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Sample records for boar sus scrofa

  1. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  2. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection.

  3. Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine.

  4. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar (Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Xiao-Tian; Yang, En

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,770 bp in length and has a base composition of A (34.63%), G (13.38%), C (26.21%), and T (25.78%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (60.41%) was higher than G + C (39.59%). Similar to other pigs, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would add a new genetic resource and new study on the evolution of the genus Sus.

  6. In Vitro Study of Caecal and Colon Microbial Fermentation Patterns in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Pecka-Kiełb, Ewa; Bujok, Jolanta; Miśta, Dorota; Króliczewska, Bozena; Górecka, Justyna; Zawadzki, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) caecal and colon products of microbial activity including short chain fatty acids (SCFA), ammonia and methane concentrations. The in vitro method was applied to caecal and colon contents after 12 and 24-hour incubation with the substrate (wheat bran), or without any additive (control samples). The pH was also measured in each sample. In samples incubated with the substrate, a lower pH was noted as compared to the control (P < 0.001). In terms of the total SCFA concentration, the hindgut microbial fermentation pattern of wild boar was characterized by a high acetate level, followed by propionate and then butyrate at a ratio of 7:1.5:1. Substrate addition decreased acetate molar proportions (P < 0.001) and increased those of butyrate (P < 0.001) as well as propionate (P < 0.05). The total SCFA level in fresh, unincubated caecal samples (128 mmol/kg) was similar to that in the colon (111 mmol/kg). The ammonia concentrations were at the level of 0.8-1.5 mmol/kg of hindgut content and did not differ between the two investigated hindgut parts. Methanogenesis was also similar in the caecum and colon and after 24h was 2.69 mmol/kg and 2.27 for caecal colon control samples, respectively. The substrate increased total gas production and methane concentration (P < 0.001).

  7. A Serosurvey for Brucellosis in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Cristian; Addis, Giuseppe; Deidda, Manuela; Tedde, Maria Tania; Liciardi, Manuele

    2015-10-01

    Porcine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella suis and hosted by pigs (Sus scrofa). Both domestic pigs and wild boars are affected. We measured the prevalence of antibody to Brucella spp. in wild boars in Sardinia, Italy. During 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010, we collected 570 serum samples from legally hunted wild boars and tested them using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex and age class of the sampled wild boars were also recorded. Thirty-five samples were positive for an apparent antibody prevalence of 6.1%. Antibody prevalences did not differ between sexes or among age classes.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooseog; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Kim, Do-Soon; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and a commonly encountered pathogen in humans and animals. The wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus) is considered a good indicator when monitoring environmental contamination by T. gondii. We surveyed the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in wild boars from South Korea. Blood samples were collected from 426 wild boars captured in eight provinces of South Korea during the hunting seasons in 2008-12. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in samples from 152 of boars, indicating an overall antibody prevalence of 36% (95% confidence interval=31-40%).

  9. Presence of antibodies against Aujeszky's disease virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Vengust, Gorazd; Valencak, Zdravko; Bidovec, Andrej

    2005-10-01

    Serum samples from 427 hunter-killed wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Slovenia were tested for antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Samples were collected throughout Slovenia and corresponded to 6.2% of the total harvest. Antibodies against ADV were detected in 111 sera (26%) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibody prevalence increased significantly with age. This report describes the first evidence of ADV infection in wild boar populations in Slovenia.

  10. Necropsy and coprology in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Livorno Mountain Park (Tuscany, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Magi, M; Bertani, M; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

    2004-09-01

    The present research analyses the reliability of coprological tests, both quantitative and qualitative, as indicators of the parasite burden of hosts, using data from wild boars (Sus scrofa) living in Livorno Mountain Park (Tuscany, Central Italy). In the case of intestinal strongyles, which turned out to be the dominant helminths of wild boars, the qualitative coprological test appears as a bad predictor of the real parasite situation of the herds, due to the high number of false negative results (34 animals out of 68). On the other hand, the positive predictive value of the test is high (90%). The quantitative test is significantly correlated with the individual parasite burden of wild boars.

  11. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus G3 in a Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Central Italy Using PCR and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Antonella; Piseddu, Toni; Sebastianelli, Martina; Manuali, Elisabetta; Corneli, Sara; Paniccià, Marta; Papa, Paola; Viali, Selina; Mazzone, Piera

    2017-01-24

    We report cystic echinococcosis in a free-living wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Europe. Parasites were identified by histopathology and molecular techniques, revealing Echinococcus granulosus of the G3 genotype.

  12. Torque teno virus (TTV) is highly prevalent in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Laura; Kekarainen, Tuija; Sibila, Marina; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Vidal, Dolors; Gortázar, Christian; Segalés, Joaquim

    2006-12-20

    The present study represents the first survey of Torque teno virus (TTV) prevalence in European wild boar (Sus scrofa). The prevalence of two distinct TTV genogroups in 178 Spanish wild boar sera from different geographic regions, management conditions, gender and age was determined by a nested PCR method. The overall prevalence of TTV genogroups was 84% (58% for genogroup 1 and 66% for genogroup 2), and differences between genogroup prevalence were observed depending on the geographical region analysed. Significantly higher prevalence for TTV genogroup 2 was found in fenced managed wild boar, juvenile animals and females. No other significant differences in TTV genogroup prevalence were observed. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained from the untranslated region of selected samples revealed that the same TTV genogroups are infecting wild boar and domestic pig. The results indicate that TTV is apparently ubiquitous in European wild boar populations.

  13. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Won; Yoo, Sung J; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang Hun; Lyoo, Young S

    2016-06-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period.

  14. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-08

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars.

  15. FATAL CASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS INFECTION IN A YOUNG WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA) FROM SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Gonçalves, Pilar; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Rosales, Rubén; Gómez, Luis; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a recognized pathogen that may cause important diseases in pigs and humans. This microorganism has been repeatedly isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa). However, its health implications for this wild species are still unknown. This article reports a detailed description of a fatal case of septicemia by S. suis affecting a young wild boar. The affected animal, about 15 days old, was found near death and exhibiting neurologic signs at a wild boar estate in southwestern Spain. Postmortem examination showed generalized congestion, brain hemorrhages and lobular pneumonia. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated the presence of meningitis and encephalitis with marked congestion and suppurative bronchopneumonia. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates exhibiting important virulence factors (extracellular factor, muramidase-released protein, and suylisin) were isolated from the affected animal. This study confirms the presence of potentially virulent and zoonotic strains of S. suis in wild boar from Spain.

  16. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuka; Terada, Yutaka; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kazuo; Maeda, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in Japan. We tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from 2010 to 2012. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 47 of the 113 wild boar serum samples (42%), and HEV RNA was detected in five samples (4%). Sequence analysis showed that the five HEV isolates belonged to genotype 4, forming a cluster with a previous isolate from a human hepatitis E case in this region in 2011. These results indicate that wild boar in this region are infected with potentially pathogenic HEV at a high prevalence.

  17. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  18. Do changes in soil properties after rooting by wild boars (Sus scrofa) affect understory vegetation in Swiss hardwood forests?

    Treesearch

    Sven Wirthner; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Matt D. Busse; James W. Kirchner; Anita C. Risch

    2012-01-01

    Recovering from small fragmented populations, wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) have considerably increased their numbers and their habitat range in many European countries during the past two decades. Although several studies have focused on the impact of wild boar rooting on selected vegetation properties, little is known about effects on entire forest ecosystems. The main...

  19. Differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR analysis targeting the mitochondrial D-loop and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) genes.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; Martín, Irene; Rojas, Marı A; Hernández, Pablo E; Garcı A, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-03-01

    This work describes the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR targeting sequences from two molecular markers: the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) region and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene. A polymorphic D-loop fragment (∼270bp) was amplified and sequenced in a number of wild and domestic Sus scrofa meat samples, to find a nucleotide region suitable for PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequence data showed the presence of only a few point mutations across Sus scrofa D-loop sequences, not allowing direct discrimination between wild boar and domestic swine meats. Later, the MC1R gene was targeted and Sus scrofa-specific primers designed to amplify a 795bp MC1R fragment. Subsequent RFLP analysis of the MC1R swine-specific amplicons allowed selection of BspHI and BstUI endonucleases to carry out intraspecific Sus scrofa differentiation. Digestion of MC1R amplicons with the chosen enzymes generated characteristic PCR-RFLP profiles that allowed discrimination among meats from wild and domestic swine specimens. The technique also enabled the detection of samples that yielded heterozygous profiles, suggesting hybrids resulting from wild boar and domestic pig breeding. The PCR-RFLP reported here, targeting the MC1R gene may be routinely applied to verify the correct labelling of game products.

  20. Serologic tests for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Reena; Esfandiari, Javan; Jaroso, Raquel; Carta, Tania; Garrido, Joseba M; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    New tools to detect exposure of free-range Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) to pathogenic mycobacteria would be valuable for improved disease surveillance and wildlife management. Two hundred sera from wild boar of known Mycobacterium bovis infection status were used to evaluate test suitability for the detection of antibodies against M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (or cross-reacting members of the M. avium complex). Two traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were evaluated using M. bovis purified protein derivative (bPPD) and paratuberculosis protoplasmatic antigen 3 (PPA3) as antigens, respectively, and a new point-of-care test format for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) that uses the innovative dual-path platform (DPP TB) test. The effect of individual factors (sex, age, lesions) on the diagnostic performance of the serologic tests was also determined. Although the DPP had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 90.4%, for bPPD, the sensitivity was 79.2% and the specificity 100%. Both tests had a kappa agreement of 0.80. Sixty-five of 68 (95.6%) wild boar sera with antibodies against the PPA3 antigen corresponded to known M. bovis-infected wild boar. Significant differences were not observed in the bPPD and DPP readings among lesion categories or between age classes. A slight sex-related difference in sensitivity toward males in the DPP was found, but it was not detected in the bPPD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results support the use of antibody-based diagnostic tests for both large-scale and individual bTB testing of Eurasian wild boar and suggest that wild boar cannot be used as sentinels for infections caused by M. avium complex members.

  1. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  2. Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatiotemporal and Ecological Patterns of Mycobacterium microti Infection in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Chiari, M; Ferrari, N; Giardiello, D; Avisani, D; Pacciarini, M L; Alborali, L; Zanoni, M; Boniotti, M B

    2016-10-01

    Mycobacterium microti has recently been described as the causative agent of tuberculosis-like lesions in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a reservoir specie of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in some European Mediterranean ecosystem. Through a five-year survey on tuberculosis in free-living wild boars, the epidemiological trend of M. microti infections and the host and population risk factors linked with its occurrence were described. Retropharyngeal and mandibular lymph nodes of 3041 hunted wild boars from six different districts were macroscopically inspected. The sex and age of each animal were registered, as well as the animal abundance in each district. Lesions compatible with tuberculosis (190) were collected and analysed using a gyrB PCR-RFLP assay. M. microti was identified directly in 99 tissue samples (Prev = 3.26%; 95% CI: 2.67-3.97%), while neither Mycobacterium bovis, nor other members of the MTBC were detected. The probability of being M. microti positive showed spatio-temporal variability, with 26% of increase of risk of being infected for each year. Moreover, a positive effect of wild boar abundance and age on the prevalence was detected. The generalized increase in the European wild boar population, coupled with its sensitivity to M. microti infection, poses a future concern for the identification and management of MTBC members in wild boar.

  4. On the evolutionary consequences of increasing litter size with multiple paternity in wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Gayet, Thibault; Devillard, Sébastien; Gamelon, Marlène; Brandt, Serge; Say, Ludovic; Baubet, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation, and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter at one reproductive event, may be associated with the retention of high genetic diversity and an increase of litter size. We tested these hypotheses by estimating the number of sires per litter based on a six-year long monitoring of a wild boar population subject to particularly high harvesting pressure. Our results show a high and stable genetic diversity and high rates of multiple paternity compared to other populations, thus depicting a promiscuous/polyandrous mating system in this population. We also show that litter size is positively linked to the number of sires, suggesting that multiple paternity increases fecundity. We finally discuss that multiple paternity may be one of the factors allowing rapid evolution of this population by maintaining both genetic and phenotypic diversity.

  5. First molecular identification of Sarcocystis miescheriana (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) from wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Mirhendi, Hossein; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sharbatkhori, Mitra

    2011-03-01

    Sarcocystis isolate obtained from the thigh muscle of a wild boar (Sus scrofa), captured from Gilan Province, northern Iran, was subjected to molecular analysis. Genomic DNA was obtained using a DNA extraction tissue kit and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA region yielded an 842 bp DNA band on agarose gel. Analysis of DNA sequencing by BLAST confirmed the isolate as Sarcocystis miescheriana and the sequence was deposited in GenBank by Accession No. GU395554. This is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. miescheriana in Iran.

  6. Epidemiologic study of lung parasites (Metastrongylus spp.) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-González, Ángela María; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Gamito-Santos, José Antonio; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Alcaide Alonso, María; Frontera Carrión, Eva María

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 927 wild boars (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Spain during the hunting seasons of 2004/2005 to 2008/2009. Respiratory tracts were examined for lung nematodes (Metastrongylus spp.). The prevalence of Metastrongylus spp. was 41.1%. The most frequently isolated species were Metastrongylus apri (71.4%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (28.0%), and Metastrongylus salmi (0.6%). Prevalence and infection intensity were greater in young animals (<1 yr old) than in older animals. There were no significant differences in prevalence between sexes. Prevalence and intensity of infection were higher in areas of high altitude and high rainfall.

  7. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    MANSOURI, Majid; SARKARI, Bahador; MOWLAVI, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province), Southwestern Iran. Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods. Results: Twenty-two (88%) of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4%) were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52%) with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68%) with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80%) with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method. Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran. PMID:28127344

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, Cedric; Blaga, Radu; Jean-Lou, Marie; Vallee, Isabelle; Davoust, Bernard

    2017-01-25

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. Since meat of wild boar, Sus scrofa (Linnaeus), has been demonstrated to be a potential source of human infection, a careful evaluation of the prevalence of infection with T. gondii in hunted animals is needed to protect public health. In the Var area in southeastern France, we performed a spatio-temporal survey in order to investigate the prevalence of IgG antibodies in wild boars shot by hunters in the Canjuers military camp during two subsequent hunting seasons. Of 841 wild boars screened, antibodies (IgG) to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, cut-off 1 : 6) were found in 141 (16.8%) muscle extract samples. A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between positivity and age, but not gender, and hunting districts. The results obtained indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars carries an important risk of infection with T. gondii. Wild boars may be considered as a bioindicator of parasite circulation in this ecosystem.

  9. 'Post-mortem examination of the reproductive organs of female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden'.

    PubMed

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-13

    In recent decades, wild boars (Sus scrofa) have increased in numbers and distribution in Europe. Compared to other wild ungulates of similar body size, wild boars have a high reproductive capacity. To increase the knowledge of wild boar reproduction, the objective of this study was to investigate characteristics of reproductive organs, and to provide information on the occurrence of abnormalities in reproductive organs from free-ranging female wild boars. Between December 2011 and December 2015, reproductive organs from female wild boars (>30 kg body weight), were collected during hunting in four Swedish counties at estates where supplementary feeding was applied. The organs were macroscopically examined and measured. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to the ovarian structures and in relation to uterus characteristics. Observed abnormalities were noted. The results from 569 animals that met the requirements to be included in this study showed significant differences in weight and length of the uterus between the various reproductive stages. Sampling region had significant effect on these differences. Abnormalities in the reproductive organs were present in approximately 10% of the examined animals. The prevalence of abnormalities increased significantly with age and was significantly affected by sampling region.

  10. Lead and cadmium in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Mulero, Rocío; Cano-Manuel, Javier; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Pérez, Jesús M; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón; Fandos, Paulino; Granados, José E; Romero, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate Pb and Cd levels in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS) (southern Spain). Heavy metal concentrations in livers, kidneys and bones from 111 animals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Bones and kidneys were the most Pb- and Cd-contaminated tissues, respectively; Cd concentrations were 5.6 times higher in kidneys than in livers. This is the first biomonitoring study of these pollutants in wild boar tissues in the SNNS, and findings indicate that this population is chronically exposed to these heavy metals. The detected Pb and Cd concentrations were lower than those found in many studies performed in Europe on the same species.

  11. Congenital toxoplasmosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and identification of the Toxoplasma gondii types involved.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Gómez-Gordo, Luis; Saugar, José María; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Reina, David; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis has been little described in wild animals. We report a case of vertical transmission in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Necropsy and histopathologic examination of a pregnant female and her three fetuses revealed all to have lesions compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction B1 gene detected Toxoplasma gondii in maternal (heart and diaphragm) and fetal (central nervous system, retina, optic nerve, heart, lung, tongue, and diaphragm) samples. The mother had a mixed infection of T. gondii types I and III. One fetus with type III infection developed no malformations, but the others-one with type I infection and one infected by types I and III-showed bilateral ocular agenesis, prognathism, and agenesis of the nasal cartilage. These results suggest the pathogenicity of the various T. gondii types may differ in wild boars.

  12. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang won; Yoo, Sung J.; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang hun

    2016-01-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period. PMID:27340389

  13. Serologic and molecular survey for hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, M; Nardini, R; Verin, R; Forzan, M; Poli, A; Tolari, F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sixty-four blood and faecal samples collected from wild boar hunted in Central Italy in 2011-2012 were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR analysis. Positive RT-PCR samples were further examined by nucleotide sequence determination and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six sera (56.2%) were positive for HEV-specific antibodies, and six (9.4%) faecal samples scored RT-PCR-positive results. Four animals were positive by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected wild boar-derived HEV sequences clustered within genotype 3, with similarity to sequences of human origin collected in a nearby area in 2012. Our data confirm that HEV is endemic in the wild boar population in the research area and that these wild animals could play an important role in the epidemiology of HEV infection.

  14. Genetic characterization and phylogeography of the wild boar Sus scrofa introduced into Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    García, Graciela; Vergara, Julia; Lombardi, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    The European wild boar Sus scrofa was first introduced into Uruguay, in southern South America during the early decades of the last century. Subsequently, and starting from founder populations, its range spread throughout the country and into the neighbouring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. Due to the subsequent negative impact, it was officially declared a national pest. The main aim in the present study was to provide a more comprehensive scenario of wild boar differentiation in Uruguay, by using mtDNA markers to access the genetic characterization of populations at present undergoing rapid expansion. A high level of haplotype diversity, intermediate levels of nucleotide diversity and considerable population differentiation, were detected among sampled localities throughout major watercourses and catchment dams countrywide. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two different phylogroups, thereby reflecting two deliberate introduction events forming distantly genetic lineages in local wild boar populations. Our analysis lends support to the hypothesis that the invasive potential of populations emerge from introgressive hybridization with domestic pigs. On taking into account the appreciable differentiation and reduced migration between locales in wild boar populations, management strategies could be effective if each population were to be considered as a single management unit. PMID:21734838

  15. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-04-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan.

  17. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region.

  18. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) captured by cage trap.

    PubMed

    Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Closa-Sebastià, Francesc; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Bach-Raich, Ester; Cuenca, Rafaela

    2015-06-01

    Establishing reference intervals (RI) for hematologic and biochemical variables in wild animals presents great challenges because capture stress or anesthesia during sampling can affect blood variables. The aims of this study were to establish RI for hematologic and blood biochemistry variables for Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) caught using cage traps, and provide information on the studied variables for different age groups. Blood samples were obtained from 89 Wild Boars captured by cage trap between 2005 and 2013 in northeastern Spain. Piglets were handled without anesthesia, while juvenile and adult animals were anesthetized using a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam. Blood samples were collected from the anterior vena cava and were placed into plain and EDTA tubes. Thirteen hematologic and 21 biochemical variables were determined. Reference intervals for piglets and juvenile and adult groups were determined, and differences between these groups were statistically analyzed. Adults had higher HGB, PCV, MCH, MCHC, neutrophil count, and total protein, albumin, creatinine, and chloride concentrations than juveniles; in contrast, juveniles had higher values for lymphocyte count, cholesterol concentration, and ALP activity. Reference intervals determined in this study provide a baseline for interpreting hematologic and biochemical results in Wild Boar at different age stages, and contribute to optimization of the management of this species. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Serologic and molecular survey for hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzei, M.; Nardini, R.; Verin, R.; Forzan, M.; Poli, A.; Tolari, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sixty-four blood and faecal samples collected from wild boar hunted in Central Italy in 2011–2012 were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR analysis. Positive RT-PCR samples were further examined by nucleotide sequence determination and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six sera (56.2%) were positive for HEV-specific antibodies, and six (9.4%) faecal samples scored RT-PCR-positive results. Four animals were positive by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected wild boar–derived HEV sequences clustered within genotype 3, with similarity to sequences of human origin collected in a nearby area in 2012. Our data confirm that HEV is endemic in the wild boar population in the research area and that these wild animals could play an important role in the epidemiology of HEV infection. PMID:26199731

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.

  1. Multiple Origins and Admixture of Recently Expanding Japanese Wild Boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) Populations in Toyama Prefecture of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Adachi, Fuminari; Sawamura, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) populations have expanded drastically throughout the Japanese Archipelago in recent decades. To elucidate the dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar in Toyama Prefecture in central Japan, we used a multi-locus microsatellite DNA analysis to determine its population structure and the degree of admixture. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected in either total or separate regional wild boar samples from Toyama Prefecture. This result could be explained by the Wahlund effect resulting from the mixture of samples from different sources. Bayesian structure analysis, assignment test, and factorial correspondence analysis suggested that wild boars around Toyama Prefecture derive from at least two ancestral sources. The migration and possible mating of each individual may have occurred recently and continued in each geographically neighboring region. The present genetic results may be useful for prediction of future dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar, as well as other animals in expansion.

  2. Parasites of the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa (wild boar) from commercial breeder in southern Brazil and its relationship with Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Diego; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the species of helminths infecting the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa from commercial breeding and check the existence of a possible antagonistic relationship of these species with Ascaris suum. Forty wild boars were analyzed, and the genus Metastrongylus was recorded in the bronchi and bronchioles of 60 % of these, with the occurrence of the species Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus salmi, and Metastrongylus pudendotectus. The highest prevalence found was in M. apri (52.5 %), followed by M. salmi (20 %), and M. pudendotectus (7.5 %), registering the highest prevalence of Metastrongylus in wild boars from commercial breeding so far. M. apri was first reported parasitizing wild boars bred in captivity. There was no observed significant influence of A. suum in the mean intensity of Metastrongylus.

  3. Occurrence and first molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in Romania: Public health significance of the isolates.

    PubMed

    Imre, Kálmán; Sala, Claudia; Morar, Adriana; Imre, Mirela; Ciontu, Cătălin; Chisăliță, Ion; Dudu, Andreea; Matei, Marius; Dărăbuș, Gheorghe

    2017-03-01

    Domestic and wild pigs, as intermediate hosts, can harbor tissue cysts of three Sarcocystis species namely S. miescheriana, S. suihominis and S. porcifelis. Out of them, S. suihominis is zoonotic. Romania is a country with high consumption of raw and/or undercooked traditional pork products. This fact may greatly favor the acquiring of the zoonotic Sarcocystis infections by humans, as definitive host. Based on this consideration and in order to investigate the occurrence and public health significance of Sarcocystis spp. in two western counties (Caraş-Severin and Timiş) of Romania, a total of 165 heart samples from hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa, n=101) and home slaughtered domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus, n=64) were screened using microscopic fresh examination and molecular methods. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of sarcocysts in 60.4% of wild boars, and 23.4% of domestic pigs. Genetic characterization of isolates through the PCR-RFLP procedure, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, was successfully achieved for all microscopically positive samples, indicating the presence of a single species, S. miescheriana, in both hosts. The identity of 13 selected S. miescheriana isolates was also confirmed through sequencing. The tested hosts older than 27 months were found to be significantly higher infected (p<0.05) with Sarcocystis than the 6 to ≤27months age group. Although the human infective S. suihominis has not been registered, for a more reliable epidemiological picture, further molecular studies enrolling a larger number of animals and diagnosis on human intestinal Sarcocystis infections are still necessary.

  4. Sus scrofa papillomavirus 2 - genetic characterization of a novel suid papillomavirus from wild boar in Germany.

    PubMed

    Link, Ellen Kathrin; Hoferer, Marc; Strobel, Birte; Rigbers, Kerstin; Langenmayer, Martin Christoph; Sutter, Gerd; Fux, Robert

    2017-08-01

    We identified a novel papillomavirus, Sus scrofa papillomavirus 2 (SsPV2), which is the first papillomavirus associated with papillomas in pigs. In skin alterations of a German wild boar, showing typical gross and histological appearance of papillomas, papillomavirus-like particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy. Degenerate papillomavirus-specific primers were used to amplify and sequence parts of the viral DNA. Subsequently, the complete genomic DNA was cloned and sequenced. The SsPV2 genome had a length of 8218 bp, encoded the early proteins E6, E7, E1 and E2, the late proteins L1 and L2 and contained an upstream regulatory region. Genomic characterization demonstrated papillomavirus-typical characteristics as well as unique features. For example, the E2 protein was significantly larger than in every other known papillomavirus species. Phylogenetic analysis was not able to relate SsPV2 unambiguously with other papillomavirus species or existing genera. Therefore, it might be representative of a new papillomavirus genus.

  5. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  7. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area. PMID:27847411

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Kako, Yune; Morita, Yukio; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sakano, Chieko; Nagai, Akira; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2011-09-01

    The ingestion of undercooked meat from wild animals can be a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 175 wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and 107 wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) hunted in 2004-2007 in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, by using a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibodies (LAT, 1:64 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 6.3% of wild boars and 1.9% of sika deer. This is the first record of T. gondii infection in wild deer in Japan, and deer and wild boar meat should be cooked well before human consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spargana in a Weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a Wild Boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk

    2013-01-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana. PMID:23864753

  10. Spargana in a weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a wild boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk; Seo, Min

    2013-06-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana.

  11. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys.

  12. Evidence of natural transmission of group A rotavirus between domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okadera, Kota; Abe, Masako; Ito, Naoto; Morikawa, Shigeki; Yamasaki, Ari; Masatani, Tatsunori; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Yamaoka, Satoko; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a major cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young animals worldwide. RVAs have also been detected in several wild and zoo animals, indicating wide susceptibility of wild animals. However, the role of wild animals in the infection cycle of RVAs is unclear. Wild boars are indigenous in many countries in the world. Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) have been migrating close to human habitats in Japan, indicating the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. We investigated infection of RVAs in wild boars in Japan to identify types of RVAs infecting wild animals. We obtained stool samples from 90 wild boars and detected a VP4 gene of RVAs by RT-semi-nested PCR. RVAs were detected in samples from four of the 90 wild boars. Nucleotide analyses of VP7 and VP4 genes revealed that the four strains belong to G9P[23], G4P[23], G9P[13] and G4P[6], suggesting a relation to porcine and human RVAs. We therefore characterized RVAs circulating among domestic pigs living in the same area as the wild boars. We collected stool samples from 82 domestic pigs. RVAs were detected in samples from 49 of the 82 domestic pigs. Phylogenetic and similarity analyses provided evidence for natural transmission between domestic pigs and wild boars. The results also suggested that natural reassortment events occurred before or after transmission between domestic pigs and wild boars. Our findings indicate the possibility that RVAs circulate among wild animals, humans and domestic animals in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. THE CHALLENGE OF DETECTING CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS CIRCULATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA): SIMULATION OF SAMPLING OPTIONS.

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Jana; Schulz, Katja; Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus) and wild boar ( Sus scrofa ). For at least 4 decades, several European Union member states were confronted with outbreaks among wild boar and, as it had been shown that infected wild boar populations can be a major cause of primary outbreaks in domestic pigs, strict control measures for both species were implemented. To guarantee early detection and to demonstrate freedom from disease, intensive surveillance is carried out based on a hunting bag sample. In this context, virologic investigations play a major role in the early detection of new introductions and in regions immunized with a conventional vaccine. The required financial resources and personnel for reliable testing are often large, and sufficient sample sizes to detect low virus prevalences are difficult to obtain. We conducted a simulation to model the possible impact of changes in sample size and sampling intervals on the probability of CSF virus detection based on a study area of 65 German hunting grounds. A 5-yr period with 4,652 virologic investigations was considered. Results suggest that low prevalences could not be detected with a justifiable effort. The simulation of increased sample sizes per sampling interval showed only a slightly better performance but would be unrealistic in practice, especially outside the main hunting season. Further studies on other approaches such as targeted or risk-based sampling for virus detection in connection with (marker) antibody surveillance are needed.

  14. Molecular investigation for bacterial and protozoan tick-borne pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Overzier, Evelyn

    2014-05-01

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) have been suggested to be involved in the enzootic cycle of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. This observation raises the question whether they serve as reservoir hosts for A. phagocytophilum and potentially for other tick-borne pathogens of public health relevance. The aim of this study was to investigate wild boars and their ticks from a forest site in southern Germany for the presence of A. phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Borrelia spp. of the relapsing fever group, and Babesia spp. Therefore, 24 wild boars collected from October, 2010, to February, 2013, were investigated by molecular methods. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in three out of 24 (12.5%) wild boars and in four out of 16 (25%) ticks. DNA of none of the other pathogens was found in any wild boar, but Rickettsia spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and Cand. N. mikurensis were found in one of the investigated ticks each. Sequences of the partial 16S rRNA gene of A. phagocytophilum from one spleen and two ticks showed 100% similarity to GenBank entries from human anaplasmosis cases (accession nos. U02521 and AY886761). The sequence from the third tick was 100% similar to sequences obtained from Ixodes ricinus and roe deer from the same study area previously. Detecting a potentially human pathogenic A. phagocytophilum variant in wild boar confirms previous findings and is of public health interest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Germany. Whether wild boars support the enzootic cycle of A. phagocytophilum variants involved in human disease requires further attention in future systematic studies.

  15. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

  16. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  17. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-07

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bronchopneumonia in wild boar (Sus scrofa) caused by Rhodococcus equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; Monego, Fernanda; Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Lazzari, Andrea Maria; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Ecco, Roselene; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Takai, Shinji

    2013-03-25

    Rhodococcus equi is associated with pyogranulomatous infections, especially in foals, and this bacterium has also emerged as a pathogen for humans, particularly immunocompromised patients. R. equi infections in pigs, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and humans are mainly due to strains carrying the intermediate virulence (VapB) plasmid. In Brazil, R. equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid is the most common type recovered from humans co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). R. equi infection in pigs and wild boar is restricted predominantly to the lymphatic system, without any reports of pulmonary manifestations. This report describes the microbiological and histopathological findings, and molecular characterization of R. equi in two bronchopneumonia cases in wild boar using PCR and plasmid profile analysis by digestion with restriction endonucleases. The histological findings were suggestive of pyogranulomatous infection, and the plasmid profile of both R. equi isolates enabled the characterization of the strains as VapB type 8. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boar due to R. equi. The detection of the VapB type 8 plasmid in R. equi isolates emphasize that wild boar may be a potential source of pathogenic R. equi strains for humans.

  19. The genetic impact of demographic decline and reintroduction in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): a microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Vernesi, C; Crestanello, B; Pecchioli, E; Tartari, D; Caramelli, D; Hauffe, H; Bertorelle, G

    2003-03-01

    The reintroduction of wild boar from central Europe after World War II has contributed substantially to the range expansion of this species in Italy, where indiscriminate hunting in earlier times resulted in extreme demographic reduction. However, the genetic impact of such processes is not well-understood. In this study, 105 individuals from Italian and Hungarian wild boar populations were characterized for nine autosomal microsatellite loci. The Hungarian samples, and two central Italian samples from protected areas (parks) where reintroduction is not documented, were assumed to be representative of the genetic composition of the source and the target populations in the reintroduction process, respectively. Animals hunted in the wild in the Florence area of Tuscany (Italy) were then studied to identify the effects of reintroduction. The results we obtained can be summarized as follows: (i) none of the populations analysed shows genetic evidence of demographic decline; (ii) the three parental populations from Italy and Hungary are genetically distinct; however, the low level of divergence appears in conflict with the naming of the Italian and the European subspecies (Sus scrofa majori and Sus scrofa scrofa, respectively); in addition, the Italian groups appear to be as divergent from each other as they are from the Hungarian population; (iii) most of the individuals hunted near Florence are genetically intermediate between the parental groups, suggesting that hybridization has occurred in this area, the average introgression of Hungarian genotypes is 13%, but approximately 45% of the genetic pool of these individuals can not be directly attributed to any of the parental populations we analysed; (iv) analysis of microsatellite loci, though in a limited number, is an important tool for estimating the genetic effect of reintroduction in the wild boar, and therefore for the development of conservation and management strategies for this species.

  20. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-06

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in

  1. Helminth parasites of the wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Luristan province, western Iran and their public health significance.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Mobedi, I; Rezaian, M; Massoud, J; Mohebali, M; Hooshyar, H; Ashrafi, K; Rokni, M B

    2003-09-01

    Seven helminth species were obtained from 12 wild boars (Sus scrofa) during a survey from 2000 to 2001 in Luristan province, western Iran. These species include the cestode larvae Cysticercus tenuicollis (25%), C. cellulosae (8.3%), the nematodes Metastrongylus apri (41.6%), M. pudendotectus (16.6%), M. salmi (8.3%), Trichuris suis (8.3%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (41.6%). No trematodes were found. Seven wild boars (58.3%) were identified as having at least one helminth species. A single infection was detected in 16.6% of cases, but a three species infection covered the highest rank (25%). All these helminths have been reported from other areas of Iran including the north, northeast and southwest, but not in Luristan. Among seven helminths identified, at least three species are transmissible to humans. The public health significance of these helminths is discussed.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE PARVOVIRUS TYPE 3 AND PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 IN WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA) IN SLOVAKIA.

    PubMed

    Sliz, Ivan; Vlasakova, Michaela; Jackova, Anna; Vilcek, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of free-living wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) continues to rise in Slovakia, the probability of pathogen transmission between susceptible species increases. We investigated the distribution and genetic characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 (PPV3), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their coinfection in wild boars. Among 194 animals tested, 19.1% were positive for PPV3 and 43.8% for PCV2. Similar rates of coinfection with both viruses reaching 11.0% and 11.8% were observed in juvenile and mature wild boars, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 sequences from VP1 and NS1 genomic regions revealed a close genetic relationship among isolates from Slovakia and those sampled worldwide. Prevalence of PCV2 in wild boars was lower than that reported in domestic pigs in Slovakia. The PCV2 variants originating from sylvatic and domestic hosts in Slovakia were grouped in the same clusters, namely PCV2b-1A/1B and PCV2a-2D.

  3. Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax): Description and molecular identification of intradermal females.

    PubMed

    Uni, Shigehiko; Fukuda, Masako; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Bain, Odile; Otsuka, Yasushi; Nakatani, Jun; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Ramli, Rosli; Hashim, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan. However, except for O. dewittei japonica, adult worms of Onchocerca have not been found in wild boars. In this study, we discovered adult females of a novel Onchocerca species in the skin of a wild boar in Oita, and named it Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. Females of this new species had longer microfilariae and differed from O. dewittei japonica in terms of their morphological characteristics and parasitic location. The molecular characteristics of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S rRNA genes of the new species were identical to those of the longer microfilariae and L3 previously detected, but they differed from those of O. dewittei japonica at the species level. However, both species indicated a close affinity among their congeners and Onchocerca ramachandrini, parasitic in the warthog in Africa, was basal in the Suidae cluster of the 12S rRNA tree.

  4. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-03-23

    A total of 193 faecal samples of adult Eurasian wild boars were collected at 12 enclosures across the Czech Republic and examined for Cryptosporidium infection using both microscopic and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 193 faecal samples examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Thirty-two positive cases of Cryptosporidium infection were detected using either genus- or species-specific nested PCR. Mono-infection with Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were found in 13 and 7 cases, respectively. Five mixed infections of C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were detected using PCR/RFLP with genus specific primers. The number of detected mixed infections increased 2.4 fold when a species-specific PCR was employed. No other Cryptosporidium spp. was detected. Unlike cryptosporidiosis of domestic pigs, C. suis was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars. There was no association between diarrhoea and the presence of Cryptosporidium infection in the Eurasian wild boars studied. This is the first report on the Cryptosporidium infection caused by C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

  5. Development of a microsatellite-based method for the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) from domestic pig breeds (Sus scrofa domestica) in food.

    PubMed

    Conyers, Christine M; Allnutt, Theodore R; Hird, Heather J; Kaye, Joy; Chisholm, James

    2012-04-04

    Twenty microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSR) were used to discriminate wild boar from domestic pig and to identify mixtures of the two. Reference groups of wild boar and pig samples were collected from the UK and Europe for genetic assignment tests. Bayesian Analysis of Populations software (BAPs) gave 100% correct assignment for blind wild boar and pig samples and correctly identified mixed samples. DNA was extracted from 12 commercial food samples (11 labeled as containing wild boar) including patés, salamis, and sausage, and good SSR profiles were obtained. Eleven samples were correctly assigned as pig, and two as mixed meats. One sample sold as wild boar meat was clearly assigned as pig. A further 10 blind samples of meat cuts were analyzed, eight wild boar and two pig, and all were correctly assigned.

  6. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study.

  7. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  8. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Southern Spain: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic concerns.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Benítez-Medina, J M; Martínez, R; Carranza, J; Cerrato, R; García-Sánchez, A; Risco, D; Moreno, J C; Sequeda, M; Gómez, L; Fernández-Llario, P; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2015-02-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in wet soil, marshland, rivers or streams, but also are causative agents of a wide variety of infections in animals and humans. Little information is available regarding the NTM prevalence in wildlife and their effects or significance in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) epidemiology and diagnosis. This research shows the most frequently NTM isolated in lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from southern Spain, relating the NTM presence with the individual characteristics, the management of animals and the possible misdiagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in concurrent infections. A total of 219 NTM isolates were obtained from 1249 wild boar mandibular lymph nodes sampled between 2007 and 2011. All but 75 isolates were identified by the PCR-restriction analysis-hsp65, and a partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA was carried out to identify the rest of the isolates. Results showed that Mycobacterium chelonae was the most frequently isolated NTM specie (133 isolates, 60.7%), followed by Mycobacterium avium (24 isolates, 11%). No relation was found regarding sex, body condition and management, but M. chelonae was more frequently detected in adults, whereas M. avium was more prevalent in subadults. The high NTM prevalence observed in the studied wild boar populations could make difficult the bTB diagnostic.

  9. Mesenteric lymph node granulomatous lesions in naturally infected wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Portugal--Histological, immunohistochemical and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Matos, A C; Andrade, S; Figueira, L; Matos, M; Pires, M A; Coelho, A C; Pinto, M L

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that wildlife reservoirs of mycobacteria are responsible for the maintenance and spreading of the infection to livestock and wildlife counterparts. Recent data report the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic inflammatory response in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of wild boar with granulomatous lymphadenitis (n=30). Morphological parameters of the lesions were recorded. The expression of CD3 and CD79α molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Molecular genotyping and culture to identify mycobacteria were performed. The lesions consisted mainly of stage III and stage IV granulomas. CD3 and CD79α positive cells were observed in 15 (50%) and in 11 (36.6%) MLN, respectively. In these lesions, higher percentages of T lymphocytes were found and a limited number of animals exhibited a tendency for an increased percentage of B lymphocytes. Our results suggest that there are similar percentages and distribution patterns of CD3 and CD79α in the lesions, regardless of the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), M. bovis or Map-M. bovis co-infection, and confirm that wild boar is both susceptible and could be an important Map and M. bovis wild reservoir in the study area.

  10. Prevalence and diversity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Kotková, Michaela; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2014-02-01

    From 2011 to 2012, the occurrence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. was surveyed at 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across four Central European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic. Isolates were genotyped by PCR amplification and characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using Enterocytozoon and Encephalitozoon-specific protocols. PCR revealed 16 mono-infections of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 33 mono-infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and 5 concurrent infections of both Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Enterocytozoon bieneusi out of 460 faecal samples. Two genotypes (I and II) were revealed by sequence analysis of the ITS region of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Eleven genotypes, five previously found in other hosts including domestic pigs (D, EbpA, EbpC, G and Henan-I) and six novel (WildBoar1-6), were identified in Enterocytozoon bieneusi. No other microsporidia infection was found in the examined faecal samples. Prevalence of microsporidia at the locality level ranged from 0 to 58.8 %; the prevalence was less than 25 % at more than 86 % of localities. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected as a predominant species infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). The present report is the most comprehensive survey of microsporidia infections in wild boars within the Czech Republic and selected Central European countries.

  11. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars.

  12. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined.

  13. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  14. Viral and Antibody Prevalence of Hepatitis E in European Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Hunters at Zoonotic Risk in the Latium Region.

    PubMed

    Montagnaro, S; De Martinis, C; Sasso, S; Ciarcia, R; Damiano, S; Auletta, L; Iovane, V; Zottola, T; Pagnini, U

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a member of the genus Hepevirus within the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonosis, and swine and wild boars (Sus scrofa) are known reservoirs of HEV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HEV in wild boars and hunters exposed to infection in central Italy (Latium region). During the hunting season, blood samples were collected from 228 wild boars and 20 hunters. The seroprevalence of HEV infection was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, previously validated for use in man, pigs and wild boars. The estimated HEV seroprevalence in wild boars and in hunters was 40.7% (93/228; 95% confidence interval [CI] 34.4-47.1%) and 25% (5/20; 95% CI 6.1-43.9%), respectively. Liver samples were collected from the boars and HEV RNA was detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Fifty-five of 164 tested wild boar liver samples (33.5%; 95% CI 26.2-40.7%) and three of 20 (15.0%; 95% CI 1.3-28.7%) tested human serum samples were positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences obtained from PCR products indicated that the HEV strains present in wild boars and the human population all belonged to genotype 3, supporting the zoonotic role of wild boars in the spread of HEV infection.

  15. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  16. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar.

  17. Pasture dry matter consumption in European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) as affected by herbage allowance.

    PubMed

    Rivero, M J; López, I F; Hodgkinson, S M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance on pasture DM consumption by growing European wild boar. An additional objective was to evaluate the influence of pasture consumption on supplemental diet intake and BW gain. A previously sown grass-clover pasture was managed by cutting to obtain an herbage mass equivalent to 1,500 kg/ha DM. Areas of pasture were limited by fencing to obtain 3 different herbage allowances whereas the pasture was removed in other areas. Forty-eight purebred European wild boars (initial age of 120 d and initial BW of 14.4 kg) were grouped in pairs and each pair was randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments (6 pairs per treatment): no pasture (4 m(2); pasture removed), low (5.33 m(2); 400 g/d pasture DM available/wild boar), medium (8 m(2); 600 g/d pasture DM available/wild boar), and high (16 m(2); 1,200 g/d pasture DM available/wild boar). The treatment areas were moved daily with a 7-d rotation. For a 28-d period, wild boars entered their treatment areas from 0830 to 1630 h, after which they had free access to a supplemental diet for 1 h. Pasture consumption was estimated daily by cutting pasture samples pre- and postgrazing. Supplemental diet consumption was determined daily (feed offered minus remaining feed). Animals were weighed weekly. Pasture consumption differed (P < 0.001) among wild boars receiving different treatments, with cumulative consumptions of 3.0 and 3.9 kg DM/wild boar over 28 d for low and medium herbage allowances, respectively (P < 0.09), and 6.4 kg DM/wild boar over 28 d for high herbage allowance, with the latter consumption being greater (P < 0.001) than the consumption recorded with the decreased herbage allowance treatments. The supplemental diet consumption tended (P = 0.16) to be less in wild boars with greater herbage allowance. European wild boars with access to pasture had greater (8.48 vs. 6.27 kg; P = 0.002) BW gain than those without access to pasture. In conclusion, pasture

  18. Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Trichinella species infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations of central Spain: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Pozio, E; Montoro, V; Vicente, J; Gortazar, C; Acevedo, P

    2012-07-01

    In south-central Spain, the harvest of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) has increased significantly during recent decades in association with more intensive management actions to increase hunting yields and with consequent effects on the health status of the wild boar populations. We investigated the spatio-temporal trends and the risk factors related to the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boar in order to obtain the annual probability of occurrence for these parasites in the Ciudad Real province of south-central Spain. Based on muscle samples collected during the hunting seasons from 1998/1999 to 2009/2010, the mean prevalence for Trichinella spp. in 95,070 wild boar was 0.2% (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.23). A subsample of 1,432 wild boar was also tested by ELISA. No correlation was observed between the prevalence of infection detected by serology and by the artificial digestion of muscle. The presence of Trichinella infections in wild boar showed a decreasing trend during the study period and was negatively related with fenced wild boar populations. The predicted 'favourability' for Trichinella infections disappeared almost completely after the 2006/2007 hunting season. Risk maps based on biogeographical tools showed, however, that most hunting estates presented favourable risk factors for these parasites during at least one of the hunting seasons studied. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation on management of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) population in Bolu-Sazakici hunting ground.

    PubMed

    Beskardes, Vedat; Yilmaz, Ersel; Oymen, Tamer

    2010-01-01

    Bolu-sazakiçi sample hunting ground covered 9132 ha divided into 360 sample areas of 25 ha each. 50 of them were sampled by means of the simple random sampling method. In the sample areas "Point Counts" was applied and the population of wild boar density and numbers were determined. As a result, it was estimated that 734 wild boars inhabit the area. Of these individuals, 79 were males, 238 were females and 417 were piglets. The wild boar density in the area was determined as 8.03 individual 100 ha(-1). In this paper, first of all, the density of wild boar population was determined by the point counts method, then it was tried to evaluate its management for Bolu-sazakiçi sample hunting ground.

  20. Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium. Currently, the whole range of animal species reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum in natural environment is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum in the wild boar population in southern Belgium. Results In the frame of a targeted surveillance program, 513 wild boars were sampled during the hunting season 2011. A nested 16S rRNA PCR was used to screen the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA in spleen of boars. Within 513 samples, 5 (0,97%) were tested PCR positive and identification was confirmed by sequencing. Conclusions This study gives the first insight of presence of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in southern Belgium. PMID:24694049

  1. Massive presence of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda, Taeniidae) cysts in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernando, M P; González, L M; Ruiz-Fons, F; Garate, T; Gortazar, C

    2008-08-01

    We report a heavy infestation of a free-living wild boar sow from Spain with Echinococcus granulosus cysts and state its molecular characterization. We found >65 hydatid cysts in the thoracic and abdominal cavities of the sow. Parasites were routinely processed for their identification and histopathology and DNA molecular characterization of the E. granulosus cysts were carried out. The polymerase chain reaction results confirmed the E. granulosus identity of the cysts and restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing revealed its G1 genotype. Our results suggest that wild boar could be involved in the epidemiology of E. granulosus, particularly considering that large amounts of carcass remains are available to dogs and wolves during the hunting season. The recent population increase of the wild boar in Spain and the DNA confirmation that the wild boar isolate shared identical sequences to the sheep strain emphasize the importance of the reported finding in public health.

  2. Evidence of low prevalence of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Orłowska, Blanka; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Anusz, Krzysztof; Kita, Jerzy

    2017-01-25

    Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi are generally regarded as the main causes of lymphadenitis in pigs and wild boars. In Poland, mycobacterial submandibular lymphadenitis was first diagnosed in a wild boar in 2012 but Mycobacterium spp. infections are also present in the Polish population of European bison (Bison bonasus). The prevalence of lymphadenitis in Polish wild boars has been found to 8.4% (95% CI 6.2-11.3%) and it has been proved that R. equi is not an important cause of purulent lesions in these animals. The current study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in the Polish wild boar population. Submandibular lymph nodes with purulent lesions collected from 38 wild boars in 2010/2011 and negative for R. equi were included. Calculations based on the hypergeometric approximation were used to determine the probability that at least one positive individual would be detected if the infection had been present at a prevalence greater than or equal to the design prevalence. All 38 samples were negative for Mycobacterium spp. [0% (95% CI 0, 9.2%)]. Epidemiological analysis showed that the true prevalence was 95% likely to be lower than 10%. In conclusion, mycobacterial lymphadenitis seems to occur rarely in wild boars in Poland. Due to the presence of Mycobacterium spp. infections in other wildlife, the surveillance of mycobacterial infections in wild animals in Poland remains an important issue.

  3. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment.

  4. Helminth infections of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the Bursa province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Girisgin, O; Akyol, C V

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the status of helminth infections in wild boars in the Bursa province of Turkey. For this purpose, during 2007-2008, 27 wild boars were necropsied and examined for helminths. Individual samples of tongue and diaphragm from 27 necropsied wild boars and an additional 22 tongue and diaphragm samples provided by hunters were examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion for Trichinella spp. larvae. Twenty animals (74%) were identified as being infected with at least one helminth species. Twelve species of helminths were detected, with the following prevalence rates: Metastrongylus apri (59%), Metastrongylus salmi (52%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (52%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (33%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (22%), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (19%), Gongylonema pulchrum (11%), Physocephalus sexalatus (7%), Trichuris suis (7%), Ascarops strongylina (4%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (4%) and Taenia hydatigena larvae (4%). Generally, lungworms were the predominant helminths. The highest mean abundance was observed for M. pudendotectus, and the lowest was determined for T. hydatigena larvae. Significant differences in the prevalence and intensity were found for D. dendriticum with respect to host age and sex, respectively. The mean intensity of M. pudendotectus was significantly influenced by the sex and age of the wild boars. This study is the first report describing the presence of M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, D. dendriticum, G. urosubulatus, M. hirudinaceus, P. sexalatus, A. strongylina and H. rubidus in wild boars in Turkey. All analysed muscle samples were negative for Trichinella spp. larvae.

  5. Long-Term Surveillance of Aujeszky's Disease in the Alpine Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Chiari, Mario; Ferrari, Nicola; Bertoletti, Marco; Avisani, Dominga; Cerioli, Monica; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Alborali, Loris G; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Lelli, Davide; Martin, Ana Moreno; Antonio, Lavazza

    2015-12-01

    Although wild boar can act as a persistent Aujeszky's disease (AD) reservoir, limited data are available on long-term epidemiology in free-ranging wild boar living in areas where industrial swine herds are limited. Hence, this study provides crucial information, which fills this knowledge gap, on the natural dynamics of AD infection. From 3260 sera sampled during eight hunting seasons, 162 (4.97%) were tested positive. Factors, including the animal's age class, and the sampling year, had significant effects on the probability of the wild boar being seropositive, while wild boar mean abundance per area, yearly abundance and the total number of pig farms, as well as interactions among age, year and sex, were not significant. In particular, a positive trend of seroprevalence was observed over the years, with values ranging from 2.1 to 10.8%. This long-term surveillance showed an increase in seroprevalence with a higher probability of being seropositive in older individuals and the independence of wild boar seropositivity from the likelihood of contact with pigs in the area.

  6. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) as bioindicators of environmental levels of selenium in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, E; Pilarczyk, B; Pilarczyk, R; Tomza-Marciniak, A; Bąkowska, M; Marciniak, A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine selenium content in selected organs (liver, kidney) of wild boars from different regions of Poland. Materials for the study were obtained from 28 sites located in 16 provinces of Poland. Selenium concentrations in organs were determined using spectrofluorometric methods after wet mineralization in HNO3 and HClO4 mixture. Mean selenium concentrations in the investigated wild boars from Poland were 0.230 μg/g wet weight in the liver and 1.327 μg/g w.w. in the kidneys. Hepatic and nephric Se concentrations ranged from 0.036-0.626 μg/g w.w. and 0.322-4.286 μg/g w.w., respectively. Selenium concentrations in the wild boars differed considerably according to geographical location. Concentrations of selenium were highest in wild boars from south-eastern provinces and lowest in animals from northern provinces. Most of Poland's area is environmentally deficient in this trace element, as evidenced by marginal selenium levels in the organs of the wild boars.

  7. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals.

  8. [Electrophysiological study of sex pheromone reception in the boar, Sus scrofa].

    PubMed

    Minor, A V; Vasil'eva, V S

    1980-01-01

    Electroolfactograms were recorded in isolated olfactory epithelium of pigs, both females and castrated males, of various age. The boar pheromone, 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one, elicited negative electrical responses up to 2 mV in many preparations. The threshold response corresponded to as low as 10(-9) g of the pheromone on a filter paper. The specific anosmia to the boar pheromone was discovered in few preparations, where responses to the pheromone were absent and the sensitivity to common odour substances (butyl acetate, camphor, butyric acid, etc.) was unchanged.

  9. Comparative landscape genetic analyses show a Belgian motorway to be a gene flow barrier for red deer (Cervus elaphus), but not wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; Bertouille, S; Eloy, M C; Licoppe, A; Chaumont, F; Flamand, M C

    2012-07-01

    While motorways are often assumed to influence the movement behaviour of large mammals, there are surprisingly few studies that show an influence of these linear structures on the genetic make-up of wild ungulate populations. Here, we analyse the spatial genetic structure of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) along a stretch of motorway in the Walloon part of Belgium. Altogether, 876 red deer were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci, and 325 wild boars at 14 loci. In the case of the red deer, different genetic clustering tools identified two genetic subpopulations whose borders matched the motorway well. Conversely, no genetic structure was identified in the case of the wild boar. Analysis of isolation-by-distance patterns of pairs of individuals on the same side and on different sides of the motorway also suggested that the road was a barrier to red deer, but not to wild boar movement. While telemetry studies seem to confirm that red deer are more affected by motorways than wild boar, the red deer sample size was also much larger than that of the wild boars. We therefore repeated the analysis of genetic structure in the red deer with randomly sub-sampled data sets of decreasing size. The power to detect the genetic structure using clustering methods decreased with decreasing sample size.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Farmed Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) in Three Cities of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Meng-Jie; Zou, Yang; Elsheikha, Hany M; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-04-07

    The apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed etiological agent of foodborne illness. This parasite can cause production losses in livestock and serious disease in humans through consumption of contaminated meat. Pig meat is the most likely source of human infection, and wild boars may play a role in the transmission of T. gondii by serving as a reservoir host. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii among farmed wild boars in China. In an 11-month survey, a total of 882 serum samples were obtained from farmed wild boars from three cities (Jilin City, Siping City, and Baishan City) in Jilin province, Northeast China and were tested for antibodies specific for T. gondii. Using modified agglutination test and a cutoff titer of 1:25, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in the examined samples was 10.0% (88 of 882). The highest seroprevalence was observed in animals from Jilin city (15.3%, 43/281) and followed by Siping (11.4%, 30/263) and Baishan (4.4%, 15/338). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the investigated geographic region and T. gondii infection. In addition, prevalence was higher in females compared to males, and the highest prevalence was detected in piglets. These findings indicate that farmed wild boars may become a source of foodborne toxoplasmosis, posing a food safety threat to the public health in the investigated areas. Implementation of effective measures to control T. gondii infection in farmed wild boars in China may be warranted.

  11. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed.

  12. Investigation on a focus of human trichinellosis revealed by an atypical clinical case after wild-boar (Sus scrofa) pork consumption in northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, F.; Motta, A.; Melino, M.; Negro, M.; Gavotto, G.; Decastelli, L.; Careddu, E.; Bianchi, C.; Bianchi, D.M.; Pozio, E.

    2011-01-01

    Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Wild carnivorous and omnivorous hosts are the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. nematodes in nature. In the winter of 2008-2009, an atypical clinical case of trichinellosis occurred for the consumption of pork from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunted in southwestern Alps in Italy. The symptomatic individual showed delayed development of oedemas in the lower limbs and eosinophilia, which appeared three months after infection. Muscle samples harboured 3.8 larvae/g, which were identified as Trichinella britovi. During the epidemiological investigation, anti-Trichinella IgG were detected in five hunters. PMID:21395210

  13. A serological and bacteriological survey of brucellosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is frequently reported among wild boar populations in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation in Belgium, regarding the steady increase of wild boar populations over the last decades. Several serological tests were used and compared with culture and IS711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to determine the most suitable combination of diagnostic tools for conducting a successful prevalence study in wildlife. Results An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was used on 1168 sera from hunter-killed wild boar sampled between 2003 and 2007 in 4 natural regions of southern Belgium. Results gave an apparent prevalence of 54.88% (95% CI 52.03-57.73). Prevalence was significantly affected by age and by the year of study, but not by sex nor by the region of sampling. The relative sensitivities of the complement fixation test (CFT), the Rose Bengal test (RBT), and the slow agglutination test (SAT) versus the iELISA differed widely between tests, reaching 62.67%, 46.68%, and 34.77%, respectively. The relative specificities of the CFT, RBT and SAT versus the iELISA were respectively 99.01%, 92.49%, and 99.1%. From seropositive animals (iELISA), 9% were positive by culture and 24% by PCR when testing spleen and/or tonsils. Sensitivity of the PCR was higher on tonsils than on spleen. All bacterial isolates were identified as Brucella suis biovar 2. Conclusions Brucellosis is widespread among wild boar in southern Belgium, with seroprevalences having increased over ten years, and constitutes a growing risk of spillback to outdoor-farmed pig herds. The iELISA showed a better sensitivity than the CFT, RBT and SAT. Serological tests must be associated with direct diagnosis and PCR proved more sensitive than culture under wildlife sampling conditions. Spleen and tonsils are lymphoid tissues usually sampled in multi-disease monitoring programs. They remain top-grade organs for direct diagnosis of brucellosis, with a

  14. A serological and bacteriological survey of brucellosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Fabien; Mousset, Bénédicte; Hanrez, David; Michaux, Charles; Walravens, Karl; Linden, Annick

    2012-06-18

    Brucellosis is frequently reported among wild boar populations in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation in Belgium, regarding the steady increase of wild boar populations over the last decades. Several serological tests were used and compared with culture and IS711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to determine the most suitable combination of diagnostic tools for conducting a successful prevalence study in wildlife. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was used on 1168 sera from hunter-killed wild boar sampled between 2003 and 2007 in 4 natural regions of southern Belgium. Results gave an apparent prevalence of 54.88% (95% CI 52.03-57.73). Prevalence was significantly affected by age and by the year of study, but not by sex nor by the region of sampling. The relative sensitivities of the complement fixation test (CFT), the Rose Bengal test (RBT), and the slow agglutination test (SAT) versus the iELISA differed widely between tests, reaching 62.67%, 46.68%, and 34.77%, respectively. The relative specificities of the CFT, RBT and SAT versus the iELISA were respectively 99.01%, 92.49%, and 99.1%. From seropositive animals (iELISA), 9% were positive by culture and 24% by PCR when testing spleen and/or tonsils. Sensitivity of the PCR was higher on tonsils than on spleen. All bacterial isolates were identified as Brucella suis biovar 2. Brucellosis is widespread among wild boar in southern Belgium, with seroprevalences having increased over ten years, and constitutes a growing risk of spillback to outdoor-farmed pig herds. The iELISA showed a better sensitivity than the CFT, RBT and SAT. Serological tests must be associated with direct diagnosis and PCR proved more sensitive than culture under wildlife sampling conditions. Spleen and tonsils are lymphoid tissues usually sampled in multi-disease monitoring programs. They remain top-grade organs for direct diagnosis of brucellosis, with a preference for tonsils.

  15. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder. PMID:23211797

  16. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation.

    PubMed

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk.

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella in European wild boar (Sus scrofa); Latium Region - Italy.

    PubMed

    Zottola, T; Montagnaro, S; Magnapera, C; Sasso, S; De Martino, L; Bragagnolo, A; D'Amici, L; Condoleo, R; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G; Pagnini, U

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 499 wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 hunting seasons in the Latium Region of Italy. We conducted a microbiological assessment on faeces collected at slaughter and we examined serum samples for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella spp. by ELISA assay. Out of 383 serum samples examined, 255 (66.5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. antibodies. Overall, 10.8% (54/499) of the animals were positive by microbiological assessment. The Salmonellae most frequently isolated were S. enterica subsp. salamae II (24%), S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae III b (12.9%), S. enterica subsp. houtenae IV (11.1%) and S. Fischerhuette (7.4%); less common Salmonella isolates included S. Veneziana (5.5%), S. Napoli (5.5%), S. Kottbus (5.5%), S. Thompson (5.5%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae III a (3.7%), S. Toulon (3.7%), S. Burgas (1.8%), S. Tennelhone (1.8%), S. Ferruch (1.8%), S. choleraesuis (1.8%), S. Paratyphi (1.8%), S. Stanleyville (1.8%), S. Typhimurium (1.8%) and S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12:1:- (1.8%). These isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to sulphonamides (92.5%), sulphonamides and thrimetroprim (14.8%), colistin (14.8%), streptomycin (18.5%), gentamycin (5.5%), tetracycline (5.5%), ceftiofur (3.7%), cefazoline (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1.8%) and ampicillin (3.7%). Our data, the first collected on this species in Italy, suggest that European wild boars are frequent carriers of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae and are likely involved in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance throughout the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    PubMed

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters.

  19. Contacts in the last 90,000 years over the Strait of Gibraltar evidenced by genetic analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Soria-Boix, Carmen; Donat-Torres, Maria P; Urios, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Contacts across the Strait of Gibraltar in the Pleistocene have been studied in different research papers, which have demonstrated that this apparent barrier has been permeable to human and fauna movements in both directions. Our study, based on the genetic analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa), suggests that there has been contact between Africa and Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar in the Late Pleistocene (at least in the last 90,000 years), as shown by the partial analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Cytochrome b and the control region from North African wild boar indicate a close relationship with European wild boar, and even some specimens belong to a common haplotype in Europe. The analyses suggest the transformation of the wild boar phylogeography in North Africa by the emergence of a natural communication route in times when sea levels fell due to climatic changes, and possibly through human action, since contacts coincide with both the Last Glacial period and the increasing human dispersion via the strait.

  20. Contacts in the last 90,000 years over the Strait of Gibraltar evidenced by genetic analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Donat-Torres, Maria P.; Urios, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Contacts across the Strait of Gibraltar in the Pleistocene have been studied in different research papers, which have demonstrated that this apparent barrier has been permeable to human and fauna movements in both directions. Our study, based on the genetic analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa), suggests that there has been contact between Africa and Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar in the Late Pleistocene (at least in the last 90,000 years), as shown by the partial analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Cytochrome b and the control region from North African wild boar indicate a close relationship with European wild boar, and even some specimens belong to a common haplotype in Europe. The analyses suggest the transformation of the wild boar phylogeography in North Africa by the emergence of a natural communication route in times when sea levels fell due to climatic changes, and possibly through human action, since contacts coincide with both the Last Glacial period and the increasing human dispersion via the strait. PMID:28742834

  1. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  2. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations.

    PubMed

    Iacolina, L; Brajković, V; Canu, A; Šprem, N; Cubric-Curik, V; Fontanesi, L; Saarma, U; Apollonio, M; Scandura, M

    2016-12-01

    Y-chromosome markers are important tools for studying male-specific gene flow within and between populations, hybridization patterns and kinship. However, their use in non-human mammals is often hampered by the lack of Y-specific polymorphic markers. We identified new male-specific short tandem repeats (STRs) in Sus scrofa using the available genome sequence. We selected four polymorphic loci (5-10 alleles per locus), falling in one duplicated and two single-copy regions. A total of 32 haplotypes were found by screening 211 individuals from eight wild boar populations across Europe and five domestic pig populations. European wild boar were characterized by significantly higher levels of haplotype diversity compared to European domestic pigs (HD  = 0.904 ± 0.011 and HD  = 0.491 ± 0.077 respectively). Relationships among STR haplotypes were investigated by combining them with single nucleotide polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST  = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across Europe, with a number of local private haplotypes and high diversity in northern populations. The described Y-chromosome markers can be useful to track male inheritance and gene flow in wild and domestic populations, promising to provide insights into evolutionary and population genetics in Sus scrofa.

  3. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation.

  4. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population.

  5. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism impairing lipopolysaccharide signaling in Sus scrofa, and its restricted distribution among Japanese wild boar populations.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Hiroki; Okumura, Naohiko; Suzuki, Rintaro; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Uenishi, Hirohide

    2012-04-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) responds to lipid A, the active moiety of lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria, in cooperation with myeloid differentiation protein-2 and plays a vital role in innate immunity. Polymorphisms in TLR4 are associated with changes in susceptibility to various infectious diseases. We previously found seven amino acid polymorphisms in Sus scrofa TLR4. In this study, we showed by luciferase reporter assay that an alteration from cysteine to tryptophan at position 506 (C506W) caused loss of ability to induce nuclear factor-κB activation after lipid A stimulation. This polymorphism was found only in Japanese wild boar (JWB) populations of S. scrofa. Genotyping of TLR4 in different JWB populations revealed that C506W polymorphism was under pressure from purifying selection in a local population (Tajima's D=-0.98; p<0.05). However, in another population, this polymorphism existed at a frequency such that homozygous animals with the W506 alleles seldom appeared. These findings suggest that the C506W polymorphism is under different types of pressure by natural selection between populations, which may reflect differences in residential pathogens or demographic factors.

  6. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto

    2016-02-15

    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp.

  7. Investigating the Role of Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in the Re-Emergence of Enzootic Pneumonia in Domestic Pig Herds: A Pathological, Prevalence and Risk-Factor Study

    PubMed Central

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C.; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3–29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs. PMID:25747151

  8. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    PubMed

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  9. Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand.

  10. Effects of parasitic helminths and ivermectin treatment on clinical parameters in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    López-Olvera, Jorge R; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquín; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Gortázar, Christian

    2006-05-01

    Limited information exists on serum biochemistry and haematology of the European wild boar, and few correlations have been found between parasitic burden and clinical parameters in this species. Naturally infected wild boars were experimentally treated to study the effect of nematode parasites and ivermectin treatment on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin reaction and haematological and serum biochemical parameters. White blood cells decreased in untreated wild boars, whereas triglyceride, lactate and creatinine concentrations increased in ivermectin-treated wild boars, and total protein and aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in both groups. Band neutrophils variation was positively correlated with the number of total adult parasites. Band neutrophils, creatinine and total protein variations were negatively correlated with both total egg counts and Metastrongylus eggs per gram variations. Alkaline phosphatase activity showed a negative correlation with Ascaris sp. eggs. The PHA skin reaction was positively correlated with the number of total adult parasites in untreated wild boars and with Metastrongylus sp. eggs of all wild boars at time 0. Two models including leukocytic and serum biochemical parameters were also highly correlated with the variation of Metastrongylus sp. eggs. Clinical parameters were thus in our study affected by helminth parasitism in the European wild boar, particularly those related to nutrients uptake, physical condition and immune response. Therefore, they could be useful in studies on subclinical effects of parasites, and parasitic burden must be considered when assessing the physical condition of European wild boars through haematological and serum biochemical parameters.

  11. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in south-western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Khabisi, Samaneh Abdolahi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first molecular and serological evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus infections in wild boars in Iran. Twenty five wild boars were collected in south-western Iran, during authorized hunting program, from March to October 2013, necropsied and examined for E. granulosus infection. Furthermore, seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis in hunted boars was evaluated by an ELISA system. A fertile hydatid cyst due to E. granulosus was detected in the lung of one of the animals. Genotype analysis of the isolate was determined by analyzing a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (co1). DNA was extracted from the cyst sample and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the specific region of the co1 gene was performed. Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a sheep strain, the G1 genotype, in the wild boar in south-western Iran. This is the first report of the presence of G1 genotype of E. granulosus in wild boar in Iran. Serological evaluation of hydatid cyst by antigen-B ELISA revealed E. granulosus antibodies in 5 (20%) of 25 wild boars. A statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of E. granulosus antibodies and gender while the difference between the seroprevalence of E. granulosus and age was insignificant. Findings of this study might have important implications for the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis.

  12. Accumulation and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of (137)Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone - 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone - 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of (137)Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The (137)Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg - animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3-10.6 kBq/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of (137)Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of (90)Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that (90)Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of (90)Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained (90)Sr - 30.0-110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0-30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone.

  13. Survey of the antibody against japanese encephalitis virus in Ryukyu wild boars (Sus scrofa riukiuanus) in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Kudaka, Jun; Nakamura, Masaji; Ohno, Atsusi; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2007-09-01

    Serum specimens were collected from 99 wild boars in the Northern area of the main Okinawa Island and from 27 wild boars on Iriomote Island in Okinawa Prefecture from 1997 to 2005. Sera were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibody by hemagglutination inhibition assay and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sixty-four samples (64.6%) in the Northern area and 1 sample (3.7%) from Iriomote Island were positive for the JEV antibody. The difference in seroprevalence between the Northern area and Iriomote Island was statistically significant (P < 0.01, chi2 test). This difference may be due to the lack of a pig farm on Iriomote Island, whereas wild boars in the Northern area may be infected with JEV, amplified on pig farms. It is likely that there has recently been an increase in the number of wild boars living close to humans in certain areas of Japan. This in turn increases the possibility that wild boars are infected with JEV, which is amplified on pig farms, and these infected animals may play a role in carrying JEV to other regions of the country.

  14. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  15. The effect of selected environmental Fusarium mycotoxins on the ovaries in the female wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Ł; Gajęcka, M; Żmudzki, J; Gajęcki, M

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of agricultural crops with Fusarium mycotoxins poses one of the greatest problems in food production. Wild boars live in specific habitats and are physiologically sensitive to Fusarium mycotoxins, therefore, they are an interesting model for studies investigating the effects of the discussed toxin, in particular under low-dose exposure. The objective of this study was to determine potential effects of Fusarium mycotoxins ingested with naturally contaminated food on reproductive function based on the proliferation and apoptotic indices of ovarian follicles in female wild boars. The experiment was conducted on 40 wild boars inhabiting north-eastern Poland. The effect of seasonal variations in the quantity and quality of ingested food on the concentrations of Fusarium mycotoxins and their metabolites in the blood of wild boars was analyzed. The observed differences in toxin levels were accompanied by changes in proliferation and apoptotic indices. Proliferation processes were most intense in autumn-winter and were least advanced in winter-spring. The intensity of apoptotic processes was inversely correlated with proliferation.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Goshima, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Murakami, Mariko; Haruna, Mika; Ito, Kazuo; Yamada, Yukiko

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of wild boars and deer as reservoirs of foodborne bacteria. We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26, and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from wild boars and deer in Japan, from July through December 2010. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.0-52.6) and 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-12.1) of rectal content samples of wild boars, respectively, but not from wild deer. The most common Campylobacter species was C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis. The nine Salmonella serovars isolated were S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (three isolates), S. Narashino (two), S. Enteritidis (one), S. Havana (one), S. Infantis (one), and S. Thompson (one). Five (16%) and 6 (29%) isolates of C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis, respectively, were resistant to enrofloxacin. STEC O157 and O26 and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 2.3% (95% CI: 0-5.0), 0.8% (95% CI: 0-2.3), and 6.1% (95% CI: 1.7-10.5) of the rectal content samples of wild deer, respectively, but not from wild boars. This first nationwide survey of the prevalence of foodborne bacteria in wild boars and wild deer in Japan suggests that consumption of meat from these animals is associated with the risk of causing infection with these bacteria in humans. Moreover, these animals are potential vehicles for distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria into their habitat. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of such foodborne bacteria in these wild animals should be monitored periodically.

  17. Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the artificial digestion estimate of 0.0% (95% C.I. 0.0-1.1). Real-time PCR testing of muscle from

  18. Presence of Cryptosporidium scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    García-Presedo, Ignacio; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio

    2013-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Galicia (NW, Spain). A sampling of 209 wild boars shot in different game preserves was carried out during the hunting season in 2009-2010. All samples were examined for Cryptosporidium infection, using both immunological and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples were identified using a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies (DFA). The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA was determined using nested PCR involving amplification of a fragment of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). A total of 35 (16.7%) samples tested positive with both techniques. However, sequencing was only possible in 27 samples. Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were identified in 19, 5 and 3 of the samples, respectively. Moreover, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting all age groups (juveniles, sub adults and adults). Sequence analyses of the glycoprotein (GP60) gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 in 2 juveniles and IIaA13G1R1 in 1 sub adult wild boar. These species and subtypes have previously been described in human patients, indicating that isolates from asymptomatic wild boars might have zoonotic potential. This is the first report of the presence of C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in wild boars (S. scrofa) in Spain.

  19. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) sharing pastures with free-ranging livestock in a natural environment in Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; Cabal, Adriana; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Wild ungulates have greatly increased in abundance and range throughout Europe. This new situation presents a concern for public health because many wild ungulates are known reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. In this work, we tested for the presence of the zoonotic pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 in free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boars (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in NE Spain from 2009 to 2011. In addition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors were assessed. In total, individual fecal samples were obtained from 117 hunter-harvested wild boars and 160 Iberian ibexes. Fifty-five samples were obtained from cattle (5 herds, 380 animals in total) and four from the only horse herd in the Natural Park 'Ports de Tortosa i Beseit' (32 animals). Fecal samples were processed according to the ISO 16.654:2001 protocol to obtain E. coli O157 based on immunomagnetic separation. In addition, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting nine virulence factors characteristic of human pathotypes was performed. The prevalence was compared between host species with Fisher's exact test. Four wild boars (3.41%, 95% CI = 0.94-8.52) and two Iberian ibexes (1.25%, 95% CI = 0.15-4.4) carried E. coli O157:H7, which was not found in livestock feces (n = 59, 95% CI = 0-8.94). All E. coli O157:H7 isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. These results indicate that when prevalence in co-habiting livestock is low, wild ungulates do not seem to play an important role as reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7.

  20. Organochlorine compound residues in muscle of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Maršálek, Petr; Zelníčková, Lenka; Mikuláštíková, Jitka; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Hutařová, Zdeňka

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-six organochlorine pesticides and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in muscle of wild boar and red deer from the Czech Republic. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites was higher (p < 0.01) in wild boar than in red deer, while PCBs and HCH were higher (p < 0.01) in red deer than in wild boar. The concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers were higher (p < 0.05) in juvenile wild boar than in adults. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the most prominent pollutants in both red deer and wild boar.

  1. Effect of Cattle on Salmonella Carriage, Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M.; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M.; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19–43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74–29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern. PMID:23284725

  2. Effect of cattle on Salmonella carriage, diversity and antimicrobial resistance in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19-43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74-29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern.

  3. First Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Serum of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northern Portugal by Nested-PCR.

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana S; Paiva-Cardoso, Maria das Neves; Nunes, Mónica; Carreira, Teresa; Vale-Gonçalves, Hélia M; Veloso, Octávia; Coelho, Catarina; Cabral, João A; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vieira, Maria L

    2015-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere. Several vertebrates are crucial in the epidemiological cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, but the role of wild boar as a reservoir is still unknown. Sera were collected from 90 wild boars shot in the Trás-os-Montes region, Northern Portugal (hunting season 2011/2012). In this study, Borrelia DNA was detected for the first time by nested-PCR in three different sera, suggesting that the wild boar may be a potential reservoir for this spirochete. Sequencing results show 100% similarity with Borrelia afzelii. Further studies are needed to evaluate the public health risks associated with boar hunting.

  4. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil.

  5. Serovar, pathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa) affected with septicemic erysipelas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Kijima, M; Takahashi, T; Yoshimura, H; Tani, O; Kojyou, T; Yamawaki, Y; Tanimoto, T

    1999-12-01

    Six strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae were isolated from farmed wild boars with acute septicemic erysipelas during the period from 1983 to 1998 in Japan. All isolates belonged to serovar 1a or 2 (predominant serovars in swine). The 50 per cent lethal dose values of those isolates ranged from 10(1.3)to 10(6.2)colony forming units in mice. In swine, all isolates were virulent, capable of inducing localized or generalized urticarial lesions after intradermal inoculation. All of the isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline and/or dihydrostreptomycin. These observations suggest that E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from wild boars may have aetiological significance in swine erysipelas.

  6. Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefańska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, Elżbieta; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

    2014-08-06

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet.

  8. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-25

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed.

  9. Gene expression changes in spleens of the wildlife reservoir species, Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), naturally infected with Brucella suis biovar 2.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Ruth C; Muñoz, Pilar M; de Miguel, María J; Marin, Clara M; Labairu, Javier; Revilla, Miguel; Blasco, José M; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2010-11-01

    Brucella suis is responsible for swine brucellosis worldwide. Of the five different B. suis biovars (bv.), bv. 2 appears restricted to Europe where it is frequently isolated from wild boar and hares, can infect pigs and can cause human brucellosis. In this study, the differential gene expression profile was characterized in spleens of Eurasian wild boar naturally infected with B. suis bv. 2. Of the 20,201 genes analyzed in the microarray, 633 and 1,373 were significantly (fold change > 1.8; P < 0.01) upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in infected wild boar. The analysis was focused on genes that were over represented after conditional test for biological process gene ontology. Upregulated genes suggested that B. suis bv. 2 infection induced cell maturation, migration and/or proliferation in infected animals. The genes downregulated in infected wild boar impaired the activity of several important cellular metabolic pathways such as metabolism, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, immune response and lysosomal function and vesicle-mediated transport. In addition, the response to stress, sperm fertility, muscle development and apoptosis seemed to be also impaired in infected animals. These results suggested that B. suis bv. 2 may use strategies similar to other smooth brucellae to facilitate intracellular multiplication and the development of chronic infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of gene expression profile in hosts infected with B. suis bv. 2, which is important to understand the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface in the main reservoir species with possible implications in the zoonotic cycle of the pathogen.

  10. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Rhodococcus equi in wild boars (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Cisek, Agata Anna; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Kita, Jerzy

    2015-05-22

    Rhodococcus equi is now considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Sources and routes of human infection remain unclear but foodborne transmission seems to be the most probable way. Strains of pig or bovine type are most often isolated from human cases and moreover R. equi is present in submaxillary lymph nodes of apparently healthy pigs and wild boars intended for human consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of R. equi in submaxillary lymph nodes in wild boars, roe deer and red deer. Samples were collected from 936 animals and 27 R. equi strains were isolated, from 5.1 % of wild boars (23/452), 0.7 % of red deer (2/272) and 0.9 % of roe deer (2/212). Genetic diversity of all 27 isolates was studied using VspI-PFGE method, resulting in the detection of 25 PFGE patterns and four PFGE clusters. PFGE patterns of the isolates were compared with virulence plasmid types and no concordance was observed. R. equi was present in wild animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of R. equi infection for humans. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of R. equi prevalence in tissues of roe deer and red deer. However, risk associated with wild ruminant consumption seems marginal. Investigation of R. equi transmission between animals and humans based exclusively on types of virulence plasmids seems to be insufficient to identify sources of R. equi infection for people.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Hunted Wild Boars (Sus scrofa): Heart Meat Juice as an Alternative Sample to Serum for the Detection of Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Cardoso, Luís; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Detection of antibodies to T. gondii in serum samples from hunted animals may represent a key step for public health protection. It is also important to assess the circulation of this parasite in wild boar population. However, in hunted animals, collection of blood is not feasible and meat juice may represent an alternative sample. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart meat juice of hunted wild boars as an alternative sample for post-mortem detection of antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). The agreement beyond chance between results from meat juice assessed with Cohen's kappa coefficient revealed that the 1:20 meat juice dilution provided the highest agreement. McNemars's test further revealed 1:10 as the most suitable meat juice dilution, as the proportion of positive paired samples (serum and meat juice from the same animal) did not differ at this dilution. All together, these results suggest a reasonable accuracy of heart meat juice to detect antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and support it as an alternative sample in post-mortem analysis in hunted wild boars.

  12. Galanin is Co-Expressed with Substance P, Calbindin and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) in The Enteric Nervous System of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Czujkowska, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2016-04-01

    Galanin is a neuropeptide widely present in the enteric nervous system of numerous animal species and exhibiting neurotransmittery/neuromodulatory roles. Colocalization patterns of galanin with substance P (SP), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and calbindin were studied in the small intestine of the wild boar using immunofluorescence technique. We demonstrated the presence of SP in substantial populations of galanin-immunoreactive (IR) submucous neurons. Additionally, different amounts of nerve fibres exhibiting simultaneous presence of galanin and SP were noted in the small intestinal smooth musculature, submucous ganglia, lamina muscularis mucosae and mucosa. In the wild boar duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the co-expression of galanin and calbindin was limited to minor populations of submucous neurons only. Single galanin-/CRF-IR nerve fibres were exclusively present in the duodenal and jejunal (but not ileal) mucosa. These results strongly suggest that galanin participates in neuronal control of the wild boar small intestine also by functional co-operation with other biologically active neuropeptides.

  13. Bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and cattle (Bos taurus) in a Mediterranean ecosystem (1992-2004).

    PubMed

    Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Parra, A; Tato, A; Alonso, J M; Rey, J M; Peña, J; García-Sánchez, A; Larrasa, J; Teixidó, J; Manzano, G; Cerrato, R; Pereira, G; Fernández-Llario, P; Hermoso de Mendoza, M

    2006-05-17

    During the last 12 years, an increasing frequency in condemnation of hunted red deer and wild boar carcasses due to the presence of tubercle-like lesions has been observed in Extremadura (Western Spain). Before 1993, tuberculosis was a very rare finding in hunted animals. The current tuberculosis regional prevalence in cattle approaches 0.4% after years of expensive test and slaughter campaigns. It is imperative to investigate the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in red deer and wild boar in order to keep a good health status and to maintain the effectiveness of domestic species TB eradication programs. The present paper evaluates the problem in Sierra de San Pedro, estimating the prevalence of TB in wild boar and red deer, the main wild artiodactyls in the area, and domestic cattle since 1992-2004, by the use of a low-cost surveillance method based on detailed pathological inspection of hunted animal carcasses. Microbiology and molecular epidemiology studies on several M. bovis isolates from domestic and wild animals helped to define the interspecies contacts. These findings, as well as recent history of game estates management and descriptive epidemiology field work, throw light on the rise and maintenance of these epizootics.

  14. Sequencing and cardiac expression of Apelin in Sus Scrofa.

    PubMed

    Del Ry, Silvia; Cabiati, Manuela; Raucci, Serena; Simioniuc, Anca; Caselli, Chiara; Prescimone, Tommaso; Giannessi, Daniela

    2009-10-01

    In humans, the Apelin gene is located on chromosome Xq25-26.1 and it encodes a 77-aminoacid prepropeptide. Considerable sequence homology exists across different mammalian species. Apelin is emerging as an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis but, at present, few data from humans are available and further studies are necessary to better define its role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. The role and function of Apelin in cardiovascular system could be reliably investigated in experimental models devoid of confounding effects reflecting only the natural history of the disease. The pig constitutes a model largely used in experimental pathology where it has a central role in "in vivo" clinical settings. Sus Scrofa genoma is not completely sequenced and Apelin gene is still lacking. Aim of this study was to sequence the Apelin in Sus Scrofa for future applications to molecular biology studies. Using the guanidinium thyocyanate-phenol-chloroform method, we extracted total RNA from samples obtained from heart of mouse and from atrium and ventricle of normal pigs. Pig Apelin mRNA was sequenced using polymerase chain reaction primers designed from mouse consensus sequences. A partial sequence of Sus Scrofa Apelin mRNA, 1-201 pb, was submitted to GenBank (accession number FJ362603). The bands obtained from pig cardiac tissue shared a 99% sequence identity with Mus musculus and 90% with Rattus norvegicus. The knowledge of Apelin sequence can be an useful starting point for future studies devoted to better understand the possible alterations of Apelin mRNA expression in different cardiac diseases.

  15. Advanced Laparoscopy Training for General Surgery Residents Using a Pig Model (Sus scrofa domestica)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Surgery Residents Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert...Protocol Title: "Advanced Laparoscopy Training for General Surgery Residents Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica)" 3. Principal Investigator (PI

  16. Resident Training in General Surgery Using a Pig Model (Sus scrofa domestica)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Cromer 5d. PROJECT...Training in General Surgery Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica)" 3. Principal Investigator (PI): Maj Robert Cromer, USAF, MC, Staff General Surgeon, 81

  17. δ18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.

    PubMed

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

    2011-12-30

    δ¹⁸O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When δ¹⁸O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable δ¹⁸O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals.

  18. Phenotype and animal domestication: A study of dental variation between domestic, wild, captive, hybrid and insular Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Evin, Allowen; Dobney, Keith; Schafberg, Renate; Owen, Joseph; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    Identifying the phenotypic responses to domestication remains a long-standing and important question for researchers studying its early history. The great diversity in domestic animals and plants that exists today bears testament to the profound changes that domestication has induced in their ancestral wild forms over the last millennia. Domestication is a complex evolutionary process in which wild organisms are moved to new anthropogenic environments. Although modern genetics are significantly improving our understanding of domestication and breed formation, little is still known about the associated morphological changes linked to the process itself. In order to explore phenotypic variation induced by different levels of human control, we analysed the diversity of dental size, shape and allometry in modern free-living and captive wild, wild x domestic hybrid, domestic and insular Sus scrofa populations. We show that domestication has created completely new dental phenotypes not found in wild boar (although the amount of variation amongst domestic pigs does not exceed that found in the wild). Wild boar tooth shape also appears to be biogeographically structured, likely the result of post-glacial recolonisation history. Furthermore, distinct dental phenotypes were also observed among domestic breeds, probably the result of differing types and intensity of past and present husbandry practices. Captivity also appears to impact tooth shape. Wild x domestic hybrids possess second molars that are strictly intermediate in shape between wild boar and domestic pigs (third molars, however, showing greater shape similarity with wild boar) while their size is more similar to domestic pigs. The dental phenotypes of insular Sus scrofa populations found on Corsica and Sardinia today (originally introduced by Neolithic settlers to the islands) can be explained either by feralization of the original introduced domestic swine or that the founding population maintained a wild boar

  19. Retrograde and destination transfer of sex steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar (Sus scrofa) in short-daylight and long-daylight periods, as well as vernal and autumnal equinox.

    PubMed

    Tabęcka-Łonczyńska, Anna; Kulpa, Magdalena; Grzesiak, Małgorzata; Koziorowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in concentration of steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was also localized in the arteries and veins of the spermatic cord. Arterial blood was collected from the common carotid artery and from two branches of the testicular artery supplying the testis and epididymis to determine progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A2), testosterone (T2) and estradiol (E2) plasma concentrations. The greatest concentration of P4 was found in testicular artery during December (P<0.001), when compared with other periods and vessels. In contrast, the greatest A2 concentration was observed in the epididymal artery during the same season (P<0.001). Greater T2 concentrations were found in both testis and epididymal arteries than in common artery in March (P<0.001, P<0.001; respectively) and in September (P<0.01, P<0.001; respectively). The E2 concentration was weakly affected by seasonal periods, but greater E2 concentrations were found within vessels in the testis and epididymis than in the common artery. The P450arom was immunolocalized in all layers of the arteries and veins of the testicular spermatic cord. The intensity of P450arom staining was greater in December than in June (P<0.001). There were greater steroid concentrations in arterial vessels during December in comparison to June and this may explain the summer infertility in boars and may be related to the local retrograde and destination transfer into the spermatic cord area. The P450arom gene expression in this area seems to be involved in the conversion of T2 into E2 to enrich the testes and epididymis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exome Capture with Heterologous Enrichment in Pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Guiatti, Denis; Pomari, Elena; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this "human-on-pig" approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes.

  1. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted.

  2. Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus Scrofa) of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition to Standard Epinephrine Therapy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-17

    UDIIILI: oa. I..UN I ItA!.. I NUMDI:It Does Glucagon improve survival in a porcine (Sus Scrofa ) of adult asphyxial cardiac arrest in addition to...EXPIRATION DATE: 25 Mar 13 PROTOCOL TITLE: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition...Additions: Deletions: 2 Protocol No: A-2007-03 Protocol Title: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial

  3. [The wild boar of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Manlius, N; Gautier, A

    1999-07-01

    The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars.

  4. Genetic variation of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa) in Bulgaria, revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Hirata, D; Doichev, V D; Raichev, E G; Palova, N A; Nakev, J L; Yordanov, Y M; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-04-01

    East Balkan Swine (EBS) Sus scrofa is the only aboriginal domesticated pig breed in Bulgaria and is distributed on the western coast of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. To reveal the breed's genetic characteristics, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosomal DNA sequences of EBS in Bulgaria. Nucleotide diversity (πn ) of the mtDNA control region, including two newly found haplotypes, in 54 EBS was higher (0.014 ± 0.007) compared with that of European (0.005 ± 0.003) and Asian (0.006 ± 0.003) domestic pigs and wild boar. The median-joining network based on the mtDNA control region showed that the EBS and wild boar in Bulgaria comprised mainly two major mtDNA clades, European clade E1 (61.3%) and Asian clade A (38.7%). The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be the relict of historical pig translocation. Among the Bulgarian EBS colonies, the geographical differences in distribution of two mtDNA clades (E1 and A) could be attributed to the source pig populations and/or historical crossbreeding with imported pigs. In addition, analysis of the Y chromosomal DNA sequences for the EBS revealed that all of the EBS had haplotype HY1, which is dominant in European domestic pigs.

  5. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  6. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  7. Survey for selected pathogens in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from Guam, Marianna Islands, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to the United States Territory of Guam in the late 1600’s and are now feral, widespread and present in high densities on parts of the island. Feral pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Although there are no data on pathogen ex...

  8. Evaluation of Endografts in the Setting of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage in Swine (Sus Scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-06

    Title: Evaluation of Endografts in the Setting of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage in swine (Sus Scrofa) 4. Principal Investigator (PI): Name...behaves in vivo when used for traumatic injury and not for age related disease . We furthered current literature and can confirm that placement of this

  9. Domestication does not narrow MHC diversity in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Moutou, Katerina A; Koutsogiannouli, Evagelia A; Stamatis, Costas; Billinis, Charalambos; Kalbe, Claudia; Scandura, Massimo; Mamuris, Zissis

    2013-03-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a multigene family of outstanding polymorphism. MHC molecules bind antigenic peptides in the peptide-binding region (PBR) that consists of five binding pockets (P). In this study, we compared the genetic diversity of domestic pigs to that of the modern representatives of their wild ancestors, the wild boar, in two MHC loci, the oligomorphic DQA and the polymorphic DRB1. MHC nucleotide polymorphism was compared with the actual functional polymorphism in the PBR and the binding pockets P1, P4, P6, P7, and P9. The analysis of approximately 200 wild boars collected throughout Europe and 120 domestic pigs from four breeds (three pureblood, Pietrain, Leicoma, and Landrace, and one mixed Danbred) revealed that wild boars and domestic pigs share the same levels of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism, allelic richness, and heterozygosity. Domestication did not appear to act as a bottleneck that would narrow MHC diversity. Although the pattern of polymorphism was uniform between the two loci, the magnitude of polymorphism was different. For both loci, most of the polymorphism was located in the PBR region and the presence of positive selection was supported by a statistically significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions over synonymous substitutions in the PBR. P4 and P6 were the most polymorphic binding pockets. Functional polymorphism, i.e., the number and the distribution of pocket variants within and among populations, was significantly narrower than genetic polymorphism, indicative of a hierarchical action of selection pressures on MHC loci.

  10. Genetic differences in recombination frequency in the pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Ollivier, L

    1995-10-01

    A comparison has been performed on 3 recently published linkage maps of the pig, hereafter designated as the American (A), European (E), and Swedish (S) maps. The cumulated distances between common markers in these 3 maps were in the ratio 1.00 (A):0.88 (E):0.77 (S), in keeping with the ratio of the percentages of domestic genome in the reference families used to build the corresponding maps, i.e., 1.00 (A):0.81 (E):0.50 (S). From further recombination frequencies reported in wild boars (in the S report), the wild pig genome length (in centimorgans) is expected to represent 66% of the domestic pig genome length. These observations tend to confirm a general result of Burt and Bell (Nature (London), 326: 803-805 (1987)), showing higher chiasma frequencies in domestic mammalian species compared with wild species. Consequences for mapping studies are discussed.

  11. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    PubMed

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes to soil bacterial profiles as a result of Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Komang Ralebitso-Senior, T

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cadaver decomposition knowledge for clandestine grave location cannot be over emphasised. Notwithstanding this, only a limited understanding is available on the resulting soil microbial community dynamics. To address this paucity, a pig leg (Sus scrofa domesticus; 5kg) was buried in freshly weighed (20kg) sandy loamy soil in a sealed microcosm (40cm height) in parallel with a soil only control. Both microcosms were perforated nine times at equal distances and maintained outside. Soil samples were collected through these perforations from the top (0-10cm), middle (10-20cm) and bottom (20-30cm) segments every three days for the first two weeks, and then weekly up to 14 weeks. PCR-DGGE gels quantified by 1D Phoretix showed increases in the cumulative soil community richness values of 43, 66 and 106 for the top, middle and bottom segments, respectively, in the presence of Sus scrofa domesticus. Shannon-Wiener's (H') and Simpon's (D) indices confirmed corresponding species diversity increases in the middle (H'=1.58-2.33; D=0.79-0.91) and bottom (H'=2.48-3.16; D=0.85-0.95) depths between days 10 and 71 compared with the control. In contrast, similar evenness was recorded for all segments in both the Sus scrofa domesticus and control soils.

  13. Analysis of muscle and ovary transcriptome of Sus scrofa: assembly, annotation and marker discovery.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qinghua; Fang, Meixia; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoning; He, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiquan

    2011-10-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa) is an important organism for both agricultural and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the S. scrofa transcriptome by the use of Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained a total of 558 743 and 528 260 reads for the back-leg muscle and ovary tissue each. The overall 1 087 003 reads give rise to 421 767 341 bp total residues averaging 388 bp per read. The de novo assemblies yielded 11 057 contigs and 60 270 singletons for the back-leg muscle, 12 204 contigs and 70 192 singletons for the ovary and 18 938 contigs and 102 361 singletons for combined tissues. The overall GC content of S. scrofa transcriptome is 42.3% for assembled contigs. Alternative splicing was found within 4394 contigs, giving rise to 1267 isogroups or genes. A total of 56 589 transcripts are involved in molecular function (40 916), biological process (38 563), cellular component (35 787) by further gene ontology analyses. Comparison analyses showed that 336 and 553 genes had significant higher expression in the back-leg muscle and ovary each. In addition, we obtained a total of 24 214 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 928 simple sequence repeats. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic makeup of S. scrofa transcriptome and provide useful information for functional genomic research in future.

  14. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research.

    PubMed

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use.

  15. Tuberculosis-Associated Death among Adult Wild Boars, Spain, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Diez-Delgado, Iratxe; Queiros, Joao; Carrasco-García, Ricardo; Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    We investigated adult Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) survival and death in 2 tuberculosis-endemic populations with different harvest pressure in Spain. Overall, tuberculosis accounted for 30% of total deaths. Increased survival in protected areas has direct implications for wild boar management and tuberculosis control. PMID:27869587

  16. Characterization of African swine fever virus Caucasus isolate in European wild boars.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Claudia; Blome, Sandra; Malogolovkin, Alexander; Parilov, Stanislav; Kolbasov, Denis; Teifke, Jens P; Beer, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Since 2007, African swine fever has spread from the Caucasus region. To learn more about the dynamics of the disease in wild boars (Sus scrofa), we conducted experiments by using European wild boars. We found high virulence of Caucasus isolates limited potential for establishment of endemicity.

  17. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-05-16

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC.

  18. Pig-mentation: postmortem iris color change in the eyes of Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Elizabeth; Cox, Margaret; Quincey, David

    2008-05-01

    Experienced forensic pathologists and examiners may be familiar with the phenomenon of postmortem iris color change; however, only Knight, Simpson's forensic medicine, Arnold, London, 1997; Ref. 1 and Saukko and Knight, Knight's forensic pathology, 3rd ed., Arnold, London, 2004; Ref. 2 have referred to it in the literature, and to date, there have been no published scientific research studies on this taphonomic artifact. A controlled experiment was conducted of postmortem changes to isolated Sus scrofa eyes. The eyes (n = 137) were separated into three groups and each sample was observed for 3-day postmortem at a different temperature. In addition, a Sus scrofa head was obtained to observe postmortem changes of eyes in situ. All isolated blue eyes in the experiment, at room temperature and higher, changed to brown/black within 48 h. The in situ blue eye, at room temperature, turned brown/black within 72 h. If iris color consistently changes postmortem in humans, then this taphonomic artifact must be incorporated into victim identification protocol, including disaster victim identification software, and autopsy reports to prevent inaccurate victim identification and inappropriate exclusion from the identification process.

  19. Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji

    2013-06-01

    The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative study of biochemical and immunological properties of triosephosphate isomerase from Taenia solium and Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Lucía; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro; Willms, Kaethe; Landa, Abraham

    2003-04-01

    We produced the Taenia solium triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) in Escherichia coli and compared its biochemical and immunological properties with those of the commercial TPI from Sus scrofa. Taenia solium TPI is a homodimer composed of two 27-kDa monomers, with a specific activity of 5,683 U/mg and a Km value of 0.758, and S. scrofa TPI is also dimeric with similar monomeric molecular weight, specific activity of 4,227 U/mg, and a Km value of 0.51. The catalytic parameters for the isomerization of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, affinity between TPI monomers, and kinetic thermal denaturation and inactivation were similar for both enzymes. Anti-T. solium TPI antibodies cross-react weakly with Schistosoma mansoni TPI but do not cross-react with S. scrofa, human, or protozoan TPIs. These antibodies inhibited T. solium TPI activity but did not affect S. scrofa enzymatic activity. Immunizations with 1 microg of the T. solium TPI reduced 52% of cysticerci in a mouse-Taenia crassiceps model 1 mo after challenge. Our findings show that T. solium and S. scrofa TPIs possess similar biochemical and enzymatic properties but do not share immunological properties because anti-T. solium TPI antibodies did not recognize S. scrofa TPI. Inhibition of enzyme activity by anti-TPI antibodies suggests that they can be used as inhibitors of the enzyme.

  1. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments.

  2. Exploring PTX3 expression in Sus scrofa cardiac tissue using RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cabiati, Manuela; Caselli, Chiara; Savelli, Sara; Prescimone, Tommaso; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Giannessi, Daniela; Del Ry, Silvia

    2012-02-10

    The prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is a novel vascular inflammatory marker sharing similarities with the classic short pentraxin (C-reactive protein). PTX3 is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to local inflammation of the cardiovascular system. Plasma PTX3 levels are very low in normal conditions and increase in heart failure (HF) patients with advancing NYHA functional class, but its exact role during HF pathogenetic mechanisms is not yet established. No data about PTX3 cardiac expression in normal and pathological conditions are currently available, either in human or in large-size animals. Of the latter, the pig has a central role in "in vivo" clinical settings but its genome has not been completely sequenced and the PTX3 gene sequence is still lacking. The aim of this study was to sequence the PTX3 in Sus scrofa, whose sequence is not yet present in GenBank. Utilizing our knowledge of this sequence, PTX3 mRNA expression was evaluated in cardiac tissue of normal (n=6) and HF pigs (n=5), obtained from the four chambers. To sequence PTX3 gene in S. scrofa, the high homology between Homo sapiens and S. scrofa was exploited. Pig PTX3 mRNA was sequenced using polymerase chain reaction primers designed from human consensus sequences. The DNA, obtained from different RT-PCR reactions, was sequenced using the Sanger method. S. scrofa PTX3 mRNA, 1-336 bp, was submitted to GenBank (ID: GQ412351). The sequence obtained from pig cardiac tissue shared an 84% sequence identity with human homolog. The presence of PTX3 mRNA expression was detected in all the cardiac chambers sharing an increase after 3 weeks of pacing compared to controls (p=0.036 HF right atrium vs. N; p=0.022, HF left ventricle vs. N). Knowledge of the PTX3 sequence could be a useful starting point for future studies devoted to better understanding the specific role of this molecule in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA.

  4. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  5. Analysis of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa X and Y chromosome transcriptome highlights reproductive driver genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Kai; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Shujun, Zhang

    2017-08-15

    The biology of sperm, its capability of fertilizing an egg and its role in sex ratio are the major biological questions in reproductive biology. To answer these question we integrated X and Y chromosome transcriptome across different species: Bos taurus and Sus scrofa and identified reproductive driver genes based on Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. Our strategy resulted in 11007 and 10445 unique genes consisting of 9 and 11 reproductive modules in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa, respectively. The consensus module calculation yields an overall 167 overlapped genes which were mapped to 846 DEGs in Bos taurus to finally get a list of 67 dual feature genes. We develop gene co-expression network of selected 67 genes that consists of 58 nodes (27 down-regulated and 31 up-regulated genes) enriched to 66 GO biological process (BP) including 6 GO annotations related to reproduction and two KEGG pathways. Moreover, we searched significantly related TF (ISRE, AP1FJ, RP58, CREL) and miRNAs (bta-miR-181a, bta-miR-17-5p, bta-miR-146b, bta-miR-146a) which targeted the genes in co-expression network. In addition we performed genetic analysis including phylogenetic, functional domain identification, epigenetic modifications, mutation analysis of the most important reproductive driver genes PRM1, PPP2R2B and PAFAH1B1 and finally performed a protein docking analysis to visualize their therapeutic and gene expression regulation ability.

  6. Analysis of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa X and Y chromosome transcriptome highlights reproductive driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Kai; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Shujun, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The biology of sperm, its capability of fertilizing an egg and its role in sex ratio are the major biological questions in reproductive biology. To answer these question we integrated X and Y chromosome transcriptome across different species: Bos taurus and Sus scrofa and identified reproductive driver genes based on Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. Our strategy resulted in 11007 and 10445 unique genes consisting of 9 and 11 reproductive modules in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa, respectively. The consensus module calculation yields an overall 167 overlapped genes which were mapped to 846 DEGs in Bos taurus to finally get a list of 67 dual feature genes. We develop gene co-expression network of selected 67 genes that consists of 58 nodes (27 down-regulated and 31 up-regulated genes) enriched to 66 GO biological process (BP) including 6 GO annotations related to reproduction and two KEGG pathways. Moreover, we searched significantly related TF (ISRE, AP1FJ, RP58, CREL) and miRNAs (bta-miR-181a, bta-miR-17-5p, bta-miR-146b, bta-miR-146a) which targeted the genes in co-expression network. In addition we performed genetic analysis including phylogenetic, functional domain identification, epigenetic modifications, mutation analysis of the most important reproductive driver genes PRM1, PPP2R2B and PAFAH1B1 and finally performed a protein docking analysis to visualize their therapeutic and gene expression regulation ability. PMID:28903352

  7. The nuclear DNA longevity in cryopreserved boar spermatozoa assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the dynamics of nuclear DNA fragmentation in frozen-thawed (FT) boar spermatozoa incubated over time. Using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (Sperm-Sus-Halomax), this study focused special attention on resolving the hypothesis that the original halo shapes around the sperm head could show dynamic changes over the postthawing incubation time. Twenty FT sperm samples from five boars (four per boar) were incubated at 37 °C during 168 hours and sperm motility (assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (evaluated using the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), and nuclear DNA fragmentation were analyzed at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours. The percentages of motile and viable spermatozoa progressively decreased during incubation, with no motile and viable spermatozoa less than 10% in all boars at 24 hours of incubation. Four different halo shapes around the sperm head were considered in the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test: normal, small, large scattered (typical fragmented nuclear DNA), and absent halo, all of them coexisting at the same time in the boar FT semen samples. Sperm with a large scattered halo did not change during postthaw, consistently showing percentages less than 5% over time in all boars. In contrast, the other three sperm populations showed a dynamic evolution over incubation time, characterized by a gradual reduction of sperm with normal halo, proportional to the increment in the sperm showing a small halo, followed by a switch between the sperm with a small halo and sperm with no halo. These results suggest that three of these four sperm populations, those showing small, large scattered, and absent halo, represent spermatozoa with different degrees of nuclear DNA damage, which should be taken into consideration to indicate the percentage of sperm with fragmented nuclear DNA in boar FT semen samples.

  8. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    PubMed

    Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  9. Sodium Thiosulfate Versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-22

    intoxicated by cyanide develop cardiac-ar.rest or severely low blood pressure. Currently several antidotes exist, but many have severe adverse effects...machine. They were intoxicated with cyanide (infused through the vein) until the blood pressure was low. The animals were assigned to-one of three...IUIVIJ:lt:M Sodium thiosulfate versus hydroxocoba~amin in the treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity in a swine (Sus Scrofa)model on

  10. Identification and sequencing of remnant messenger RNAs found in domestic swine (Sus scrofa) fresh ejaculated spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Yang, C C; Lin, Y S; Hsu, C C; Wu, S C; Lin, E C; Cheng, W T K

    2009-07-01

    The existence of specific messenger RNA remnants contained within freshly ejaculated spermatozoa was described in several species. Those investigations, using high-throughput techniques to screen the population of transcripts in ejaculated spermatozoa, were limited to the probes which mostly derived from nucleic acids of testicular tissues of either human or mice. The objective of this study was to investigate mRNA remnants from ejaculated spermatozoa of the domestic swine (Sus scrofa), a valuable model for biomedical research. A non-redundant 5'-end complementary DNA library was generated from swine ejaculated spermatozoa. After sequence quality verification, 4562 clones remained. These clones were then clustered and assembled into 514 unique sequences including 188 contigs (36.58%) and 326 singletons (63.42%), representing those clusters containing at least two clones and those clusters without having enough similarity with other clones. These unique gene sequences were annotated in Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy; they included biological processes (38.7%), molecular functions (39.1%) and cellular components (40.3%). Based on the analysis, a broad spectrum of messenger RNAs existed in swine ejaculated spermatozoa and was closely correlated with nucleic acid binding, structural modifications, and transcriptional regulation. All of these categories are considered to have profound effects on the male reproductive system. Therefore, our work provides initial results on potential spermatozoal gene expression for future studies regarding the tightly regulated spermiogenic processes and later fertilization events.

  11. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa (Suina: Suidae) from southern Gansu.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Yan; Tian, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Lei-Lei; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-09-01

    Juema pig is a kind of rare and special pig which is well adapted to high altitude, cold climate and harsh natural environment. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa is a circular molecule of 16 532 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 60.7% (T: 26.2%; C: 26.0%; A: 34.5%; G: 13.3%). ND4L gene begins with GTG as start codon, ND2, ND3, and ND5 genes begin with ATA as a start codon, and other nine protein-coding genes start with ATG. Cyt b gene is terminated with AGA as stop codon, ND1 and ND2 genes are terminated with TAG as stop codon, COII, COIII, ND3, and ND4 end with T, while ATP6, ATP8, COI, ND4L, ND5, and ND6 end with TAA. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships from neighbor-joining analyses based on the 13 concatenated PCGs indicated (Tylopoda (Suina (Ruminantia (Hippopotamidae, Cetacea)))).

  13. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface.

  14. Cholinergic profiles in the Goettingen miniature pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) brain.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Laura J; Perez, Sylvia E; Emerich, Dwaine F; Wahlberg, Lars U; Mufson, Elliott J

    2017-02-15

    Central cholinergic structures within the brain of the even-toed hoofed Goettingen miniature domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were evaluated by immunohistochemical visualization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR) . ChAT-immunoreactive (-ir) perikarya were seen in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial habenular nucleus, zona incerta, neurosecretory arcuate nucleus, cranial motor nuclei III and IV, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. Cholinergic ChAT-ir neurons were also found within transitional cortical areas (insular, cingulate, and piriform cortices) and hippocampus proper. ChAT-ir fibers were seen throughout the dentate gyrus and hippocampus, in the mediodorsal, laterodorsal, anteroventral, and parateanial thalamic nuclei, the fasciculus retroflexus of Meynert, basolateral and basomedial amygdaloid nuclei, anterior pretectal and interpeduncular nuclei, as well as select laminae of the superior colliculus. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated that virtually all ChAT-ir basal forebrain neurons were also p75(NTR) -positive. The present findings indicate that the central cholinergic system in the miniature pig is similar to other mammalian species. Therefore, the miniature pig may be an appropriate animal model for preclinical studies of neurodegenerative diseases where the cholinergic system is compromised. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:553-573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications.

  16. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens.

    PubMed

    Baroch, John A; Gagnon, Carl A; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and phylogenetic evaluation of geographically disparate Sus scrofa breeds.

    PubMed

    Cannon, M V; Brandebourg, T D; Kohn, M C; Ðikić, D; Irwin, M H; Pinkert, C A

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates studies into the metabolic characteristics of production animals and their relation to production traits. Sequence analysis of mtDNA from pure-bred swine with highly disparate production characteristics (Mangalica Blonde, Mangalica Swallow-bellied, Meishan, Turopolje, and Yorkshire) was initiated to evaluate the influence of mtDNA polymorphisms on mitochondrial function. Herein, we report the complete mtDNA sequences of five Sus scrofa breeds and evaluate their position within the phylogeny of domestic swine. Phenotypic traits of Yorkshire, Mangalica Blonde, and Swallow-belly swine are presented to demonstrate their metabolic characteristics. Our data support the division of European and Asian breeds noted previously and confirm European ancestry of Mangalica and Turopolje breeds. Furthermore, mtDNA differences between breeds suggest function-altering changes in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation such as ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6), cytochrome oxidase I (MT-CO1), cytochrome oxidase III (MT-CO3), and cytochrome b (MT-CYB), supporting the hypothesis that mtDNA polymorphisms contribute to differences in metabolic traits between swine breeds. Our sequence data form the basis for future research into the roles of mtDNA in determining production traits in domestic animals. Additionally, such studies should provide insight into how mtDNA haplotype influences the extreme adiposity observed in Mangalica breeds.

  18. First report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Barroco, Cynthia; Mottola, Carla; Santos, Raquel; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tavares, Luis; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2014-09-21

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a common disease in small ruminant populations throughout the world and responsible for a significant economic impact for producers. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). In this study, phenotypic and genotypic identification methods allocated the swine isolates in C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis. The vast majority of the isolates were able to produce phospholipase D and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial compounds tested. Macrorestriction patterns obtained by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped the C. pseudotuberculosis in two clusters with a high similarity index, which reveals their clonal relatedness. Furthermore, swine isolates were compared with C. pseudotuberculosis from caprines and PFGE patterns also showed high similarity, suggesting the prevalence of dominant clones and a potential cross-dissemination between these two animal hosts. This work represents the first report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig and alerts for the importance of the establishment of suitable control and sanitary management practices to control the infection and avoid further dissemination of this important pathogen to other animal hosts.

  19. Snaring to control feral pigs sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Stephen J.; Stone, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Feral pig Sus scrofa control in Kipahulu Valley, a remote rain forest in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, has been achieved with snares over a 45-month period. Initial pig densities in fenced management units of 6·2 km2 and 7·8 km2were estimated at 6 animals/km2 and 14·3 animals/km2 for the two units, based on population reconstruction from animals killed and aged. During the 45 months of the study, 1978 snares were set, and 1·6 million snare nights were logged. Snare density reached 96/km2 and 200/km2 for the two management units by the end of the study. A mean effort of 43 worker hours/pig was used to remove 53 pigs from the upper management unit, and a mean of 7 worker hours/pig to remove 175 animals from the more densely populated lower unit. Pig activity monitoring along transects provided a good measure of control effectiveness until densities of about 1 pig/km2 were achieved, after which transects became less useful than scouting for determining pig activity.

  20. Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment.

  1. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures.

  2. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  3. Organization, complexity and allelic diversity of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda locus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, John C; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    We have characterized the organization, complexity, and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain locus, which accounts for about half of antibody light chain usage in swine, yet is nearly totally unknown. Twenty-two IGL variable (IGLV) genes were identified that belong to seven subgroups. Nine genes appear to be functional. Eight possess stop codons, frameshifts, or both, and one is missing the V-EXON. Two additional genes are missing an essential cysteine residue and are classified as ORF (open reading frame). The IGLV genes are organized in two distinct clusters, a constant (C)-proximal cluster dominated by genes similar to the human IGLV3 subgroup, and a C-distal cluster dominated by genes most similar to the human IGLV8 and IGLV5 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the porcine IGLV8 subgroup genes have recently expanded, suggesting a particularly effective role in immunity to porcine-specific pathogens. Moreover, expression of IGLV genes is nearly exclusively restricted to the IGLV3 and IGLV8 genes. The constant locus comprises three tandem cassettes comprised of a joining (IGLJ) gene and a constant (IGLC) gene, whereas a fourth downstream IGLJ gene has no corresponding associated IGLC gene. Comparison of individual BACs generated from the same individual revealed polymorphisms in IGLC2 and several IGLV genes, indicating that allelic variation in IGLV further expands the porcine antibody light chain repertoire.

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of the pig (Sus scrofa) organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yejin; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Zheren; Xiao, Yunpeng; Hong, Mei

    2013-08-01

    1. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a family of transporter proteins that have been extensively recognized as key determinants of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of various drugs. Human OATP1A2 has been demonstrated to transport wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Study on OATP1A2 orthologues of other species, however, is still limited. 2. Here, we described the cloning and functional characterization of a member of the OATP/Oatp family member obtained from pig (Sus scrofa) liver. Sequence analysis suggested that it has a high homology with human OATP1A2 and bovine Oatp1a2. Prototypic substrates estrone-3-sulfate (E-3-S) and taurocholic acid were transported by the protein. The transport of these two substrates is pH-dependent, with lower pH showing higher uptake function. Kinetic study showed the transport of these two substrates have a Km of 42.5 ± 12.1 and 33.1 ± 8.7 µM, respectively. Pig Slco1a2 has the highest expression level in the liver, and to a less extend in the brain and small intestine. 3. In conclusion, an OATP member was cloned from pig liver. Sequence analysis and phylogenic study revealed it as an orthologue of human OATP1A2. Its kinetic characteristic for prototypic substrates and organ distribution are similar with that of OATP1A2.

  5. [The feral pig (Sus scrofa, Suidae) in Cocos Island, Costa Rica: Rootings, soil alterations and erosion].

    PubMed

    Sierra, C

    2001-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are of the most damaging exotic vertebrates, specially on oceanic island native communities. Feral pigs inhabit Cocos Island since 1793 and there are around 400-500 individuals. In order to quantify the impacts of the feral pigs at Cocos Island. I calculated the effect of the rooting activity and its influence on the natural erosion. During one year I walked, monthly, 15 km on trails estimating rooted area by transect and rooting recurrence. During eight months I compared erosion rates with and without rootings. I estimated the annual rooting rate between 10 and 20% of the total island surface. The rooted area was the only measured variable which correlated with the soil erosion rate. The erosion rate without rootings was 23.6 kg/ha/year and with rootings was 200.4 kg/ha/year (P < 0.01). The disturbances provoked by the rootings were not scattered homogeneously through the island. The rootings, together with the natural landslides, dominate the soil disturbance pattern at Cocos Island. This study suggests that the presence of feral pigs produces more erosion than the one that would naturally occur without feral pigs at Cocos Island.

  6. Shigella infection as observed in the experimentally inoculated domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, A T; Routh, P R; Dillman, R C; Ficken, M D; Weinstock, D M; Almond, G W; Orndorff, P E

    1998-10-01

    The domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica, was investigated as a potential animal model for shigellosis. We examined the effects of pig age, pig breed and antibiotic pretreatment upon Shigella infection. Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella flexneri (both virulent and avirulent strains) were utilized. Our results indicated that young (4-week-old), conventionally re ared, domestic pigs were routinely, but briefly, colonized (average=3.5+/-2.5 days) following oral or gavage administration ofS. flexneri, as determined by direct rectal cultures. The duration of S. dysenteriae colonization was significantly shorter. Inoculation of younger (2 days) or older (9 weeks) pigs with S. flexneri had no significant effect on infection duration. Similarly, infection of 4-week-old pigs with virulent and avirulent strains of S. flexneri had no effect upon the duration of infection, nor did the use of a swine-passaged S. flexneri isolate. Marked clinical, histopathological (gross and microscopic) and immunoIhistopathological signs of disease were absent in all infections. However, in instances where microscopic histopathological evidence was used to correctly identify infected pigs, tonsillar lesions were the consistently noted criteria. The tonsils are believed to be an important portal of entry for Salmonella choleraesuis, another member of the Enterobacteriaceae and a prevalent pig pathogen. Taken altogether, our results indicate that the domestic pig is unsuitable as a model for shigellosis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig.

  8. Functional cues in the development of osseous tooth support in the pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Popowics, T; Yeh, K; Rafferty, K; Herring, S

    2009-08-25

    Alveolar bone supports teeth during chewing through a ligamentous interface with tooth roots. Although tooth loads are presumed to direct the development and adaptation of these tissues, strain distribution in the alveolar bone at different stages of tooth eruption and periodontal development is unknown. This study investigates the biomechanical effects of tooth loading on developing alveolar bone as a tooth erupts into occlusion. Mandibular segments from miniature pigs, Sus scrofa, containing M(1) either erupting or in functional occlusion, were loaded in compression. Simultaneous recordings were made from rosette strain gages affixed to the lingual alveolar bone and the M(2) crypt. Overall, specimens with erupting M(1)s were more deformable than specimens with occluding M(1)s (mean stiffness of 246 vs. 944 MPa, respectively, p=0.004). The major difference in alveolar strain between the two stages was in orientation. The vertically applied compressive loads were more directly reflected in the alveolar bone strains of erupting M(1)s, than those of occluding M(1)s, presumably because of the mediation of a more mature periodontal ligament (PDL) in the latter. The PDL interface between occluding teeth and alveolar bone is likely to stiffen the system, allowing transmission of occlusal loads. Alveolar strains may provide a stimulus for bone growth in the alveolar process and crest.

  9. Juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) use human-given cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Research on the comprehension of human-given cues by domesticated as well as non-domesticated species has received considerable attention over the last decade. While several species seem to be capable of utilizing these cues, former work with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) has shown inconclusive results. In this study, we investigated the use of human-given cues in an object choice task by young domestic pigs (N = 17; 7 weeks of age) who had very limited human contact prior to the experiments. Subjects had to choose between two bowls of which only one was baited with a reward. Over the course of five experiments, pigs were able to use proximal and, with some constraints, also distal pointing cues presented in both a dynamic-sustained and in a momentary manner. When the experimenter was pointing from the incorrect bowl towards the correct one, most of the subjects had problems solving the task-indicating that some form of stimulus/local enhancement affected pigs' decision making. Interestingly, pigs were able to utilize the body and head orientation of a human experimenter to locate the hidden reward but failed to co-orient when head or body orientation of the experimenter was directed into distant space with no bowls present. Control trials ruled out the possibility that other factors (e.g. odour cues) affected subjects' choice behaviour. Learning during experiments played a minor role and only occurred in three out of twelve test conditions. We conclude that domestic pigs, even at a very young age, are skilful in utilizing various human-given cues in an object choice task-raising the question whether pigs only used stimulus/local enhancement and associative learning processes or whether they were able to comprehend the communicative nature of at least some of these cues.

  10. Survey for selected pathogens in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from Guam, Marianna Islands, USA.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Christopher A; DeNicola, Anthony; Dubey, J P; Hill, Dolores E; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to Guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. Wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and Leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. The close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent opportunities for pathogen transmission. From February-March 2015, blood, tissue and ectoparasite samples were collected from 47 wild pigs. Serologic testing found exposure to Brucella spp. (2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11%), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (13%), porcine circovirus type 2 (36%), pseudorabies virus (64%), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (93%), Lawsonia intracellularis (93%), and porcine parvovirus (94%). Eleven (24%) samples had low titers (1:100) to Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava (n=6), Icterohaemorrhagiae (n=6), Pomona (n=2), and Hardjo (n=1). Kidney samples from nine pigs with Leptospira antibodies were negative for Leptospira antigens. Numerous pigs had Metastrongylus lungworms and three had Stephanurus dentatus. Lice (Hematopinus suis) and ticks (Amblyomma breviscutatum) were also detected. No antibodies to Influenza A viruses were detected. In contrast to the previous domestic swine survey, we found evidence of numerous pathogens in wild pigs including new reports of pseudorabies virus, PRRS virus, Brucella, and Leptospira in pigs on Guam. These findings highlight that domestic swine-wild pig interactions should be prevented and precautions are needed when handling wild pigs to minimize the risk of pathogen transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal effect on sperm messenger RNA profile of domestic swine (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Yang, C C; Lin, Y S; Hsu, C C; Tsai, M H; Wu, S C; Cheng, W T K

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal infertility is a well-known problem in the modern swine (Sus scrofa) industry. The molecular mechanisms responsible for thermal effects on spermatogenesis are, however, just beginning to be elucidated. The existence of specific messenger RNA (mRNA) remnants contained within freshly ejaculated sperm has been identified in several species. Investigators have obtained differential RNA profiles of infertile men compared with fertile individuals; however, there are limited to the probes, which are mostly derived from nucleic acids of testicular tissues of either human or mice. The objective of this study was to investigate mRNA remnants from ejaculated sperm of the domestic swine and uncover important clues regarding the molecular regulation of spermatogenesis under environmental thermo-impacts. We utilized the remnant mRNA collected from swine ejaculated sperm as the target source to detect the global gene expression in summer and in winter by swine sperm-specific oligonucleotide microarray. Sixty-seven transcripts were differentially expressed with statistical differences between seasons of sperm samples collected, including forty-nine in winter (49/67) and eighteen in summer (18/67). There were only 33 of these transcripts that could be annotated to gene ontology hierarchy with the database of Homo sapiens and their functions mostly were involved in variety of metabolic processes. Moreover, these studies also confirmed that significant differences of gene expression profiles were found in swine sperm when comparisons were made between ejaculates collected during the winter and the summer season under the subtropical area such as Taiwan. Even though most of the genes found in our experiments are still poorly understood in terms of their true functions in spermatogenesis, bioinformatics analysis suggested that they are involved in a broad spectrum of biochemical processes including gamete generation. These concordant profiles should permit the development of a

  12. Experimental ex vivo traumatic intrusion in the mandibular incisors of the farm pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Amanda; Popowics, Tracy

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic intrusion of incisor teeth occurs frequently in young children, as well as in teens and adults; however, the biological mechanisms promoting negative sequelae or recovery are not well understood (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:493 and Vital Health Stat 11 2007;248:1). Modeling intrusive trauma and post-traumatic healing in an animal model offers the opportunity to define these biological mechanisms and to inform the design of treatments. The objective of this study was to investigate the pig, Sus scrofa, as a model for intrusive trauma, using an in vitro approach. Mandibular segments from ex vivo farm pigs were bisected and primary central incisors were prepared to either receive axial traumatic loads or to serve as non-intruded controls. A class 2 lever modeled traumatic impact to the incisors. Damage to the periodontal support in intruded and control specimens (n = 10) was evaluated through compression testing and comparison of elastic moduli. Incisor displacement was measured on X-ray images taken before and after trauma, and following compressive tests. Lingual x-rays showed a mean postinjury displacement of the incisor root of 3.81 ± 1.87 mm. With compression testing, the root length embedded in bone increased in traumatized and non-traumatized teeth by 2.9 mm and 0.81 mm, respectively (P = 0.03). The intrusion group Young's modulus was significantly lower than the control group (4452 vs 7704 Mpa; P = 0.05). In vitro modeling of traumatic intrusion resulted in damage to the periodontal support of central incisors and axial tooth displacement. Pig incisors offer an important model for further study of incisor trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Clean Technique for Prolonged Nonsurvival Cardiothoracic Surgery in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maia M; Rabkin, David G; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal regulations provide little guidance regarding duration of nonsurvival surgery requiring aseptic technique. We hypothesized that swine would experience no sepsis during nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery accomplished by using clean technique and lasting 8 h or less. Incision sites of 5 male farm pigs (Sus scrofa) were shaved and then cleaned with alcohol and povidone–iodine. The surgeon wore sterile gloves, clean scrubs, and hair bonnet; assistants wore clean scrubs and nonsterile gloves; most instruments were autoclaved. A median sternotomy incision was used for thoracic cavity exposure, and the skull was exposed to allow induction of brain death. Heart rate, body temperature, and blood samples were obtained before surgery (0 h; baseline) and at 2, 4, 5 or 6, and 7 or 8 h thereafter. Statistical analysis by t tests showed that heart rate was unchanged and body temperature increased after the 0-h (baseline) time point. Aerobic blood cultures were negative except for 2 samples that were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. at 4 h. RBC, Hgb, and Hct levels were decreased at 2 and 4 h, but WBC and platelets were unchanged. Other alterations included decreased glucose (at 7 or 8 h), increased BUN (at 5 or 6 h and 7 or 8 h) and creatinine (at 5 or 6 h), decreased Na+ and Ca and increased K+ (most time points), decreased total protein and albumin (most time points), and decreased globulin (at 7 or 8 h). Liver enzymes and bilirubin typically were unchanged, and cholesterol consistently was decreased. Together our results indicate a lack of sepsis for 8 h or less in pigs undergoing cardiothoracic surgery by using clean technique. These findings provide new and specific data regarding the use of aseptic technique during prolonged nonsurvival surgeries. PMID:23562035

  14. The Effects of Tooth Extraction on Alveolar Bone Biomechanics in the Miniature Pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, K.; Popowics, T.; Rafferty, K.; Herring, S.; Egbert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the role of occlusion in the development of biomechanical properties of alveolar bone in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa. The hypothesis tested was that the tissues supporting an occluding tooth would show greater stiffness and less strain than that of a non-occluding tooth. Design Maxillary teeth opposing the erupting lower first molar (M1) were extracted on one side. Occlusion developed on the contralateral side. Serially administered fluorochrome labels tracked bone mineralization apposition rate (MAR). A terminal experiment measured in vivo buccal alveolar bone strain on occluding and non-occluding sides during mastication. Ex vivo alveolar strains during occlusal loading were subsequently measured using a materials testing machine (MTS/Sintech). Whole specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated. Results MAR tended to be higher on the extraction side during occlusion. In vivo buccal shear strains were higher in the alveolar bone of the occluding side vs. the extraction side (mean of 471με vs. 281με, respectively; p=0.04); however, ex vivo shear strains showed no significant differences between sides. Stiffness differed between extraction and occlusion side specimens, significantly so in the low load range (344 vs. 668MPa, respectively; p=0.04). Conclusions Greater in vivo shear strains may indicate more forceful chews on the occluding side, whereas the similarity in ex vivo bone strain magnitude suggests a similarity in alveolar bone structure and occlusal load transmission regardless of occlusal status. The big overall change in specimen stiffness that was observed was likely attributable to differences in the periodontal ligament rather than alveolar bone. PMID:20580345

  15. Porcine teschovirus in wild boars in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Ákos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    The genus Teschovirus, family Picornaviridae, currently includes 12 serotypes (PTV 1 to 12) isolated from swine. PTVs have been well studied in domestic pigs, but knowledge about PTVs in wild boars is deficient. Here, we report the first complete PTV genome sequence from 7 (70%) of 10 fecal samples of wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa) by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Analysis of the wild boar PTV strain WB2C-TV/2011/HUN (JQ429405) showed considerable difference, especially in VP1 (66–74% amino acid identity) compared to the available PTVs. PTV is present in wild boars, and WB2C-TV/2011/HUN represents a novel PTV genotype, provisionally named PTV-13. PMID:22569887

  16. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  17. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Diego Silva; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  18. Volatile emission of decomposing pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) as an indicator for the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Sebastian; Nicke, Sara; Ziegenhagen, Henrik; Schütz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at correlating selected carcass borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the postmortem interval (PMI). Selected volatiles should 1st be reliably emitted during vertebrate decay, 2nd be emitted at high concentrations, and 3rd show a reproducible quantitative dynamic during the decaying process. Four pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed in a deciduous forest in different seasons and volatiles emitted during the decaying process were sampled. Seventeen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Electrophysiological experiments on the antenna of female Calliphora vicina and additional data of Dermestes maculans were used as an evolutionary tuned information filter to evaluate the 1st criterion. The relative quantitative emission of hexanal, nonanal, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-butanol, and phenol were correlated with the PMI, and the observed stages of decay and the limitations of this model were discussed.

  19. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; Länger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, André

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation model and received tacrolimus and steroids as well as irradiation or CD8 antibody for immunosuppression. The likely source of the infection was pigs that were shedding the identified PRRSV, which were housed in a separate room of the same building. This case report provides evidence that a virus closely related to an attenuated live vaccine might cause severe pneumonia and death in PRRSV-seronegative pigs receiving immunosuppressive treatment. We recommend strict barrier housing for immunocompromised pigs. PMID:27780006

  20. Multiplex serology for common viral infections in feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in Hawaii between 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rachel J; Trible, Benjamin R; Wang, Yu; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Goldstein, Samuel M; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex serology was performed for the detection of total immunoglobulin (Ig) and IgM antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and swine influenza virus (SIV) antigens in feral swine (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were collected from the islands of Oahu (292 pigs) and Hawaii (52 pigs) between 2007 and 2010. The highest antibody prevalence was to PCV2 (63%), followed by SIV (7.8%) and PRRSV (5.8%). Antigen-specific IgM was detected at a much lower prevalence. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of PCV2 in three IgM-positive samples identified PCV2b as the only genotype. While the prevalence of PCV2 and PRRSV remained similar between 2007 and 2010, the percentage of SIV-positive samples on Oahu increased from 2% to 19%. Our results demonstrate the utility of multiplex serology for pathogen surveillance in feral pig populations.

  1. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): the first case in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea. PMID:26726026

  2. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. PMID:27059064

  3. Enhancing the antimicrobial activity of Sus scrofa lysozyme by N-terminal fusion of a sextuple unique homologous peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dewei; Cai, Guolin; Li, Xiaomin; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Liang

    2017-02-10

    Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL), an important component of the pig immune system, is a potential candidate to replace antibiotics in feed. However, there is little antimicrobial activity of natural SSL against gram-negative bacteria, which limits its application. In this study, a unique peptide (A-W-V-A-W-K) with antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria was discovered and purified from trypsin hydrolysate of natural SSL. This unique peptide was fused to natural SSL and the recombinant fused SSL exhibited improved activity against gram-negative bacteria. The N-terminal fusion likely increased the membrane penetrability and induced programmed bacterial cell death. The recombinant fused SSL also showed higher activity against some gram-positive bacteria with O-acetylation. By N-terminal fusion of the sextuple peptide, the anti-microbial activity, either to gram-positive or negative bacteria, of the recombinant SSL was higher than the fusion of only one copy of the peptide. This study provides a general, feasible, and highly useful strategy to enhance the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme.

  4. Evidence of leptospirosis in the kidneys and serum of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K; Anderson, T D; Bevins, S N; Pabilonia, K L; Whitley, P N; Virchow, D R; Gidlewski, T

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in humans worldwide. In the United States, widespread detection of antibodies to leptospirosis have been identified in feral swine (Sus scrofa) with the highest detection of serovars, Bratislava, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Over the past few years, feral swine populations have expanded their geographical range and distribution in the United States with reports in at least 39 of 50 states. Since feral swine serve as reservoirs for serovars that can infect humans, it is important to understand the risk of transmission. In order to learn more about the probability that feral swine shed infectious leptospires, we collected kidneys and paired serum when possible from 677 feral swine in 124 counties of 29 states. These counties had previously been identified as antibody positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae or Pomona. Although exposure to these same six serovars of leptospirosis continued to be high (53% overall) in the counties we sampled, we detected leptospiral DNA in only 3·4% of feral swine kidneys tested. Based on these results, it appears that although feral swine can serve as a source of infection to humans, especially in those who are more likely to encounter them directly such as wildlife biologists, veterinarians, and hunters, the risk may be relatively low. However, further studies to examine the relationship between leptospiral shedding in the urine and kidneys in addition to culturing the organism are recommended in order to better understand the risk associated with feral swine.

  5. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health.

  6. A Taphonomic Study Exploring the Differences in Decomposition Rate and Manner between Frozen and Never Frozen Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This research examined differences in decomposition rate and manner of domestic pig subjects (Sus scrofa) in never frozen (control) and previously frozen (experimental) research conditions. Eight control and experimental subjects were placed in an identical outdoor research environment. Daily quantitative and qualitative measurements were collected: abdominal circumference, total body score (TBS), temperature, photographs, descriptive decomposition stages, and visual observations. Field necropsies were performed at accumulated degree days (ADD) between 50 and 300 (Celsius). Paired samples t-tests of ADD to TBS >3.0, TBS >9.5, and TBS >16.0 indicate the rate of decomposition of experimental subjects was significantly slower than controls at both TBS >3 and >9.5 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). A suite of qualitative indicators of predecomposition freezing is also reported. The differences between experimental and control subjects suggest previously frozen subjects should not be used in taphonomic research, as results do not accurately reflect the "normal" taphonomic condition.

  7. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) mediate large-scale edge effects in a lowland tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects.

  8. Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Mediate Large-Scale Edge Effects in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

  9. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  10. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts.

  11. Novel Technique for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  12. Substitution within erythropoietin receptor gene D1 domain associated with litter size in Beijing Black pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longchao; Wang, Ligang; Li, Yong; Li, Wen; Yan, Hua; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Lixian

    2011-10-01

    Studies of uterine capacity and litter size in swine have suggested that erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) plays an important role in fetal survival through maturation of red blood cells. In this study, we screened the porcine EPOR gene for mutations and identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two missense mutations and one synonymous mutation. We then genotyped 272 Beijing Black sows, Sus scrofa, and compared this data with litter sizes from a total of 1523 parities among the sows. The G allele of the nonsynonymous SNP, EPOR c.434A>G, was associated with greater litter size at both first parity (P < 0.05) and at later parities (P < 0.01). This SNP causes His92Arg adjacent to the fourth conserved cysteine residue in the mature protein and is in the D1 domain of the protein. Additionally, we determined the allele frequencies for this SNP among six Chinese indigenous pig breeds (Bamei, Erhualian, Laiwu Black, Mashen, Meishan and Min) and three Western commercial pig breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Large White). The c.434G allele was significantly more common among the more prolific Chinese breeds than the Western breeds, implying that EPOR c.434A>G could be a useful genetic marker to improve litter size in swine.

  13. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  14. Response of pigmented porcine skin (Sus scrofa domestica) to single 3.8-micron laser radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, Anthony C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Winston, Golda C. H.

    2005-04-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of melanin on skin response to single 3.8 micron, eight microsecond laser pulses and the difference in lesion formation thresholds for input into laser safety standards. Williams et al., performed a study examining laser tissue interaction from 3.8-micron lasers in lightly pigmented Yorkshire pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). However, studies performed by Eggleston et al comparing pigmented and lightly pigmented skin with human skin found that the Yucatan mini-pig is a superior model for laser skin exposures. Methods: Five Yucatan mini-pigs under general anesthesia were exposed to 3.8 micron laser pulses ranging from 0.8 J/cm2 to 93 J/cm2. Gross examinations were done acutely and 24 hours after laser exposure. Skin biopsies were then collected at various times post exposure, and histologic examinations were conducted. Results: The 24 hour ED50 was determined to be 4.5 J/cm2 with fiducial limits of 6.2 and 2.2 J/cm2. As deposited energy was increased, the lesion presentation ranged from whitening of the epidermis (4 J/cm2) to whitening with inflammatory centers (14 J/cm2), and at the highest energy levels inflammatory areas were replaced with an epidermal ulcerated central area (>21 J/cm2). Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest pigmentation or melanin may play a minor role in the mechanism of laser-tissue damage. The ED50 of Yorkshire pigs was 2.6 J/cm2. The ED50 of the Yucatan mini-pig was found to be 3.6 J/cm2, and although it was higher, it is still within the 95% fiducial limits.

  15. Long-Term Evaluation of a Selective Retrograde Coronary Venous Perfusion Model in Pigs (Sus Scrofa Domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Harig, Frank; Schmidt, Joachim; Hoyer, Evelyn; Eckl, Sebastian; Adamek, Edytha; Ertel, Dirk; Nooh, Ehab; Amann, Kerstin; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2011-01-01

    The lack of suitable target vessels remains a challenge for aortocoronary bypass grafting in end-stage coronary heart disease. This study aimed to investigate the arterialization of cardiac veins as an alternative myocardial revascularization strategy in an experimental long-term model in pigs. Selective retrograde perfusion of a coronary vein (aorta to coronary vein bypass, retrobypass) before ligation of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis (equivalent to the left anterior descending artery in humans) was performed in 20 German Landrace pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). Retroperfusion of the left anterior descending vein was performed in 10 pigs (RP+) but not in the other 10 (RP–), and the vena cordis magna was ligated (L+) in 5 pigs in each of these groups but left open (L–) in the remaining animals. Hemodynamic performance (for example, cardiac output) was significantly better in the group that underwent selective retroperfusion with proximal ligation of vena cordis magna (RP+L+; 4.1 L/min) compared with the other groups (RP+L–, 2.5 L/min; RP–L+, 2.2 L/min; RP–L–, 1.9 L/min). Long-term survival was significantly better in RP+L+ pigs (112 ± 16 d) than in all other groups. Histologic follow-up studies showed significantly less necrosis in the RP+L+ group compared with all other groups. Venous retroperfusion is an effective technique to achieve long-term survival after acute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in a pig model. In this model, proximal ligation of vena cordis magna is essential. PMID:21535926

  16. [The feral pig (Sus scrofa, Suidae) in Cocos Island, Costa Rica: composition of its diet, reproductive state and genetics].

    PubMed

    Sierra, C

    2001-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) cause different kinds of damage specially on oceanic islands. Pigs were introduced at Cocos Island, Costa Rica, during 1793 and bred successfully. I analyzed feral pigs diet, reproductive state, genetics and the effects of predation, in order to gather data on their ecology and impact on certain Cocos Island communities. The diet was studied, during a dry and a wet period, through stomach contents. The genetic variability was determined through PCR analysis on tissue samples which were taken from feral (Cocos Island) and domestic (mainland) pig ear-lobes. Pigs at Cocos were omnivorous, the most important diet category in both seasons was fruits. More pigs consumed fruits during the wet season but the fruits did occupy more somuch volume during the dry season. Feral pigs did not disperse exotic seeds nor prey on animal endemic species. 56% of the hunted pigs were males and 44% were females. From females in reproductive age, 46% were pregnant or suckling, and the average number of fetuses in a litter was 4.4. I confirmed a reproductive peak during January/February but could not demonstrate a reproductive peak during June/July. The low fetuses number per litter could be related with some levels of stress. The genetic variability for all the evaluated parameters within the feral population was low but not as low as expected. I suggest a compensatory mechanism were the inbreeding depression reduces consanguinity and a species susceptible to stocastic, demographic or environmental factors turns to be an adapted species with high resilience.

  17. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  18. Wild boar: an increasing concern for Aujeszky's disease control in pigs?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was describing the temporal evolution of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) contact prevalence among Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations under different management regimes and contact likelihoods with domestic pigs. Given the recent increase in wild boar abundance throughout Europe, we hypothesized that wild boar contact with ADV would remain stable in time even after significant reduction of ADV prevalence in domestic pigs. Results Sera from 1659 wild boar were collected from 2000 to 2010 within 6 areas of the Iberian Peninsula and tested for the presence of antibodies against ADV by ELISA. According to sampling date, wild boar were grouped into three time periods. ADV prevalence was compared through period both globally and by geographic area. Overall seroprevalence for the ten-year study period was 49.6 ± 2.4%. The highest seroprevalence was recorded in areas with intense wild boar management. The annual proportion of positive wild boar sampling sites remained stable through the study period, while the percentage of domestic pig AD positive counties decreased from 70% in 2003 to 1.7% in 2010. Conclusions Results presented herein confirmed our hypothesis that ADV would remain almost stable in wild boar populations. This evidences the increasing risk wild boar pose in the final stages of ADV eradication in pigs and for wildlife conservation. PMID:22251441

  19. Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe. PMID:24010539

  20. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. J.; Lindsay, D. S.; Sriranganathan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are indigenous in many countries in the world. These free-living swine are known reservoirs for a number of viruses, bacteria and parasites that are transmissible to domestic animals and humans. Changes of human habitation to suburban areas, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, increased hunting activities and consumption of wild boar meat have increased the chances of exposure of wild boars to domestic animals and humans. Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. For examples, wild boars are reservoirs for hepatitis E virus, and cluster cases of hepatitis E have been reported in Japan of humans who consumed wild boar meat. In Canada, an outbreak of trichinellosis was linked to the consumption of wild boar meat. The incidence of tuberculosis owing to Mycobacterium bovis has increased in wild boars, thus posing a potential concern for infections in livestock and humans. It has also been documented that six hunters contracted Brucella suis infections from wild swine in Florida. This article discusses the prevalence and risk of infectious agents in wild boars and their potential transmission to livestock and humans. PMID:19687039

  1. Comparison of post-thaw DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa assessed with the neutral comet assay and Sperm-Sus Halomax test kit.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Parda, A; Filipowicz, K; Strzeżek, J

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether the neutral Comet assay (NCA) and the Sperm-Sus-Halomax (SSH) test kit could provide similar measurements of post-thaw DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa. Whole ejaculates or sperm-rich fractions of boar semen were frozen in an extender containing lactose, lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo), glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G) or in a standard boar semen extender (K3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. In all boars, both the NCA and SSH test showed similar levels of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation in samples of the same ejaculates, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure and extender. Yet, the levels of post-thaw sperm DNA damage, detected by the NCA and SSH test, were more accentuated in spermatozoa frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. Both the NCA and SSH detected variations among individual boars in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation. Agreement between the measurements of the NCA and SSH was confirmed by scatter plots of differences, suggesting that the DNA integrity tests could detect the same sperm populations, which were susceptible to cryo-induced DNA damage. The findings of this study indicate that the NCA and the SSH test are effective in detecting similar levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and reinforce their importance in the assessment of frozen-thawed boar semen quality.

  2. An RNA-based analysis of changes in biodiversity indices in response to Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, R C; Ralebitso-Senior, T K; Thompson, T J U

    2014-08-01

    Despite emergent research initiatives, significant knowledge gaps remain of soil microbiology-associated cadaver decomposition. Nevertheless, preliminary studies have shown that the vast diversity and complex interactions of soil microbial communities have great potential for forensic applications such as clandestine grave location and postmortem interval estimation. This study investigated changes in soil bacterial communities during pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) leg decomposition. 16S rRNA, instead of the usually applied 16S rDNA marker, was used to compare the metabolically active bacteria. Total bacterial RNA was extracted from soil samples of three different layers on day 3, 28 and 77 after the shallow burial of a pig leg. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA was amplified, analysed by RT-PCR DGGE, and compared with control soil bacterial community profiles. Statistically significant differences in soil bacterial biodiversity were observed. For the control, bacterial diversity (H') and species richness (S) of the three layers averaged 2.48±0.14 (H') and 18.8±2.5 (S), respectively, while for the test soil increases (p=0.027) were recorded between day 3 (H'=2.71±0.02; S=21.3±2.0) and 28 (H'=3.46±0.32; S=60.3±16.9), particularly in the middle (10-20 cm) and bottom (20-30 cm) soil layers. Between day 28 and 77 the diversity and richness then decreased on average for all three layers (H'=3.43±0.20; S=60.0±17.3) but remained higher than on day 3. Thus, responses in soil bacterial profiles and activity to carcass decomposition, detected and characterised by RNA-based DGGE, could be used together with RNA sequencing data, changes in physico-chemical variables (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, temperature, redox potential, water activity and pH) and conventional macroecology markers (e.g. insects and vegetation), to develop a suite of analytical protocols for different forensic scenarios.

  3. Historical Relationships among Wild Boar Populations of the Ryukyu Archipelago and Other Eurasian regions, as Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Saka; Mimura, Makiko; Watanabe, Shin; Lin, Liang-Kong; Ota, Hidetoshi; Mizoguchi, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    The Ryukyu wild boar (Sus scrofa riukiuanus) is an endemic, morphologically defined subspecies of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) found on five islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago (a group of small islands stretching from mainland Japan to Taiwan). Two hypothetical scenarios have been proposed regarding the origin of the current Ryukyu wild boar populations: 1) natural dispersal and 2) transportation and subsequent release by prehistoric humans. To test these two hypotheses, we compared the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence (1140 base pairs) in 352 individual wild boar samples that included representatives of all five insular populations of the Ryukyu wild boar and populations of other conspecific subspecies in insular East and Southeast Asia and the Eurasian Continent. A total of 68 haplotypes were recognized, of which 12 were unique to the Ryukyu wild boar populations. The results of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses supported monophyly of the five Ryukyu populations (posterior probability value of 92), confirming the validity of the subspecies as a natural group. Coalescent analysis estimated the divergence times between the Ryukyu wild boar and the other conspecific subspecies as 144-465 thousand years ago (Kya), with a 95% HPD (highest posterior density) range of 51-837 Kya, and with no significant migration. Taking the broadly accepted date of initial human migration to the Ryukyus (no earlier than 50 Kya) into consideration, our results strongly suggest that the ancestral form of the Ryukyu wild boar first entered the Ryukyu Archipelago by natural dispersal prior to the arrival of prehistoric humans.

  4. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially (134)Cs and (137)Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The (134)Cs and (137)Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident.

  5. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134Cs and 137Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134Cs and 137Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134Cs and 137Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  6. Pre-birth sense of smell in the wild boar: the ontogeny of the olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Fulgione, Domenico; Trapanese, Martina; Buglione, Maria; Rippa, Daniela; Polese, Gianluca; Maresca, Viviana; Maselli, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    Animals recognize their surrounding environments through the sense of smell by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) completely depend on their ability to recognize chemical odorants: to detect food, during scavenging and searching partners, during breeding periods and to avoid potential predators. Wild piglets must be prepared for the chemical universe that they will enter after birth, and they show intense neuronal activity in the olfactory mucosa. With this in mind, we investigated the morpho-functional embryonic development of the olfactory mucosa in the wild boar (in five stages before birth). Using mRNA expression analysis of olfactory marker protein and neuropeptide Y, involved in the function of olfactory sensory neurons, we show early activation of the appropriate genes in the wild boar. We hypothesize olfactory pre-birth development in wild boar is highly adaptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R 0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  8. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar. PMID:26594202

  9. Genetic parameters for androstenone, skatole, indole, and human nose scores as measures of boar taint and their relationship with finishing traits.

    PubMed

    Windig, J J; Mulder, H A; Ten Napel, J; Knol, E F; Mathur, P K; Crump, R E

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate measures of boar (Sus scrofa) taint as potential selection criteria to reduce boar taint so that castration of piglets will become unnecessary. Therefore, genetic parameters of boar taint measures and their genetic correlations with finishing traits were estimated. In particular, the usefulness of a human panel assessing boar taint (human nose score) was compared with chemical assessment of boar taint compounds, androstenone, skatole, and indole. Heritability estimates for androstenone, skatole, and indole were 0.54, 0.41, and 0.33, respectively. The heritability for the human nose score using multiple panelists was 0.12, and ranged from 0.12 to 0.19 for individual panelists. Genetic correlations between scores of panelists were generally high up to unity. The genetic correlations between human nose scores and the boar taint compounds ranged from 0.64 to 0.999. The boar taint compounds and human nose scores had low or favorable genetic correlations with finishing traits. Selection index estimates indicated that the effectiveness of a breeding program based on human nose scores can be comparable to a breeding program based on the boar taint compounds themselves. Human nose scores can thus be used as a cheap and fast alternative for the costly determination of boar taint compounds, needed in breeding pigs without boar taint.

  10. Oral re-vaccination of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium bovis BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Field vaccination trials with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, an attenuated mutant of M. bovis, are ongoing in Spain, where the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is regarded as the main driver of animal tuberculosis (TB). The oral baiting strategy consists in deploying vaccine baits twice each summer, in order to gain access to a high proportion of wild boar piglets. The aim of this study was to assess the response of wild boar to re-vaccination with BCG and to subsequent challenge with an M. bovis field strain. Results BCG re-vaccinated wild boar showed reductions of 75.8% in lesion score and 66.9% in culture score, as compared to unvaccinated controls. Only one of nine vaccinated wild boar had a culture-confirmed lung infection, as compared to seven of eight controls. Serum antibody levels were highly variable and did not differ significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. Gamma IFN levels differed significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. The mRNA levels for IL-1b, C3 and MUT were significantly higher in vaccinated wild boar when compared to controls after vaccination and decreased after mycobacterial challenge. Conclusions Oral re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain. Moreover, re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG is not counterproductive. These findings are relevant given that re-vaccination is likely to happen under real (field) conditions. PMID:24766746

  11. A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

  12. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Mateja; Žolnir-Dovč, Manca; Kušar, Darja; Krt, Brane; Špičić, Silvio; Cvetnić, Željko; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis). In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease. PMID:21647336

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in wild boars in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bártová, E; Sedlák, K; Literák, I

    2006-11-30

    Sera collected from hunter-killed wild boars (Sus scrofa) during 1999-2005 from seven different regions of the Czech Republic were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescence antibody test and to Neospora caninum by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by indirect fluorescence antibody test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 148 (26.2%) of 565 wild boars with serum dilutions of 1:40 in 40, 1:80 in 40, 1:160 in 27, 1:320 in 19, 1:640 in 18 and 1:1280 in 4 wild boars. Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in 102 (18.1%) of 565 wild boars with 30.1-94.6% inhibition in ELISA; statistical significant differences were observed between sampling regions, ranging from 0% to 31.8%. Sera, positive in ELISA, were examined in IFAT; 58 of 102 (56.9%) were positive with titres 1:40-1:160. Mixed infection (concurrent presence of both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies) was found in 38 wild boars. It is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in wild boar. Serological results indicate a common exposure to T. gondii and to N. caninum among wild boars in the Czech Republic.

  14. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  15. A Comparison of Proximal Tibia, Proximal Humerus and Distal Femur Infusion Rates of Blood Under High Pressure Using the EX IO Intraosseous Device in the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa) Hypovolemic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-25

    of Blood Under High Pressure Using the EZ IO Intraosseous Device on the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa) hypovolemic Model.” 4. Principal Investigator... hypovolemic period and decreased after infusion of blood. In the femur arm the serum lactate increased until the experiment ended. Histopathologic...vascular resistance in our pilot, dose-finding hemorrhagic shock swine model. The blood pressure response paralleled increasing drug dose

  16. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future.

  17. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A.F.; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  18. Determining the persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish in select tissues of orally vaccinated feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.).

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Rhyan, Jack C; McCollum, Matt P; Triantis, Joni M; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Salman, Mo D

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for vaccination of feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.). Since BCG is a live bacterium, evaluation of its safety and persistence in tissues is important. Fifteen feral swine received approximately 4.5 × 10(6) colony forming units of BCG Danish via oral bait. Four animals received bait without BCG. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months post-vaccination, four vaccinates were euthanized. Non-vaccinates were euthanized at 9 months. Clinical signs were not noted in vaccinated pigs at any time. Tissues from all 20 pigs were culture-negative for mycobacteria. Based on our data, BCG is safe and appears not to persist in feral swine tissues after one month post-oral vaccination. However, further work must be performed at higher doses, and on a larger number of animals representing the target population, and further evaluation of persistence in tissues within the first month post-vaccination is needed.

  19. Functional characterization of a novel lytic phage EcSw isolated from Sus scrofa domesticus and its potential for phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Easwaran, Maheswaran; Paudel, Sarita; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli Sw1 (E. coli Sw1) and active lytic phage EcSw was isolated from feces samples of Sus scrofa domesticus (piglet) suffering from diarrhea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that isolated EcSw belongs to the Myoviridae family with an icosahedral head (80 ± 4) and a long tail (180 ± 5 nm). The EcSw phage genome size was estimated to be approximately 75 Kb of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Phage dynamic studies show that the latent period and burst size of EcSw were approximately 20 min and 28 PFU per cell, respectively. Interestingly, the EcSw phage can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH and ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). Furthermore, genome sequence analysis revealed that the lytic genes of the EcSw phage are notably similar to those of enterobacteria phages. In addition, phage-antibiotic synergy has notable effects compared with the effects of phages or antibiotics alone. Inhibition of E. coli Sw1 and 0157:H7 strains showed that the limitations of host specificity and infectivity of EcSw. Even though, it has considerable potential for phage therapy for handling the problem of the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs highlights their spatio-temporal expression patterns and evolutional conservation in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhonglin; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yalan; Yang, Yu-Cheng T; Wang, Zishuai; Yuan, Jiapei; Yang, Yang; Hua, Chaoju; Fan, Xinhao; Niu, Guanglin; Zhang, Yubo; Lu, Zhi John; Li, Kui

    2017-02-24

    Despite modest sequence conservation and rapid evolution, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) appear to be conserved in expression pattern and function. However, analysis of lncRNAs across tissues and developmental stages remains largely uncharacterized in mammals. Here, we systematically investigated the lncRNAs of the Guizhou miniature pig (Sus scrofa), which was widely used as biomedical model. We performed RNA sequencing across 9 organs and 3 developmental skeletal muscle, and developed a filtering pipeline to identify 10,813 lncRNAs (9,075 novel). Conservation patterns analysis revealed that 57% of pig lncRNAs showed homology to humans and mice based on genome alignment. 5,455 lncRNAs exhibited typical hallmarks of regulatory molecules, such as high spatio-temporal specificity. Notably, conserved lncRNAs exhibited higher tissue specificity than pig-specific lncRNAs and were significantly enriched in testis and ovary. Weighted co-expression network analysis revealed a set of conserved lncRNAs that are likely involved in postnatal muscle development. Based on the high degree of similarity in the structure, organization, and dynamic expression of pig lncRNAs compared with human and mouse lncRNAs, we propose that these lncRNAs play an important role in organ physiology and development in mammals. Our results provide a resource for studying animal evolution, morphological complexity, breeding, and biomedical research.

  1. Genome-wide identification, classification and functional analyses of the bHLH transcription factor family in the pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wuyi

    2015-08-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest families of gene regulatory proteins and play crucial roles in genetic, developmental and physiological processes in eukaryotes. Here, we conducted a survey of the Sus scrofa genome and identified 109 putative bHLH transcription factor members belonging to super-groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while four members were orphan genes. We identified 6 most significantly enriched KEGG pathways and 116 most significant GO annotation categories. Further comprehensive surveys in human genome and other 12 medical databases identified 72 significantly enriched biological pathways with these 113 pig bHLH transcription factors. From the functional protein association network analysis 93 hub proteins were identified and 55 hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within their protein families. Especially, there were 20 hub proteins found highly connected in the functional interaction network. The present study deepens our understanding and provided insights into the evolution and functional aspects of animal bHLH proteins and should serve as a solid foundation for further for analyses of specific bHLH transcription factors in the pig and other mammals.

  2. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph

    1992-07-01

    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  3. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite.

  4. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs highlights their spatio-temporal expression patterns and evolutional conservation in Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhonglin; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yalan; Yang, Yu-Cheng T.; Wang, Zishuai; Yuan, Jiapei; Yang, Yang; Hua, Chaoju; Fan, Xinhao; Niu, Guanglin; Zhang, Yubo; Lu, Zhi John; Li, Kui

    2017-01-01

    Despite modest sequence conservation and rapid evolution, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) appear to be conserved in expression pattern and function. However, analysis of lncRNAs across tissues and developmental stages remains largely uncharacterized in mammals. Here, we systematically investigated the lncRNAs of the Guizhou miniature pig (Sus scrofa), which was widely used as biomedical model. We performed RNA sequencing across 9 organs and 3 developmental skeletal muscle, and developed a filtering pipeline to identify 10,813 lncRNAs (9,075 novel). Conservation patterns analysis revealed that 57% of pig lncRNAs showed homology to humans and mice based on genome alignment. 5,455 lncRNAs exhibited typical hallmarks of regulatory molecules, such as high spatio-temporal specificity. Notably, conserved lncRNAs exhibited higher tissue specificity than pig-specific lncRNAs and were significantly enriched in testis and ovary. Weighted co-expression network analysis revealed a set of conserved lncRNAs that are likely involved in postnatal muscle development. Based on the high degree of similarity in the structure, organization, and dynamic expression of pig lncRNAs compared with human and mouse lncRNAs, we propose that these lncRNAs play an important role in organ physiology and development in mammals. Our results provide a resource for studying animal evolution, morphological complexity, breeding, and biomedical research. PMID:28233874

  6. First reports of pseudorabies and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) associated with an emerging feral swine (Sus scrofa) population in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Musante, Anthony R; Pedersen, Kerri; Hall, Parker

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of feral swine (Sus scrofa) populations into new geographic regions is of concern not only due to increased range but also because they carry diseases and parasites that pose a threat to humans, livestock, and wildlife into new areas. Recently, emerging feral swine populations have been reported in the northeastern US and due to their adaptive nature will likely continue to spread. During 2009-2012, 49 feral swine were removed from three counties in New Hampshire. Of these, serum samples were submitted from 34 for disease surveillance testing. One of the feral swine was antibody-positive for pseudorabies virus (PRV) making it the first documented infection in feral swine in New Hampshire. Infestations of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were also documented on two of the feral swine which had only been reported previously on feral swine in Texas. Feral swine may not only serve as an important host for an economically important commercial swine pathogen like PRV, but they could also increase host diversity for parasites such as the winter tick, a species that can regionally impact moose (Alces alces) survival. These findings warrant further investigation of expanding and established feral swine populations in New Hampshire as pathogen hosts and support continued effort to reduce numbers or regionally eradicate feral swine.

  7. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) sensitive to the attentive states of humans?--The impact of impulsivity on choice behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that apes, dogs and horses seem to be able to attribute attentive states to humans. Subjects had to choose between two persons: one who was able to see the animal and one who was not. Using a similar paradigm, we tested a species that does not rely strongly on visual cues, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Subjects could choose between two unfamiliar persons, with only one showing attention, in three different conditions (body, head away, body turned - head front). Subjects (n=16) only showed a tendency towards the attentive human in the head away condition. However, by pooling those two conditions where the position of the human head was the only salient cue, we found a significant preference for the attentive person. Moreover, two approach styles could be distinguished - an impulsive style with short response times and a non-impulsive style where response times were relatively long. With the second approach style, pigs chose the attentive person significantly more often than expected by chance level, which was not the case when subjects chose impulsively. These first results suggest that pigs are able to use head cues to discriminate between different attentive states of humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar. PMID:22848869

  10. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Žele, Diana; Barry, Aline F; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W; Vengušt, Gorazd; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serology, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by HEV RNA detection using a real-time PCR assay. Antibodies against HEV were detected in 30.2% (87/288) of animals tested, whereas HEV RNA was detected in only one sample. This is the first evidence of HEV presence in the wild boar population in Slovenia, and these results suggest that these animals are part of the HEV epidemiological cycle in the country.

  11. Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects.

  12. Effects of Various Anesthetic Protocols on 18F-Flurodeoxyglucose Uptake into the Brains and Hearts of Normal Miniature Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Jae-Won; Cho, Yoon Ju; Lee, Byeong Han; Chung, Hyun Woo; Park, Keun-Kyu; Han, Jin Soo

    2012-01-01

    This study used positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT) to evaluate the effects of 4 anesthetic protocols on 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulation in the brains and hearts of miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). The 18F-FDG standard uptake value was quantified by dividing the brain into 6 regions: cerebellum, brainstem, and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Five (2 female and 3 male) clinically normal miniature pigs were premedicated with medetomidine (200 μg/kg IM) after which the following 4 anesthetic protocols were administered by using a crossover design: 1) propofol (4 mg/kg IV)–isoflurane inhalation; 2) propofol (4 mg/kg IV); 3) ketamine (5 mg/kg IV); 4) tiletamine–zolazepam (4.4 mg/kg IM). Compared with levels after other protocols, brain accumulation of 18F-FDG increased during propofol anesthesia but decreased with tiletamine–zolazepam. Relative to that due to other protocols, heart accumulation of 18F-FDG increased with propofol–isoflurane anesthesia but decreased with tiletamine–zolazepam. Comparing glucose accumulation in the brain and heart of miniature pigs by using PET–CT, we found that glucose accumulation varied according to the anesthetic protocol and between the 2 organs. These results can be used to evaluate how different anesthetic agents affect glucose metabolism in brain and heart of miniature pigs. Furthermore, these data should be considered when selecting an anesthetic agent for miniature pigs that will undergo PET–CT imaging with 18F-FDG. PMID:22776126

  13. Utilization of Sugarcane Habitat by Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) in Northern Tropical Queensland: Evidence from the Stable Isotope Composition of Hair

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Christopher M.; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A.; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally ‘crop raid’ into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ13C and δ15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  14. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  15. Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar.

    PubMed

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Ribeiro, Bruno R; Hayward, Matt Warrington; Paglia, Adriano; Passamani, Marcelo; Loyola, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and

  16. Demographic history, current expansion and future management challenges of wild boar populations in the Balkans and Europe.

    PubMed

    Veličković, N; Ferreira, E; Djan, M; Ernst, M; Obreht Vidaković, D; Monaco, A; Fonseca, C

    2016-11-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the most widespread wildlife species, has entered a stage of continuous growth in Europe, and could even be considered a pest species. We analysed microsatellite variability in 723 wild boars from across Europe, including the northern Dinaric Balkans. Our aims were: (1) to define the population structure of wild boars in the Balkans and its relation with other European populations; (2) to estimate effective populations sizes, levels of intra- and inter-population diversity, inbreeding migration and gene flow patterns; (3) to test subpopulations for bottlenecks; (4) to interpret these results in light of current knowledge about the demographic history of wild boars in Europe; and (5) to discuss the relevance of these findings for management and conservation. Strong population structuring was observed and 14 subpopulations were revealed. High genetic diversity was found, and besides the well-known identity of the Italian populations of Sardinia and Castelporziano, we bring new insights into other potential relevant, refugial populations such as Littoral Slovenia, South Portugal, North-western Iberia and an entire cluster in the Balkans. There was evidence of gene flow going from these refugial subpopulations towards less peripheral and more admixed subpopulations. Recent population bottlenecks and expansions were detected, mostly in the peninsular refuge subpopulations. The results are consistent with the fluctuations of wild boar numbers in Europe since the beginning of the twentieth century. These results should be taken into account in future conservation and management plans for wild boar populations in Europe.

  17. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: wild boar as a case study.

    PubMed

    Gamelon, Marlène; Besnard, Aurélien; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Servanty, Sabrina; Baubet, Eric; Brandt, Serge; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality.

  18. A survey of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome among wild boar populations in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Jin; Lee, Chang-Hee; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Kim, Jae-Jo; Lim, Seong-In; Song, Jae-Young

    2012-01-01

    No information is currently available on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Korea. In this study, the status of PRRS in wild boars was investigated. Blood samples were collected from 267 wild boars from eight provinces in Korea. Four of the samples tested (1.5%) were positive for PRRSV antibodies and eight (3.0%) were positive for antigens. Of the virus-positive samples, three and five samples were typed as containing European (EU, type 1) or North American (NA, type 2) viruses, respectively. Two amplicons (one from type 1 and one from type 2) were used to analyze the PRRSV open reading frame 7 (ORF7) sequence. The nucleotide sequences of type 1 PRRSV ORF7 had identities between 96.1% and 98.4% with PRRSVs from domestic pigs in Korea. The sequences of type 2 PRRSV ORF7 had identities of 100% with the PRRSV strain VR-2332, which was prototypic North American strain. These results show that PRRSVs are present in wild boars in Korea, and effective PRRSV surveillance of the wild boar population might therefore be useful for disease control. PMID:23271179

  19. Trophic discrimination factors of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in hair of corn fed wild boar.

    PubMed

    Holá, Michaela; Ježek, Miloš; Kušta, Tomáš; Košatová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope measurements are increasingly being used to gain insights into the nutritional ecology of many wildlife species and their role in ecosystem structure and function. Such studies require estimations of trophic discrimination factors (i.e. differences in the isotopic ratio between the consumer and its diet). Although trophic discrimination factors are tissue- and species-specific, researchers often rely on generalized, and fixed trophic discrimination factors that have not been experimentally derived. In this experimental study, captive wild boar (Sus scrofa) were fed a controlled diet of corn (Zea mays), a popular and increasingly dominant food source for wild boar in the Czech Republic and elsewhere in Europe, and trophic discrimination factors for stable carbon (Δ13C) and nitrogen (Δ15N) isotopes were determined from hair samples. The mean Δ13C and Δ15N in wild boar hair were -2.3‰ and +3.5‰, respectively. Also, in order to facilitate future derivations of isotopic measurements along wild boar hair, we calculated the average hair growth rate to be 1.1 mm d(-1). Our results serve as a baseline for interpreting isotopic patterns of free-ranging wild boar in current European agricultural landscapes. However, future research is needed in order to provide a broader understanding of the processes underlying the variation in trophic discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen across of variety of diet types.

  20. Trophic Discrimination Factors of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes in Hair of Corn Fed Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Holá, Michaela; Ježek, Miloš; Kušta, Tomáš; Košatová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope measurements are increasingly being used to gain insights into the nutritional ecology of many wildlife species and their role in ecosystem structure and function. Such studies require estimations of trophic discrimination factors (i.e. differences in the isotopic ratio between the consumer and its diet). Although trophic discrimination factors are tissue- and species- specific, researchers often rely on generalized, and fixed trophic discrimination factors that have not been experimentally derived. In this experimental study, captive wild boar (Sus scrofa) were fed a controlled diet of corn (Zea mays), a popular and increasingly dominant food source for wild boar in the Czech Republic and elsewhere in Europe, and trophic discrimination factors for stable carbon (Δ13C) and nitrogen (Δ15N) isotopes were determined from hair samples. The mean Δ13C and Δ15N in wild boar hair were –2.3 ‰ and +3.5 ‰, respectively. Also, in order to facilitate future derivations of isotopic measurements along wild boar hair, we calculated the average hair growth rate to be 1.1 mm d-1. Our results serve as a baseline for interpreting isotopic patterns of free-ranging wild boar in current European agricultural landscapes. However, future research is needed in order to provide a broader understanding of the processes underlying the variation in trophic discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen across of variety of diet types. PMID:25915400

  1. Contact Zone of Asian and European Wild Boar at North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Parinaz; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Fadakar, Davoud; Serati, Malihe; Aliabadian, Mansour; Haile, James; Goshtasb, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed throughout the Old World. Most studies have focused on Europe and East Asia with the genetic diversity of West Asia being less well studied. In particular, the genetic variability and genetic structure of the Iranian populations are not yet known; gaps which prevent scientists from resolving the genetic relationships of the Eurasian wild boar. This paper is the first attempt to provide information about genetic relationships among modern Iranian populations of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) by sequencing 572 bp of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region. As a result of this investigation, it was discovered that Iran contains not only Middle Eastern haplotypes, but also shares haplotypes with Europe and East Asia. The Italian clade, which is endemic in Italy, is not identified in Iran, while all other clades, including Asiatic, European, Near East 1, and Near East 2 are found based on the phylogenetic tree and median-joining network. The results of this study illustrate that north west of Iran (specifically Southwest Caspian Sea) is the contact zone between the Asian (Near Eastern and Far Eastern), and the European clades. In light of the fact that the domestication of pigs occurs in Anatolia, this finding is important. PMID:27442074

  2. Contact Zone of Asian and European Wild Boar at North West of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khalilzadeh, Parinaz; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Fadakar, Davoud; Serati, Malihe; Aliabadian, Mansour; Haile, James; Goshtasb, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed throughout the Old World. Most studies have focused on Europe and East Asia with the genetic diversity of West Asia being less well studied. In particular, the genetic variability and genetic structure of the Iranian populations are not yet known; gaps which prevent scientists from resolving the genetic relationships of the Eurasian wild boar. This paper is the first attempt to provide information about genetic relationships among modern Iranian populations of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) by sequencing 572 bp of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region. As a result of this investigation, it was discovered that Iran contains not only Middle Eastern haplotypes, but also shares haplotypes with Europe and East Asia. The Italian clade, which is endemic in Italy, is not identified in Iran, while all other clades, including Asiatic, European, Near East 1, and Near East 2 are found based on the phylogenetic tree and median-joining network. The results of this study illustrate that north west of Iran (specifically Southwest Caspian Sea) is the contact zone between the Asian (Near Eastern and Far Eastern), and the European clades. In light of the fact that the domestication of pigs occurs in Anatolia, this finding is important.

  3. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  4. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  5. Chronic effects of lead (Pb) on bone properties in red deer and wild boar: relationship with vitamins A and D3.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-03-01

    Here we study the occurrence of abnormalities on bone tissue composition and turnover mechanisms through the Pb-mediated disruption of vitamins A and D in wild ungulates living in a lead (Pb)-polluted mining area. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the mining area had significantly higher liver and bone Pb levels than controls, which were associated with the depletion of liver retinyl esters and the corresponding increase of free retinol levels both in deer and boar from the mining area. Pb-exposed adult deer had lower carbonate content in bone mineral than controls, which was associated with the increased free retinol percentage. In wild boar, the degree of bone mineralization was also positively associated with higher burdens of retinyl esters. These results suggest that Pb-associated changes in bone composition and mineralization is likely influenced by the depletion of vitamin A in wildlife exposed to environmental Pb pollution.

  6. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Mario; Cortinovis, Cristina; Bertoletti, Marco; Alborali, Loris; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Ferretti, Enrica; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of Cd, Pb and organochlorine pesticides were determined. Comparing the two species, Cd concentration in the kidney (3.72 mg/kg), liver (0.67 mg/kg) and muscle (0.02 mg/kg) of wild boar was found to be significantly higher than in the organs of red deer (1.02 mg/kg in the kidneys, 0.07 mg/kg in the liver and 0.006 mg/kg in muscle). Mean Pb concentrations were found to be similar in both animals, with 0.39, 0.52 and 2.60 mg/kg detected in the wild boar kidney, liver and muscle, respectively, and 0.24, 0.21 and 2.04 mg/kg in the respective organs of the red deer. No difference in concentrations were found based on age class, location of tissue sample or contaminant in the case of wild boar. By contrast, a significantly lower Cd concentration was found in the kidney of the young red deer. The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans.

  8. Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp., a common parasite from wild boar in Kyushu Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uni, S; Bain, O; Takaoka, H; Miyashita, M; Suzuki, Y

    2001-09-01

    We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. This study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. Compared with Onchocerca dewittei dewittei from Sus scrofa jubatus in Malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. In addition, its microfilariae (from uteri) are shorter (192-210 microns compared with 228-247 microns), and only the posterior third of the microfilarial body is coiled, instead of the entire body. The Onchocerca species parasitic in suids (these two subspecies and O. ramachandrini from the warthog in the Ethiopian region) form a group sharing several characters. Among the most unusual characters are the body swellings (a specialized apparatus for mating, known in only a few other genera). In addition, longitudinal cuticular crests were found on males of both subspecies from wild boar and on females of O. ramachandrini.

  9. Detection of antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus in raccoons, raccoon dogs and wild boars in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshito; Sato, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Uni, Shigehiko; Shibasaki, Takahiro; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Kai, Kazushige; Maeda, Ken

    2009-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infects numerous animal species including humans, horses and pigs. In this study, antibodies against JEV in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor), wild boars (Sus scrofa) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan were examined. The results showed that 40.7% (22 out of 54), 64.5% (40 out of 62), 69.1% (47 out of 68) and 0% (0 out of 20) of raccoons in Hyogo, Osaka, Wakayama and Hokkaido, respectively, had virus-neutralizing antibodies against JEV. In addition, 83.3% (30 out of 36) of wild boars and 63.2% (12 out of 19) of raccoon dogs in Wakayama were seropositive for JEV. There were no significant differences in seroprevalence of JEV between males and females or between adults and juveniles in these wild animals. JEV seroprevalence was compared between 37 raccoons and 30 wild boars captured in a limited period (November 2007 to February 2008), and we found that wild boars (86.7%) were significantly more seropositive for JEV antibody than raccoons (59.5%). In conclusion, JEV was prevalent in wild mammals, indicating that the possibility of JEV infection in humans may still be high in Japan. In addition, these wild animals may be good sentinels to estimate JEV infection risk in residents, as they live near humans and are not vaccinated.

  10. Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?

    PubMed

    Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Martín-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, José Angel; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; González-Barrio, David; Vicente, Joaquín; Garrido, Joseba M.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts. PMID:24991567

  12. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for meat color on Sus scrofa chromosome 6: analysis of the swine NUDT7 gene.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Hayashi, T; Nii, M; Yamaguchi, T; Fujishima-Kanaya, N; Awata, T; Mikawa, S

    2010-01-01

    In the livestock industry, meat color has become important because consumer acceptance is subject to the appearance of the product in the marketplace. Our previous analyses of a whole genome QTL scan for various meat qualities using 2 F(2) families from Japanese wild boar (known as a red meat) x Large White and from Duroc x Chinese Jinhua suggested that a meat color (heme content) QTL is located on SSC6. The objective of this study was to fine-map this SSC6 meat color QTL and subsequently investigate positional candidate genes for polymorphisms that may cause changes in meat color. Therefore, we conducted interval mapping on SSC6 using an additional 9 gene markers through combined analyses of the 2 F(2) families of Japanese wild boar x Large White (353 progeny) and Duroc x Chinese Jinhua (204 progeny). Comparative analysis with humans, mice, and cattle suggested that there were 10 functional genes in the region. Among these genes, we suggested that a novel pig gene encoding a nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 7 (NUDT7, a member of the nudix hydrolases) is a strong candidate for the QTL because the mouse Nudt7 is reported to hydrolyze succinyl-CoA, a substrate of the reaction limiting the rate of heme biosynthesis. We therefore determined the pig NUDT7 gene sequence including the 5' promoter region and explored genetic polymorphisms between Japanese wild boar and Large White. We identified 116 polymorphisms within the NUDT7 CDS or in the 5' region. None of the AA substitutions were associated with the meat color QTL; however, 3 polymorphisms were found in putative transcription factor recognition sites. We then investigated the differential expression of NUDT7 in Japanese wild boar and Large White by allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR. The expression level of the Large White type allele was greater than that of the Japanese wild-boar-type allele. Consequently, we speculated that the difference in meat color between Japanese wild boar

  13. Pulsed resources and climate-induced variation in the reproductive traits of wild boar under high hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Sabrina, Servanty; Jean-Michel, Gaillard; Carole, Toïgo; Serge, Brandt; Eric, Baubet

    2009-11-01

    1. Identifying which factors influence age and size at maturity is crucial for a better understanding of the evolution of life-history strategies. In particular, populations intensively harvested, hunted or fished by humans often respond by displaying earlier age and decreased size at first reproduction. 2. Among ungulates wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) exhibit uncommon life-history traits, such as high fertility and early reproduction, which might increase the demographic impact of varying age at first reproduction. We analysed variation in female reproductive output from a 22-year long study of an intensively hunted population. We assessed how the breeding probability and the onset of oestrus responded to changes of female body mass at different ages under varying conditions of climate and food availability. 3. Wild boar females had to reach a threshold body mass (27-33 kg) before breeding for the first time. This threshold mass was relatively low (33-41% of adult body mass) compared to that reported in most other ungulates (about 80%). 4. Proportions of females breeding peaked when rainfall and temperature were low in spring and high in summer. Climatic conditions might act through the nutritional condition of females. The onset of oestrus varied a lot in relation to resources available at both current and previous years. Between none and up to 90% of females were in oestrus in November depending on the year. 5. Past and current resources accounted for equivalent amount of observed variations in proportions of females breeding. Thus, wild boar rank at an intermediate position along the capital-income continuum rather than close to the capital end where similar-sized ungulates rank. 6. Juvenile females made a major contribution to the yearly reproductive output. Comparisons among wild boar populations facing contrasted hunting pressures indicate that a high demographic contribution of juveniles is a likely consequence of a high hunting pressure rather than a

  14. Protection against Tuberculosis in Eurasian Wild Boar Vaccinated with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A.; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines. PMID:21935486

  15. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs.

  16. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  17. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Gassó, Diana; Vicente, Joaquín; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Soriguer, Ramón; Jiménez Rodríguez, Rocío; Navarro-González, Nora; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Segalés, Joaquim; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS) are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS). The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE); hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i) to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii) to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM) were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers) was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with

  18. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Gassó, Diana; Vicente, Joaquín; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Soriguer, Ramón; Jiménez Rodríguez, Rocío; Navarro-González, Nora; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Segalés, Joaquim; Serrano, Emmanuel

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS) are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS). The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE); hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i) to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii) to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM) were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers) was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with

  19. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in European wild boar.

    PubMed

    Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Barral, Marta; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian; Juste, Ramón A

    2008-11-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (< 3%), this assay showed a high potential for accurate diagnosis of TB in wild boar, as its large dynamic range supported a good discriminatory power and a satisfactory balance between sensitivity and specificity.

  20. A serosurvey for selected pathogens in Greek European wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Touloudi, A.; Valiakos, G.; Athanasiou, L. V.; Birtsas, P.; Giannakopoulos, A.; Papaspyropoulos, K.; Kalaitzis, C.; Sokos, C.; Tsokana, C. N.; Spyrou, V.; Petrovska, L.; Billinis, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Serum samples, collected from 94 European wild boar (Sus scrofa) during the hunting seasons 2006 -2010 from different regions of Greece, were examined in order to estimate the role of these wildlife species as reservoir of pathogens important for livestock and/or public health. Materials and Methods The assays used for this purpose were commercial indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (virus) (PRRSV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), influenza A (IA) virus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Salmonella species, Trichinella species and indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for the detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Results Antibodies against PCV-2, PRRSV, ADV, IA virus,A. pleuropneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae,Salmonella species, Trichinella species, T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 19.1 per cent, 12.8 per cent, 35.1 per cent, 1.1 per cent, 57.4 per cent, 0 per cent, 4.3 per cent, 6.4 per cent, 5.2 per cent and 1.1 per cent of the samples, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed a hot spot of seropositivity near Bulgarian border; seropositivity to ADV was more common among female animals. Conclusions These results indicate exposure of wild boar to most of the above-mentioned pathogens, raising concern about the possibility that these species may pose a significant health risk for livestock and/or humans. PMID:26392908

  1. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  2. Spatiotemporal interactions between wild boar and cattle: implications for cross-species disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Barasona, Jose A; Latham, M Cecilia; Acevedo, Pelayo; Armenteros, Jose A; Latham, A David M; Gortazar, Christian; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramon C; Vicente, Joaquin

    2014-12-12

    Controlling infectious diseases at the wildlife/livestock interface is often difficult because the ecological processes driving transmission between wildlife reservoirs and sympatric livestock populations are poorly understood. Thus, assessing how animals use their environment and how this affects interspecific interactions is an important factor in determining the local risk for disease transmission and maintenance. We used data from concurrently monitored GPS-collared domestic cattle and wild boar (Sus scrofa) to assess spatiotemporal interactions and associated implications for bovine tuberculosis (TB) transmission in a complex ecological and epidemiological system, Doñana National Park (DNP, South Spain). We found that fine-scale spatial overlap of cattle and wild boar was seasonally high in some habitats. In general, spatial interactions between the two species were highest in the marsh-shrub ecotone and at permanent water sources, whereas shrub-woodlands and seasonal grass-marshlands were areas with lower predicted relative interactions. Wild boar and cattle generally used different resources during winter and spring in DNP. Conversely, limited differences in resource selection during summer and autumn, when food and water availability were limiting, resulted in negligible spatial segregation and thus probably high encounter rates. The spatial gradient in potential overlap between the two species across DNP corresponded well with the spatial variation in the observed incidence of TB in cattle and prevalence of TB in wild boar. We suggest that the marsh-shrub ecotone and permanent water sources act as important points of TB transmission in our system, particularly during summer and autumn. Targeted management actions are suggested to reduce potential interactions between cattle and wild boar in order to prevent disease transmission and design effective control strategies.

  3. Long-lasting, kin-directed female interactions in a spatially structured wild boar social network.

    PubMed

    Podgórski, Tomasz; Lusseau, David; Scandura, Massimo; Sönnichsen, Leif; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can increase inclusive fitness benefits through a complex network of social interactions directed towards kin. Preferential relationships with relatives lead to the emergence of kin structures in the social system. Cohesive social groups of related individuals and female philopatry of wild boar create conditions for cooperation through kin selection and make the species a good biological model for studying kin structures. Yet, the role of kinship in shaping the social structure of wild boar populations is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of associations and the social network structure of the wild boar Sus scrofa population in Białowieża National Park, Poland, which offered a unique opportunity to understand wild boar social interactions away from anthropogenic factors. We used a combination of telemetry data and genetic information to examine the impact of kinship on network cohesion and the strength of social bonds. Relatedness and spatial proximity between individuals were positively related to the strength of social bond. Consequently, the social network was spatially and genetically structured with well-defined and cohesive social units. However, spatial proximity between individuals could not entirely explain the association patterns and network structure. Genuine, kin-targeted, and temporarily stable relationships of females extended beyond spatial proximity between individuals while males interactions were short-lived and not shaped by relatedness. The findings of this study confirm the matrilineal nature of wild boar social structure and show how social preferences of individuals translate into an emergent socio-genetic population structure.

  4. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account.

  5. Long-Lasting, Kin-Directed Female Interactions in a Spatially Structured Wild Boar Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Podgórski, Tomasz; Lusseau, David; Scandura, Massimo; Sönnichsen, Leif; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can increase inclusive fitness benefits through a complex network of social interactions directed towards kin. Preferential relationships with relatives lead to the emergence of kin structures in the social system. Cohesive social groups of related individuals and female philopatry of wild boar create conditions for cooperation through kin selection and make the species a good biological model for studying kin structures. Yet, the role of kinship in shaping the social structure of wild boar populations is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of associations and the social network structure of the wild boar Sus scrofa population in Białowieża National Park, Poland, which offered a unique opportunity to understand wild boar social interactions away from anthropogenic factors. We used a combination of telemetry data and genetic information to examine the impact of kinship on network cohesion and the strength of social bonds. Relatedness and spatial proximity between individuals were positively related to the strength of social bond. Consequently, the social network was spatially and genetically structured with well-defined and cohesive social units. However, spatial proximity between individuals could not entirely explain the association patterns and network structure. Genuine, kin-targeted, and temporarily stable relationships of females extended beyond spatial proximity between individuals while males interactions were short-lived and not shaped by relatedness. The findings of this study confirm the matrilineal nature of wild boar social structure and show how social preferences of individuals translate into an emergent socio-genetic population structure. PMID:24919178

  6. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  7. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  9. Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5 ± 2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6 ± 25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8 ± 12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

  10. Exposure of Wild Boar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in France since 2000 Is Consistent with the Distribution of Bovine Tuberculosis Outbreaks in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Richomme, Céline; Boadella, Mariana; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoît; Drapeau, Antoine; Corde, Yannick; Hars, Jean; Payne, Ariane; Fediaevsky, Alexandre; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly considered as a relevant actor in the epidemiology of animal tuberculosis (TB). Therefore, monitoring TB in wild boar becomes a key tool for establishing comprehensive control schemes for this disease. To estimate the exposure of free living wild boar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in France, a bovine-purified protein derivative based ELISA was used to test 2,080 archived serum samples of hunter-harvested animals in 58 French “départements”. Two cut-off values were used for diagnostic interpretation: 0.2, recommended by the manufacturer (specificity: 96.43%; sensitivity: 72.6%), and 0.5 (specificity: 100%; sensitivity: 64%). During the same period, at the 0.2 cut-off, global true seroprevalence was 5.9% (IC95%: 4.3%-7.7%) and 76% of the sampled “départements” had seropositive wild boar, including seven cattle TB-free “départements. At the 0.5 cut-off, global true seroprevalence was 2.2% (IC95%: 1.5-3.2) and positive wild boar belonged to 21% of the “départements”. All but one of these positive “départements” had reported at least one cattle TB outbreak since 2000. A good consistence between seropositive wild boar and TB outbreaks in cattle was found, especially at the 0.5 cut-off value (the mean distance to the nearest cattle TB outbreak was 13km and 27km for seropositive and seronegative wild boar, respectively; P<0.05). The use of an ELISA to detect MTC antibodies in wild boar has permitted the description of the geographic distribution of MTC contact in wild boar in France. Our results suggest that the ELISA could be used as a first screening tool to conduct TB surveillance in wild boar at a population level. High-risk wild boar populations (e.g. overabundant) could be tested and if identified positive by ELISA they should be surveyed in detail by combining pathology and culture. PMID:24167584

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E Virus as Biological Indicators of Contacts Between Domestic Pigs and Eurasian Wild Boar.

    PubMed

    Barth, S; Geue, L; Hinsching, A; Jenckel, M; Schlosser, J; Eiden, M; Pietschmann, J; Menge, C; Beer, M; Groschup, M; Jori, F; Etter, E; Blome, S

    2017-04-01

    Domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) share several important viral and bacterial pathogens. Therefore, direct and indirect contacts between domestic pigs and wild boar present a risk of pathogen spillover and can lead to long-term perpetuation of infection. Biological indicators could be a powerful tool to understand and characterize contacts between wild boar and domestic pigs. Here, faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) were explored as potential biological indicators under experimental conditions. The data gained in our pilot study suggest that faecal E. coli can be used as biological indicator of contact between wild boar and domestic pig. For HEV, faecal transmission was also confirmed. However, molecular studies on full-genome basis did not reveal markers that would allow tracing of transmission direction. Based on these promising results, future field studies will especially target the practicability of E. coli microbiome molecular typing as surrogate of contacts at the wildlife-livestock interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus).

    PubMed

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of α- and β-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.

  13. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  14. Wild boars as spore dispersal agents of ectomycorrhizal fungi: consequences for community composition at different habitat types.

    PubMed

    Livne-Luzon, Stav; Avidan, Yael; Weber, Gil; Migael, Hen; Bruns, Thomas; Ovadia, Ofer; Shemesh, Hagai

    2017-04-01

    The success of dispersal events depend on the organism's ability to reach and establish in a new habitat. In symbiotic organisms, establishment also depends on the presence of their symbiont partner in the new habitat. For instance, the establishment of obligate ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees outside the forest is largely limited by the presence of EM fungi in soil. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are important dispersal agents of EM fungal spores, particularly in the moderately dry Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to explore how EM fungal spores dispersed by wild boars influence the EM fungal community associated with the roots of Pinus halepensis seedlings at different habitat types. Using a greenhouse bioassay, we grew pine seedlings in two soil types: old-field and forest soils mixed with either natural or autoclaved wild boar feces. In both soils, we observed a community dominated by a few EM fungal species. Geopora (85 %) and Suillus (68 %) species dominated the forest and old-field soils, respectively. The addition of natural wild boar feces increased the abundance of Tuber species in both EM fungal communities. However, this effect was more pronounced in pots with old-field soil, leading to a more even community, equally dominated by both Tuber and Suillus species. In forest soil, Geopora maintained dominance, but decreased in abundance (67 %), due to the addition of Tuber species. Our findings indicate that wild boar feces can be an important source for EM inoculum, especially in habitats poor in EM fungi such as old-fields.

  15. Factors that Influence Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Red Deer and Wild Boar in an Epidemiological Risk Area for Tuberculosis of Game Species in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Madeira, S; Manteigas, A; Ribeiro, R; Otte, J; Fonseca, A Pina; Caetano, P; Abernethy, D; Boinas, F

    2017-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals. Eradication has proved elusive in those countries with intensive national programmes but with ongoing transmission between wildlife and cattle. In Portugal, a high-risk area for bTB was defined and specific measures implemented to assess and minimize the risk from wildlife. Data from the 2011 to 2014 hunting seasons for red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were analysed with bovine demographic and bTB information to assess factors that determined the occurrence and distribution of bTB in both species. The likelihood of bTB-like lesions in wild boar was positively associated with density of red deer, wild boar and cattle, while for red deer, only their density and age were significant factors. The likelihood of Mycobacterium bovis isolation in wild boar was associated with density of cattle and red deer and also with the anatomical location of lesions, while for red deer, none of the variables tested were statistically significant. Our results suggest that, in the study area, the role of red deer and wild boar may be different from the one previously suggested by other authors for the Iberian Peninsula, as red deer may be the driving force behind M. bovis transmission to wild boar. These findings may assist the official services and game managing bodies for the management of hunting zones, what could also impact the success of the bTB eradication programme. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic.

  17. Crossbreeding effect on genome stability in pig (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Ciotola, Francesca; Albarella, Sara; Scopino, Giuseppe; Carpino, Santo; Monaco, Francesco; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploid cell percentages and frequencies of CAs and SCEs were investigated in 10 Calabrian pigs, 10 LW pigs and 19 Calabrian x LW crossbred pigs, in order to compare genome stability between an autochthonous pig breed and a highly selected one and to verify if genome stability of their progeny, as other phenotypic traits, are influenced by heterosis. The mean number of cells per animal with structural aberrations, excluding gaps, was 6.20 +/- 2.39, 4.90 +/- 2.02 and 4.52 +/- 3.34 in Calabrian, LW and crossbred pigs, respectively, while the mean number of total CAs without gaps was 0.14 +/- 0.38, 0.11 +/- 0.35 and 0.11 +/- 0.35, respectively. The mean number of SCEs was 7.30 +/- 3.24 in Calabrian pigs, 6.45 +/- 2.74 in LW pigs and 6.28 +/- 2.90 in the crossbred ones. Percentages of cells with aneuploidy were 7.30, 10.10 and 10.79 in Calabrian, LW and crossbred pigs, respectively. In particular, the Calabrian breed showed higher values compared to LW in each test, however, there were statistically significant differences only in the mean number of SCEs per cell (P<0.01). In addition, there is a positive effect of crossbreeding on baseline levels of genome stability in the crossbred group that shows in all tests, excluding gaps, mean values of cellular or chromosome damage similar to the LW group.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Boars, Wild Rabbits, and Wild Chickens in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Zhang, Hui; Lan, Yanfang; Xiong, Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes serious infection worldwide in humans and animals. In this study, the seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n=377), wild rabbits (cape hare, Lapus capensis) (n=331), and wild chickens (red junglefwol, Gallus gallus) (n=571) in 4 forested and country sided area of Hubei province of China. For this, blood samples were collected and tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). The seroprevalence was found to be 7.2%, 5.1%, and 12.6% in wild boars, rabbits, and chickens, respectively, with significant differences among these species. The prevalence of T. gondii infection in male and female wild boars was found to be 7.9% and 6.5% (P<0.01), in male and female rabbits was 5.6% and 4.9% (P<0.01), and in male and female chickens was 17.1% and 7.7% (P<0.01), respectively, with significant differences between 2 genders of chickens (P<0.01). The findings of this study may help in planning of the prevention measures against T. gondii infection in wild animals in this area. PMID:28285512

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Boars, Wild Rabbits, and Wild Chickens in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Zhang, Hui; Lan, Yanfang; Xiong, Xiong

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes serious infection worldwide in humans and animals. In this study, the seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n=377), wild rabbits (cape hare, Lapus capensis) (n=331), and wild chickens (red junglefwol, Gallus gallus) (n=571) in 4 forested and country sided area of Hubei province of China. For this, blood samples were collected and tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). The seroprevalence was found to be 7.2%, 5.1%, and 12.6% in wild boars, rabbits, and chickens, respectively, with significant differences among these species. The prevalence of T. gondii infection in male and female wild boars was found to be 7.9% and 6.5% (P<0.01), in male and female rabbits was 5.6% and 4.9% (P<0.01), and in male and female chickens was 17.1% and 7.7% (P<0.01), respectively, with significant differences between 2 genders of chickens (P<0.01). The findings of this study may help in planning of the prevention measures against T. gondii infection in wild animals in this area.

  20. First isolation and characterization of Brucella microti from wild boar.

    PubMed

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dán, Ádám; Drees, Kevin; Foster, Jeffrey T; Bányai, Krisztián; Marton, Szilvia; Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-07-11

    Brucella microti was first isolated from common vole (Microtus arvalis) in the Czech Republic in Central Europe in 2007. As B. microti is the only Brucella species known to live in soil, its distribution, ecology, zoonotic potential, and genomic organization is of particular interest. The present paper is the first to report the isolation of B. microti from a wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is also the first isolation of this bacterial species in Hungary. The B. microti isolate was cultured, after enrichment in Brucella-selective broth, from the submandibular lymph node of a female wild boar that was taken by hunters in Hungary near the Austrian border in September 2014. Histological and immunohistological examinations of the lymph node sections with B. abortus-, B. suis- and B. canis-specific sera gave negative results. The isolate did not require CO2 for growth, was oxidase, catalase, and urease positive, H2S negative, grew well in the presence of 20 μg/ml basic fuchsin and thionin, and had brownish pigmentation after three days of incubation. It gave strong positive agglutination with anti-A and anti-M but had a negative reaction with anti-R monospecific sera. The API 20 NE test identified it as Ochrobactrum anthropi with 99.9% identity, and it showed B. microti-specific banding pattern in the Bruce- and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR systems. Whole genome re-sequencing identified 30 SNPs in orthologous loci when compared to the B. microti reference genome available in GenBank, and the MLVA analysis yielded a unique profile. Given that the female wild boar did not develop any clinical disease, we hypothesize that this host species only harboured the bacterium, serving as a possible reservoir capable of maintaining and spreading this pathogen. The infectious source could have been either a rodent, a carcass that had been eaten or infection occurred via the boar rooting in soil. The low number of discovered SNPs suggests an unexpectedly high level of genetic homogeneity

  1. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  2. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, P. Guru; Punyakumari, B.; Ekambaram, B.; Prakash, M. Gnana; Subramanyam, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n) in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05) on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7), subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12) and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18), while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature. PMID:27047069

  3. Taxonomy: Sus bucculentus revisited.

    PubMed

    Robins, Judith H; Ross, Howard A; Allen, Melinda S; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth

    2006-04-13

    In 1997, the rediscovery of Sus bucculentus in Laos was announced by Groves et al.--this wild pig species had gone unrecorded since first being described in 1892. Although the identification of the new specimen was based initially on morphology, the authors also used a 7% sequence divergence from the common Eurasian pig S. scrofa (based on their analysis of 327 base pairs of the gene encoding mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA) as support for the species status of S. bucculentus. Concerned about the large divergence reported for a relatively conserved gene, and the absence of the sequence in any public database, we analysed an additional tissue sample from the specimen and found only 0.6% divergence from S. scrofa. Our more extensive analysis places the sample within the S. scrofa clade, calling into question the species status of S. bucculentus and demonstrating the need for both phylogenetic and morphological evidence in defining species.

  4. Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex excretion and characterization of super-shedders in naturally-infected wild boar and red deer.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Almeida, Virgílio; Gortázar, Christian; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2015-10-30

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) are the main maintenance hosts for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in continental Europe. Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) excretion routes is crucial to define strategies to control bTB in free-ranging populations, nevertheless available information is scarce. Aiming at filling this gap, four different MTC excretion routes (oronasal, bronchial-alveolar, fecal and urinary) were investigated by molecular methods in naturally infected hunter-harvested wild boar and red deer. In addition MTC concentrations were estimated by the Most Probable Number method. MTC DNA was amplified in all types of excretion routes. MTC DNA was amplified in at least one excretion route from 83.0% (CI95 70.8-90.8) of wild ungulates with bTB-like lesions. Oronasal or bronchial-alveolar shedding were detected with higher frequency than fecal shedding (p < 0.001). The majority of shedders yielded MTC concentrations <10(3) CFU/g or mL. However, from those ungulates from which oronasal, bronchial-alveolar and fecal samples were available, 28.2% of wild boar (CI95 16.6-43.8) and 35.7% of red deer (CI95 16.3-61.2) yielded MTC concentrations >10(3) CFU/g or mL (referred here as super-shedders). Red deer have a significantly higher risk of being super-shedders compared to wild boar (OR = 11.8, CI95 2.3-60.2). The existence of super-shedders among the naturally infected population of wild boar and red deer is thus reported here for the first time and MTC DNA concentrations greater than the minimum infective doses were estimated in excretion samples from both species.

  5. Photoperiodic effects on pubertal maturation of spermatogenesis, pituitary responsiveness to exogenous GnRH, and expression of boar taint in crossbred boars.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Wallgren, M; Rydhmer, L; Lundström, K; Andersson, K; Forsberg, M

    1998-12-31

    than in those in the Spring/Summer and Control groups. Fat androstenone was lower in the Spring/Summer group than in the Control group. In the sensory evaluation, the Spring/Summer group had less boar taint than the Autumn/Winter group. Artificial short days with moderate initial changes in photoperiod, stimulated spermatogenesis compared with long days, in accordance with the pattern seen in European Wild Boars (Sus scrofa). Boar taint was also affected with higher scores in the Autumn/Winter group than in the Spring/Summer group, although this was not clearly indicated by the traditional measurements of boar taint-fat contents of androstenone and skatole.

  6. First record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related.

  7. First Record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from Wild Boars in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related. PMID:24039287

  8. Relationships between hair melanization, glutathione levels, and senescence in wild boars.

    PubMed

    Galván, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Negro, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of melanins, which are the most common animal pigments, is influenced by glutathione (GSH), a key intracellular antioxidant. At high GSH levels, pheomelanin (the lightest melanin form) is produced, whereas production of eumelanin (the darkest melanin form) does not require GSH. Oxidative damage typically increases with age, and age-related decreases in GSH have accordingly been found in diverse organisms. Therefore, there should be positive associations between the capacity to produce eumelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence, whereas there should be negative associations between the capacity to produce pheomelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence. We explored this hypothesis in a free-ranging population of wild boars Sus scrofa of different ages. As expected from the fact that pheomelanogenesis consumes GSH, levels of this antioxidant in muscle tended to be negatively related to pheomelanization and positively related to eumelanization in pelage, and the degree of pelage pheomelanization was positively related to oxidative damage as reflected by levels of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which is consistent with the hypothesis that pheomelanin synthesis has physiological costs. In our cross-sectional sample, GSH levels did not show senescence effects, and we did not detect senescence effects in pelage melanization. Prime body condition and low TBARS levels were also associated with hair graying, which is attributable to a loss of melanin produced by oxidative stress, thus raising the possibility that hair graying constitutes a signal of resistance to oxidative stress in wild boars. Our results suggest that the degree of melanization is linked to GSH levels in wild boars and that their antioxidant damage shows senescence effects.

  9. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  10. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  11. Assessment of an Oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine and an Inactivated M. bovis Preparation for Wild Boar in Terms of Adverse Reactions, Vaccine Strain Survival, and Uptake by Nontarget Species

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Sevilla, Iker A.; Barasona, Jose A.; Garrido, Joseba M.; González-Barrio, David; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Casal, Carmen; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife vaccination is increasingly being considered as an option for tuberculosis control. We combined data from laboratory trials and an ongoing field trial to assess the risk of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and a prototype heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis preparation for Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). We studied adverse reactions, BCG survival, BCG excretion, and bait uptake by nontarget species. No adverse reactions were observed after administration of BCG (n = 27) or inactivated M. bovis (n = 21). BCG was not found at necropsy (175 to 300 days postvaccination [n = 27]). No BCG excretion was detected in fecal samples (n = 162) or in urine or nasal, oral, or fecal swab samples at 258 days postvaccination (n = 29). In the field, we found no evidence of loss of BCG viability in baits collected after 36 h (temperature range, 11°C to 41°C). Camera trapping showed that wild boar (39%) and birds (56%) were the most frequent visitors to bait stations (selective feeders). Wild boar activity patterns were nocturnal, while diurnal activities were recorded for all bird species. We found large proportions of chewed capsules (29%) (likely ingestion of the vaccine) and lost baits (39%) (presumably consumed), and the proportion of chewed capsules showed a positive correlation with the presence of wild boar. Both results suggest proper bait consumption (68%). These results indicate that BCG vaccination in wild boar is safe and that, while bait consumption by other species is possible, this can be minimized by using selective cages and strict timing of bait deployment. PMID:24173022

  12. Comparative Testing of Hemostatic Dressing in a Large Animal Model (Sus Scorofa) with Severe hepatic Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    hemostatic dressings in a large animal model (Sus scrofa ) with severe hepatic injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Capt...to Date Sus scrofa 36 18 18 Note. Many fewer animals than approved were used because one of the original treatment groups (Lypressin- soaked gauze

  13. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: Is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?

    PubMed

    Martin, Annett; Gremse, Carl; Selhorst, Thomas; Bandick, Niels; Müller-Graf, Christine; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Non-lead hunting ammunition is an alternative to bullets that contain lead. The use of lead ammunition can result in severe contamination of game meat, thus posing a health risk to consumers. With any kind of ammunition for hunting, the terminal effectiveness of bullets is an animal welfare issue. Doubts about the effectiveness of non-lead bullets for a humane kill of game animals in hunting have been discussed. The length of the escape distance after the shot has been used previously as an indicator for bullet performance. The object of this study was to determine how the bullet material (lead or non-lead) influences the observed escape distances. 1,234 records of the shooting of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 825 records of the shooting of wild boar (Sus scrofa) were evaluated. As the bullet material cannot be regarded as the sole cause of variability of escape distances, interactions of other potential influencing variables like shot placement, shooting distance, were analyzed using conditional regression trees and two-part hurdle models. The length of the escape distance is not influenced by the use of lead or non-lead ammunition with either roe deer or wild boar. With roe deer, the length of the escape distance is influenced significantly by the shot placement and the type of hunting. Increasing shooting distances increased the length of the escape distance. With wild boar, shot placement and the age of the animals were found to be a significant influencing factor on the length of the escape distance. The length of the escape distance can be used as an indicator for adequate bullet effectiveness for humane killings of game animals in hunting.Non-lead bullets already exist which have an equally reliable killing effect as lead bullets.

  14. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan. A comprehensive analysis of morphological characteristics of the worms for its diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, H; Bain, O; Uni, S; Korenaga, M; Kozek, W J; Shirasaka, C; Aoki, C; Otsuka, Y; Fukuda, M; Eshita, Y; Daa, T

    2004-09-01

    Histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable) and young (thin cuticle). Six Onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: O. gutturosa and O. lienalis in cattle, O. suzukii in serows (Capricornis crispus), O. skrjabini and an Onchocerca sp. in Cervus nippon nippon, and O. dewittei japonica in wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax). Diagnostic characters of female Onchocerca species, such as the cuticle and its ridges, change along the body length. Tables of the histologic morphology of the mid- and posterior body-regions of the local species are presented. In addition, it was observed that transverse ridges arose and thickened during the adult stage (examination of fourth stage and juvenile females of O. volvulus). The specimen described in this report, with its prominent and widely spaced ridges, was identified as O. d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d. japonica, the prevalence of which in local wild boar was 22 of 24 (92%).

  15. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  16. Modelling transmission of bovine tuberculosis in red deer and wild boar in Normandy, France.

    PubMed

    Zanella, G; Bar-Hen, A; Boschiroli, M-L; Hars, J; Moutou, F; Garin-Bastuji, B; Durand, B

    2012-09-01

    In early 2001, Mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed in red deer (RD) (Cervus elaphus) shot in Normandy region, France. An epidemiological survey conducted during the following hunting season in two connected forests confirmed the occurrence of the disease in both free-ranging RD and wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa). This was the first detected bovine tuberculosis outbreak in wildlife in France. We present a simple deterministic age-structured model of the within- and between-species M. bovis transmission in RD and WB populations that distinguishes direct transmission (horizontal and pseudo-vertical) and indirect transmission through contaminated offal left behind by hunters. Results issued from the epidemiological surveys conducted in Normandy forests were used to estimate transmission parameters. Because data for RD and WB populations were not available, population sizes at demographic equilibrium were estimated and used to run the model. We qualitatively tested different control measure scenarios with our model, considering different mortality rates and offal harvesting, to determine which ones affect the success of infection control. The most realistic control scenario would combine the total depopulation of RD and good compliance with offal harvesting, because the model suggests that infected offal left by hunters represents the main transmission source of M. bovis in the field. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Not eating like a pig: European wild boar wash their food.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Dietrich, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Carrying food to water and either dunking or manipulating it before consumption has been observed in various taxa including birds, racoons and primates. Some animals seem to be simply moistening their food. However, true washing aims to remove unpleasant surface substrates such as grit and sand and requires a distinction between items that do and do not need cleaning as well as deliberate transportation of food to a water source. We provide the first evidence for food washing in suids, based on an incidental observation with follow-up experiments on European wild boar (Sus scrofa) kept at Basel Zoo, Switzerland. Here, all adult pigs and some juveniles of a newly formed group carried apple halves soiled with sand to the edge of a creek running through their enclosure where they put the fruits in the water and pushed them to and fro with their snouts before eating. Clean apple halves were never washed. This indicates that pigs can discriminate between soiled and unsoiled foods and that they are able to delay gratification for long enough to transport and wash the items. However, we were unable to ascertain to which degree individual and/or social learning brought this behaviour about.

  18. Mitochondrial lineages reveal intense gene flow between Iberian wild boars and South Iberian pig breeds.

    PubMed

    van Asch, B; Pereira, F; Santos, L S; Carneiro, J; Santos, N; Amorim, A

    2012-02-01

    The phylogeography of wild boars (WB) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) has contributed important insights into where and when domestication occurred. The geographic distribution of two core haplotypes (E1a and E1c) of the main European phylogenetic clade suggests that Central Europe was an early domestication centre, although the complexity of the pattern does not exclude the possibility that multiple domestication events occurred in different regions. To investigate the relationships among WB and domestic pig breeds in Iberia, a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region from a large sample (n=409) of WB and local pig breeds was co-analysed with published sequences from other European populations. The Iberian sample revealed a high frequency of a sub-cluster (E1c) of the European haplogroup E1 in 77% of total Iberian samples, 96% of WB, 90% of Alentejano (Portugal) and 87% of Iberian breed pigs (Spain; Black Hairy, Black Hairless and Red varieties). Low genetic distance (F'(ST) = 0.105) was observed between Alentejano (Portugal) and Iberian breed pigs (Spain). Alentejano and Iberian breed pigs showed low genetic distances to both Iberian and Central European WB (average F'(ST) =0.345 and 0.215, respectively). This pattern suggests that early pig husbandry in the Iberian Peninsula did not solely rely on imported Central European stock, but also included the recruitment of local WB.

  19. Genotype-Independent Transmission of Transgenic Fluorophore Protein by Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Struckmann, Christina; Klein, Sabine; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Ehling, Christine; Rath, Detlef; Ivics, Zoltán; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we generated transposon-transgenic boars (Sus scrofa), which carry three monomeric copies of a fluorophore marker gene. Amazingly, a ubiquitous fluorophore expression in somatic, as well as in germ cells was found. Here, we characterized the prominent fluorophore load in mature spermatozoa of these animals. Sperm samples were analyzed for general fertility parameters, sorted according to X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm fractions, assessed for potential detrimental effects of the reporter, and used for inseminations into estrous sows. Independent of their genotype, all spermatozoa were uniformly fluorescent with a subcellular compartmentalization of the fluorophore protein in postacrosomal sheath, mid piece and tail. Transmission of the fluorophore protein to fertilized oocytes was shown by confocal microscopic analysis of zygotes. The monomeric copies of the transgene segregated during meiosis, rendering a certain fraction of the spermatozoa non-transgenic (about 10% based on analysis of 74 F1 offspring). The genotype-independent transmission of the fluorophore protein by spermatozoa to oocytes represents a non-genetic contribution to the mammalian embryo. PMID:22110672

  20. Effects of human perturbation on the genetic make-up of an island population: the case of the Sardinian wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Scandura, M; Iacolina, L; Cossu, A; Apollonio, M

    2011-01-01

    Game species are often manipulated by human beings, whose activities can deeply affect their genetic make-up and population structure. We focused on a geographically isolated wild boar population (Sardinia, Italy), which is classified, together with the Corsican population, as a separate subspecies (Sus scrofa meridionalis). Two hundred and ten wild boars collected across Sardinia were analysed with a set of 10 microsatellites and compared with 296 reference genotypes from continental wild populations and to a sample of domestic pigs. The Sardinian population showed remarkable diversity and a high proportion of private alleles, and strongly deviated from the equilibrium. A Bayesian cluster analysis of only the Sardinian sample revealed a partition into five subpopulations. However, two different Bayesian approaches to the assignment of individuals, accounting for different possible source populations, produced consistent results and proved the admixed nature of the Sardinian population. Indeed, introgressive hybridization with boars from multiple sources (Italian peninsula, central Europe, domestic stocks) was detected, although poor evidence of crossbreeding with free-ranging domestic pigs was unexpectedly found. After excluding individuals who carried exotic genes, the population re-entered Hardy–Weinberg proportions and a clear population structure with three subpopulations emerged. Therefore, the inclusion of introgressed animals in the Bayesian analysis implied an overestimation of the number of clusters. Nonetheless, two of them were consistent between analyses and corresponded to highly pure stocks, located, respectively, in north-west and south-west Sardinia. This work shows the critical importance of including adequate reference samples when studying the genetic structure of managed wild populations. PMID:21179064

  1. An approach to model monitoring and surveillance data of wildlife diseases-exemplified by Classical Swine Fever in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Stahnke, N; Liebscher, V; Staubach, C; Ziller, M

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of epidemiological field data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSSs) in wild animals is of great importance in order to evaluate the performance of such systems. By parameter estimation from MOSS data, conclusions about disease dynamics in the observed population can be drawn. To strengthen the analysis, the implementation of a maximum likelihood estimation is the main aim of our work. The new approach presented here is based on an underlying simple SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for a disease scenario in a wildlife population. The three corresponding classes are assumed to govern the intensities (number of animals in the classes) of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. A sampling rate was defined which describes the process of data collection (for MOSSs). Further, the performance of the diagnostics was implemented in the model by a diagnostic matrix containing misclassification rates. Both descriptions of these MOSS parts were included in the Poisson process approach. For simulation studies, the combined model demonstrates its ability to validly estimate epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction rate R0. These parameters will help the evaluation of existing disease control systems. They will also enable comparison with other simulation models. The model has been tested with data from a Classical Swine Fever (CSF) outbreak in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) from a region of Germany (1999-2002). The results show that the hunting strategy as a sole control tool is insufficient to decrease the threshold for susceptible animals to eradicate the disease, since the estimated R0 confirms an ongoing epidemic of CSF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic selection of boars.

    PubMed

    Safranski, T J

    2008-11-01

    Selection of boars by visual appraisal is the simplest and oldest method used by the swine industry. However, individual performance testing, and later use of computers to incorporate relatives' data and account for environmental variation, resulted in greater rate of improvement for economically important traits. Examples of molecular genetic tools that have increased improvement for some traits are also discussed. Accurate identification of genetic merit is increasingly important with widespread use of AI and resultant greater progeny number per sire. Historically, selection was to produce desirable progeny; however, with the majority of boars now housed in dedicated boar facilities, and the efficiency of sperm production being recorded, boar stud personnel are increasingly interested in selection of boars for fertility traits. Selecting boars that are lean and heavily muscled and have good semen parameters may be problematic, given the genetic relationships among the traits. Whereas conventional animal breeding methods will remain important, use of molecular tools will increase, and identification of a boar's fertility potential at birth will allow earlier and more efficient selection of high-fertility boars. Ability to achieve acceptable female reproduction with frozen semen would facilitate selection for longevity. However, this would lengthen the generation interval and could dilute selection intensity for other traits, as it requires indirect selection for semen freezability.

  3. First report on MRSA CC398 recovered from wild boars in the north of Portugal. Are we facing a problem?

    PubMed

    Sousa, Margarida; Silva, Nuno; Manageiro, Vera; Ramos, Sónia; Coelho, António; Gonçalves, David; Caniça, Manuela; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2017-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from wild boars, to analyze their genetic lineages, and to investigate the susceptibility to oxacillin. Samples from mouth and nose of 45 wild boars (Sus scrofa) were collected during hunt activity from November 2012 to January 2013 in the North of Portugal. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 30 of these samples (33%); one isolate/sample was further studied. The susceptibility of the isolates was tested by disk-diffusion test against 14 antimicrobial agents and minimal inhibitory concentration was used to test oxacillin according to EUCAST guidelines. The genetic lineages of S. aureus were characterized by agr-typing, spa-typing and MLST. From the 30 isolates, 18 S. aureus were susceptible to all antibiotics tested and 7 presented resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (n=3), oxacillin (n=4), cefoxitin (n=1), clindamycin (n=2), gentamicin (n=1), fusidic acid (n=1), ciprofloxacin (n=2), tetracycline (n=1) and linezolid (n=1). One MRSA CC398 (spa-type t899) isolate was detected (oxacillin MIC=32mg/L and mecA-positive), which presented resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin and contained the genes of immune evasion cluster (IEC) system (type B). The 29 methicillin-susceptible isolates were typed as ST1 (t1533), ST133 (t3583), ST1643 (t10712), ST2328 (t3750) and the new STs (3220, 3222, 3223, 3224) associated to new spa-types t14311 and t14312. The agr-types I, II, III and IV were identified. It is a matter of concern when MRSA and some specific lineages of S. aureus are taken as commensal habitants of the skin and nose of wild animals and are characterized with resistance to various antimicrobial agents in clinical use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of haemolysis and repeated freeze-thawing cycles on wild boar serum antibody testing by ELISA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Monitoring wildlife diseases is needed to identify changes in disease occurrence. Wildlife blood samples are valuable for this purpose but are often gathered haemolysed. To maximise information, sera often go through repeated analysis and freeze-thaw cycles. Herein, we used samples of clean and haemolysed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum stored at -20°C and thawed up to five times to study the effects of both treatments on the outcome of a commercial ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against Suid Herpesvirus 1 (ADV). Results The estimated prevalence of antibodies against ADV was 50-53% for clean and haemolysed sera. Hence, haemolysis did not reduce the mean observed serum antibody prevalence. However, 10 samples changed their classification after repeated freeze-thawing. This included 3 (15%) of the clean sera and 7 (41%) of the haemolysed sera. Conclusions We recommend (1) establishing more restrictive cut-off values when testing wildlife sera, (2) recording serum quality prior to sample banking, (3) recording the number of freezing-thawing cycles and (4) store sera in various aliquots to reduce repeated usage. For instance, sera with more than 3 freeze-thaw cycles and a haemolysis of over 3 on a scale of 4 should better be discarded for serum antibody monitoring. Even clean (almost not haemolysed) sera should not go through more than 5 freeze-thaw cycles. PMID:22087883

  5. The degree of resistance to freezing-thawing is related to specific changes in the structures of motile sperm subpopulations and mitochondrial activity in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Flores, E; Fernández-Novell, J M; Peña, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J E

    2009-10-01

    The main aim of this work was to analyze the possible relationship between the structures of motile-sperm subpopulations and boar (Sus scrofa domesticus) sperm resistance to freezability. For this purpose, 45 boar ejaculates were subjected to a standard freezing-thawing protocol, and afterwards they were classified into three groups, in accordance with their resistance to freezing-thawing. Our analysis yielded four separate motile-sperm subpopulations in all of the studied ejaculates, both in fresh samples and after freezing-thawing. Furthermore, whereas curvilinear velocity (VCL), mean velocity (VAP), and dance (DNC) of sperm from Subpopulation 1 underwent significant increases after freezing-thawing in samples with a good response to freezing-thawing, the same parameters of Subpopulation 1 either did not undergo significant variations (VCL and DNC) or even showed a decrease (VAP) (from 20.4+/-0.4 microm/sec in fresh samples to 15.2+/-2.2 microm/sec after freezing-thawing) in samples with the poorest response. Similarly, the behavior of other motility parameters in each subpopulation was also very different in the worst samples when comparing them with those with a good or average response to cryopreservation. Additionally, the DNC of all four subpopulations was in all cases lower in samples with the poorest characteristics of freezability. This was not the only difference, and significant changes in parameters such as the VCL of Subpopulations 2 and 4, linearity coefficient (LIN) of Subpopulations 1, 2, and 3, and wobble coefficient (WOB) of Subpopulations 2 and 3 were also observed in samples with different response to freezing-thawing. Meanwhile, the determination of mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial-linked reactive oxygen species formation indicated that the samples with the poorest freezability characteristics were also those with the lowest mitochondrial activity. We conclude that boar ejaculate resistance to cryopreservation seems to be related to

  6. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    PubMed Central

    Iacolina, L; Scandura, M; Goedbloed, D J; Alexandri, P; Crooijmans, R P M A; Larson, G; Archibald, A; Apollonio, M; Schook, L B; Groenen, M A M; Megens, H-J

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49 803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and 105 domestic pigs (DP; 11 breeds). High levels of genetic variation were observed in Sardinia (80.9% of the total number of polymorphisms), which can be only in part associated to recent genetic introgression. Both Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian clustering approach revealed that the Sardinian WB population is highly differentiated from the other European populations (FST=0.126–0.138), and from DP (FST=0.169). Such evidences were mostly unaffected by an uneven sample size, although clustering results in reference populations changed when the number of individuals was standardized. Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) pattern and distribution in Sardinian WB are consistent with a past expansion following a bottleneck (small ROHs) and recent population substructuring (highly homozygous individuals). The observed effect of a non-random selection of Sardinian individuals on diversity, FST and ROH estimates, stressed the importance of sampling design in the study of structured or introgressed populations. Our results support the heterogeneity and distinctiveness of the Sardinian population and prompt further investigations on its origins and conservation status. PMID:26243137

  7. Wild inside: Urban wild boar select natural, not anthropogenic food resources

    PubMed Central

    Stillfried, Milena; Gras, Pierre; Busch, Matthias; Börner, Konstantin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Ortmann, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Most wildlife species are urban avoiders, but some became urban utilizers and dwellers successfully living in cities. Often, they are assumed to be attracted into urban areas by easily accessible and highly energetic anthropogenic food sources. We macroscopically analysed stomachs of 247 wild boar (Sus scrofa, hereafter WB) from urban areas of Berlin and from the surrounding rural areas. From the stomach contents we determined as predictors of food quality modulus of fineness (MOF,), percentage of acid insoluble ash (AIA) and macronutrients such as amount of energy and percentage of protein, fat, fibre and starch. We run linear mixed models to test: (1) differences in the proportion of landscape variables, (2) differences of nutrients consumed in urban vs. rural WB and (3) the impact of landscape variables on gathered nutrients. We found only few cases of anthropogenic food in the qualitative macroscopic analysis. We categorized the WB into five stomach content categories but found no significant difference in the frequency of those categories between urban and rural WB. The amount of energy was higher in stomachs of urban WB than in rural WB. The analysis of landscape variables revealed that the energy of urban WB increased with increasing percentage of sealing, while an increased human density resulted in poor food quality for urban and rural WB. Although the percentage of protein decreased in areas with a high percentage of coniferous forests, the food quality increased. High percentage of grassland decreased the percentage of consumed fat and starch and increased the percentage of fibre, while a high percentage of agricultural areas increased the percentage of consumed starch. Anthropogenic food such as garbage might serve as fallback food when access to natural resources is limited. We infer that urban WB forage abundant, natural resources in urban areas. Urban WB might use anthropogenic resources (e.g. garbage) if those are easier to exploit and more abundant

  8. Wild inside: Urban wild boar select natural, not anthropogenic food resources.

    PubMed

    Stillfried, Milena; Gras, Pierre; Busch, Matthias; Börner, Konstantin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Ortmann, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Most wildlife species are urban avoiders, but some became urban utilizers and dwellers successfully living in cities. Often, they are assumed to be attracted into urban areas by easily accessible and highly energetic anthropogenic food sources. We macroscopically analysed stomachs of 247 wild boar (Sus scrofa, hereafter WB) from urban areas of Berlin and from the surrounding rural areas. From the stomach contents we determined as predictors of food quality modulus of fineness (MOF,), percentage of acid insoluble ash (AIA) and macronutrients such as amount of energy and percentage of protein, fat, fibre and starch. We run linear mixed models to test: (1) differences in the proportion of landscape variables, (2) differences of nutrients consumed in urban vs. rural WB and (3) the impact of landscape variables on gathered nutrients. We found only few cases of anthropogenic food in the qualitative macroscopic analysis. We categorized the WB into five stomach content categories but found no significant difference in the frequency of those categories between urban and rural WB. The amount of energy was higher in stomachs of urban WB than in rural WB. The analysis of landscape variables revealed that the energy of urban WB increased with increasing percentage of sealing, while an increased human density resulted in poor food quality for urban and rural WB. Although the percentage of protein decreased in areas with a high percentage of coniferous forests, the food quality increased. High percentage of grassland decreased the percentage of consumed fat and starch and increased the percentage of fibre, while a high percentage of agricultural areas increased the percentage of consumed starch. Anthropogenic food such as garbage might serve as fallback food when access to natural resources is limited. We infer that urban WB forage abundant, natural resources in urban areas. Urban WB might use anthropogenic resources (e.g. garbage) if those are easier to exploit and more abundant

  9. Porcine (Sus scrofa) Chronic Myocardial Infarction Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-03

    Myocardial Infarction Model Development.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Lt Col. Daren Danielson DEPARTMENT: 60MSGS/SGCH...invasively, a myocardial infarction that was isolated to the mid-anterior, left ventricular wall. In doing so, we were able to create an infarct that...be used to investigate new methodologies for treatment of chronic myocardial infarction in individuals afflicted with chronic ischemic

  10. Characterization of a polymorphic IGLV gene in pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, John C; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-08-01

    Swine, unlike other artiodactyls, but similar to humans, utilize both lambda and kappa light chain isotypes almost equally in the generation of their antibody repertoire. The porcine antibody light chain loci have previously been characterized in a single Duroc sow in which was seen extensive allelic variation between light chain genes on homologous chromosomes. However, the extent of variation between individuals is completely unknown. Using deep sequencing of cDNA-derived amplicons from five pigs, we report the identification and characterization of an IGLV gene that is functional and highly expressed in some animals, yet completely absent in others. Our findings provide a possible rationale for the known individual-to-individual variation in antibody responses to vaccination, infectious challenge, and subsequent disease outcome.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Yorkshire pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Yang, Hu; Ma, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genome in the Yorkshire pig. Sequence analysis indicates that the genome structure is in accordance with other pig breeds, and it contains 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Yorkshire pig provides an important record set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  12. Normal Electrocardiogram of Bama Miniature Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Bin; Guo, Ke-Nan; Xie, Fei; Liu, Yu; Shang, Hai-Tao; Wei, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the normal ECG patterns and values for Bama miniature pigs. Standard limb-lead ECG were recorded from 120 clinically healthy, unanesthetized piglets (age, 2 to 4 mo). The values for the ECG parameters (mean ± 1 SD) were: heart rate, 125.56 ± 18.80 bpm; P amplitude, 0.11 ± 0.03 mV; QRS amplitude, 0.63 ± 0.31 mV; P duration, 43.99 ± 5.98 ms; QRS complex, 55.27 ± 7.02 ms; RR interval, 487.55 ± 77.32 ms; PR interval, 90.72 ± 11.94 ms; QT interval, 244.72 ± 25.27 ms; and mean electrical axis, 22.2 ± 80.3°. The P waves were predominantly positive in leads I and II and in the augmented unipolar limb aVF lead; by comparison, the QRS patterns were less uniform. The T waves were slightly positive in leads II, III, and aVF. The determination and publication of the normal ECG patterns and values of Bama minipigs facilitates understanding of the electrocardiographic changes that arise under experimental conditions. PMID:27025805

  13. Leptin receptor in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, Marco; Spinaci, Marcella; Galeati, Giovanna; Tamanini, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    Leptin is active in both metabolism and reproduction. In fact, it seems to exert an inhibitory action on gonadal functions by reducing testosterone production. The presence of leptin in human and boar seminal plasma and in human spermatozoa has been demonstrated; recently, leptin receptors (Ob-R) have been localized in human spermatozoa, thus suggesting a possible action of this hormone even on these cells. Our aim was to verify whether leptin receptor [the long form (Ob-Rb)] is present in boar spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were employed. RNA was extracted from boar spermatozoa and a specific band (382 bp) for Ob-Rb was detected after RT-PCR. Ob-Rb was detected on acrosome, subequatorial area and either on the midpiece or on the whole tail. These localizations were maintained even in semen washed twice to eliminate seminal plasma. We conclude that Ob-R is present in boar spermatozoa where seminal plasma leptin can exert its effects.

  14. [Hormonal desexing of boars with chlormadinone acetate].

    PubMed

    Busch, W; Hagelschuer, H; Gränz, G; Richter, G; Werner, K

    1979-01-01

    Chloromadinone acetate produces a dependable desexualising effect on boar by contant administration in feed rations of 30 mg per die over 70 days. Sexual odour thus can be widely eliminated. Other aspects studied in a group of 107 boars are body weight development, sexual behaviour, slaughter yield, and skin quality.

  15. Differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inma; del Olmo, David; Sijses, Laurien; Martinez-Alborcia, María J; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques. Eighteen sperm-rich ejaculate samples from six boars (three per boar) were diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution and split into three aliquots. The aliquots were (1) further diluted to 3×10(7) sperm/mL and stored as a liquid at 17°C for 72 h, (2) frozen-thawed (FT) at 1×10(9) sperm/mL using standard 0.5-mL straw protocols, or (3) sex-sorted with subsequent liquid storage (at 17°C for 6 h) or FT (2×10(7) sperm/mL using a standard 0.25-mL straw protocol). The sperm quality was evaluated based on total sperm motility (the CASA system), viability (plasma membrane integrity assessed using flow cytometry and the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), lipid peroxidation (assessed via indirect measurement of the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) and DNA fragmentation (sperm chromatin dispersion assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) test). Data were normalized to the values assessed for the fresh (for liquid-stored and FT samples) or the sorted semen samples (for liquid stored and the FT sorted spermatozoa). All of the four sperm-processing techniques affected sperm quality (P<0.01), regardless of the semen donor, with reduced percentages of motile and viable sperm and increased MDA generation and percentages of sperm with fragmented DNA. Significant (P<0.05) inter-boar (effect of boars within each semen-processing technique) and intra-boar (effect of semen-processing techniques within each boar) differences were evident for all of the sperm quality parameters assessed, indicating differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boars to withstand the semen-processing techniques. These results are the first evidence that ejaculate spermatozoa from individual boars can respond in a boar-dependent manner to different semen-processing techniques.

  16. Ulceroglandular Tularemia Following Contact with a Boar.

    PubMed

    Passiouk, Nikola; Heininger, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    We report on a 13-year-old patient who developed ulceroglandular tularemia after having assisted in slaughtering a hunted boar. He presented with a digital skin ulcer and enlarged lymph nodes. Clinically suspected tularemia was proven by real-time polymerase chain reaction performed on a skin ulcer biopsy and swab and by positive serology. This is the first reported case of tularemia after contact with a boar.

  17. Ractopamine hydrochloride improves growth performance and carcass composition in immunocastrated boars, intact boars, and gilts.

    PubMed

    Rikard-Bell, C; Curtis, M A; van Barneveld, R J; Mullan, B P; Edwards, A C; Gannon, N J; Henman, D J; Hughes, P E; Dunshea, F R

    2009-11-01

    The beta-agonist ractopamine is a dietary ingredient that improves growth and increases the lean mass with little change in fat mass in gilts and barrows. Limited data in boars indicate that dietary ractopamine may increase lean tissue and decrease fat deposition, whereas there are no data for immunocastrated boars. The aims of this investigation were 1) to assess whether the growth performance of all sexes could be maintained over 31 d by using a step-up dietary ractopamine feeding program of 5 mg/kg of ractopamine for the first 14 d, then increasing the dose to 10 mg/kg for a further 17 d, and 2) to determine if dietary ractopamine would increase lean mass in all sexes and decrease fat mass in boars and immunocastrated boars. The study involved 286 pigs randomized and proportionally allocated by breed into 24 groups of 11 or 12 pigs at 17 wk of age, with equal groups of boars, immunocastrated boars, and gilts. Dietary ractopamine decreased (P = 0.005) ADFI during the first 2 wk, particularly in the intact and immunocastrated boars, with the reduction in ADFI being maintained in the immunocastrated boars after the increment in dietary ractopamine. Daily BW gain was not altered by dietary ractopamine during the first 2 wk, but was increased (P < 0.001) after the increment in dietary ractopamine. Dietary ractopamine decreased (P < or = 0.033) feed conversion ratio in all sexes with the response being greater after the increase in dietary ractopamine. Carcass weight was increased (P < 0.001) by dietary ractopamine in all sexes, whereas back fat tended (P = 0.076) to be reduced in the immunocastrated boars. Dietary ractopamine increased (P = 0.018) lean tissue mass by 4.0, 4.8, and 6.5 kg in the intact boars, gilts, and immunocastrated boars, respectively. In the entire and immunocastrated boars, the increase in lean tissue was accompanied with a decrease (P = 0.004) in fat mass. There was little effect of dietary ractopamine on fat mass in gilts. However, carcass

  18. Dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation in raw boar semen and fertility.

    PubMed

    Batista, C; van Lier, E; Petrocelli, H

    2016-10-01

    The aims were to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in boars through the dispersion of their chromatin in raw semen samples, quantifying the extent of SDF, and to assess dynamic aspects of sperm DNA damage after incubation to obtain the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation (rSDF) under thermal conditions similar to the uterus (37°C) over a period of up to 24 hr and to correlate the reproductive outcome of the sows with the SDF of the boars at ejaculation. The study was performed on a pig-breeding farm in southern Uruguay. Sixty-one ejaculates from five of the most frequently used hybrid boars were evaluated. Semen was collected weekly from each of the boars, using the gloved-hand technique and discarding the jelly-like fraction of the ejaculate. Fresh semen was kept in a water bath at 37°C and protected from light, and was thereafter processed with Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) to evaluate SDF. The smears for time 0 (T0) were made on farm, and thereafter smears were made at the laboratory at 4 hr of obtaining the semen (T4), then every 2 hr (T6, T8, T10, T12) and a final fixation at 24 hr (T24). Differences in SDF were observed among exposure times for all boars (p < .05), but not between T10 and T12 (p = .7751) nor T4 and T24 (p = .9113). In none of the T24 samples, sperm heads could be seen with chromatin dispersion halos. Furthermore, there were differences among boars when comparing sperm rSDF (p < .05). Farrowing rate was not affected by SDF at T0 (r = .38, p = .75), nor was litter size (r = .16, p = .70). With the present experimental conditions, we have not been able to show a relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation at ejaculation and reproductive performance. However, this could be a result of the low number of ejaculates and boars used. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Palliative therapy of osteochondrosis dessicans in a Duroc boar

    PubMed Central

    Oomah, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A 2-year-old, 210-kg, Duroc boar manifested with a grade II–III left front lameness. The boar was treated systemically with isolfupredone acetate and a 5-week course of ketoprofen. The lameness resolved and the ketoprofen was discontinued; however, the lameness returned and the boar was euthanized humanely. Postmortem examination was consistent with osteochondrosis dessicans. PMID:18320984

  20. 9 CFR 78.33 - Sows and boars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.33 Sows and boars. (a) Sows and boars may be moved..., and the sows and boars either: (1) Are from a validated brucellosis-free herd or a...

  1. Wild boar helminths: risks in animal translocations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-de-Mera, Isabel G; Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquin; Höfle, Ursula; Fierro, Yolanda

    2003-08-14

    The helminth populations found in a group of wild boars collected in central Spain were compared to those in a group of animals imported from a French game farm that produces boars for restocking. Eleven helminth species, including ten nematodes and one acanthocephalan, were found. Gongylonema pulchrum and Macracanthorhynchus hirundinaceus were only detected in autochthonous wild boars, while Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum, and Trichuris suis were detected in imported animals only. Autochthonous wild boars were more frequently and more intensely parasitised by Ascarops strongylina than the imported ones. No differences in prevalence nor intensity were found for the species Capillaria garfiai, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Metastrongylus sp., Physocephalus sexalatus and Simondsia paradoxa. To our knowledge, G. urosubulatus, G. pulchrum and S. paradoxa have not previously been described in wild boars in Spain. Our results highlight the risks of translocating wild animals, with regard to their helminth parasites. Until improved control measures are established, it would be wise to avoid long-distance translocations in order to prevent the potential introduction of foreign parasites.

  2. Extracellular superoxide dismutase of boar seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Kowalowka, M; Wysocki, P; Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2008-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzymatic component of the antioxidant defense system that protects spermatozoa by catalysing the dismutation of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Age and season effects on SOD activity in the seminal plasma were measured in boars at the onset of 8 months through a 35-month period. It was found that age-related changes in SOD activity in the seminal plasma were markedly higher in boars less than 2 years of age. However, it appeared that SOD activity was established at the early sexual maturity age (8-12 months). There were variations in SOD activity throughout the season, being significantly higher in spring and autumn than in summer. A secretory extracellular form of SOD (EC-SOD) was purified to homogeneity (350-fold) from boar seminal plasma, using a three-step purification protocol (affinity chromatography followed by ion exchange and ceramic hydroxyapatite chromatography). The molecular properties and specificity of SOD (molecular mass, isoelectric point, optimum pH, thermostability and susceptibility to inhibitors) confirmed that the purified enzyme is an extracellular form of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase occurring in boar seminal plasma. The results of this study indicate that EC-SOD is an important antioxidant enzyme of boar seminal plasma, which plays an important physiological role in counteracting oxidative stress in spermatozoa.

  3. Creation of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus Scrofa) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Objectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in mini pigs using polystyrenemicrospheres to infarct a portion of the...underwent myocardial infarctions without misadventure. Infusion of polystyrene beads into a diagonal branch of the LAD resulted In a repeatable and...controlled myocardial Infarction.Conclusion: The method reported here provided consistent and repeatable myocardial infarcts with minimal morbidity.

  4. Meiotic Recombination Analyses of Individual Chromosomes in Male Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Nicolas; Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Billon, Yvon; Meslier, Frédéric; Robelin, David; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Hervé; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes. PMID:24919066

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cells from swine (Sus scrofa): why they may prove to be important.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R Michael; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    Three recent papers, published almost simultaneously by different groups, have described the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from the pig, a species whose size, anatomy and physiology render them attractive as clinical models for the human. The approach used in each case was to infect somatic cells with integrating retroviral vectors designed to express four reprogramming genes (POU5F1, SOX2, cMYC and KLF4). The cell lines generated met the standard criteria for pluripotency, including the ability to differentiate along multiple tissue lineages. In most respects, the porcine iPS cells more resembled human embryonic stem cells and human iPS cells than their murine equivalents. Provided such porcine iPS cells can be "personalized" to specific pigs and then coaxed to differentiate along specific lineages, it should be possible to use such animals to test transplantation therapies with iPS cells for safety and efficacy before the procedures are applied to human patients.

  6. Increased hematocrit after applications of conducted energy weapons (including TASER(®) devices) to Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R

    2011-01-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without intending to cause lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures in some cases. In laboratory animal models, central venous hematocrit has increased significantly after CEW exposure. Even limited applications (e.g., three 5-sec applications) resulted in statistically significant increases in hematocrit. Preexposure hematocrit was significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors after more extreme CEW applications. The purpose of this technical note is to address specific questions that may be generated when examining these results. Comparisons among results of CEW applications, other electrical muscle stimulation, and exercise/voluntary muscle contraction are included. The anesthetized swine appears to be an acceptable animal model for studying changes in hematocrit and associated red blood cell changes. Potential detrimental effects of increased hematocrit, and considerations during law enforcement use, are discussed. 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2010. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  7. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15–40 dpi). Anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15–75 dpi; high levels of anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  8. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340 m in a 12 hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343 m2 (range 2,937–32,759 m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964 m2 (range 246–3,289 m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  9. Behavioural and cardiac responses towards conspecific distress calls in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Düpjan, Sandra; Tuchscherer, Armin; Langbein, Jan; Schön, Peter-Christian; Manteuffel, Gerhard; Puppe, Birger

    2011-07-06

    In domestic pigs, vocalisation can be an indicator of distress and negative emotional states. It might play a role in the transfer of emotion between individuals ('emotional contagion' or 'empathy'), which could result in impaired animal welfare on a group level based on the distress in an individual member of the group. The aim of this study was to characterise the responses of pigs to conspecific distress calls. We performed a playback experiment in an open arena with 24 juvenile German Landrace pigs, during which individual subjects were exposed to both conspecific distress calls and an artificial sine tone (control) on consecutive experimental days. Both behavioural (locomotion, vocalisation, elimination and distance to the speakers) and physiological responses (heart rate and heart rate variability) were measured for 2 min before, during and after the playback of the stimuli (distress calls/control). Subjects showed decreased locomotion and vocalisation rates during both stimuli, suggesting that the animals responded to both stimuli. Heart rates decreased at the onset of both stimuli due to an activation of the parasympathetic system, indicating an orientation response to sudden stimuli. However, heart rates decreased after the end of the distress calls but not after control stimuli, illustrating that conspecific calls and other sounds are evaluated differently. We conclude that pigs exposed to isolation are attentive to conspecific distress vocalisation and hence the information about threat possibly conveyed in it, but they do not share the distress of the caller. Therefore, we could not find direct effects of distress calls of unfamiliar conspecifics on the welfare of isolated juvenile pigs. However, the state of heightened attention elicited by conspecific distress calls may affect a pig's subsequent evaluation of its environment.

  10. Liposarcoma in animals: literature review and case report in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Doria-Torra, Georgina; Martínez, Jorge; Domingo, Mariano; Vidaña, Beatriz; Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Casanova, María Isabel; Vidal, Enric

    2015-03-01

    Liposarcomas are malignant tumors of adipocytes. The current report describes a liposarcoma in a 2.5-year-old, mixed-breed commercial sow that was detected during meat inspection. On gross examination, a firm, whitish, multinodular, 20 cm ×10 cm mass was observed in the perirenal area along with smaller nodules multifocally scattered within the renal parenchyma. Histological examination revealed an anaplastic sarcoma with clear intracytoplasmic lipidic vacuoles that were positive for Sudan black staining. Most of the cells were also positive for S100 and vimentin immunohistochemistry. Based on these results, a diagnosis of a perirenal liposarcoma was established. To the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of liposarcomas in pigs have been published. This report also includes a review of the literature published on animal liposarcomas.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the ionotropic GABA receptor subunit ρ1 from pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-01-13

    Since human and pig eyes have remarkably anatomical and physiological similitudes swine models have been broadly used for functional studies and therapeutic research. Recently, a GABAρ-mediated relaxation of retinal vascularity suggested that GABAρ signaling may be used to improve retinal blood flow in vascular-driven impaired vision, and a further molecular characterization of GABAρ receptors would be beneficial. However, none of the GABAρ type subunits from pigs has been yet cloned; Among the 19 subunits that compose the family of GABAA receptors, ρ1-3 subunits are capable of forming homomeric channels. These homomeric receptors are particularly interesting because their pharmacological and kinetic properties are notably different from receptors composed by other GABAA subunits. Here we report the cloning of the GABAρ1subunit from the pig and the functional expression of homomeric channels in Xenopus oocytes. The most notable difference found in the pig GABAρ1 receptor was the absence of a stretch of 17 amino acids near the amino terminus (R41-V58) conserved in the rat and the human. This sequence has a higher nucleotidic match with the transcript variant 2 of the human GABAρ1 subunit. Xenopus oocytes injected with cRNA from the receptor generated currents when exposed to GABA that shared all the characteristics of other GABAρ1 subunits in mammals, including its modulation by dopamine. This study will help to increase the knowledge of the genetics of the pig, further the understanding of this important neurotransmitter receptor family and will shed some light in the evolution of these genes among mammals.

  12. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  13. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  14. Light microscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical comparison of Bama minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) and human skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Jun-ying; Shang, Hai-tao; Liu, Chang-e; Wang, Yong; Niu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-04-01

    Here we sought to evaluate the possibility of using Chinese Bama miniature pig skin as a suitable animal model for human skin. Morphologic features of the skin of Bama miniature pigs resemble those of human skin, including skin layer thickness, development of a superficial vascular system, structure of the dermal-epidermal interface, and extracellular matrix. The characteristics and densities of Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells were similar between Bama pig and human skin. Immunohistochemistry showed that miniature pigs and humans have the same antigenic determinants of human laminin, fibronectin, filaggrin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, and keratin but not CD34, ICAM1, or S100. In addition, collagen type I from Bama miniature pig skin exhibited physicochemical characteristics resembling those of human skin, in regard to HPLC chromatography, UV spectroscopy, amino-acid composition, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Given these results, we concluded that Bama miniature pigs have great potential as a human skin model and for developing dermal substitute materials in wound repair. However, we also observed some disparities between the skin of Bama miniature pigs and humans, including pigment cell distribution, sweat gland types, and others. Therefore, further studies are needed to completely evaluate the effects of these interspecies differences on the actual application of the model.

  15. Surgical correction of periocular fat pads and entropion in a potbellied pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Allbaugh, Rachel A; Davidson, Harriet J

    2009-01-01

    A 16-year-old Vietnamese potbellied pig was examined because of recurrent ocular discharge and reduced visual ability. Bilateral upper eyelid entropion and impaired vision secondary to periocular fat deposition were diagnosed. Surgical correction with excision of subdermal fat and redundant skin was performed to address both issues. Surgery restored vision and resolved ocular irritation. More than 1 year following surgical therapy the pig is visual and comfortable with no evidence of recurrent fat deposition or entropion.

  16. Antimicrobial-bonded graft patency in the setting of a polymicrobial infection in swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Clemens, Michael S; Stull, Mamie C; Hata, Kai W; Heafner, Thomas A; Watson, J Devin B; Arthurs, Zachary M; Propper, Brandon W

    2017-10-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Dacron are commonly used as arterial conduits in vascular trauma or infection when vein interposition graft may not be available. This study used a previously validated large animal model of polymicrobial infection to assess the patency and infectious resistance of a novel, antibiotic-impregnated graft material compared with PTFE and Dacron. Forty-eight animals were placed into five groups for a 21-day survival period. A 6-mm PTFE, Dacron, or antimicrobial-bonded graft was used to replace the iliac artery and then inoculated with 1 × 10(7) colonies/mL of genetically labeled Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Native vessels with and without contamination served as control groups. The primary end points were graft patency (determined by duplex ultrasound and necropsy) and graft infection (culture with molecular analysis). Secondary end points included physiologic measurements, blood cultures, laboratory data, and histopathology. At 21 days, 50% of PTFE, 62.5% of Dacron, and 100% of the antimicrobial-bonded grafts remained patent (P = .04). PTFE and Dacron had an equivalent number of overall infections, 87.5% and 75%, respectively (P = 1.0). There was no significant difference of infectious organisms between standard materials. The infection rate of the antimicrobial-bonded graft (25%) was significantly less than that of both PTFE and Dacron (P < .01), and all of these infections were secondary to P. aeruginosa. Clinical data did not vary significantly between groups. There were no mortalities in the protocol secondary to graft blowout or sepsis. The antimicrobial-bonded graft material outperformed standard PTFE and Dacron in the setting of polymicrobial infection with regard to graft patency and infection. The novel prosthetic material appears to be resistant to infection with S. aureus and to limit the growth of P. aeruginosa. Additional studies are recommended to explore the role of this antibiotic-bonded graft for use in the setting of vascular infection or trauma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Focused post mortem dissection technique for harvest of rete mirabile in domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Eliyas, Javed Khader; Niekrasz, Marek; Wardrip, Craig; Lee, Seon-Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Rete mirabile (RM) of the domestic pig is a popular animal model of arteriovenous malformations. The RM (Latin for 'wonderful net)' comprises the arterioarterial portal connecting ascending pharyngeal arteries and the internal carotid arteries, which exists in the skull base of even-toed ungulates. Although angiographic access of the RM is relatively easy, its post mortem procurement is complicated and its detailed technique has not been well described. To present our focused post mortem dissection technique for undamaged and complete harvest of the RM. Fourteen domestic (40-70 lb (18-32 kg)) swine were used in this study. Angiographies were performed under general anesthesia in all animals. A 5F Berenstein catheter was used for angiography and a 014 microcatheter was used to obtain superselective angiography. A stepwise surgical dissection technique has been developed to efficiently harvest RM. Angiographic and surgical anatomy were also compared. The RM was supplied by bilateral ascending pharyngeal arteries. Bilateral anterior cerebral arteries, middle cerebral arteries, and the basilar system were identified rostral to the RM. Our surgical dissection technique was developed during a project to streamline harvesting of the RM and a stepwise description is as follows: (1) decapitate the swine by removing the head through the plane of the occiput and C1 vertebral body; (2) remove the tongue and oropharynx via a ventral approach; (3) dissect through the posterior pharyngeal wall identifying bilateral tympanic bullae and the basisphenoid bone; and (4) remove the basisphenoid bone about one and half inches above the rostral end of the tympanic bullae to fully expose the rete. The RM can be procured efficiently and effectively with our technique, without requiring any sophisticated surgical devices. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. ABO and RH1 blood group phenotyping in pigs (Sus scrofa) using microtyping cards.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Majado, M J; Quereda, J J; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation or transfusion with ABO disparity is a cause for rejection or for severe hemodynamic alterations. ABO groups in pigs are commonly an unknown variable, which has been previously assessed by means of hemagglutination tests or immunohistochemical procedures on tissues. Herein, we have reported a simple method using commercial microcards for human ABO typing. However, the reagents directly derived from human sera included in these cards can result in false determinations due to alpha-gal interference. The ABO groups of 19 wild-type pigs (Landrace x Large White) were assessed using 2 commercial cards: Human sera-based and monoclonal antibody-based cards. The human sera cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the AB group and 11 to the B group. The monoclonal antibody cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the A group and 11 to the O group. None of the pigs showed reactions to Rh1 antibodies. Because the B group has not been described in pigs, the reaction in human sera cards represented an interference with alpha-gal antigen, a molecule structurally similar to the B blood antigen. Thus, microtyping cards based on monoclonal antibodies provided simple, quick way to assess ABO groups in pigs used for xenotransplantation. ABO concordance should always be investigated for these types of procedures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The contribution of social effects to heritable variation in finishing traits of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bergsma, R; Kanis, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2008-03-01

    Social interactions among individuals are ubiquitous both in animals and in plants, and in natural as well as domestic populations. These interactions affect both the direction and the magnitude of responses to selection and are a key factor in evolutionary success of species and in the design of breeding schemes in agriculture. At present, however, very little is known of the contribution of social effects to heritable variance in trait values. Here we present estimates of the direct and social genetic variance in growth rate, feed intake, back fat thickness, and muscle depth in a population of 14,032 domestic pigs with known pedigree. Results show that social effects contribute the vast majority of heritable variance in growth rate and feed intake in this population. Total heritable variance expressed relative to phenotypic variance was 71% for growth rate and 70% for feed intake. These values clearly exceed the usual range of heritability for those traits. Back fat thickness and muscle depth showed no heritable variance due to social effects. Our results suggest that genetic improvement in agriculture can be substantially advanced by redirecting breeding schemes, so as to capture heritable variance due to social effects.

  20. [Standardized selection and its consequences for genetic population structure (examplified by Sus scrofa L.)].

    PubMed

    Kniazev, S P; Nikitin, S V

    2011-01-01

    Type of selection for total fitness, specific for domestic animals and termed by us standardizing selection, is discussed. Consequences of such selection for the population structure genetic are considered taking a population of domestic pigs as an example. Examples of effective and ineffective standardizing selection are presented. Specific features of genetic determination often quantitative traits detected in analysis of standardizing selection are discussed.

  1. Annexin A2 is involved in pig (Sus scrofa)sperm-oviduct interaction.

    PubMed

    Teijeiro, Juan M; Ignotz, George G; Marini, Patricia E

    2009-04-01

    The oviduct is a dynamic organ which modulates gamete physiology. Sperm-oviduct interaction provides the formation of a sperm storage reservoir and allows the selection of sperm with certain qualities in eutherian mammals. In sows, the oviductal sperm binding glycoprotein (SBG) has been proposed to be involved in sperm selection. In this work, based on its affinity to sperm periacrosomal membrane proteins, we isolate another pig oviductal cell protein that interacts with sperm. Peptide identification by LC/MS-MS allowed the identification of this protein as annexin A2. The presence of this annexin, as well as annexin A1 and annexin A5 in sow oviductal cells was confirmed by Western blot with specific antibodies. The three proteins were localized in sow oviduct by immunohistochemistry, showing the presence of annexin A2 at the apical surface of the oviductal epithelial cells. Based on our data and the fact that annexins have been stated as candidate receptors of bovine sperm for sperm reservoir formation, we propose that this family of proteins is involved in sperm-oviduct interaction, annexin A2 being the main sperm binding isoform in pig.

  2. Heterochromatin and nucleolus-organizer-region behaviour at male pachytene of Sus scrofa domestica.

    PubMed

    Schwarzacher, T; Mayr, B; Schweizer, D

    1984-01-01

    In the domestic pig (2n = 38) two types of constitutive heterochromatin can be differentiated by fluorescence counterstaining techniques. All 24 biarmed autosomes and the X chromosome have chromomycin A3-positive centromeric C-bands, whereas all 12 acrocentric chromosomes exhibit DA-DAPI-positive centromeric heterochromatin. Fluorescence analysis of male pachytene nuclei revealed that the DA-DAPI-positive C-bands form one or two large chromocentres per cell, while the chromomycin A3-bright C-material is well scattered. Hence, the bivalents formed by the acrocentric chromosome pairs are centromerically associated, whilst the submetacentric bivalents are not. Counce-Meyer spreading techniques were used to study the structure of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) both by light and electron microscopy. In general, the SCs of the domestic pig resemble those described for other mammals. The SC formed by the X and the Y may include up to 94.5% of the Y chromosome. In silver-stained microspreads each of the bivalents (nos. 8 and 10) bearing the nucleolus-organizer-regions (NORs) is connected to a pair of nucleoli, indicating that all four NORs are active during early meiotic stages. By contrast, in the majority of mitotic metaphases of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes only one pair (no. 10) exhibited Ag-NOR staining. The significance of the chromosome disposition in the pachytene nucleus is discussed with regard to heterochromatin composition and karyotype evolution.

  3. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Xu, Xing-Li; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the ear tissue of an adult Laiwu Black pig is from the Shandong province of China. The complete mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,710 bp, and it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region (D-loop), with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrates.

  4. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Rongchang pig is one of the native breeds in Sichuan province in China. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig is 16,710 bp, including 34.67% A, 26.18% C, 25.82% T and 13.33% G, and in the order A > C > T > G. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence about Rongchang pig. The mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig subsequently provides an important information in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Xiao, Ding-Fu; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig in Yunnan Province was firstly reported, which was determined through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig was 16720 bp, including 34.77% A, 26.18% C, 25.81% T and 13.24% G, and in the order A > C > T > G. Mitochondrial genome contained a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig provides an important data set for the study on genetic mechanism.

  6. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Liang; Liu, Zhen; Yang, An-Qi; Li, Zhi; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Lantang pig is a native breed of Guangzhou Province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Lantang pig is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,709 bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region, Table 1). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 34.69% for A, 26.18% for C, 25.82% for T and 13.31% for G, in the order A>C>T>G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes.

  7. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Chai, Yu-Lan; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the total length of mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig is 16,731 bp, including 34.66% A, 26.27% C, 25.74% T and 13.33% G. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. ND2 selects ATT as the initiation codon, and ATA is chose as an initiation codon in ND3 and ND5, the nonstandard start codon is GTG in ND4L and the rest protein common start codon is ATG. The mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism, which plays an important role in the three-way crossbred pigs.

  8. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Chai, Yu-Lan; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig, which was 16,741 bp in size and had a nucleotide composition in A and T (60.46%). The genome consisted of a major non-coding control region (D-loop region) and 37 genes, including 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The genes in the mitochondrial genomes of Wuzhishan pig used three kinds of initiation codons (ATA, ATG, and GTG) and four kinds of termination codons (TAA, AGA, TAG, and an incomplete termination codons T-). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wuzhishan pig provides an important data set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  9. Gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome in Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Elliott, Thomas B; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Olsen, Cara H; Christensen, Christine; Chappell, Mark; Whitnall, Mark H; Moroni, Maria

    2014-12-01

    In the absence of supportive care, exposing Göttingen minipigs to γ-radiation doses of less than 2 Gy achieves lethality due to hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Doses of 2 to 5 Gy are associated with an accelerated hematopoietic syndrome, characterized by villus blunting and fusion, the beginning of sepsis, and a mild transient reduction in plasma citrulline concentration. We exposed male Göttingen minipigs (age, 5 mo; weight, 9 to 11 kg) to γ-radiation doses of 5 to 12 Gy (total body; (60)Co, 0.6 Gy/min) to test whether these animals exhibit classic gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). After exposure, the minipigs were monitored for 10 d by using clinical signs, CBC counts, and parameters associated with the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome. Göttingen minipigs exposed to γ radiation of 5 to 12 Gy demonstrate a dose-dependent occurrence of all parameters classically associated with acute GI-ARS. These results suggest that Göttingen minipigs may be a suitable model for studying GI-ARS after total body irradiation, but the use of supportive care to extend survival beyond 10 d is recommended. This study is the first step toward determining the feasibility of using Göttingen minipigs in testing the efficacy of candidate drugs for the treatment of GI-ARS after total body irradiation.

  10. Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus Scrofa Domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Thomas B; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Olsen, Cara H; Christensen, Christine; Chappell, Mark; Whitnall, Mark H; Moroni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of supportive care, exposing Göttingen minipigs to γ-radiation doses of less than 2 Gy achieves lethality due to hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Doses of 2 to 5 Gy are associated with an accelerated hematopoietic syndrome, characterized by villus blunting and fusion, the beginning of sepsis, and a mild transient reduction in plasma citrulline concentration. We exposed male Göttingen minipigs (age, 5 mo; weight, 9 to 11 kg) to γ-radiation doses of 5 to 12 Gy (total body; 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min) to test whether these animals exhibit classic gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). After exposure, the minipigs were monitored for 10 d by using clinical signs, CBC counts, and parameters associated with the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome. Göttingen minipigs exposed to γ radiation of 5 to 12 Gy demonstrate a dose-dependent occurrence of all parameters classically associated with acute GI-ARS. These results suggest that Göttingen minipigs may be a suitable model for studying GI-ARS after total body irradiation, but the use of supportive care to extend survival beyond 10 d is recommended. This study is the first step toward determining the feasibility of using Göttingen minipigs in testing the efficacy of candidate drugs for the treatment of GI-ARS after total body irradiation. PMID:25527026

  11. [Basic values of blood coagulation parameters in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Hahn, N; Popov-Cenic, S; Dorer, A

    1996-01-01

    On 23 clinical healthy pigs (2-4 months of age, body weight 13-42 kg) under ketamin-pentobarbital anaesthesia blood plasma coagulation parameters have been investigated. To obtain basic values 26 parameters were measured: number of thrombocytes, parameters of thrombelastogram and resonance-thrombogram, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, reptilase time, factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrin degradation products D and E and euglobulin lysis-time. Parameters calculated in percent should be measured against a pig plasma pool. Measurement against a human plasma pool are hardly valid in values higher than 100%. In comparison to man the results indicate modifications of fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis in pigs.

  12. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis.

  13. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kefei; Baxter, Tara; Muir, William M.; Groenen, Martien A.; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity for tracing mammalian evolutionary history and defining signatures of selection resulting from both domestication and natural selection. Completion of the pig genome sequencing project will have significant impacts on both agriculture and human health. Following the pig whole genome sequence drafts, along with large-scale polymorphism data, it will be possible to conduct genome sweeps using association mapping, and identify signatures of selection. Here, we provide a description of the pig genome sequencing project and perspectives on utilizing genomic technologies to exploit pig genome evolution and the molecular basis for phenotypic traits for improving pig production and health. PMID:17384734

  14. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    the 14-day survival period to calculate the composite physiologic model of recovery ( PMR ). Necropsy was performed for evaluation of nerve and...muscle histology. Results: In hemorrhage alone, according to the PMR the recovery was 94+/-28%, 63+/- 37% and 55+/-44% at 0, 3 and 6 hours of ischemia...hours. , , . v w and compared to baseline to create the Physiologic Model of Recovery ( PMR ). On day 14, necropsy was performed and

  15. Vagal projections to the pylorus in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Zalecki, M; Podlasz, P; Pidsudko, Z; Wojtkiewicz, J; Kaleczyc, J

    2012-11-02

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precise localization of the brainstem motor and primary sensory (nodose ganglion) vagal perikarya supplying the pylorus in the domestic pig. Using the Fast Blue retrograde tracing technique it has been established that all the vagal motor neurons projecting to the pylorus (about 337 ± 59 cells per animal) were localized bilaterally in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX, 171 - left; 167 - right) and all other regions of the porcine brainstem were devoid of labeled neurons. The vagal perikarya supplying the porcine pylorus were dispersed throughout the whole rostro-caudal extent of the DMX and no somatotopic organization of these neurons was observed. The labeled neurons occurred individually or in groups up to five cell bodies per nuclear transverse cross section area (in the middle part of the nucleus). An immunocytochemical staining procedure disclosed that all Fast Blue labeled motor neurons were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive, however some differences in immunofluorescence intensity occurred. The primary sensory vagal neurons were observed within the left (215±37 cells/animal) and right (148±21 cells/animal) nodose ganglion. The traced neurons were dispersed throughout the ganglia and no characteristic arrangement of these neurons was observed. The present experiment precisely indicates the sources of origin of the vagal motor and primary sensory neurons supplying the pyloric region in the pig, the animal of an increasing significance in biomedical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Treesearch

    David A. Keiter; John C. Kilgo; Mark A. Vukovich; Fred L. Cunningham; James C. Beasley

    2017-01-01

    Context. Wild pigs are an invasive species linked to numerous negative impacts on natural and anthropogenic ecosystems in many regions of the world. Robust estimates of juvenile wild pig survival are needed to improve population dynamics models to facilitate management of this economically and ecologically...

  17. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Feral swine may serve as sentinels for the parasi...

  19. Genetic diversity in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of global swine (Sus scrofa) populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junxia; Jiao, Ting; Zhao, Shengguo

    2016-05-13

    Increased global use of highly productive commercial breeds has reduced genetic diversity in indigenous breeds. It is necessary to protect local porcine breeds. We therefore assessed the level of genetic diversity in global swine populations. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region was examined in 1010 sequences from indigenous pigs and commercial swine as well as 3424 publicly available sequences We identified 334 haplotypes and 136 polymorphic sites. Genetic diversity was analyzed based on basic parameters, including haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences, and also assessed by principal component analysis. A comparison of nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences between indigenous breeds and commercial breeds showed that indigenous pigs had a lower level of diversity than commercial breeds. The principle component analysis result also showed the genetic diversity of the indigenous breeds was lower than that of commercial breeds. Collectively, our results reveal the Southeast Asian porcine population exhibited the higher nucleotide diversity, whereas Chinese population appeared consistently lower level in Asia. European, American and Oceanian pigs had a relatively higher degree of genetic diversity compared with that of Asian pigs. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the introgression of commercial into indigenous breeds decreased indigenous breeds' genetic diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  1. Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors.

    PubMed

    Wäckers, Felix; Olson, Dawn; Rains, Glen; Lundby, Frank; Haugen, John-Erik

    2011-01-01

    The off-flavor boar taint associated with the substances skatole, androstenone, and possibly indole represents a significant problem in the pig husbandry industry. Boar taint may occur in meat from uncastrated sexually mature male pigs; consumers commonly show a strong aversion to tainted meat. Consequently, there is a need for rapid methods to sort out and remove tainted carcasses at the slaughterline. We tested the ability of wasps, Microplitis croceipes to perceive and learn the 3 boar taint compounds both individually and in combination using classical conditioning paradigms. We also established the effectiveness and reliability of boar taint odor detection when wasps were used as biosensors in a contained system called the "wasp hound" using a cohort of trained wasps. We found that the wasps are able to successfully learn indole, skatole and to also detect them when presented a 1:1:1 mixture of all 3 compounds. This was shown for both a single hand-manipulated wasp bioassay and when using the "wasp hound" detector device. In contrast, the wasps showed a weak conditioned response to androstenone at the concentration tested. The estimated gas phase concentrations that the wasps perceived during training were in the range of 10 ± 0.4 pg/s for skatole and indole, and 2 ± 0.5 pg/s for androstenone. We conclude that use of these wasps as biosensors presents a promising method for boar taint detection and discuss future training paradigms that may improve their responses to compounds such as androstenone. Practical Application: The development of a perceptive, inexpensive, and reliable means of detecting boar taint before the product is presented to sensitive consumers.

  2. A comparison of reproductive characteristics of boars generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer to highly related conventionally produced boars.

    PubMed

    Williams, N E; Walker, S C; Reeves, D E; Sherrer, E; Galvin, J M; Polejaeva, I; Rampacek, G; Benyshek, L; Christenson, R K; Graves, W M; Pratt, S L

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the reproductive performance of boars produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer versus conventional breeding. Two different genotypes were selected for comparison: terminal cross line 1 (TX1) and terminal cross line 2 (TX2). The boars selected for comparison from TX1 were three cloned boars, produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and the conventionally produced progenitor of the clones. The boars selected for comparison from TX2 were a cloned boar produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and two conventionally produced half sibling boars that were offspring of the progenitor of the clone. Semen from each boar was collected, extended, evaluated and shipped offsite. Upon arrival, the semen was reevaluated and utilized for artificial insemination of 89 commercial gilts, at least 12 gilts per boar, producing 625 piglets. Pregnancy rates were determined at day 30 and 110 of gestation; and farrowing rate and gestation length were recorded. Differences were observed in some of the semen characteristics analyzed with the clones usually possessing superior semen quality to the control, this likely being a result of age differences amongst the clones and controls. Additionally no differences were noted between the clones and controls (progenitor) or between individual boars within genetic line for pregnancy rates, gestation length or any of the litter parameters examined between the clones and controls. These data further support previous reports with limited numbers that the reproductive capabilities of cloned boars are equal to that of conventionally produced boars.

  3. Regulating wild boar populations is "somebody else's problem"! - Human dimension in wild boar management.

    PubMed

    Keuling, Oliver; Strauß, Egbert; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-06-01

    As a part of the ongoing game survey of the German federal state of Lower Saxony (WTE), we conducted inquiries into wild boar management and distribution, as well as hunters' attitudes, in order to determine the reasons for the increase of wild boar populations and to inform our game management strategy. According to hunters' reports within the WTE, increases in distribution and population continue and a reduction of the wild boar population has been deemed necessary on a large scale. In the home region, however, it seems to be "somebody else's problem" (SEP), according to hunters' opinions. The majority of hunters are not able to regulate the population and this could be a reason that wild boar numbers continue to increase. Cooperation and comprehensive hunting with efficient hunting methods seems to be the most promising solution, as non-hunting methods are unpopular amongst hunters. The hunters seem to be aware of the problems, solutions and contributing factors; however, most hunters do not feel responsible and see the management of wild boar, again, as a SEP. Regional conditions, as well as hunters' willingness and capacity to manage wild boar will have to be incorporated into management concepts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Boar spermatozoa in the oviduct.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto; Saravia, Fernando; Wallgren, Margareta; Tienthai, Paisan; Johannisson, Anders; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio; Roca, Jordi; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J

    2005-01-15

    In the pig, a functional tubal sperm reservoir (SR) is established before ovulation to ensure availability of suitable numbers of viable spermatozoa for fertilization. The boar's large ejaculate is split: most spermatozoa are delivered in a sperm-rich fraction (SRF) followed by a post-SRF fraction containing increasing amounts of the spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II-rich seminal vesicle secretion. This heterodimer acts as leukocyte chemoattractant both in vitro and in vivo, contributing to the phagocytosis of those spermatozoa not reaching the SR. Sequential ejaculate deposition of marked spermatozoa and SR screening showed that most spermatozoa in the SR arose from the fortuitous PSP-poor, first portion of the SRF fraction, escaping phagocytosis and replenishing the SR within 2-3 h. The SR-sperm numbers diminish gradually in relation to ovulation, spermatozoa being continuously redistributed toward the upper isthmus. In vitro, only uncapacitated spermatozoa bind to epithelial explants, suggesting that the SR influences sperm capacitation. In vivo, most viable spermatozoa--usually harbored in the deep furrows in the pre- or peri-ovulatory SR during spontaneous standing estrus--are uncapacitated, but capacitation significantly increases after ovulation. Pre-/peri-ovulatory SR spermatozoa promptly capacitate in vitro when exposed to the effector bicarbonate, an influence that can be reversed by co-incubation with SR fluid or its component hyaluronan. Fluid collected from the ampullar segment (rich in bicarbonate) induces capacitation in vitro. In conclusion, the lack of massive sperm capacitation in the SR and the diverse individual response to capacitation shown by tubal spermatozoa would relate both to the insurance of full sperm viability before ovulation and the presence of spermatozoa at different stages of capacitation in the upper oviduct, thus maximizing the chances of normal fertilization.

  5. Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the potential for a non-stinging wasp to be used as a biosensor in the pig industry, we trained wasps to 3 individual chemicals associated with boar taint. Training consisted of presenting the odors to hungry wasps while they were feeding on sugar. This associates the chemical with a fo...

  6. Protein kinase C activity in boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Teijeiro, J M; Marini, P E; Bragado, M J; Garcia-Marin, L J

    2017-03-01

    Male germ cells undergo different processes within the female reproductive tract to successfully fertilize the oocyte. These processes are triggered by different extracellular stimuli leading to activation of protein phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key regulatory enzyme in signal transduction mechanisms involved in many cellular processes. Studies in boar sperm demonstrated a role for PKC in the intracellular signaling involved in motility and cellular volume regulation. Experiments using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) showed increases in the Serine/Threonine phosphorylation of substrates downstream of PKC in boar sperm. In order to gain knowledge about those cellular processes regulated by PKC, we evaluate the effects of PMA on boar sperm motility, lipid organization of plasma membrane, integrity of acrosome membrane and sperm agglutination. Also, we investigate the crosstalk between PKA and PKC intracellular pathways in spermatozoa from this species. The results presented here reveal a participation of PKC in sperm motility regulation and membrane fluidity changes, which is probably associated to acrosome reaction and to agglutination. Also, we show the existence of a hierarchy in the kinases pathway. Previous works on boar sperm suggest a pathway in which PKA is positioned upstream to PKC and this new results support such model.

  7. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar: 8 cases

    PubMed Central

    Østevik, Liv; Elmas, Colette; Rubio-Martinez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Surgical techniques for castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar and outcome are described. Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (VPBP) boars (n = 8) were admitted for castration. Data retrieved from medical records (2002–2011) for these pigs included signalment, history, reason for castration, perioperative management, surgical technique, and complications. Follow-up information was obtained from owners. A scrotal approach with closed technique was used for 6 boars with normally descended testes. A scrotal approach and open technique was used in 1 inguinal cryptorchid boar. In a hemicastrated abdominal cryptorchid boar an ipsilateral parainguinal approach was used. No complications occurred. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar is associated with minimal complications and a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We recommend the routine closure of the external inguinal rings, a simple and fast procedure that may prevent post-castration inguinal herniation. PMID:23450857

  8. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (p<0.05). Therefore, HA could be a promising cryoprotectant for boar sperm.

  9. Boar Differences In Artificial Insemination Outcomes: Can They Be Minimized?

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Broekhuijse, M L W J; Parrilla, I; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Martinez, E A; Bolarin, A

    2015-07-01

    In Western countries, where pig breeding and production are intensive, there is a documented variability in fertility between farms with boar-related parameters only accounting to 6% of this total variation of in vivo fertility. Such low boar effect could be a result of the rigorous control of sires and ejaculates yielding AI-doses exerted by the highly specialized AI-centres that monopolize the market. However, some subfertile boars pass through these rigorous controls and consequently reach the AI-programmes. Here, we discuss why testing young boars for chromosomal defects, sperm nuclear chromatin integrity and in vitro fertilizing ability can be discriminative and economically sound for removing these less fertile boars. Alongside, we discuss why boars differ in the ability of their sperm to tolerate cryopreservation or sex sorting.

  10. Boar culling in swine breeding herds in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    D'Allaire, Sylvie; Leman, Allen D.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study boar culling patterns in swine breeding herds. Data were obtained from 84 swine breeding herds and included 440 boars that were culled. Each producer was involved for 12 consecutive months, and recorded every boar that was removed from the herd, the date, and the reason for culling. The annual culling rate for the 84 farms averaged 59.4% ± 6.4 (SEM). The correlation coefficient between boar and sow culling was 0.52 (p <0.0001). Removal was the result of being overweight (47%), reproductive problems (18%), leg problems (12%), death (7%), and other diseases (4%). From the annual culling rate, the average breeding life of boars was estimated at 20 months. From this study, we concluded that the annual culling rate for boars in commercial herds was high and related to several different factors. PMID:17423646

  11. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar: 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Østevik, Liv; Elmas, Colette; Rubio-Martinez, Luis M

    2012-09-01

    Surgical techniques for castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar and outcome are described. Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (VPBP) boars (n = 8) were admitted for castration. Data retrieved from medical records (2002-2011) for these pigs included signalment, history, reason for castration, perioperative management, surgical technique, and complications. Follow-up information was obtained from owners. A scrotal approach with closed technique was used for 6 boars with normally descended testes. A scrotal approach and open technique was used in 1 inguinal cryptorchid boar. In a hemicastrated abdominal cryptorchid boar an ipsilateral parainguinal approach was used. No complications occurred. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar is associated with minimal complications and a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We recommend the routine closure of the external inguinal rings, a simple and fast procedure that may prevent post-castration inguinal herniation. Surgical techniques for castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar and outcome are described. Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (VPBP) boars (n = 8) were admitted for castration. Data retrieved from medical records (2002–2011) for these pigs included signalment, history, reason for castration, perioperative management, surgical technique, and complications. Follow-up information was obtained from owners. A scrotal approach with closed technique was used for 6 boars with normally descended testes. A scrotal approach and open technique was used in 1 inguinal cryptorchid boar. In a hemicastrated abdominal cryptorchid boar an ipsilateral parainguinal approach was used. No complications occurred. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar is associated with minimal complications and a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We recommend the routine closure of the external inguinal rings, a simple and fast procedure that may prevent post-castration inguinal herniation.

  12. Sensory evaluation of boar loins: trained assessors' olfactory acuity affects the perception of boar taint compounds.

    PubMed

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Sharifi, Ahmad Reza; Tholen, Ernst; Frieden, Luc; Bücking, Mark; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of assessors' varying olfactory acuity on the perceived intensity of androstenone and skatole odour and flavour in boar loins. To discriminate sensitive (SENS) and highly sensitive (SENSHIGH) panellists, two levels of androstenone were used on smell strips. Sensitivity was defined as the correct identification of the androstenone strip in three replicate triangle tests. Judges then assessed loins from boars, castrated pigs and gilts. SENSHIGH assessors scored low-fat boar loins with 1.5 to 2.0μg of androstenone per gram of melted back fat which is significantly different from castrate and gilt loins for androstenone odour and flavour whereas SENS assessors were less discriminating. Panellists' olfactory acuity should thus be considered for selection and training. The presented paper strip system is suggested for objective screening and training purposes and to be used as quantitative references in descriptive analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The physiological roles of the boar ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, H; Kvist, U; Saravia, F; Wallgren, M; Johannisson, A; Sanz, L; Peña, F J; Martínez, E A; Roca, J; Vázquez, J M; Calvete, J J

    2009-01-01

    During ejaculation in the boar, sperm cohorts emitted in epididymal cauda fluid are sequentially exposed and resuspended in different mixtures of accessory sex gland secretion. This paper reviews the relevance of such unevenly composed fractions of seminal plasma (SP) in vivo on sperm transport and sperm function and how this knowledge could benefit boar semen processing for artificial insemination (AI). The firstly ejaculated spermatozoa (first 10 ml of the sperm-rich fraction, SRF [P1]) remain mainly exposed to epididymal cauda fluid and its specific proteins i.e. various lipocalins, including the fertility-related prostaglandin D synthase; than to prostatic and initial vesicular gland secretions. P1-spermatozoa are hence exposed to less bicarbonate, zinc or fructose and mainly to PSP-I spermadhesin; than if they were in the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (P2). Since the P1-SP is less destabilizing for sperm membrane and chromatin, P1-spermatozoa sustain most in vitro procedures, including cryopreservation, the best. Moreover, ejaculated firstly, the P1-spermatozoa seem also those deposited by the boar as a vanguard cohort, thus becoming overrepresented in the oviductal sperm reservoir (SR). This vanguard SR-entry occurs before the endometrial signalling of SP components (as PSP-I/PSP-II and cytokines) causes a massive influx of the innate defensive PMNs to cleanse the uterus from eventual pathogens, superfluous spermatozoa and the allogeneic SP. The SP also conditions the mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, to tolerate the SR-spermatozoa and the semi-allogeneic conceptus. These in vivo gathered data can be extrapolated into procedures for handling boar spermatozoa in vitro for AI and other biotechnologies, including simplified cryopreservation.

  14. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  15. Application of antioxidants and centrifugation for cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yi, Kangle; Chen, Chao; Hou, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu

    2012-06-01

    Although cryopreserved boar semen has been available since 1975, a major breakthrough in commercial application has not yet occurred due to the high susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to damage during cryopreservation and the complicated process required for deep freezing. In recent years, the application of antioxidants during the cryopreservation of boar semen has been the subject of considerable research aimed at improving the quality of post-thaw semen. Centrifugation is necessary before using cryopreservation protocols for freezing boar spermatozoa. Studies of the effect of different centrifugation regimens on boar sperm recovery, yield and cryosurvival have made significant contributions. Therefore this review elucidates results of recent applications of various antioxidants and centrifugation regimens used in efforts to improve cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. This review is intended to enhance understanding of the roles of these antioxidants and centrifugation regimens with respect to mechanisms that increase resistance to cryodamage of boar spermatozoa. In addition, the discussion addresses the need for developing an objective evaluation of effectiveness and estimating the prospect of application of new techniques for the cryopreservation of boar semen and its use in artificial insemination.

  16. Perceptual masking of boar taint in Swedish fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Lindahl, Gunilla; Lundström, Kerstin; Chen, Gang; Byrne, Derek V

    2009-04-01

    Surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practiced to avoid development of boar taint in pork meat which can occur if entire male pigs are raised. Boar taint is commonly characterised as exhibiting the odour and flavour of urine and manure. This study involves sensory characterisation of the possibilities to mask boar taint in meat from entire male pigs by fermentation and smoking to maintain high sensory quality in meat products if castration is prohibited. Model and commercial type Swedish fermented sausage products based on low or high levels of boar tainted fat, three different starter cultures and two different levels of smoking were studied. In the model sausages, liquid smoke masked the perception of boar taint. In contrast, the smoking procedure of the commercial sausages was insufficient to totally mask the perception of boar taint. In both the model and commercial sausages, the aroma development from the starter cultures lowered the perception of boar taint but was insufficient for total perceptual masking. Due to the total masking effect of smoking in the model sausages, it was clear that smoke may present a potential solution to remove the perception of boar taint in fermented sausages if the smoking procedure is optimised.

  17. Consumer studies on sensory acceptability of boar taint: a review.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Boar taint can be found in meat from boars and affects consumer acceptability of pork. The aim of this review is: (1) to describe different aspects of the existing methodologies used in consumer studies when evaluating boar taint from a sensory point of view, (2) to draw conclusions on different studies regarding the acceptability of meat from entire males, and (3) to discuss a possible harmonization of the different aspects to be considered when performing consumer studies on boar taint. This paper focuses on different aspects of studies previously carried out such as the country of assessment, the location of the test, the cooking procedure, the type of meat samples evaluated, the attributes and scales used, consumer profile, the results obtained, and the effect of androstenone sensitivity of the consumers on boar meat acceptability. A discussion on the possibility of a harmonization of the different aspects is also performed and final remarks and considerations have been drawn.

  18. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen.

  19. Protective effect of Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen-Min; Wang, Ting; Wen, Duan-Gai; Hou, Jian-Quan; Li, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation brings sublethal damage to sperm, resulting in reduced fertile life of sperm. Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides (RPs) have antiviral, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In the present study, the cryoprotective effect of RPs on boar sperm quality parameters after frozen-thawed process was investigated. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with RPs added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mg/L and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were assessed. Addition of RPs significantly improved sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, plasma membrane integrity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and decreased sperm malonaldehyde level (p<0.05). The results indicated that the addition of RPs to the freezing extender decreased the cryodamage to the boar sperm.

  20. Prehistoric introduction of domestic pigs onto the Okinawa Islands: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, Takuma; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Nakano, Masuo; Takamiya, Hiroto; Matsui, Akira; Hongo, Hitomi

    2002-08-01

    Ancient DNAs of Sus scrofa specimens excavated from archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands were examined to clarify the genetic relationships among prehistoric Sus scrofa, modern wild boars and domestic pigs inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago, the Japanese islands, and the Asian continent. We extracted remain DNA from 161 bone specimens excavated from 12 archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands and successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA control region fragments from 33 of 161 specimens. Pairwise difference between prehistoric and modern S. scrofa nucleotide sequences showed that haplotypes of the East Asian domestic pig lineage were found from archaeological specimens together with Ryukyu wild boars native to the Ryukyu archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 ancient sequences (11 haplotypes; 574 bp) indicated that S. scrofa specimens from two Yayoi-Heian sites (Kitahara and Ara shellmiddens) and two Recent Times sites (Wakuta Kiln and Kiyuna sites) are grouped with modern East Asian domestic pigs. Sus scrofa specimens from Shimizu shellmidden (Yayoi-Heian Period) were very closely related to modern Sus scrofa riukiuanus but had a unique nucleotide insertion, indicating that the population is genetically distinct from the lineage of modern Ryukyu wild boars. This genetic evidence suggests that domestic pigs from the Asian continent were introduced to the Okinawa islands in the early Yayoi-Heian period (1700-2000 BP), or earlier.

  1. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P < 0.001). Results of the two linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P < 0.001). Boars aged 5 and 6 months at herd entry (44.6%) showed shorter BHLM than those aged 8 and 9 months at herd entry (P < 0.05). Approximately 95% boars were culled for different reasons other than old age, and the BHLM of these boars was at least 12.3 months longer than that of boars culled for other reasons (P < 0.001). In conclusion, abnormal elimination in boars is serious and it had a negative effect on boar BHLM. Boar removal reason and BHLM can be affected by breed, housing type, and seed stock herd. Importantly, 8 months is suggested as the most suitable age for boar introduction.

  2. Persistence of porcine rubulavirus in experimentally infected boars.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Martínez-Bautista, Rebeca; Pérez-Torres, Armando; García-Contreras, Adelfa Del Carmen; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-03-23

    Porcine rubulavirus is the etiological agent of blue eye disease in pigs. In boars, this virus causes orchitis and epididymitis and reduces seminal quality. The objective of this study was to determine the persistence of porcine rubulavirus in experimentally infected boars. Nine 12-month-old boars were infected with 5 ml of the PAC-3 strain of porcine rubulavirus at 1 × 10(5) TCID(50)/ml and held for 142 days post infection (DPI) to evaluate humoral immune response. The virus was isolated in cell cultures and detected by RT-PCR. Infection with porcine rubulavirus produced clinical signs beginning at 5 DPI. Necropsy results showed that 3 boars had lesions in the testicles and epididymes. Histological analysis showed the characteristic lesions in all infected boars. Porcine rubulavirus antibodies were detected in the second week post infection and increased significantly (P<0.05) over time. Isolation of the virus from semen was achieved between 5 DPI and 48 DPI and from the testicles and epididymes between 64 DPI and 142 DPI. Viral RNA was detected in the serum between 2 DPI and 64 DPI and in the semen until 142 DPI. These results confirm that the RNA of the porcine rubulavirus persists in the semen and that this virus remains in the reproductive tract for prolonged periods of infection. Semen of persistently infected boars, therefore, represents an important source of the virus and a risk factor for the spread of blue eye disease in swine populations.

  3. Bite Wounds Caused by a Wild Boar: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hiroki; Omori, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Kato, Suguru; Iso, Takashi; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Ohsaka, Hiromichi; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2017-08-31

    A 74-year-old man was attacked by a wild boar while on his way home from his farm in the daytime in winter 2017 on the rural Izu peninsula. He did not provoke the boar; however, hunters were hunting animals in the mountains near the farm around the same time. The boar bit his left leg, and the man fell to the ground. The boar continued biting the man's left leg, and the man delivered a few kicks to the boar's face with his right leg. The boar then bit his right foot and ran away. The man was taken to a hospital, and a physical examination revealed 3 bite wounds on his left leg and right foot. The wounds were irrigated with sterilized saline and closed with sutures under local anesthesia. He received antibiotics and a tetanus toxoid booster. The next day, his wounds were found to be infected, and pus was drained from them. After these treatments, his wounds healed successfully. Animal bite wounds are frequently contaminated. Accordingly, in addition to early proper wound treatment, close observation of the wound is required for both the early detection of any signs of infection and early medical intervention, including appropriate drainage of pus and irrigation as necessary. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M; Piper, Philip J; Rabett, Ryan J; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-03-20

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called "wild" pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region.

  5. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  6. Post-thaw motility of frozen boar sperm does not predict success with in vitro fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using cryopreserved boar sperm rather than liquid semen for in vitro fertilization (IVF) allows improved IVF consistency. However, cryopreservation of boar sperm results in reduced post-thaw motility, fertilization and embryo development. Boars are often screened on an individual basis prior to use ...

  7. New insights into transduction pathways that regulate boar sperm function.

    PubMed

    Hurtado de Llera, A; Martin-Hidalgo, D; Gil, M C; Garcia-Marin, L J; Bragado, M J

    2016-01-01

    Detailed molecular mechanisms mediating signal transduction cascades that regulate boar sperm function involving Ser/Thr and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins have been reviewed previously. Therefore, this review will focus in those kinase pathways identified recently (<10 years) in boar spermatozoa that regulate different functional spermatozoa processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cell energy sensor kinase that was first identified in mammalian spermatozoa in 2012, and since then it has emerged as an essential regulator of boar sperm function. Signaling pathways leading to AMPK activation in boar sperm are highlighted in this review (PKA, CaMKKα/β, and PKC as well as Ca(2+) and cAMP messengers as upstream regulators). Interestingly, stimuli considered as cell stress (hyperosmotic stress, inhibition of mitochondrial activity, absence of intracellular Ca(2+)) markedly activate AMPK in boar spermatozoa. Moreover, AMPK plays a remarkable and necessary regulatory role in mammalian sperm function, controlling essential boar sperm functional processes such as motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, organization and fluidity of plasma membrane, and outer acrosome membrane integrity. These mentioned processes are all required under fluctuating environment of spermatozoa when transiting through the female reproductive tract to achieve fertilization. An applied role of AMPK in artificial insemination techniques is also suggested as during boar seminal doses preservation at 17 °C, physiological levels of AMPK activity markedly increase (maximum on Day 7) and result essential to maintain the aforementioned fundamental sperm processes. Moreover, regulation of sperm function exerted by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 and Src family kinase pathways is summarized.

  8. A diet supplemented with L-carnitine improves the sperm quality of Piétrain but not of Duroc and Large White boars when photoperiod and temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Bussalleu, E; Bonet, S

    2010-03-15

    It has been reported that a diet supplemented with L-carnitine can improve sperm quality in some mammalian species. Against this background, the current study seeks to determine the effects of feeding L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)) on boar semen characteristics (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) in three different porcine breeds (Sus domesticus) (Piétrain, Duroc, and Large White) exposed to natural environmental changes in temperature and photoperiod over a 20-wk period (February to July 2007). One hundred twenty boars (40 per breed) were randomly separated into two groups (60 boars each): the first (20 boars per breed) was fed a control diet and the second (also 20 males per breed) the same diet supplemented with L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)). Whereas the L-carnitine supplement did not affect ejaculate volume, concentration, motility, viability, or the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa, it did improve sperm morphology in Piétrain boars by reducing the percentage of immature spermatozoa when the temperature and the photoperiod increased. Conversely, no effect on sperm morphology from supplementing feed with L-carnitine was observed in both Duroc and Large White breeds. We can therefore conclude that the addition of L-carnitine to the diet of males may maintain the level of normal sperm morphology in Piétrain boars when a drop in sperm quality occurs (due to increases in photoperiod and temperature), without affecting the other sperm quality parameters.

  9. Efficiency of different selection strategies against boar taint in pigs.

    PubMed

    Haberland, A M; Luther, H; Hofer, A; Tholen, E; Simianer, H; Lind, B; Baes, C

    2014-01-01

    The breeding scheme of a Swiss sire line was modeled to compare different target traits and information sources for selection against boar taint. The impact of selection against boar taint on production traits was assessed for different economic weights of boar taint compounds. Genetic gain and breeding costs were evaluated using ZPlan+, a software based on selection index theory, gene flow method and economic modeling. Scenario I reflected the currently practiced breeding strategy as a reference scenario without selection against boar taint. Scenario II incorporated selection against the chemical compounds of boar taint, androstenone (AND), skatole (SKA) and indole (IND) with economic weights of -2.74, -1.69 and -0.99 Euro per unit of the log transformed trait, respectively. As information sources, biopsy-based performance testing of live boars (BPT) was compared with genomic selection (GS) and a combination of both. Scenario III included selection against the subjectively assessed human nose score (HNS) of boar taint. Information sources were either station testing of full and half sibs of the selection candidate or GS against HNS of boar taint compounds. In scenario I, annual genetic gain of log-transformed AND (SKA; IND) was 0.06 (0.09; 0.02) Euro, which was because of favorable genetic correlations with lean meat percentage and meat surface. In scenario II, genetic gain increased to 0.28 (0.20; 0.09) Euro per year when conducting BPT. Compared with BPT, genetic gain was smaller with GS. A combination of BPT and GS only marginally increased annual genetic gain, whereas variable costs per selection candidate augmented from 230 Euro (BPT) to 330 Euro (GS) or 380 Euro (both). The potential of GS was found to be higher when selecting against HNS, which has a low heritability. Annual genetic gain from GS was higher than from station testing of 4 full sibs and 76 half sibs with one or two measurements. The most effective strategy to reduce HNS was selecting against

  10. Effect of surgical castration, immunocastration and chicory-diet on the meat quality and palatability of boars.

    PubMed

    Aluwé, M; Langendries, K C M; Bekaert, K M; Tuyttens, F A M; De Brabander, D L; De Smet, S; Millet, S

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates 1) carcass quality, meat quality and palatability for barrows, immunocastrates and boars and 2) the effect of chicory supplemented feed during 10 days before slaughter on boar meat quality. At comparable carcass weights, estimated carcass lean meat percentage was higher in immunocastrates and boars than in barrows. Muscle thickness was higher for immunocastrates and barrows compared to boars, while fat thickness was lowest for immunocastrates and boars. Barrows, immunocastrates and boars differed in water holding capacity and boar taint. Home consumer panels were conducted to evaluate palatability. The consumers did detect differences in tenderness and juiciness, but not for boar taint. The chicory feed supplemented in boar feed decreased skatole concentration in backfat, without largely influencing meat quality or palatability. Not only boar taint, but also carcass and meat quality should be considered when evaluating alternatives for surgical castration.

  11. Insular East Asia pig dispersal and vicariance inferred from Asian wild boar genetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Li, K Y; Li, K T; Yang, C H; Hwang, M H; Chang, S W; Lin, S M; Wu, H J; Basilio, E B; Vega, R S A; Laude, R P; Ju, Y T

    2017-04-01

    The Formosan wild boar () is an endemic subspecies in Taiwan. Understanding the origins and spread of the Formosan wild boar could help clarify East Asian wild boar dispersion. Although in situ domestication of the wild boar occurred at a number of domestication centers across East Asia, corroborating archaeological and genetic evidence of pig domestication on Taiwan is lacking, leading to domestication being described as cryptic. This characterization applies to the Lanyu pig-a domestic pig breed found on Taiwan. To better understand pig domestication, this study examines the sympatric Formosan wild boar and domestic Lanyu pig to build a model of potential wild boar domestication on Taiwan and elucidate wild boar domestication patterns in the region. To this end, a comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Formosan wild boar and the Lanyu pig was conducted on animals sourced from Taiwan, Lanyu, and the Philippines. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using full mitochondrial control-region sequences from 345 wild boars and domestic pigs. These were studied in concert with existing reports on 206 Asian wild boars. Genetic characteristics and Bayesian phylogenetic tree results identified 2 wild boar lineages of remote phylogenetic relationship. These were Formosan wild boar lineage (FWBL) and Formosan wild boar with Lanyu sign lineage (FWBLYL). Molecular clock analyses indicate that FWBLYL diverged earlier than other insular East Asia wild boars and show that FWBLYL and FWBL diverged approximately 0.60 million years ago. This result supports boars of FWBLYL being the earliest wild boars to have spread and become isolated in insular East Asia. In addition, the study proposes 6 Asian wild boar dispersion routes during glacial periods. At least 3 of these events occurred in insular East Asia with subsequent geographical isolation after glacial recession. This isolation potentially led to allopatric differentiation of wild boar subspecies. Also, the similar genetic

  12. Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus scrofa) Model with Extracellular Matrix and Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-13

    Use additional pages If necessary.) PROTOCOL #: FDG20140039A DATE: 13 August 2015 PROTOCOL TITLE: Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a...model developed in protocols FDG20120019A and FDG20130043A, we were able to successfully create myocardial infarctions in pigs with a high survival rate...applications.) ObJectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in miniplgs using polystyrene microspheres to Infarct a

  13. Molecular and structural assessment of alveolar bone during tooth eruption and function in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuang-Dah; Popowics, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Summary The development of alveolar bone adjacent to the tooth root during tooth eruption is not well understood. This study tested the hypothesis that predominantly woven bone forms adjacent to tooth roots during tooth eruption, but that this immature structure transitions to lamellar bone when the tooth comes into function. Additionally, bone resorption was predicted to play a key role in transitioning immature bone to more mature, load-bearing tissue. Miniature pigs were compared at two occlusal stages, 13 weeks (n=3), corresponding with the mucosal penetration stage of M1 tooth eruption, and 23 weeks (n=3), corresponding with early occlusion of M1/M1. Bone samples for RNA extraction and qRT-PCR analysis were harvested from the diastema and adjacent to M1 roots on one side. Following euthanasia, bone samples for hematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining were harvested from these regions on the other side. In contrast to expectations, both erupting and functioning molars had reticular fibrolamellar structure in alveolar bone adjacent to M1. However, the woven bone matrix in older pigs was thicker and had denser primary osteons. Gene expression data and osteoclast cell counts showed a tendency for more bone resorptive activity near the molars than at distant sites, but no differences between eruptive stages. Thus, although resorption does occur, it is not a primary mechanism in the transition in alveolar bone from eruption to function. Incremental growth of existing woven bone and filling in of primary osteons within the mineralized scaffold generated the fortification necessary to support an erupted and functioning tooth. PMID:21434979

  14. Working and reference memory of pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in a holeboard spatial discrimination task: the influence of environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Elizabeth Bolhuis, J; Oostindjer, Marije; Hoeks, Cindy W F; de Haas, Elske N; Bartels, Andrea C; Ooms, Monique; Kemp, Bas

    2013-09-01

    Interest in cognitive research in pigs is increasing, but little is known about the impact of environmental conditions on pigs' cognitive capabilities. The present study investigated the effect of environmental enrichment on cognitive performance of pigs in a holeboard spatial task, in which they had to discriminate four baited buckets out of 16. Pigs (n = 32) were either housed in stimulus-poor, barren pens, or in larger pens enriched with rooting substrates. Pigs were subjected to 30 holeboard trials. Both working memory (WM), that is, the ratio (baited visits/total number of (re)visits to baited buckets), and reference memory (RM), that is, the ratio ((re)visits to baited buckets/total number of visits to all buckets), improved over trials. WM scores were higher in pigs from enriched pens than in pigs from barren pens. Housing did not affect RM scores. Personality type of the pigs, as assessed early in life using a backtest, did not affect WM or RM. In conclusion, housing conditions of pigs did not affect reference memory, but environmental enrichment improved working memory of pigs in a spatial discrimination task. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that cognitive functioning of pigs may be impaired under commonly used housing conditions.

  15. Effects of Racecadotril on Weight Loss and Diarrhea Due to Human Rotavirus in Neonatal Gnotobiotic Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Tammy; Li, Guohua; Kim, Inyoung; Wen, Ke; Twitchell, Erica L; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin K; Weiss, Mariah D; Yang, Xingdong; Clark‑Deener, Sherrie G; Choy, Robert KM; Yuan, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 y, and the most common cause of acute watery diarrhea in young children worldwide is rotaviral infection. Medicines to specifically reduce diarrhea would be a desirable adjunctive treatment to supportive fluid therapy to decrease the mortality rate of diarrheal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an antisecretory drug, racecadotril, in treating human rotavirus (HRV)-induced diarrhea in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. In total, 27 gnotobiotic pigs were randomly assigned (n = 9 per group) to receive either racecadotril, chlorpromazine (positive-control drug), or PBS (mock treatment) after inoculation with HRV. Pigs were weighed daily and rectal swabs were collected to determine fecal consistency scores and virus shedding. Rotaviral infection was confirmed by ELISA and cell culture immunofluorescence. Overall, the racecadotril-treated pigs had less severe illness than either the chlorpromazine- or mock-treated groups; this conclusion was supported by the lower fecal-consistency scores, shorter duration of diarrhea, and significant gain in body weight during the course of the study of the racecadotril-treated pigs. Through its influence on decreasing intestinal hypersecretion, racecadotril was better able to control the clinical signs of rotaviral infection in the gnotobiotic pigs. These results lend support for using racecadotril as a treatment for rotaviral diarrhea. PMID:28381316

  16. Seroprevalence and parasite load of Toxoplasma gondii in Mexican hairless pig (Sus scrofa) tissues from the Southeast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dzib-Paredes, G F; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Hernández-Cortázar, I B; Guzman-Marín, E; Jiménez-Coello, M

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and determine the parasite load of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in the heart and tongue tissues and the semimembranosus/gracilis muscles in a population of Mexican hairless pig (MHP). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 MHP, 9-12 weeks of age, from 10 municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico. The prevalence was estimated by the detection of T. gondii IgG antibodies via an indirect ELISA assay. The parasite burden was also determined by testing genomic DNA from sampled tissues using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), which amplified a 62bp product from the B1 gene of T. gondii. The seroprevalence was 53% (43/81), ranging from 0 to 100% seropositivity rate depending on the municipalitie of origin. The qPCR allowed detection of T. gondii in 5.3% (9/168) of the tissue samples, with an average of 2.5±2.71 parasites per gram (0.17±0.18 parasite equivalent) for the leg muscle tissue, 0.26±0.39 (0.01±0.02 parasite equivalent) for the heart tissue and 0.31±0.37 (0.021±0.025 parasite equivalent) for the tongue tissue. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the proportion and parasite burden among the different types of tissues evaluated. As shown by the ELISA, a high seroprevalence of T. gondii exists in MHP from the Yucatán Peninsula. The parasite burden found in the tissues showed similar tropism; therefore, the consumption of these tissues involves the same risk of acquiring infection if not properly cooked.

  17. Vascular Access Port Implantation and Serial Blood Sampling in a Gottingen Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Acute Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

  18. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    studies.12,15,16,30 The lightly pigmented skin, sparse haircoat, fine intersecting lines of epider- mal sulci, lipid biophysical properties, and...any clinical signs and were otherwise SPF for an exhaustive list of viral, bacterial , fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Minipigs were fasted for at

  19. Responses of single taste fibers and whole chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Danilova, V; Roberts, T; Hellekant, G

    1999-06-01

    Whole nerve, as well as single fiber, responses in the chorda tympani proper (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves of 1- to 7-week-old pigs were recorded during taste stimulation. In the CT acids and in the NG bitter compounds gave the largest responses. Both nerves exhibited large responses to monosodium glutamate (MSG), MSG with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and MSG with inositine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) as well as to glycine, xylitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. Alitame, aspartame, betaine, neohesperedin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC), super-aspartame, saccharin and thaumatin elicited no or little response. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 49 CT fibers separated four major clusters. The M cluster, comprising 28.5% of all fibers, is characterized by strong responses to MSG, KCl, LiCl and NaCl. The responses to NaCl and LiCl were unaffected by amiloride. The H cluster (24.5%) includes units responding principally to acids. The Q cluster (18.5%) responds to quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and salts with amiloride. The S cluster (28.5%) exhibits strong responses to xylitol, glycine and the carbohydrates as well as to MSG alone and to MSG with GMP or IMP. In 31 NG fibers, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four clusters: the M cluster (10%), responding to MSG and MSG with GMP or IMP; the H cluster (13%), responding to acids; the Q cluster (29%), responding strongly to QHCl, SOA and tilmicosinR; and the S cluster (48%), responding best to xylitol, carbohydrates and glycine but also to the umami compounds. Multidimensional scaling analysis across fiber responses to all stimuli showed the best separation between compounds with different taste qualities when information from both nerves was utilized.

  20. Partial Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (P-REBOA) in a Pig Model (Sus scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-10

    procedure to limit exsanguination is unclear. We evaluated the impact of P-REBOA on immediate survival in a highly lethal swine liver injury model...Methods: Fifteen Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, splenectomized, and subjected to 30 liver amputation. Coagulopathy was created...through hemodilution. Randomized swine received no intervention (control), P-REBOA, or complete REBOA (C-REBOA). Central mean arterial pressure

  1. A Pilot Study of Chest Tube Versus Pigtail Catheter Drainage of Acute Hemothorax in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-25

    We compared pigtail catheters with standard chest tubes for the drainage of acute HTx in a swine model. Methods: Seven hundred-fifty milliliters of...blood was withdrawn from each femoral artery and instilled into each pleural space in mechanically ventilated swine . A 32F chest tube was placed in one

  2. A Pilot Study of Common Bile Duct Reconstruction with CorMatrix Extracellular Matrix in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-06

    peritonitis or bowel obstruction. Six pigs survived to the conclusion of the study. Two of these developed gastric ulcers . The remaining four pigs did...developed in this experiment was prone to causing early bowel obstructions and gastric ulcers . The CorMatrix interposition graft provided continuity for bile

  3. Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for the Anesthetics Halothane, Isoflurane, and Desflurane in the Pig (SUS SCROFA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    swine (3-4 months old; 20 ± 2 [mean ± SD] kg) were exposed to a mixture of 3.0% desflurane, 0.5% sevoflurane , 0.4% isoflurane, and 0.2% halothane...B.H. Johnson, and R.B. Weiskopf. 1990. Pharmacokinetics of desfiurane, sevoflurane , isoflurane, and halothane in pigs. Anesth. Analg. 71:340-348. 10

  4. Swine (Sus scrofa) as a Model of Postinfarction Mitral Regurgitation and Techniques to Accommodate Its Effects during Surgical Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Eric L; Shi, Weiwei; Duara, Rajnish; Melone, Todd A; Kalra, Kanika; Strong, Ashley; Girish, Apoorva; McIver, Bryant V; Thourani, Vinod H; Guyton, Robert A; Padala, Muralidhar

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common heart-valve lesion after myocardial infarction in humans. Because it is considered a risk factor for accelerated heart failure and death, various surgical approaches and catheter-based devices to correct it are in development. Lack of a reproducible animal model of MR after myocardial infarction and reliable techniques to perform open-heart surgery in these diseased models led to the use of healthy animals to test new devices. Thus, most devices that are deemed safe in healthy animals have shown poor results in human efficacy studies, hampering progress in this area of research. Here we report our experience with a swine model of postinfarction MR, describe techniques to induce regurgitation and perform open-heart surgery in these diseased animals, and discuss our outcomes, complications, and solutions. PMID:27538860

  5. Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given by Alternate Routes in Swine (Sus scrofa) During Controlled Hemorrhage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-17

    additional pages if necessary.) PROTOCOL#: FDG20160013A DATE: 25 July 2017 PROTOCOL TITLE: Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given...marked decrease and delay to peak concentration . However, all routes achieved a serum adequate concentration as defined by previous studies in humans...used to determine the concentration of TXA in the serum at these time points. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline

  6. A Pilot Study of Peritoneal Perfusion with a Novel Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carrier in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-12

    Animals were then randomized to peritoneal perfusion with either a novel bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier or control (Lactated Ringers). After...recorded.Results: No differences were observed between treatment and control animals in terms of C02, 02 and time to death.Conclusion: Peritoneal gas exchange did

  7. Intravenous Cobinamide Versus Hydroxocobalamin for Acute Treatment of Severe Cyanide Poisoning in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    PubMed Central

    Bebarta, Lt Col Vikhyat S.; Tanen, David A.; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A.; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration–approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Methods Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (P<.001 between the 2 treated groups and the saline solution group). Time to return of spontaneous breathing after antidote was similar between hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide (1 minute 48 seconds versus 1 minute 49 seconds, respectively). Blood cyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Conclusion Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation. The dose of cobinamide was one fifth that of hydroxocobalamin. PMID:24746273

  8. Intravenous cobinamide versus hydroxocobalamin for acute treatment of severe cyanide poisoning in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Tanen, David A; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (P<.001 between the 2 treated groups and the saline solution group). Time to return of spontaneous breathing after antidote was similar between hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide (1 minute 48 seconds versus 1 minute 49 seconds, respectively). Blood cyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation. The dose of cobinamide was one fifth that of hydroxocobalamin. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydroxocobalamin versus sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Dixon, Patricia; Lairet, Julio R; Bush, Anneke; Tanen, David A

    2012-06-01

    We compare the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin to sodium thiosulfate to reverse the depressive effects on mean arterial pressure in a swine model of acute cyanide toxicity and gain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the hydroxocobalamin in reversal of the toxicity. Swine were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented with central arterial and venous lines and a pulmonary artery catheter. Animals (n=36) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: hydroxocobalamin alone (150 mg/kg), sodium thiosulfate alone (413 mg/kg), or hydroxocobalamin (150 mg/kg)+sodium thiosulfate (413 mg/kg) and monitored for 60 minutes after the start of antidotal infusion. Cyanide was infused until severe hypotension developed, defined as blood pressure 50% of baseline mean arterial pressure. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. Time to hypotension (25, 28, and 33 minutes), cyanide dose at hypotension (4.7, 5.0, and 5.6 mg/kg), and mean cyanide blood levels (3.2, 3.7, and 3.8 μg/mL) and lactate levels (7, 8.2, 8.3 and mmol/L) were similar. All 12 animals in the sodium thiosulfate group died compared with 2 of 12 in the hydroxocobalamin/sodium thiosulfate group and 1 of 12 in hydroxocobalamin group. No statistically significant differences were detected between the hydroxocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin/sodium thiosulfate groups for carbon monoxide, mean arterial pressure, cyanide levels, or mortality at 60 minutes. Lactate level (2.6 versus 2.1 mmol/L), pH (7.44 versus 7.42), and bicarbonate level (25 versus 26 mEq/L) at 60 minutes were also similar between groups. Sodium thiosulfate failed to reverse cyanide-induced shock in our swine model of severe cyanide toxicity. Further, sodium thiosulfate was not found to be effective when added to hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of cyanide-induced shock. Hydroxocobalamin alone was again found to be effective for severe cyanide toxicity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Modulation of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) carbonyl reducing enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Szotáková, Barbora; Nobilis, Milan; Lamka, Jirí; Krízová, Veronika; Savlík, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) is a widely administered benzimidazole anthelmintic indicated for the control of parasitic diseases in farm animals including pigs and pheasants. This study was designed to test the biotransformation of FLU in control animals and animals treated with FLU in recommended therapeutic doses. The activities of several pheasant and porcine hepatic and intestinal carbonyl reducing enzymes and their modulation by FLU were also studied. Twelve adult pheasant hens, approximately 1 year old, were divided into two groups and treated for 7 days with placebo or 6 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Eight male hog weaners, approximately 3 month old, were divided into two groups and treated for 5 days with placebo or 1.57 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Subcellular fractions, prepared from livers and small intestines of control and FLU treated animals, were incubated with FLU. In vitro formation of two main FLU metabolites, reduced FLU, and hydrolyzed FLU were analyzed using HPLC. While FLU was reduced significantly more intensively in FLU-treated pheasants than in control animals, no differences were observed in pigs. These results were confirmed by measuring the enzyme activities: carbonyl reducing enzyme activities were increased in pheasants treated by FLU, whereas FLU did not affect these enzymes in pigs.

  11. The characteristics of the porcine (Sus scrofa) liver miRNAome with the use of next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pawlina, Klaudia; Gurgul, Artur; Oczkowicz, Maria; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs, which play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of a target mRNA. Despite a significant improvement in the identification of miRNAs in a variety of species, the coverage of the porcine miRNAome is still scarce. To identify porcine miRNAs potentially regulating processes taking place in the liver, we applied next generation sequencing. As a result, we detected 206 distinct miRNAs, of which 68 represented potential novel miRNAs. Among these new miRNAs, there were miRNAs deriving from the opposite arm of a hairpin precursor of already known miRNAs. Moreover, we observed 3' and 5' length and sequence variants, probably constituting so called isomiRs, as well as differentially mapped precursor loci, alternative precursor sequences and clustering of miRNA encoding genes. On the basis of expression levels, reflected by the number of sequence reads, we identified the most abundant miRNAs followed by gene target prediction and pathway analysis. The enriched pathways were connected with cellular and metabolic processes, growth factors as well as enzymatic activity. The obtained results are the first ones to concern the porcine liver miRNAome. Consequently, they will increase the number of known porcine miRNAs and facilitate further research on gene regulation mechanisms as well as biological processes associated with the liver functioning in pigs.

  12. [Genetic components and the uncertainty of the phenotypic realization of the mass of newborns in domestic pigs Sus scrofa L].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, S V; Kniazev, S P; Ermolaev, V I

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the features of the genetic determination of a continuous quantitative trait, the mass of newborn offspring in populations of the domestic pig. We defined several components that determine the phenotypic trait, such as the maternal effect, complete dominance, interaction of the parental alleles in the genotype of the offspring, and the uncertainty of phenotypic realization of genotype. We found that a phenotypic trait of high genetic determinacy can also have a maximum range in phenotypic realization, in which case each genotype encountered in the population can realize within the entire range of possible phenotypes.

  13. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF.

  14. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation.

  15. Influence of tongue inspection during cysticercosis diagnosis on some behavioral and physiological stress measures in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Sandra; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Orihuela, Agustín; Aguirre, Virginio; Bernal, Germán; Nieto, Alejandro; Vázquez, Reyes; Solano, Jaime J

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the level of stress induced by the tongue inspection method during cysticercosis diagnosis in pigs at 60 and 90 kg, 27 animals were assigned to one of three experimental groups. In the first group (T1), pigs were held with a snout noose. In addition, animals in T2 were subjected to tongue inspection, while in T0, none of the procedures described above were performed. Resistance to be handled and serum cortisol concentration were higher (P < 0.05) than those from T0 in T1 and T2 groups, for 60- and 90-kg pigs. Time to return to the feeder observed the same pattern than previous variables in 60-kg pigs, but T1 and T0 were similar (P > 0.05) for the heavier animals. T2 did not build up a significant amount of stress with respect to T1, where only more (P > 0.05) vocalizations were emitted by 90-kg pigs. It was concluded that the use of snout noose induces major changes in some behavioral and physiological measures of stress in swine, while the opening of the mouth including tongue inspection does not contribute significantly to this effect.

  16. Human (Homo sapiens) responses to the pig (Sus scrofa) sex pheromone 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one.

    PubMed

    Filsinger, E E; Braun, J J; Monte, W C; Linder, D E

    1984-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the pig sex pheromone 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one may function as a human sex pheromone. Two hundred male and female college students were assigned to one of four odor conditions (androstenone, methyl anthranilate, skatole, and a no-odor control) and were asked to rate photographs of a male stimulus and to rate their own mood in the presence of each odorant. There was a significant overall sex by treatment condition interaction. Men in the androstenone condition rated the stimulus male as more passive, and women in the androstenone condition rated themselves as less sexy; these effects were specific to the androstenone condition.

  17. Comparison of Temporary Open Arterial Revascularization Using Stent Grafts vs. Standard Vascular Shunts in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-24

    were obtained at baseline, immediately after intervention, and after 72 hours. Blood pressure proximal and distal to the conduits and arterial samples...demonstrated significantly improved blood flow compared to shunts both immediately after intervention and at 72 hours. The pressure gradient across the...feasible strategy for damage control management of peripheral vascular injury and offers increased blood flow when compared to temporary shunts

  18. Hydroxocobalamin Versus Sodium Thiosulfate for the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    effective for smoke inhalation ? searching for guidance in the haze. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:814-816. 6. Velez LI, Delaney LS. Cyanide. In: Tintinalli JE, ed...than sodium nitrite. However, it is not clear whether the sodium thiosulfate adds a beneficial effect to hydroxocobalamin alone.3,6,11,12 Experts...This Investigation The primary hypothesis of our study is that sodium thiosulfate is as effective as hydroxocobalamin in reversing the hypotension

  19. Betaine improves growth, but does not induce whole body or hepatic palmitate oxidation in swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Wray-Cahen, Diane; Fernández-Fígares, Ignacio; Virtanen, Erkki; Steele, Norman C; Caperna, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Dietary betaine may reduce carcass fat in growing pigs. We explored the effects of betaine on short-term growth and in vivo and in vitro fatty acid oxidation. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed diets containing either 0% (control), 0.125% or 0.5% betaine at 80% of ad libitum energy intake. Fatty acid oxidation was measured during intravenous infusions of 1-(13)C-palmitate and in hepatocytes incubated in the presence or absence of betaine and carnitine. CO2 and palmitate isotopic enrichments were determined by mass spectrometry. Pigs consuming 0.125% and 0.5% betaine for at least 9 days had growth rates that were 38% and 12% greater than controls, respectively. Feed efficiency was also improved with betaine. Fasting increased palmitate oxidation rates 7-8-fold (P < 0.01), but betaine had no effect in either the fed or fasted state (P > 0.1). For hepatocytes, carnitine but not betaine enhanced palmitate oxidation. This response suggests that previously observed reduction in adipose accretion must be via a mechanism other than oxidation. Betaine had no effect on plasma non-esterified fatty acids or urea nitrogen. Under the confinement conditions in this study, dietary betaine improved animal growth responses, but it had no apparent effect on either whole body or hepatic fatty acid oxidation.

  20. Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Gregory, R; Tomlins, P; Jacob, D; Hubble, J; Sahota, T S

    2016-03-16

    The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin(®) R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30 mmol/L (540 mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13 mmol/L (126-234 mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL), the BG peak was 18 mmol/L (324 mg/dL) and fell to 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) after 30 min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8 days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30 mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24 days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8 days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period.

  1. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the ‘gold standard’ for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3 ± 0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0 ± 0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3 ± 1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature. PMID:27657715

  2. Identification of differential microRNA expression during tooth morphogenesis in the heterodont dentition of miniature pigs, SusScrofa.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Li, Ye; Song, Tieli; Wang, Fu; Liu, Dayong; Fan, Zhipeng; Cheng, San; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; He, Junqi; Wang, Songlin

    2015-12-29

    It has been found that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of tooth development, and most likely increase the complexity of the genetic network, thus lead to greater complexity of teeth. But there has been no research about the key microRNAs associated with tooth morphogenesis based on miRNAs expression profiles. Compared to mice, the pig model has plentiful types of teeth, which is similar with the human dental pattern. Therefore, we used miniature pigs as large-animal models to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs expression during tooth morphogenesis in the early developmental stages of tooth germ. A custom-designed miRNA microarray with 742 miRNA gene probes was used to analyze the expression profiles of four types of teeth at three stages of tooth development. Of the 591 detectable miRNA transcripts, 212 miRNAs were continuously expressed in all types of tooth germ, but the numbers of miRNA transcript among the four different types of teeth at each embryonic stage were statistically significant differences (p < 0.01). The hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis results suggest that the miRNA expression was globally altered by types and temporal changes. By clustering analysis, we predicted 11 unique miRNA sequences that belong to mir-103 and mir-107, mir-133a and mir-133b, and mir-127 isomiR families. The results of real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR and in situ hybridization experiments revealed that five representative miRNAs may play important roles during different developmental stages of the incisor, canine, biscuspid, and molar, respectively. The present study indicated that these five miRNAs, including ssc-miR-103 and ssc-miR-107, ssc-miR-133a and ssc-miR-133b, and ssc-miR-127, may play key regulatory roles in different types of teeth during different stages and thus may play critical roles in tooth morphogenesis during early development in miniature pigs.

  3. Brain growth of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) from 2 to 24 weeks of age: a longitudinal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2012-01-01

    An animal model with brain growth similar to humans, that can be used in MRI studies to investigate brain development, would be valuable. Our laboratory has developed and validated MRI methods for regional brain volume quantification in the neonatal piglet. The aim of this study was to utilize the MRI-based volume quantification technique in a longitudinal study to determine brain growth in domestic pigs from 2 to 24 weeks of age. MRI data were acquired from pigs 2-24 weeks of age using a 3-dimensional magnetization-prepared gradient echo sequence on a Magnetom Trio 3-tesla imager. Manual segmentation was performed for volume estimates of total brain, cortical, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellar and hippocampal regions. Logistic modeling procedures were used to characterize brain growth. Total brain volume increased 130% (±12%) and 121% (±7%) from 2 to 24 weeks in males and females, respectively. The maximum increase in total brain volume occurred about the age of 4 weeks and 95% of whole brain growth occurred by the age of 21-23 weeks. Logistical modeling suggests there are sexually dimorphic effects on brain growth. For example, in females, the cortex was smaller (p = 0.04). Furthermore, the maximum growth of the hippocampus occurred about 5 weeks earlier in females than males, and the window for hippocampal growth was significantly shorter in females than males (p = 0.02, p = 0.002 respectively). These sexual dimorphisms are similar to what is seen in humans. In addition to providing important data on brain growth for pigs, this study shows pigs can be used to obtain longitudinal MRI data. The large increase in brain volume in the postnatal period is similar to that of human neonates and suggests pigs can be used to investigate brain development.

  4. Partial Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (P-REBOA) in a Pig Model (Sus scrofa) with ongoing Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-08

    reperfusion injury. P-REBOA relies on regional permissive hypo-perfusion to limit exsanguination while providing limited perfusion to distal tissue ...resuscitation was performed and all animals were survived to 360 minutes. Animals that tolerated distal flow had decreased levels of lactate, preserved

  5. Can Taenia solium latent post-oncospheral stages be found in muscle tissue of cysticercosis-infected pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Rodrìguez, Mary L; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Verastegui, Manuela; Bernal, Teresa; Jimenez, Juan A; Garcia, Hector H

    2006-02-01

    The existence of latent Taenia solium post-oncospheral stages in the tissues of infected pigs has been postulated. To assess whether such structures exist and can be detected, we examined muscle samples from cysticercosis-infected and uninfected pigs. Pork samples were homogenized, centrifuged, and resuspended in saline solution. Round microscopic structures of approximately 10 microm with variable refringence were found in the pellets of all samples from both infected and uninfected pigs. These became homogeneously red after staining with Sudan IV and disappeared after ether extraction. The only difference between samples from infected and uninfected pigs was the presence of inflammatory cells and tissue necrosis debris in the former group. Taenia solium oncospheres were stained and observed for comparative purposes, before and after inoculation into pork. Control oncospheres were ellipsoidal, had nucleated basophile cells in their interior, and showed red aggregates on their surfaces when stained with 3% Sudan IV. While rounded microscopical structures similar to those previously reported were found, these differed morphologically from oncospheres, were of a lipid nature, and occurred in both infected and uninfected animals. No evidence supporting the presence of latent post-oncospheral stages of Taenia solium was generated in this series of experiments.

  6. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  7. A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    to UV radiation, endothelines, histamine, eicosanoids, sex steroids, and vitamin D (Slominski et al., 2004). The role of sex steroids (i.e...V., Bronner, S., Leveque, D., Kaltenback, G., Salmon , Y., Dhoyen, N., Desprez, D., Hamel, G., Monteil, H., and Jehl, F., “Chronic experimental

  8. Swine (Sus scrofa) as a Model of Postinfarction Mitral Regurgitation and Techniques to Accommodate Its Effects during Surgical Repair.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Eric L; Shi, Weiwei; Duara, Rajnish; Melone, Todd A; Kalra, Kanika; Strong, Ashley; Girish, Apoorva; McIver, Bryant V; Thourani, Vinod H; Guyton, Robert A; Padala, Muralidhar

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common heart-valve lesion after myocardial infarction in humans. Because it is considered a risk factor for accelerated heart failure and death, various surgical approaches and catheter-based devices to correct it are in development. Lack of a reproducible animal model of MR after myocardial infarction and reliable techniques to perform open-heart surgery in these diseased models led to the use of healthy animals to test new devices. Thus, most devices that are deemed safe in healthy animals have shown poor results in human efficacy studies, hampering progress in this area of research. Here we report our experience with a swine model of postinfarction MR, describe techniques to induce regurgitation and perform open-heart surgery in these diseased animals, and discuss our outcomes, complications, and solutions.

  9. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China’s complex societies. PMID:27384523

  10. Zinc and magnesium in bull and boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Arver, S; Eliasson, R

    1980-11-01

    Mean +/- s.e.m. concentrations (nmol/10(8) cells) of zinc and magnesium in bull spermatozoa were 30.6 +/- 6.6 and 119 +/- 28.8, respectively. Corresponding values for boar spermatozoa were 16.9 +/- 1.98 and 57.1 +/- 4.3. Bull spermatozoa washed twice in a standard buffered salt solution, pH 7.75, lost 72.6% of their zinc and 46.5% of their magnesium. Boar spermatozoa lost 40% of Zn and 18% of Mg, respectively. Addition of albumin (4% final concentration) to the washing solution did not increase the loss of ions from bull spermatozoa but increased the loss of zinc and magnesium from boar spermatozoa to 52% and 41%, respectively.

  11. Risk factors for bacterial contamination during boar semen collection.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ana Maria G; Argenti, Laura E; Faccin, Jamil E; Linck, Lídia; Santi, Mônica; Bernardi, Mari Lourdes; Cardoso, Marisa R I; Wentz, Ivo; Bortolozzo, Fernando P

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of multiple factors on bacterial contamination in 213 ejaculates from four boar studs. Semen contamination by aerobic mesophiles increased in ejaculates where the preputial fluid flowed into the collection container, collection glove was dirty, preputial hair was long (>1.0 cm), the collection lasted >7 min and boars were older than 18 months. An increase in coliforms occurred when preputial fluid dripped into the collection container, collections lasted >7 min or when penis escaped during collection. Semen contamination increased when two or more factors related to hygiene (poor hygiene of the boar, dirty preputial ostium, large preputial diverticulum, long preputial hair, dirty gloves, preputial liquid trickling from the hand of the technician into the semen container and penis escaping) were present. A vigilant protocol of collection must be followed to minimize bacterial contamination, especially avoiding dripping of preputial liquid into the semen container.

  12. Boar taint detection: A comparison of three sensory protocols.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Johanna; Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While recent studies state an important role of human sensory methods for daily routine control of so-called boar taint, the evaluation of different heating methods is still incomplete. This study investigated three common heating methods (microwave (MW), hot-water (HW), hot-iron (HI)) for boar fat evaluation. The comparison was carried out on 72 samples with a 10-person sensory panel. The heating method significantly affected the probability of a deviant rating. Compared to an assumed 'gold standard' (chemical analysis), the performance was best for HI when both sensitivity and specificity were considered. The results show the superiority of the panel result compared to individual assessors. However, the consistency of the individual sensory ratings was not significantly different between MW, HW, and HI. The three protocols showed only fair to moderate agreement. Concluding from the present results, the hot-iron method appears to be advantageous for boar taint evaluation as compared to microwave and hot-water.

  13. Impact of genetic selection on management of boar replacement.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J A B; Buhr, M M

    2005-01-15

    Boars in an artificial insemination centre have been selected for their superior genetic potential, with 'superior' being defined as having traits the customer wants transmitted to his herd. The ability to meet the customers' needs depends on the heritability of the trait, the geneticist's success in devising a selection scheme for the trait in balance with other economically important traits, and the boar's ability to produce sperm that can fertilise oocytes. Genetic evaluation research over the past 20 years has greatly increased the number of traits for which a boar can be selected: currently in the Canadian national program, these include age at 100 kg, backfat at 100 kg, feed efficiency, lean yield and litter size. In the near future, traits that are very likely to be added to this selection list include piglet survival, marbling, loin eye area and structure traits. In Canada, sires are ranked on two estimated breeding value (EBV) indices; one, focused on development of terminal sire lines, is based on the growth and yield traits and another, primarily focused on maternal line development, de-emphasises these traits and incorporates litter size. Boars that are in Canadian AI centres because of their excellent growth traits are typically in the top 5-10% of the national population for terminal sire line index, but they may be only average or substandard for litter size. Conversely, boars selected to be in the top 5-10% for conveying such reproductive traits as litter size may only be in the top 33% for growth traits. The more offspring from a superior boar in either of these indices, the faster the population average for the trait improves. The original sire gets knocked out of the elite group, is culled and replaced by a higher ranked young boar from the now improved general population. Although genetic superiority should govern an AI centre's selection and culling of boars, decision-making in real life is seldom that simple. Selection criteria may be

  14. Effect of dietary chicory on boar taint.

    PubMed

    Zammerini, D; Wood, J D; Whittington, F M; Nute, G R; Hughes, S I; Hazzledine, M; Matthews, K

    2012-08-01

    Following preliminary screening and feeding trials on farms supplying a commercial abattoir, 360 entire male pigs were used to evaluate the effects of different percentages of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) on levels of boar taint compounds and sensory aspects in backfat. Pigs were fed 0, 3, 6 or 9% chicory in the diet, 30 pigs being sampled at 3 different times: initially to measure basal levels of skatole and androstenone and after 1 and 2 weeks on the test diets. Cooked samples of backfat were presented to a trained sensory panel for "sniff" tests. Chicory fed at 9% for 2 weeks reduced skatole levels significantly (P<0.001), with 0.55 of pigs below 0.05 μg/g, typical of levels in castrated males. Abnormal odour scores were significantly lower for pigs in this group compared with 0% pigs (P<0.001), however, androstenone concentration was significantly higher in this group after the 2 week feeding period (P<0.005). Thus, feeding 9% chicory for 2 weeks was effective in reducing backfat skatole concentrations and abnormal odour scores of cooked fat but not androstenone concentration.

  15. Threshold detection of boar taint chemicals using parasitic wasps.

    PubMed

    Olson, Dawn; Wäckers, Felix; Haugen, John-Erik

    2012-10-01

    Surgical castration has been long used to prevent consumers from experiencing taint in meat from male pigs, which is a large problem in the pig husbandry industry. Due to obvious animal welfare issues, the EU now wants an alternative for castration, suggesting an urgent need for novel methods of boar taint detection. As boar taint is only a problem when taint chemicals exceed a well-defined threshold, detection methods should be concentration-specific. The wasp, Microplitis croceipes' ability to learn and respond to particular concentrations of the boar taint compounds, skatole, androstenone, and indole was tested. Also tested was the wasps' ability to discriminate between known concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in real boar fat samples at room temperature. Wasps were trained using associative learning by providing food-deprived wasps with sucrose-water in the presence of specific odor concentrations. Trained wasps' responses were tested to a range of concentrations of 3 compounds. Wasps showed unidirectional generalization of learned concentration responses, whereby the direction of concentration generalization was shown to be chemical-dependent. Through both positive (sucrose) and negative feeding experiences (water only) with varying compound concentrations, the wasps can also be conditioned to respond to concentrations exceeding a defined threshold, and they were successful in reporting low, medium, and high concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in boar fat at room temperature. The need for threshold detection rather than simple detection of absence/presence applies to many food quality issues, including the detection of spoilage or pest damage in crops or stored foods. An inexpensive and reliable means of detecting boar tainted pork at slaughter to avoid tainted meat on the market and dissatisfied consumers. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  16. Unraveling Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis infections in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina; Gomes, Jacinto; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Pires, Isabel; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-09-15

    Sarcocystis species are worldwide spread cyst-forming protozoa that can infect wild boar but little is known about the prevalence of these parasites. In this study we assessed the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infections in wild boars from northeastern Portugal, for which novel PCR testing assays targeting Sarcocystis genus, S. miescheriana and S. suihominis were implemented, and risk factors potentially associated with these infections were evaluated. Samples from muscle tissue, namely diaphragm (n=102), oesophagus (n=96) and heart (n=101), were collected from a total of 103 wild boar hunted between October 2011 and February 2012. Diaphragm muscle was used for the PCR detection of Sarcocystis nucleic acids since a higher proportion of samples showed the presence of cysts during histological examination. PCR assay targeting Sarcocystis genus yielded a 73.8% infection rate, which indicate a high level of exposure to these protozoan parasites among wild boars. These samples showed to be positive with the S. miescheriana-specific PCR assay and no sample was positive with the S. suihominis-specific assay, suggesting that a single species infecting wild boar is circulating in Portugal. These results were confirmed by the partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene amplified from selected samples from different geographic regions. Adults, young adults and female wild boars were found to be more likely infected. Hunters have an important role in the life cycle of S. miescheriana since potentially infected viscera and carcasses can be left behind promoting the protozoan dissemination to the scavenging final hosts. If hunting dogs bite and ingest infected meat they can perpetuate the life cycle of Sarcocystis spp. spreading oocysts or sporocysts in the environment.

  17. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, S; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, N; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker can be used to reduce boar taint levels in fat of boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MC4R marker-assisted selection for lower boar taint prevalence affects plasma levels of boar taint compounds and testosterone; sexual maturity; behaviour; skin lesions; and lameness in boars and gilts. Using an intervention study with a 2×2 design, 264 boars and gilts differing on position 893 of the MC4R gene (AA v. GG) were compared. The MC4R polymorphism did not affect the plasma concentration of either androstenone or testosterone at different time points, whereas the concentration of skatole was significantly lower (P=0.003) and the concentration of indole tended to be lower (P=0.074) in GG compared with AA boars. A higher percentage of gilts of the GG genotype were in puberty at slaughter age compared with AA gilts (P<0.001). The age of the boars at sexual maturity (as indicated by the first positive preputial smear test) did not differ between AA and GG boars. In contrast, weight of GG boars at sexual maturity tended to be lower (P=0.065). During the period from 6 weeks of age to slaughter, boars and gilts of the GG genotype showed more playing behaviour (P=0.015) and less passive and feeding behaviour (P=0.003). They showed more skin lesions on their back and caudal area (P=0.022), and tended to show more skin lesions on their head and anterior area (P=0.093) compared with AA animals. In conclusion, the polymorphism in the MC4R gene can be used as a marker without

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance in Indicator Escherichia coli Isolates from Free-Ranging Livestock and Sympatric Wild Ungulates in a Natural Environment (Northeastern Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Porrero, M. C.; Mentaberre, G.; Serrano, E.; Mateos, A.; Domínguez, L.; Lavín, S.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected. PMID:23892753

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (Northeastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  20. Aujeszky's disease in red fox (Vulpes vulpes): phylogenetic analysis unravels an unexpected epidemiologic link.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Claudio; Dondo, Alessandro; Cerutti, Francesco; Masoero, Loretta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Zoppi, Simona; D'Errico, Valeria; Grattarola, Carla; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Peletto, Simone

    2014-07-01

    We describe Aujeszky's disease in a female of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Although wild boar (Sus scrofa) would be the expected source of infection, phylogenetic analysis suggested a domestic rather than a wild source of virus, underscoring the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms to prevent contact with wild animals.

  1. TAXONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE LUNG FLUKE, PARAGONIMUS IN THE PACIFIC AREA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOUTH-EAST ASIA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    brown rat, Rattus norvegicus and the wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax were revealed to be the final host of P. miyazakii. (3) P. sadoensis was found...8) In Mexico , two species of Paragonimus were recognized, and one was most probably a new species and the other was similar to the new fluke found in Colombia. (Author)

  2. SUS Source Level Error Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-20

    RIECIP1IEN’ CATALOG NUMBER * ITLE (and SubaltIe) S. TYP aof REPORT & _V9RCO SUS~ SOURCE LEVEL ERROR ANALYSIS & Fia 1.r,. -. pAURWORONTIUMm N (s)$S...Fourier Transform (FFTl) SUS Signal model ___ 10 TRA&C (CeEOINIMII1& ro"* *140O tidat n9#*#*Y a"d 0e~ntiff 6T 69*.4 apbt The report provides an analysis ...of major terms which contribute to signal analysis error in a proposed experiment to c-librate sourr - I levels of SUS (Signal Underwater Sound). A

  3. Isolation of encephalomyocarditis virus from dormice (Myoxus glis) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, D; Cardeti, G; Autorino, G L

    1995-04-01

    Two isolates of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus (ZRC 276RA/90 and ZRC 292RA/90) were isolated from two dormice (Myoxus glis) in Tuscany, Italy. The two isolates were lethal for laboratory mice and caused a rapid cytopathic effect characterized by rounded and wrinkled cells in both baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero). We found neutralizing antibodies against EMC virus in 408 (77%) of 529 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa scrofa) and in 165 (49%) of 338 wild boars (S. scrofa ferus majori) in Tuscany.

  4. 9 CFR 78.33 - Sows and boars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sows and boars. 78.33 Section 78.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions...

  5. Storage of sexed boar spermatozoa: Limits and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, M; Perteghella, S; Chlapanidas, T; Galeati, G; Vigo, D; Tamanini, C; Bucci, D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great potential application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine, the technology is not practiced in the pig industry because of technical factors and species-specific issues. The susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to stresses induced by the sorting procedure, the relative slowness of the sex-sorting process together with the high sperm numbers required for routine artificial insemination in pig are some of the main factors limiting the commercial application of this technology in pigs. This review briefly describes the damage to spermatozoa during sex sorting, focusing on an additional limiting factor: increased susceptibility of sexed boar spermatozoa to injuries induced by liquid storage and cryopreservation that, in turn, impairs sperm quality leading to unsatisfactory results in vivo. Strategies to extend the lifespan of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa and to improve their fertilizing ability after liquid storage or cryopreservation need to be implemented before this technology can be used in pig farms. In this regard, encapsulation in barium alginate membranes could be a promising technique to optimize the in vivo use of sexed boar spermatozoa, by protecting, targeting, and controlling the release of sperm into the female genital tract.

  6. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  7. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization of pigs sired by different boars.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Alvaro; Galina, Lucina; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-04-01

    Differences in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization were evaluated in experimentally inoculated pigs sired by 3 different boars of the same genetic line. Forty-six pigs were used, including a treatment group and positive and negative control groups. The pigs were intratracheally inoculated with an M. hyopneumoniae suspension or with Friis media as a placebo. To evaluate differences in the magnitude of colonization during a 35-day period, nasal and tracheal swabs were collected weekly and tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR). Temperature, weight and circulating antibodies were measured for 35 days. At 11 and 35 d postinoculation the pigs were necropsied and macroscopic and microscopic lesions were determined. A section of bronchus was tested by the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N-PCR. The N-PCR results from the nasal and tracheal swabs showed that the pigs sired by one boar (B3) had a distinctive colonization pattern, different from that of the pigs from the other 2 boars and from the positive controls. SEM studies demonstrated that at 35 d postinoculation a higher proportion of B3 pigs had lower numbers of mycoplasmas attached to the cilia compared with B1 and B2 offspring. No significant differences were observed in temperature and weight gain among groups by ANOVA; however, with use of a 2 x 2 table, temperature differences were observed between pigs sired by boars B1 and B2 at 4 d postinoculation. No pigs seroconverted, showed gross or microscopic lesions, or had positive IFAT results. These results provide evidence of differences in patterns of colonization between pigs sired by different boars, suggesting a possible genetic effect.

  8. Anticholesteremic property of Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt fed to mature boars.

    PubMed

    Danielson, A D; Peo, E R; Shahani, K M; Lewis, A J; Whalen, P J; Amer, M A

    1989-04-01

    Three strains of Lactobacilus acidophilus (LA) were isolated from the feces of mature boars that were not being fed antibiotics from the Nebraska Gene Pool (NGP). All three LA isolates were screened in vitro for anticholesteremic and antimicrobial activities. One strain, LA16, caused the greatest reduction in cholesterol and inhibited both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli the most. LA16 was used to produce 16, 18.9-liter quantities of acidophilus yogurt (AY), over a period of 8 wk, for use as a feed ingredient in diets for the NGP boars. Colony forming units (cfu), pH, protein, energy, Ca and P were consistent across all 16 batches of yogurt. All of the 18 boars were fed a high-cholesterol diet for a period of 56 d at a rate of 2.268 kg/(hd.d) to furnish 6.661 g/(hd.d) of cholesterol. Nine of the boars then were fed 1.81 kg/(hd.d) of a second diet that was supplemented with .454 kg/(hd.d) of AY. The other nine boars were fed the original diet. Cholesterol intake was the same for the two dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected weekly from the brachial-jugular region and the sera were analyzed for lipids. Acidophilus yogurt reduced serum cholesterol (P less than .01) and low density lipoproteins (P less than .08), but it had no effect on serum triglycerides (P greater than .23) or on high density lipoproteins (P greater than .11).

  9. Predicting the likelihood of developing boar taint: early physical indicators in entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, K M; Aluwé, M; Millet, S; Goethals, K; Nijs, G; Isebaert, S; De Brabander, D L; Verheyden, K; De Brabander, H F; Vanhaecke, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2012-12-01

    Three potential early-age predictors of which boars are likely to develop boar taint (testes volume, skin lesions and dirtiness) were measured on 102 boars every fortnight from 10 weeks of age until slaughter. These predictors were correlated with the level of boar taint according to the hot iron method and the concentrations of skatole and androstenone as determined by chemical analysis. The chance of no/low boar taint according to the hot iron method decreased with higher testes volume (weeks 22 and 24) and increased with skin lesion score (weeks 12, 16 and 18). For the concentrations of androstenone and skatole, the strongest correlation was found with testes volume in week 12. Skin lesions in week 16 were negatively correlated with skatole levels. Dirtiness was negatively correlated with skatole concentrations (week 18) but positively correlated with androstenone concentrations (weeks 20 and 22). Testes volume has the greatest potential for predicting the likelihood of developing boar taint.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sus cebifrons (Sus, Suidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Tang, Hong-Xia; Liu, Yong-Gang; Bai, Ming-Jie; Tang, Yan-Xia

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Sus cebifrons (Visayan warty pig). The total length of the mitogenome was 16,475 bp, and its overall base composition was estimated to be 35.0% for A, 25.8% for T, 26.2% for C and 13.0% for G, indicating an A-T (60.8%)-rich feature in Sus cebifrons mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a noncoding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of these genes was the same as that found in other pigs. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sus cebifrons would provide new genetic resources for pig domestication study.

  11. Increased number of skin lesions as a measure of aggression following the mixing of slaughter boars from western Canada assembled for export

    PubMed Central

    Paetkau, Leanne N.; Whiting, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary observational study was conducted to evaluate the animal welfare impacts of holding and mixing on boars; specifically, the need to tusk trim on arrival at assembly. Cull boars assembled in Manitoba from 3 western Canadian provinces were observed without intervention. Although aggression among boars was common, significant physical injury to boars from handling and other boars was rare. Tusk trimming was widely practised in mature boars prior to transport in the population studied. Length of time assembled, number of boars in a pen, temperature, size of boar, and presence of tusk were not associated with change in the skin score of new boars introduced into a pen. Holding groups of previously unfamiliar boars en route to slaughter did not appear to be a significant risk for increased skin lesions in the population studied. Further research is required into the methods and welfare implications to boars subjected to tusk trimming. PMID:18512461

  12. Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends and implications for Europe.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Kindberg, Jonas; Licoppe, Alain; Gačić, Dragan; Šprem, Nikica; Kamler, Jiří; Baubet, Eric; Hohmann, Ulf; Monaco, Andrea; Ozoliņš, Janis; Cellina, Sandra; Podgórski, Tomasz; Fonseca, Carlos; Markov, Nickolay; Pokorny, Boštjan; Rosell, Carme; Náhlik, András

    2015-04-01

    Across Europe, wild boar numbers increased in the 1960s-1970s but stabilised in the 1980s; recent evidence suggests that the numbers and impact of wild boar has grown steadily since the 1980s. As hunting is the main cause of mortality for this species, we reviewed wild boar hunting bags and hunter population trends in 18 European countries from 1982 to 2012. Hunting statistics and numbers of hunters were used as indicators of animal numbers and hunting pressure. The results confirmed that wild boar increased consistently throughout Europe, while the number of hunters remained relatively stable or declined in most countries. We conclude that recreational hunting is insufficient to limit wild boar population growth and that the relative impact of hunting on wild boar mortality had decreased. Other factors, such as mild winters, reforestation, intensification of crop production, supplementary feeding and compensatory population responses of wild boar to hunting pressure might also explain population growth. As populations continue to grow, more human-wild boar conflicts are expected unless this trend is reversed. New interdisciplinary approaches are urgently required to mitigate human-wild boar conflicts, which are otherwise destined to grow further. © 2014 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The effect of haemagglutinating factor from boar seminal vesicle fluid on leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Veselský, L; Sedláková, E; Dostál, J; Hruban, V; Pazdera, J

    1981-01-01

    Compl