, including the potential of mean force for charged amino acid residuals at membrane. Consequently, the model predicts stable attachment of cationic peptides (i.e., poly-Arg) on lipid bilayer surface, which is not shown in previous models with non-electrostatic water.

  13. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in battery manufacturing workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead. PMID:23833444

  14. Quark-mass dependence of the baryon ground-state masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semke, A.; Lutz, M. F. M.

    2012-02-01

    We perform a chiral extrapolation of the baryon octet and decuplet masses in a relativistic formulation of chiral perturbation theory. A partial summation is assumed as implied by the use of physical baryon and meson masses in the one-loop diagrams. Upon a chiral expansion, our results are consistent with strict chiral perturbation theory at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. All counter terms are correlated by a large-Nc operator analysis. Our results are confronted with recent results of unquenched three-flavor lattice simulations. We adjust the parameter set to the pion-mass dependence of the nucleon and omega masses as computed by the BMW Collaboration and predict the pion-mass dependence of the remaining baryon octet and decuplet states. The current lattice simulations can be described accurately and smoothly up to pion masses of about 600 MeV. In particular, we recover the recent results of the HSC without any further adjustments.

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism of GHSR and TGFB2 genes with growth and body composition traits in sire and dam lines of a broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Darzi Niarami, Mojtaba; Masoudi, Ali Akbar; Vaez Torshizi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) modulates many physiological processes by binding to its ligand, as well as transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGFB2) regulates cell growth and development in animals and, therefore, are candidate genes for performance in chickens. In the current study, single nucleotide polymorphisms of GHSR C3286 > T and TGFB2 T(-640) > C were genotyped in sire and dam lines of a broiler chicken to evaluate the association with the growth and body composition traits. Least squares means analysis showed that the GHSR C3286 > T SNP was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with growth (DFI and ADG) and body composition traits (AFW and %AFW). In addition, the TGFB2 T(-640) > C SNP was associated with ADG (P < 0.05) and DFI and body composition traits (DW, LBW, BAKWT, %BMW, %HNDWT and %CW) (P < 0.01). Significant associations of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the traits reported in the present study might be the distinct usage of codons in avian, or relating to an enhancer element and modulating the expression of the gene in chicken. The data indicated that these SNPs could be valuable genetic elements for selection of chickens for better performance in the population. PMID:24299181

  16. Night vision: requirements and possible roadmap for FIR and NIR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källhammer, Jan-Erik

    2006-04-01

    A night vision system must increase visibility in situations where only low beam headlights can be used today. As pedestrians and animals have the highest risk increase in night time traffic due to darkness, the ability of detecting those objects should be the main performance criteria, and the system must remain effective when facing the headlights of oncoming vehicles. Far infrared system has been shown to be superior to near infrared system in terms of pedestrian detection distance. Near infrared images were rated to have significantly higher visual clutter compared with far infrared images. Visual clutter has been shown to correlate with reduction in detection distance of pedestrians. Far infrared images are perceived as being more unusual and therefore more difficult to interpret, although the image appearance is likely related to the lower visual clutter. However, the main issue comparing the two technologies should be how well they solve the driver's problem with insufficient visibility under low beam conditions, especially of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. With the addition of an automatic detection aid, a main issue will be whether the advantage of FIR systems will vanish given NIR systems with well performing automatic pedestrian detection functionality. The first night vision introductions did not generate the sales volumes initially expected. A renewed interest in night vision systems are however to be expected after the release of night vision systems by BMW, Mercedes and Honda, the latter with automatic pedestrian detection.

  17. Bethe subalgebras in affine Birman–Murakami–Wenzl algebras and flat connections for q-KZ equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Kirillov, A. N.; Tarasov, V. O.

    2016-05-01

    Commutative sets of Jucys–Murphy elements for affine braid groups of {A}(1),{B}(1),{C}(1),{D}(1) types were defined. Construction of R-matrix representations of the affine braid group of type {C}(1) and its distinguished commutative subgroup generated by the {C}(1)-type Jucys–Murphy elements are given. We describe a general method to produce flat connections for the two-boundary quantum Knizhnik–Zamolodchikov equations as necessary conditions for Sklyanin's type transfer matrix associated with the two-boundary multicomponent Zamolodchikov algebra to be invariant under the action of the {C}(1)-type Jucys–Murphy elements. We specify our general construction to the case of the Birman–Murakami–Wenzl algebras (BMW algebras for short). As an application we suggest a baxterization of the Dunkl–Cherednik elements {Y}\\prime {{s}} in the double affine Hecke algebra of type A. Dedicated to Professor Rodney Baxter on the occasion of his 75th Birthday.

  18. Improvement of thermal stability of a mutagenised α-amylase by manipulation of the calcium-binding site.

    PubMed

    Ghollasi, Marzieh; Ghanbari-Safari, Maryam; Khajeh, Khosro

    2013-12-10

    Site-directed mutagenesis of an α-amylase isolated from Bacillus megaterium WHO has been performed to evaluate the roles of the calcium binding site residues in enzyme thermostability. The strategy used was to replace residues in the hypothetical calcium binding loops of B. megaterium WHO α-amylase (BMW-amylase) by equivalent positions at Halothermothrix orenii α-amylase (AmyA) as a thermophilic amylase by QuikChange site directed mutagenesis. Asn-75, Ser-76, and His-77 were mutated in the second calcium binding site which resulted in an increase in thermostability. All mutants retained their hydrolytic activity although their kcat parameter decreased in compare to the wild type and in the presence of calcium ions. In S76P and H77E, the Km for starch decreases while overall activity (kcat/Km) was increased. In the presence of calcium, conversion of His-77 to Glu resulted in a 4-fold enhancement in enzyme half life and a 9°C upward shift in T50, which was observed in compare to the wild type. Further analysis suggested the H77E mutant as the most stable which increased the affinity of the enzyme for calcium ion and its optimum temperature was 5°C higher than the wild type. PMID:24315644

  19. Recovery Act Final Project Report -- Transportation Electrification

    SciTech Connect

    Gogineni, Kumar

    2013-12-31

    ChargePoint America demonstrated the viability, economic and environmental benefits of an electric vehicle-charging infrastructure. Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) arrived in late 2010, there was a substantial lack of infrastructure to support these vehicles. ChargePoint America deployed charging infrastructure in ten (10) metropolitan regions in coordination with vehicle deliveries targeting those same regions by our OEM partners: General Motors, Nissan, Fisker Automotive, Ford, smart USA, and BMW. The metropolitan regions include Central Texas (Austin/San Antonio), Bellevue/Redmond (WA), Southern Michigan, Los Angeles area (CA), New York Metro (NY), Central Florida (Orlando/Tampa), Sacramento (CA), San Francisco/San Jose (CA), Washington DC and Boston (MA). ChargePoint America installed more than 4,600 Level 2 (220v) SAE J1772™ UL listed networked charging ports in home, public and commercial locations to support approximately 2000 program vehicles. ChargePoint collected data to analyze how individuals, businesses and local governments used their vehicles. Understanding driver charging behavior patterns will provide the DoE with critical information as EV adoption increases in the United States.

  20. Temperatures and Stresses on Hollow Blades For Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollmann, Erich

    1947-01-01

    The present treatise reports on theoretical investigations and test-stand measurements which were carried out in the BMW Flugmotoren GMbH in developing the hollow blade for exhaust gas turbines. As an introduction the temperature variation and the stress on a turbine blade for a gas temperature of 900 degrees and circumferential velocities of 600 meters per second are discussed. The assumptions onthe heat transfer coefficients at the blade profile are supported by tests on an electrically heated blade model. The temperature distribution in the cross section of a blade Is thoroughly investigated and the temperature field determined for a special case. A method for calculation of the thermal stresses in turbine blades for a given temperature distribution is indicated. The effect of the heat radiation on the blade temperature also is dealt with. Test-stand experiments on turbine blades are evaluated, particularly with respect to temperature distribution in the cross section; maximum and minimum temperature in the cross section are ascertained. Finally, the application of the hollow blade for a stationary gas turbine is investigated. Starting from a setup for 550 C gas temperature the improvement of the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption are considered as well as the increase of the useful power by use of high temperatures. The power required for blade cooling is taken into account.

  1. Improvement of thermal stability of a mutagenised α-amylase by manipulation of the calcium-binding site.

    PubMed

    Ghollasi, Marzieh; Ghanbari-Safari, Maryam; Khajeh, Khosro

    2013-12-10

    Site-directed mutagenesis of an α-amylase isolated from Bacillus megaterium WHO has been performed to evaluate the roles of the calcium binding site residues in enzyme thermostability. The strategy used was to replace residues in the hypothetical calcium binding loops of B. megaterium WHO α-amylase (BMW-amylase) by equivalent positions at Halothermothrix orenii α-amylase (AmyA) as a thermophilic amylase by QuikChange site directed mutagenesis. Asn-75, Ser-76, and His-77 were mutated in the second calcium binding site which resulted in an increase in thermostability. All mutants retained their hydrolytic activity although their kcat parameter decreased in compare to the wild type and in the presence of calcium ions. In S76P and H77E, the Km for starch decreases while overall activity (kcat/Km) was increased. In the presence of calcium, conversion of His-77 to Glu resulted in a 4-fold enhancement in enzyme half life and a 9°C upward shift in T50, which was observed in compare to the wild type. Further analysis suggested the H77E mutant as the most stable which increased the affinity of the enzyme for calcium ion and its optimum temperature was 5°C higher than the wild type.

  2. Role of Hydrogen in stagnant slabs and big mantle wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    Recent seismic tomography data imply that subducting slabs are stagnant at some regions such as beneath Japan and Northeast China [1, 2]. The stagnant slab can have an important effect on the overlying transition zone and upper mantle. A big mantle wedge (BMW) model has been proposed by Zhao [2], in which the stagnant slab in the transition zone could play an essential role in the intra-plate volcanic activities overlying the slab. Water released by the stagnant slab could be important for such igneous activities, such as Mt. Changbai in Northeast China. In cold subducting slabs, several hydrous minerals together with nominally anhydrous minerals accommodate OH and transport water into the transition zone [3]. The effect of dehydration of the stagnant slab has been analyzed by Richard et al. [4]. They argued that warming of the stagnant slab due to heat conduction could play an important role for the slab dehydration, and local oversaturation could be achieved due to decrease of the water solubility in minerals with temperature, and fluid can be formed in the overlying transition zone. We determined the hydrogen diffusion in wadsleyite and ringwoodite under the transition zone conditions in order to clarify the deep processes of the stagnant slabs, and found that diffusion rates of hydrogen are comparable with that of olivine [5]. We also determined the dihedral angle of aqueous fluid between wadsleyite grains and majorite grains under the transition zone conditions. The dihedral angles are very small, around 20-40 degrees, indicating that the oversaturated fluids can move rapidly by the percolation mechanism in the transition zone. The fluids moved to the top of the 410 km discontinuity can generate heavy hydrous melts due to a larger depression of the wet solidus at the base of the upper mantle [6]. Gravitationally stable hydrous melts can be formed at the base of the upper mantle, which is consistent with seismological observations of the low velocity beneath

  3. Tomography and Dynamics of Western-Pacific Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2012-01-01

    the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia, and a big mantle wedge (BMW) has formed above the stagnant slab. Convective circulations and fluid and magmatic processes in the BMW may have caused intraplate volcanism (e.g., Changbai and Wudalianchi), reactivation of the North China craton, large earthquakes, and other active tectonics in East Asia. Deep subduction and dehydration of continental plates (such as the Eurasian plate, Indian plate and Burma microplate) are also found, which have caused intraplate magmatism (e.g., Tengchong) and geothermal anomalies above the subducted continental plates. Under Kamchatka, the subducting Pacific slab shortens toward the north and terminates near the Aleutian-Kamchatka junction. The slab loss was induced by friction with the surrounding asthenosphere, as the Pacific plate rotated clockwise 30 Ma ago, and then it was enlarged by the slab-edge pinch-off by the asthenospheric flow. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle. Suggestions are also made for future directions of the seismological research of subduction zones.

  4. Shear-wave anisotropy beneath Northeast China observed by the NECESSArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Zhang, X.; Grand, S.; Ni, J. F.; Chen, Y. J.; Ning, J.; Kawakatsu, H.; Tanaka, S.; Obayashi, M.

    2012-12-01

    NNortheast China consists of the Northeast China Plain with the Songliao basin in its center, the Central Asian Fold belt, known as the Great Xing'an Range to the west, the uplifted volcanic Changbaishan region to the east and the Sino-Korean Craton to the south. It is located more than 1000 km away from the Japan Trench, where the Pacific plate starts to subduct beneath the Eurasia plate. It is widely believed that the Songliao Basin was a rifting basin and the rifting process took place in the Jurassic immediately after the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. The collision between the Amurian plate and Siberia blocks after the closure probably caused lithospheric thickening of the Great Xing'an Range and NE China, and the later convective removal of the thickened lithosphere could have resulted in a thinned lithosphere. Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the region, indicating that active volcanism occurred during the Mesozoic rifting. Volcanism continued in the Cenozoic time in a rather episodic and sporadic manner. Although it is generally believed that the Cenozoic volcanism in NE China is somehow related to the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the area, one obviously cannot invoke a regular back arc volcanogenic model to explain the Cenozoic volcanism in this region. One promising model, based on tomographic imaging, is the so-called big-mantle-wedge (BMW) model, which hypothesizes a large-scale mantle upwelling in this region as the deep origin of the Cenozoic volcanism. We measured seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle using core shear phases recorded by a large-scale international deployment (the NorthEast China Extended SeiSmic Array, NECESSArray) to investigate mantle flow beneath NE China. We employed a multi-event signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) weighted method and obtained measurements of splitting parameters at 126 stations. Overall, the observed SKS splitting times are of low amplitude (~0.8 s), indicating that the

  5. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  6. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation

    DOE PAGES

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, onmore » NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  7. Fluid-matrix interactions during high-temperature aquifer storage - lab experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismeth, Carina; Ueckert, Martina; Muffler, Selina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    High-temperature aquifer storage is a promising extension to combined heat and power plants because it allows to store excess heat during the summer months and to recuperate the heat in winter when the heat demand exceeds the production. Within a research project funded by the Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology and the BMW Group, a pilot scale test was run at the Dingolfing site (Bavaria, Germany) in 2014. Field data and an a priori numerical model suggest dissolution and precipitation of the processes in the calcareous aquifer. In order to quantify the reaction kinetics, lab experiments were run in an autoclave. The experimental results were used to setup and calibrate a numerical hydrogeochemical model based on PhreeqC. Laboratory experiments were performed in a closed system with respect to CO2 and under pre-defined conditions using a high temperature autoclave. Within the dissolution test series original core samples of different depth were heated up with ultrapure water in defined heating cycles up to 110 °C and at defined pressure. For combined dissolution and precipitation processes, tap water from Munich was used. The gas phase was equilibrated with CO2 regarding the pCO2 of tap water. Five water samples were taken for each heating cycle and analyzed by ion chromatography to quantify the calcium/magnesium concentrations and ratio. Additionally the sorption properties of the core materials were tested with respect to the fluorescent dyes used in the field tests. The starting point to model the fluid matrix interactions was literature data of dolomite and calcite rates, which were integrated in the conceptional model. While the model results matched the experimentally determined concentrations nicely, there was a discrepancy with respect to the effective surface areas, which is likely due to impurities of the natural rock materials. The model was able to describe the minor precipitation of calcite during the

  8. Local heat treatment of high strength steels with zoom-optics and 10kW-diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Markus; Krause, Volker; Bergweiler, Georg; Flaischerowitz, Martin; Banik, Janko

    2012-03-01

    High strength steels enable new solutions for weight optimized car bodies without sacrificing crash safety. However, cold forming of these steels is limited due to the need of high press capacity, increased tool wear, and limitations in possible geometries. One can compensate for these drawbacks by local heat treatment of the blanks. In high-deformation areas the strength of the material is reduced and the plasticity is increased by diode laser irradiation. Local heat treatment with diode laser radiation could also yield key benefits for the applicability of press hardened parts. High strength is not desired all over the part. Joint areas or deformation zones for requested crash properties require locally reduced strength. In the research project "LOKWAB" funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), heat treatment of high strength steels was investigated in cooperation with Audi, BMW, Daimler, ThyssenKrupp, Fraunhofer- ILT, -IWU and others. A diode laser with an output power of 10 kW was set up to achieve acceptable process speed. Furthermore a homogenizing zoom-optics was developed, providing a rectangular focus with homogeneous power density. The spot size in x- and y-direction can be changed independently during operation. With pyrometer controlled laser power the surface temperature is kept constant, thus the laser treated zone can be flexibly adapted to the needs. Deep-drawing experiments show significant improvement in formability. With this technique, parts can be manufactured, which can conventionally only be made of steel with lower strength. Locally reduced strength of press hardened serial parts was demonstrated.

  9. Molded, wafer level optics for long wave infra-red applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, John

    2016-05-01

    For many years, the Thermal Imaging market has been driven by the high volume consumer market. The first signs of this came with the launch of night vision systems for cars, first by Cadillac and Honda and then, more successfully by BMW, Daimler and Audi. For the first time, simple thermal imaging systems were being manufactured at the rate of more than 10,000 units a year. This step change in volumes enabled a step change in system costs, with thermal imaging moving into the consumer's price range. Today we see that the consumer awareness and the consumer market continues to increase with the launch of a number of consumer focused smart phone add-ons. This has brought a further step change in system costs, with the possibility to turn your mobile phone into a thermal imager for under $250. As the detector technology has matured, the pixel pitches have dropped from 50μm in 2002 to 12 μm or even 10μm in today's detectors. This dramatic shrinkage in size has had an equally dramatic effect on the optics required to produce the image on the detector. A moderate field of view that would have required a focal length of 40mm in 2002 now requires a focal length of 8mm. For wide field of view applications and small detector formats, focal lengths in the range 1mm to 5mm are becoming common. For lenses, the quantity manufactured, quality and costs will require a new approach to high volume Infra-Red (IR) manufacturing to meet customer expectations. This, taken with the SwaP-C requirements and the emerging requirement for very small lenses driven by the new detectors, suggests that wafer scale optics are part of the solution. Umicore can now present initial results from an intensive research and development program to mold and coat wafer level optics, using its chalcogenide glass, GASIR®.

  10. A global thermo-electrochemical model for SOFC systems design and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzi, L.; Cocchi, S.; Fineschi, F.

    At BMW AG in Munich high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for high-class car conveniences. Their design requires simulation of their thermo-electrochemical behaviour in all the conditions that may occur during operation (i.e. heat-up to about 600 °C, start-up to operating temperature, energy-delivering and cool-down). A global thermo-electrochemical model was developed for the whole system and a three-dimensional geometry code was performed using MATLAB programming language. The problems in developing SOFCs are now so many and so different that a very flexible code is necessary. Thus, the code was not only designed in order to simulate each of the operating conditions, but also to test different stack configurations, materials, etc. In every event, the code produces a time-dependent profile of temperatures, currents, electrical and thermal power density, gases concentrations for the whole system. The heat-up and start-up simulations allow: (1) to evaluate the time the cell stack needs to reach operating temperature from an initial temperature distribution, (2) to check the steepest temperature gradients occurring in the ceramic layers (which result in material stresses) and (3) to obtain important information about the pre-operating strategy. Simulation of energy-delivering gives a detailed profile of the temperatures, currents, power density, and allows to define the guidelines in system-controlling. Simulation of cooling-down gives important advises about insulation designing. The aim of this work is to build up a tool to clearly individuate the best designing criteria and operating strategy during the development and the engineering of a SOFC system.

  11. Improved near-infrared ocean reflectance correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua

    2014-09-01

    A new approach for the near-infrared (NIR) ocean reflectance correction in atmospheric correction for satellite ocean color data processing in coastal and inland waters is proposed, which combines the advantages of the three existing NIR ocean reflectance correction algorithms, i.e., Bailey et al. (2010) [Opt. Express18, 7521 (2010)Appl. Opt.39, 897 (2000)Opt. Express20, 741 (2012)], and is named BMW. The normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(λ) obtained from this new NIR-based atmospheric correction approach are evaluated against those obtained from the shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithm, as well as those from some existing NIR atmospheric correction algorithms based on several case studies. The scenes selected for case studies are obtained from two different satellite ocean color sensors, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellite Aqua and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP), with an emphasis on several turbid water regions in the world. The new approach has shown to produce nLw(λ) spectra most consistent with the SWIR results among all NIR algorithms. Furthermore, validations against the in situ measurements also show that in less turbid water regions the new approach produces reasonable and similar results comparable to the current operational algorithm. In addition, by combining the new NIR atmospheric correction with the SWIR-based approach, the new NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction can produce further improved ocean color products. The new NIR atmospheric correction can be implemented in a global operational satellite ocean color data processing system.

  12. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2015-06-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible. PMID:25027859

  13. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2015-06-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible.

  14. Moving mountains.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    What could be more fundamental to management, or more difficult, than motivating people? After all, a manager, by definition, is someone who gets work done through others. But how? A typical recipe for motivation calls for a mixture of persuasion, encouragement, and compulsion. Yet the best leaders, we suspect, need no recipe: They get people to produce great results by appealing to their deepest drives, needs, and desires. And so we discovered when we asked a dozen of the world's top leaders to describe how they each met a daunting challenge in motivating an individual, a team, or an organization. Their answers are as varied as human nature. Some of the leaders appeal to people's need for the rational and the orderly: Mattel's Robert Eckert emphasizes the reassuring power of delivering a consistent message, and HP's Carly Fiorina focuses on facing hard truths on setting step-by-step goals. Some, like celebrated oceanographer Robert Ballard, Pfizer CEO Hank McKinnell, and BP America president Ross Pillari, see the powerful motivating effects of asking people to rise to difficult challenges. Others focus more on the human spirit, appealing to the desire to do something, as BMW's Chris Bangle puts it, "rare, marvelous, and lasting." And quite a few inspire through example, as Dial chairman Herb Baum did when he donated $1,000 from his bonus to each of the company's 155 lowest-paid people. "If you draw the line on your own greed, and your employees see it," he says, "they will be incredibly loyal and perform much better for you." And he has the numbers to prove it. "Right now," he adds, "we're experiencing our lowest level of attrition in 11 years, and we're tracking toward another banner year because people are happy."

  15. Subjective and objective evaluation of sense of space for vehicle occupants based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Hiamtoe, Pitarn; Steinhardt, Florian; Köhler, Uwe; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the "feeling of space" of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection, the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values.

  16. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  17. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  18. The prevalence, variety and impact of wrist problems in elite professional golfers on the European Tour

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Roger; O'Connor, Phil; Campbell, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Golf is a popular sport played by an estimated 57 million people. Previous studies on wrist injuries in elite golfers have been of simple design and have demonstrated such injuries to be frequent, although no studies report the incidence, variety, severity or impact on the activity of wrist injuries in detail. This prospective cross-sectional study assesses these factors in a cohort of elite professional golfers. Methods European Tour golfers eligible to compete at the 2009 BMW PGA Championship at Wentworth were studied. Study design involved the completion of a structured questionnaire supplemented by interview and examination when required, with performance statistics provided by the European Tour. The severity of injury was assessed by the number of missed tournaments and the amount of time of missed practice. Results 128 of 153 eligible golfers, (84%) completed the study with 38 golfers (30%) reporting 43 problems. The majority of injuries (67%) occurred in the leading wrist at the most common location, the ulnar side of the wrist (35%). 87% of all ulnar-sided and 100% of radial-sided problems were in the leading wrist. Conclusions There were clear side differences reported by the players with the lead wrist demonstrating much higher injury rates in all areas. The most significant injury, in terms of absence from competition, was extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation. Specific injuries are explained in relation to the biomechanics of the golf swing. Most structural injuries have a specific treatment and rehabilitation plan, which can involve significant periods of time away from the sport, while the management of many of the more minor problems is through alterations in technique or practice regimes, aiming to keep a golfer playing during recovery. PMID:24014125

  19. Isotopic evidence for the contemporary origin of high-molecular weight organic matter in oceanic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Guo, Laodong; Baskaran, M.; Trumbore, Susan; Southon, John; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Honeyman, Bruce; Cifuentes, Luis

    1995-02-01

    Previous work has suggested that apparent old 14C ages for oceanic DOC are the result of mixing of different organic carbon fractions. This report provides direct evidence for a contemporary 14C age of a high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction of colloidal organic carbon (≥10 kD). Colloidal organic matter, COM 10 (from 10 kDaltons (kD) to 0.2 μm), isolated from the upper water column of the Gulf of Mexico and the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) region, generally has a contemporary age (i.e., younger than a few decades), while COM 1 (from 1 kD to 0.2 μm), is apparently old: 380-4500 y BP. Thus, BMW COM 10 (3-5% of DOC) from the upper water column is derived from living particulate organic matter (POM) and cycles rapidly, while a significant fraction of low-molecular-weight (≤1 kD) DOM is likely more refractory, and cycles on much longer time scales. The presence of pigment biomarker compounds in COM 1 from the upper water column points to selected phytoplankton species as one of the sources of COM. Terrestrial carbon as another source of COM is suggested from the inverse correlation between Δ 14C and δ 13C values, as well as the increasing δ 13C values with increasing salinity. 234Th-derived turnover times of COM 10 and COM 1 from both the Gulf of Mexico and MAB are consistently short, 1-20 and 3-30 days, respectively. These short residence times support the hypothesis that 14C ages of colloidal fractions of DOC are the result of COM fractions being a mixture of several endmembers with fast and slow turnover rates.

  20. Improved near-infrared ocean reflectance correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua

    2014-09-01

    A new approach for the near-infrared (NIR) ocean reflectance correction in atmospheric correction for satellite ocean color data processing in coastal and inland waters is proposed, which combines the advantages of the three existing NIR ocean reflectance correction algorithms, i.e., Bailey et al. (2010) [Opt. Express18, 7521 (2010)Appl. Opt.39, 897 (2000)Opt. Express20, 741 (2012)], and is named BMW. The normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(λ) obtained from this new NIR-based atmospheric correction approach are evaluated against those obtained from the shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithm, as well as those from some existing NIR atmospheric correction algorithms based on several case studies. The scenes selected for case studies are obtained from two different satellite ocean color sensors, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellite Aqua and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP), with an emphasis on several turbid water regions in the world. The new approach has shown to produce nLw(λ) spectra most consistent with the SWIR results among all NIR algorithms. Furthermore, validations against the in situ measurements also show that in less turbid water regions the new approach produces reasonable and similar results comparable to the current operational algorithm. In addition, by combining the new NIR atmospheric correction with the SWIR-based approach, the new NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction can produce further improved ocean color products. The new NIR atmospheric correction can be implemented in a global operational satellite ocean color data processing system. PMID:25321543

  1. Detection of SNPs in the TBC1D1 gene and their association with carcass traits in chicken.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Heng-Yong; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Peng, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Qing

    2014-09-01

    TBC1D1 plays an important role in numerous fundamental physiological processes including muscle metabolism, regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. The objective of the present study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chicken TBC1D1 using 128 Erlang mountainous chickens and to determine if these SNPs are associated with carcass traits. The approach consisted of sequencing TBC1D1 using a panel of DNA from different individuals, revealing twenty-two SNPs. Among these SNPs, two polymorphisms (g.69307744C>T and g.69307608T>G) of block 1, four polymorphisms (g.69322320C>T, g.69322314G>A, g.69317290A>G and g.69317276T>C) of block 2 and four polymorphisms of block 3 (g.69349746G>A, g.69349736C>G, g.69349727C>T and g.69349694C>T) exhibited a high degree of linkage disequilibrium in all test populations. An association analysis was performed between the twenty-two SNPs and seven performance traits. SNPs g.69307744C>T, g.69340192G>A and g.69355665T>C were demonstrated to have a strong effect on liveweight (BW), carcass weight (CW), semi-eviscerated weight (SEW) and eviscerated weight (EW) and g.69340070C>T polymorphism was related to BW, SEW and BMW in chicken populations. However, for the other SNPs, there were no significant correlations between different genotypes and carcass traits. Meanwhile, haplotype CT-TG of block 1 and combined genotype AG-TT-AC-CT of block 3 were significantly associated with BW, CW, SEW and EW. Overall, our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in TBC1D1 are associated with carcass traits and would be a useful candidate gene in selection programs for improving carcass traits. PMID:24979340

  2. Cycles within cycles - Repetitive Tremor between Cascadia 14-month ETS episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creager, K. C.; Wech, A. G.; Vidale, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    We have automatically searched Northwestern Washington for non-volcanic tremor in all 5-minute time windows during the inter-ETS period from February, 2007 through April, 2008. Tremor was detected in nearly 3000 windows, which overlap by 50%, so tremor was seen 2% of the time. The catalog of 5-minute tremor locations cluster in time and space into groups we call tremor swarms. This sorting revealed 35 tremor swarms during the inter-ETS period. The number of hours of tremor per swarm ranged from about one to 50 hours, adding up to 193 hours. The inter-ETS tremor swarms generally locate along the downdip side of the major ETS events, and account for approximately 45% of the time tremor has been detected during the last entire ETS cycle, which includes the May, 2008 ETS episode. Many of the inter-ETS events are near carbon copies of each other in duration, spatial extent and propagation direction, as is seen for the larger 14-month- interval events. These 35 inter-ETS swarms plus one major ETS episode follow a power law relationship such that the number of swarms, N, exceeding duration τ is given by N = c τ-0.6. If we assume that seismic moment is proportional to τ as proposed by Ide et al. [Nature, 2007], we find that the tremor swarms follow a standard Gutenberg-Richter logarithmic frequency-magnitude relation, log10N = a 10-bMw, with b = -0.9, which lies in the range for normal earthquake catalogs. Furthermore, the major ETS events fall on the curve defined by the inter-ETS swarms, suggesting that the inter-ETS swarms are just smaller versions of the major 14-month ETS events.

  3. Mixing MARTINI: electrostatic coupling in hybrid atomistic-coarse-grained biomolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Priess, Marten; Marrink, Siewert J; Schäfer, Lars V

    2013-04-01

    Hybrid molecular dynamics simulations of atomistic (AA) solutes embedded in coarse-grained (CG) environment can substantially reduce the computational cost with respect to fully atomistic simulations. However, interfacing both levels of resolution is a major challenge that includes a balanced description of the relevant interactions. This is especially the case for polar solvents such as water, which screen the electrostatic interactions and thus require explicit electrostatic coupling between AA and CG subsystems. Here, we present and critically test computationally efficient hybrid AA/CG models. We combined the Gromos atomistic force field with the MARTINI coarse-grained force field. To enact electrostatic coupling, two recently developed CG water models with explicit electrostatic interactions were used: the polarizable MARTINI water model and the BMW model. The hybrid model was found to be sensitive to the strength of the AA-CG electrostatic coupling, which was adjusted through the relative dielectric permittivity εr(AA-CG). Potentials of mean force (PMFs) between pairs of amino acid side chain analogues in water and partitioning free enthalpies of uncharged amino acid side chain analogues between apolar solvent and water show significant differences between the hybrid simulations and the fully AA or CG simulations, in particular for charged and polar molecules. For apolar molecules, the results obtained with the hybrid AA/CG models are in better agreement with the fully atomistic results. The structures of atomistic ubiquitin solvated in CG water and of a single atomistic transmembrane α-helix and the transmembrane portion of an atomistic mechanosensitive channel in CG lipid bilayers were largely maintained during 50-100 ns of AA/CG simulations, partly due to an overstabilization of intramolecular interactions. This work highlights some key challenges on the way toward hybrid AA/CG models that are both computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate for

  4. AQS-20 through-the-sensor environmental data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Chad A.; Sample, John; Harris, Mike; Avera, Will; Bibee, L. Dale

    2005-05-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed an advanced architecture for connecting many maturing Through-The-Sensor (TTS) efforts for an end-to-end demonstration using the AQS-20 mine hunting sensor. The goal of TTS technologies is to exploit tactical sensors to characterize the battlespace environment for Navy Fleet Tactical Decision Aids (TDAs) with minimal impact on tactical systems. The AQS-20 Rapid Transition Process (RTP) will utilize the AQS-20 to demonstrate sensor data collection, processing, fusion, storage, distribution and use in a tactical decision aid. In recent years, NRL has shown that the AQS-20 can be used to obtain swath bathymetry and bottom sediment information in a single flight. In the AQS-20 RTP, these data will be processed and fused with historical databases to provide an improved environmental picture. The RTP will also utilize the Geophysical Data Base Variable resolution (GDBV) dynamic format for storing local datasets. The GDBV dynamic has been developed in prior years to provide an extensible, efficient data storage format for TTS systems. To provide the interconnectivity that is critical to Network Centric Warfare (NCW), the GDBV will be connected to the SPAWAR funded Tactical Environmental Data Services (TEDServices). To complete the flow of information from sensor to user, the RTP will transmit information to the MEDAL TDA through existing connections in The Naval Oceanographic Office"s (NAVOCEANO) Bottom Mapping Workstation (BMW). In addition, TEDServices will handle transmission of the AQS-20 data to NAVOCEANO who serves as the domain authority for oceanographic datasets in the U.S. Navy.

  5. Why do arginine and lysine organize lipids differently? Insights from coarse-grained and atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Cui, Qiang; Yethiraj, Arun

    2013-10-10

    An important puzzle in membrane biophysics is the difference in the behaviors of lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) based peptides at the membrane. For example, the translocation of poly-Arg is orders of magnitude faster than that of poly-Lys. Recent experimental work suggests that much of the difference can be inferred from the phase behavior of peptide/lipid mixtures. At similar concentrations, mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids display different phases in the presence of these polypeptides, with a bicontinuous phase observed with poly-Arg peptides and an inverted hexagonal phase observed with poly-Lys peptides. Here we show that simulations with the coarse-grained (CG) BMW-MARTINI model reproduce the experimental results. An analysis using atomistic and CG models reveals that electrostatic and glycerol-peptide interactions play a crucial role in determining the phase behavior of peptide-lipid mixtures, with the difference between Arg and Lys arising from the stronger interactions of the former with lipid glycerols. In other words, the multivalent nature of the guanidinium group allows Arg to simultaneously interact with both phosphate and glycerol groups, while Lys engages solely with phosphate; this feature of amino acid/lipid interactions has not been emphasized in previous studies. The Arg peptides colocalize with PS in regions of high negative Gaussian curvature and stabilize the bicontinuous phase. Decreasing the strength of either the electrostatic interactions or the peptide-glycerol interactions causes the inverted hexagonal phase to become more stable. The results highlight the utility of CG models for the investigation of phase behavior but also emphasize the subtlety of the phenomena, with small changes in specific interactions leading to qualitatively different phases. PMID:24024591

  6. Evaluating Force Fields for the Computational Prediction of Ionized Arginine and Lysine Side-Chains Partitioning into Lipid Bilayers and Octanol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Delin; Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E

    2015-04-14

    Abundant peptides and proteins containing arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) amino acids can apparently permeate cell membranes with ease. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides and proteins succeed in traversing the free energy barrier imposed by cell membranes remain largely unestablished. Precise thermodynamic studies (both theoretical and experimental) on the interactions of Arg and Lys residues with model lipid bilayers can provide valuable clues to the efficacy of these cationic peptides and proteins. We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the interactions of ionized Arg and Lys side-chains with the zwitterionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer for 10 widely used lipid/protein force fields: CHARMM36/CHARMM36, SLIPID/AMBER99SB-ILDN, OPLS-AA/OPLS-AA, Berger/OPLS-AA, Berger/GROMOS87, Berger/GROMOS53A6, GROMOS53A6/GROMOS53A6, nonpolarizable MARTINI, polarizable MARTINI, and BMW MARTINI. We performed umbrella sampling simulations to obtain the potential of mean force for Arg and Lys side-chains partitioning from water to the bilayer interior. We found significant differences between the force fields, both for the interactions between side-chains and bilayer surface, as well as the free energy cost for placing the side-chain at the center of the bilayer. These simulation results were compared with the Wimley-White interfacial scale. We also calculated the free energy cost for transferring ionized Arg and Lys side-chains from water to both dry and wet octanol. Our simulations reveal rapid diffusion of water molecules into octanol whereby the equilibrium mole fraction of water in the wet octanol phase was ∼25%. Surprisingly, our free energy calculations found that the high water content in wet octanol lowered the water-to-octanol partitioning free energies for cationic residues by only 0.6 to 0.7 kcal/mol. PMID:26574387

  7. Mesoscopic coarse-grained simulations of lysozyme adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gaobo; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Coarse-grained simulations are adopted to study the adsorption behavior of lysozyme on different (hydrophobic, neutral hydrophilic, zwitterionic, negatively charged, and positively charged) surfaces at the mesoscopic microsecond time scale (1.2 μs). Simulation results indicate the following: (i) the conformation change of lysozyme on the hydrophobic surface is bigger than any other studied surfaces; (ii) the active sites of lysozyme are faced to the hydrophobic surface with a "top end-on" orientation, while they are exposed to the liquid phase on the hydrophilic surface with a "back-on" orientation; (iii) the neutral hydrophilic surface can induce the adsorption of lysozyme, while the nonspecific protein adsorption can be resisted by the zwitterionic surface; (iv) when the solution ionic strength is low, lysozyme can anchor on the negatively charged surface easily but cannot adsorb on the positively charged surface; (v) when the solution ionic strength is high, the positively charged lysozyme can also adsorb on the like-charged surface; (vi) the major positive potential center of lysozyme, especially the residue ARG128, plays a vital role in leading the adsorption of lysozyme on charged surfaces; (vii) when the ionic strength is high, a counterion layer is formed above the positively charged surface, which is the key factor why lysozyme can adsorb on a like-charged surface. The coarse-grained method based on the MARTINI force field for proteins and the BMW water model could provide an efficient way to understand protein interfacial adsorption behavior at a greater length scale and time scale. PMID:24785197

  8. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  9. A new strategy for stiffness evaluation of sheet metal parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Q.; Volk, W.; Düster, A.; Rank, E.

    2011-08-01

    In the automotive industry, surfaces of styling models are shaped very often in physical models. For example, in the styling process of a car body important design work is realized by clay models and the resulting geometry information typically comes from optical scans. The scanned data is given in the form of point clouds which is then utilized in the virtual planning process for engineering work, e.g. to evaluate the load-carrying capacity. This is an important measure for the stiffness of the car body panels. In this contribution, the following two issues are discussed: what is the suitable geometric representation of the stiffness of the car body and how it is computed if only discrete point clouds exist. In the first part, the suitable geometric representation is identified by constructing continuous CAD models with different geometric parameters, e.g. Gaussian curvature and mean curvature. The stiffness of models is then computed in LS-DYNA and the influence of different geometric parameters is presented based on the simulation result. In the second part, the point clouds from scanned data, rather than continuous CAD models, are directly utilized to estimate the Gaussian curvature, which is normally derived from continuous surfaces. The discrete Gauss-Bonnet algorithm is applied to estimate the Gaussian curvature of the point clouds and the sensitivity of the algorithm with respect to the mesh quality is analyzed. In this way, the stiffness evaluation process in an early stage can be accelerated since the transformation from discrete data to continuous CAD data is labor-intensive. The discrete Gauss-Bonnet algorithm is finally applied to a sheet metal model of the BMW 3 series.

  10. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities region including Charlotte, Greenville, and Columbia. Such

  11. Structure-property-performance relationships of new high temperature relaxors for capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Craig J.

    This thesis extends the investigations on perovskite solid solutions based on PbTiO3-Bi(Me',Me")O3 (Me' = Sc3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, In3+ , Fe3+, etc. and Me" = Ti4+, Nb 5+, W6+) systems. The ferroelectric transition temperature (TC) behavior was considered in the tetragonal phase region of the PbTiO 3-Bi(Me',Me")O3 systems. Trends in the TC compositional dependence exhibited three main cases: case 1, a continued increase in transition temperature above the end-member PbTiO3 (495°C); case 2, an increase and then decrease of the transition temperature; and case 3, a continuous decrease in the transition temperature with Bi(Me',Me")O 3 additions. New relaxor materials were developed from the PbTiO3-Bi(Me',Me")O 3 solid solutions; specifically, the Bi(Mg3/4W1/4)O 3-PbTiO3 (BMW-PT) binary solid solution and BiScO3-Pb(Mg 1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (BS-PMN-PT) ternary solid solution were investigated. Permittivity, polarization and pyroelectric measurements were performed on BMW-PT and BS-PMN-PT compositions with respect to temperature with characteristic relaxor behavior observed. The complex solid solution BMW-PT exhibited a morphotropic phase boundary at ˜48 mol% PbTiO3 with a corresponding TC of 205°C. On further structural analysis with diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy along with x-ray diffraction, evidence of B-site ordering was observed. The BS-PMN-PT proved to be a model system with high temperature relaxor properties of Tmax ˜ 250°C to 300°C and εmax ˜ 14,000 to 17,000 at 1 kHz. The deviation temperature, TD, or temperature of the onset of local spontaneous polarization, was determined by thermal strain measurement and high temperature dielectric measurement to be approximately 600°C; up to 250°C higher than any reported value for relaxor ferroelectrics. The frequency dependence of the temperature of the permittivity maximum was found to follow the Vogel-Fulcher relationship, with an activation energy (EA) of ˜0.1 eV, and a freezing

  12. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three-way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in the oxygen-rich exhaust. Thus, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. 15% excess NH3 production over a 1:1 NH3:NOX ratio was required (via longer rich cycle timing) to achieve 99.7% NOX conversion at an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 C. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher temperatures, NH3 oxidation becomes important and limits NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied here, greater than 99% NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering fuel

  13. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-04-05

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCRmore » approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied, greater than 99 % NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering

  14. Episodic Tremor and Slip: Cycles Within Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, each with geodetically determined moment magnitudes in the mid-6 range, repeat about every 15 months under the Olympic Peninsula/southern Vancouver Island region. We have automatically searched for non-volcanic tremor in all 5-minute time windows both during the past five ETS events and during the two inter-ETS periods from February, 2007 through April, 2008 and June 2008 through April 2009. Inter-ETS tremor was detected in 5000 windows, which overlap by 50%, so tremor was seen 2% of the time. The catalog of 5-minute tremor locations cluster in time and space into groups we call tremor swarms, revealing 50 inter-ETS tremor swarms. The number of hours of tremor per swarm ranged from about 1 to 68, totaling 374 hours. The inter-ETS tremor swarms generally locate along the downdip side of the major ETS events, and account for approximately 45% of the time that tremor has been detected during the last two entire ETS cycles. Many of the inter-ETS events are near-carbon copies in duration, spatial extent and propagation direction, as is seen for the larger 15-month-interval events. These 50 inter-ETS swarms plus two major ETS episodes follow a power law relationship such that the number of swarms, N, exceeding duration τ is given by N ˜ τ-0.7. If we assume that seismic moment is proportional to τ as proposed by Ide et al. [Nature, 2007], we find that the tremor swarms follow a standard Gutenberg-Richter logarithmic frequency-magnitude relation, N ˜ 10-bMw, with b = 1.0, which lies in the range for normal earthquake catalogs. Furthermore, the major ETS events fall on the curve defined by the inter-ETS swarms, suggesting that the inter-ETS swarms are just smaller versions of the major 15-month ETS events. Only the largest events coincide with geodetically observed slip, suggesting that current geodetic observations may be missing nearly half of the total slip. Finally, crude estimates of the spatial dimensions of tremor swarms L

  15. Northern Cascadia Episodic Tremor and Slip: Cycles Within Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creager, K. C.; Wech, A. G.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-05-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, each with geodetically determined moment magnitudes in the mid-6 range, repeat with remarkable regularity every 15 months under the Olympic Peninsula/southern Vancouver Island region. We have automatically searched for non-volcanic tremor in all 5-minute time windows both during the past 4 ETS events and during the inter-ETS period from February, 2007 through April, 2008. Inter- ETS tremor was detected in nearly 3000 windows, which overlap by 50%, so tremor was seen 2% of the time. The catalog of 5-minute tremor locations cluster in time and space into groups we call tremor swarms, revealing 35 inter-ETS tremor swarms. The number of hours of tremor per swarm ranged from about one to 50 hours, totaling 193 hours. The inter-ETS tremor swarms generally locate along the downdip side of the major ETS events, and account for approximately 45% of the time that tremor has been detected during the last entire ETS cycle, which includes the May, 2008 ETS episode. Many of the inter-ETS events are near-carbon copies in duration, spatial extent and propagation direction, as is seen for the larger 15-month-interval events. These 35 inter-ETS swarms plus one major ETS episode follow a power law relationship such that the number of swarms, N, exceeding duration τ is given by N ~ τ-0.6. If we assume that seismic moment is proportional to τ as proposed by Ide et al. [Nature, 2007], we find that the tremor swarms follow a standard Gutenberg-Richter logarithmic frequency-magnitude relation, log10N ~ 10-bMw, with b = - 0.9, which lies in the range for normal earthquake catalogs. Furthermore, the major ETS events fall on the curve defined by the inter-ETS swarms, suggesting that the inter-ETS swarms are just smaller versions of the major 15-month ETS events. Only the largest events coincide with geodetically observed slip, suggesting that current geodetic observations may be missing nearly half of the total slip. Finally, crude estimates of the

  16. Slow-Slip Scaling Laws Inferred from Cascadia Tremor Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, each with geodetically determined moment magnitudes in the mid-6 range, repeat about every 15 months under the Olympic Peninsula/southern Vancouver Island region. We have applied an automatic waveform envelope cross-correlation and clustering (WECC) algorithm to seven Cascadia-wide subarrays to search for non-volcanic tremor in 5-minute, 50% overlapping, time windows, revealing 70,000 tremor epicenters. The tremor epicenters cluster in time and space into nearly 200 tremor swarms. The number of hours of tremor per swarm ranges from about 1 to 470 hours. The smaller (inter-ETS) tremor swarms generally locate along the downdip side of the larger ETS swarms and occur much more frequently. In northern Washington, which is currently best monitored, the ETS events, as well as the larger inter-ETS tremor swarms initiate downdip and propagate updip. For the large ETS events, tremor swarm duration is proportional to geodetically determined seismic moment. We consider tremor swarms to be a proxy for slow slip for the smaller events as well, even though slip would be below current geodetic detection thresholds. An interpretation of the observed transition from longer duration, less frequent tremor swarms up dip to smaller more frequent tremor swarms down-dip, in terms of fault strength is the subject of a presentation by Wech. The combined inter-ETS and ETS swarms follow a power law relationship such that the number of swarms, N, exceeding duration τ is given by τ -0.66. If we assume that seismic moment is proportional to τ, as proposed by Ide et al. [Nature, 2007], we find that the tremor swarms follow a standard Gutenberg-Richter logarithmic frequency-magnitude relation, log10 N ≈ -bMw, with b = 1.0, which lies in the range for normal earthquake catalogs. Finally, crude estimates of the spatial dimensions of tremor swarms L suggest that L ≈ τ 1/n where n is between 2 and 3. A value of 2 is consistent with slip propagation rates

  17. Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schucan, T.

    1999-12-31

    Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and the evaluation and comparison of hydrogen systems. While the Executive Summary reflects work on all three subtasks, this collection of chapters refers only to the work performed under Subtask A. Ten projects were analyzed and evaluated in detail as part of Subtask A, Case Studies. The projects and the project partners were: Solar Hydrogen Demonstration Project, Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, Bayernwerk, BMW, Linde, Siemens (Germany); Solar Hydrogen Plant on Residential House, M. Friedli (Switzerland); A.T. Stuart Renewable Energy Test Site; Stuart Energy Systems (Canada); PHOEBUS Juelich

  18. Weak lensing study of 16 DAFT/FADA clusters: Substructures and filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Clowe, Douglas; Durret, Florence; Adami, Christophe; Acebrón, Ana; Hernandez-García, Lorena; Márquez, Isabel; Guennou, Loic; Sarron, Florian; Ulmer, Mel

    2016-05-01

    While our current cosmological model places galaxy clusters at the nodes of a filament network (the cosmic web), we still struggle to detect these filaments at high redshifts. We perform a weak lensing study for a sample of 16 massive, medium-high redshift (0.4 BMW1226, MACSJ1621, and MS1621. This study is based on observations obtained with MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/IRFU, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of

  19. Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    the deep subduction of the Pacific slab and its stagnancy in the transition zone as well as corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The active Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is related to the eastward subduction of the Burma microplate. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. D. Zhao (2007) Gondwana Research 12, 335-355. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305.

  20. The Brera multi-scale wavelet Chandra survey. I. Serendipitous source catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Mottini, M.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2008-09-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalogue drawn from essentially all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterise both point-like and extended sources, we identified 21 325 sources. Among them, 16 758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings, and do not require a non-automated analysis. This makes our catalogue the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5-10 keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from ˜3× 10-16 to 9×10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 with a median of 7× 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7 keV; soft, 0.5-2 keV; and hard, 2-7 keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the extension of the source. We include information drawn from the headers of the original files, as well, and extracted source counts in four additional energy bands, SB1 (0.5-1 keV), SB2 (1-2 keV), HB1 (2-4 keV), and HB2 (4-7 keV). We computed the sky coverage for the full catalogue and for a subset at high Galactic latitude (mid b mid > 20°). The complete catalogue provides a sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2 keV, S/N =3) of 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and 2 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. Furthermore, we present the results of the cross-match with existing catalogues at different wavelengths (FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS, GSC2, and ChaMP). The total numbers of matches with the FIRST, IRASPSC, 2MASS, and GSC2 catalogues obtained after a closest-distance selection are 13, 87, 6700, and 4485, respectively. The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130

  1. Wear Protection of AJ62 Mg Engine Blocks using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and pollution, automotive companies are developing magnesium-intensive components. However, due to the low wear resistance of the magnesium (Mg) alloys, Mg cylinder bores are vulnerable to the sliding wear attack. In this thesis, two approaches were used to protect the cylinder bores, made of a new developed Mg engine alloy AJ62 (MgA16Mn0.34Sr2). The first one was to use a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process to produce oxide coatings on the Mg bores. The wear properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated by sliding wear tests under the boundary lubrication condition at the room and elevated temperatures. It was found that due to the substrate softening and the vaporization loss of the lubricant, the tribological properties of the PEO coatings were deteriorated at the elevated temperature. In order to optimize the PEO process, a statistical method (Response surface method) was used to analyze the effects of the 4 main PEO process parameters with 2 levels for each and their interactions on the tribological properties of the PEO coatings at the room and elevated temperatures, individually. A cylinder liner made of an economical metal-matrix composite (MMC) was another approach to improve the wear resistance of the Mg cylinder bore. In this thesis, an A1383/SiO2 MMC was designed to replace the expensive Alusil alloy used in the BMW Mg/Al composite engine to build the cylinder liner. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, PEO process was also used to form an oxide coating on the MMC. The effects of the SiO 2 content and coating thickness on the tribological properties of the MMC were studied. To evaluate the wear properties of the optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the MMC with the oxide coatings, Alusil and cast iron, currently used on the cylinder bores of the commercial aluminum engines, were used as reference materials. The optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the oxidized MMC showed their advantages over the

  2. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  3. Deep dehydration and physical and chemical nature of the mantle above the stagnant slab (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Zhao, D.; Kuritani, T.; Tajima, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent seismic tomography studies imply that the slab is stagnant in some regions such as beneath Japan and NE China [1]. Dehydration is expected from the slabs due to decomposition of hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals in the slabs. There are two phase boundaries between the phases with a large contrast of the water contents; i.e., the olivine-wadsleyite boundary and the decomposition boundary of ringwoodite. Dehydration could occur at the boundaries in plumes or slabs crossing the boundaries. The low velocity beneath Eastern China and United State (e.g., [2]) suggests existence of gravitationally stable hydrous melts at the base of the upper mantle. Body waveforms analysis suggested existence of highly localized low velocity anomalies at the base of the transition zone [3], which are consistent with decomposition of hydrous ringwoodite in slabs. Measurement of hydrogen diffusion in wadsleyite and ringwoodite revealed that the diffusion rates of hydrogen are comparable with that of olivine suggesting heterogeneity in hydrogen contents in the transition zone [4]. Based on hydrogen diffusion coefficients together with reported electrical conductivity of mantle minerals [5] the water content in the mantle transition zone and upper mantle can be estimated combining the electrical conductivity observations and seismic tomography data. These analyses indicate that transition zone is generally more hydrous beneath Japan compared to beneath Europe [6], and the water is localized within the wet transition zone [7]. The stagnant slabs have an important effect on the overlying transition zone and upper mantle. A big mantle wedge (BMW) model has been proposed by Zhao [1], in which the stagnant slab in the transition zone could play an essential role in the intra-plate volcanic activities overlying the slab. Water released by the stagnant slab could be important for these igneous activities, such as Changbaishan in Northeast China. The recent isotopic data of basaltic