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Sample records for boar sus scrofa

  1. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection. PMID:15650104

  2. Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine.

  3. In Vitro Study of Caecal and Colon Microbial Fermentation Patterns in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Pecka-Kiełb, Ewa; Bujok, Jolanta; Miśta, Dorota; Króliczewska, Bozena; Górecka, Justyna; Zawadzki, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) caecal and colon products of microbial activity including short chain fatty acids (SCFA), ammonia and methane concentrations. The in vitro method was applied to caecal and colon contents after 12 and 24-hour incubation with the substrate (wheat bran), or without any additive (control samples). The pH was also measured in each sample. In samples incubated with the substrate, a lower pH was noted as compared to the control (P < 0.001). In terms of the total SCFA concentration, the hindgut microbial fermentation pattern of wild boar was characterized by a high acetate level, followed by propionate and then butyrate at a ratio of 7:1.5:1. Substrate addition decreased acetate molar proportions (P < 0.001) and increased those of butyrate (P < 0.001) as well as propionate (P < 0.05). The total SCFA level in fresh, unincubated caecal samples (128 mmol/kg) was similar to that in the colon (111 mmol/kg). The ammonia concentrations were at the level of 0.8-1.5 mmol/kg of hindgut content and did not differ between the two investigated hindgut parts. Methanogenesis was also similar in the caecum and colon and after 24h was 2.69 mmol/kg and 2.27 for caecal colon control samples, respectively. The substrate increased total gas production and methane concentration (P < 0.001). PMID:27172710

  4. A Serosurvey for Brucellosis in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Cristian; Addis, Giuseppe; Deidda, Manuela; Tedde, Maria Tania; Liciardi, Manuele

    2015-10-01

    Porcine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella suis and hosted by pigs (Sus scrofa). Both domestic pigs and wild boars are affected. We measured the prevalence of antibody to Brucella spp. in wild boars in Sardinia, Italy. During 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010, we collected 570 serum samples from legally hunted wild boars and tested them using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex and age class of the sampled wild boars were also recorded. Thirty-five samples were positive for an apparent antibody prevalence of 6.1%. Antibody prevalences did not differ between sexes or among age classes.

  5. FATAL CASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS INFECTION IN A YOUNG WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA) FROM SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Gonçalves, Pilar; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Rosales, Rubén; Gómez, Luis; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a recognized pathogen that may cause important diseases in pigs and humans. This microorganism has been repeatedly isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa). However, its health implications for this wild species are still unknown. This article reports a detailed description of a fatal case of septicemia by S. suis affecting a young wild boar. The affected animal, about 15 days old, was found near death and exhibiting neurologic signs at a wild boar estate in southwestern Spain. Postmortem examination showed generalized congestion, brain hemorrhages and lobular pneumonia. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated the presence of meningitis and encephalitis with marked congestion and suppurative bronchopneumonia. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates exhibiting important virulence factors (extracellular factor, muramidase-released protein, and suylisin) were isolated from the affected animal. This study confirms the presence of potentially virulent and zoonotic strains of S. suis in wild boar from Spain. PMID:26056897

  6. First reports of Trichinella pseudospiralis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) of Italy.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Spaggiari, Brunella; Maioli, Giulia; Conedera, Gabriella; Vio, Denis; Londero, Mauro; Marucci, Gianluca; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Pozio, Edoardo; Capelli, Gioia

    2011-06-10

    Trichinella pseudospiralis is a non-encapsulated species infecting both mammals and birds. In Italy, this parasite was reported only in two night-birds of prey of Central Italy. In January 2010, Trichinella larvae were detected in three wild boars (Sus scrofa) of two regions of Northern Italy by enzymatic digestion. The parasites were identified as T. pseudospiralis by multiplex-PCR. The first infected wild boar was hunted in the Emilia Romagna region and the other two infected wild boars were bred outdoors in a small family farm of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. These new epidemiological data reinforce the role of the wild boar as the main reservoir of T. pseudospiralis in Europe. PMID:21296503

  7. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  8. Serologic tests for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Reena; Esfandiari, Javan; Jaroso, Raquel; Carta, Tania; Garrido, Joseba M; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    New tools to detect exposure of free-range Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) to pathogenic mycobacteria would be valuable for improved disease surveillance and wildlife management. Two hundred sera from wild boar of known Mycobacterium bovis infection status were used to evaluate test suitability for the detection of antibodies against M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (or cross-reacting members of the M. avium complex). Two traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were evaluated using M. bovis purified protein derivative (bPPD) and paratuberculosis protoplasmatic antigen 3 (PPA3) as antigens, respectively, and a new point-of-care test format for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) that uses the innovative dual-path platform (DPP TB) test. The effect of individual factors (sex, age, lesions) on the diagnostic performance of the serologic tests was also determined. Although the DPP had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 90.4%, for bPPD, the sensitivity was 79.2% and the specificity 100%. Both tests had a kappa agreement of 0.80. Sixty-five of 68 (95.6%) wild boar sera with antibodies against the PPA3 antigen corresponded to known M. bovis-infected wild boar. Significant differences were not observed in the bPPD and DPP readings among lesion categories or between age classes. A slight sex-related difference in sensitivity toward males in the DPP was found, but it was not detected in the bPPD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results support the use of antibody-based diagnostic tests for both large-scale and individual bTB testing of Eurasian wild boar and suggest that wild boar cannot be used as sentinels for infections caused by M. avium complex members.

  9. Shedding patterns of endemic Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) pathogens.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Martín-Hernando, María Paz; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The Eurasianwild boar has experienced aworldwide demographic explosion that increases awareness on shared pathogens. However, shedding routes of relevant wild boar pathogens are unknown. Previous observations on sex- and age-related differences in Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) exposure led us to hypothesize that shedding patterns of endemicwild boar pathogens may be influenced by individual traits.We investigated shedding routes of ADV, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Coxiella burnetii and analysed the effect of host sex and age on pathogen shedding patterns. The presence of pathogen antibodies in serumand of pathogen DNA in oral, nasal, genital and rectal swabswas analysed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. The influence of sex and age in pathogen shedding prevalencewas tested statistically.Main routes of ADV, PPV, PCV2 and C. burnetii shedding were identified but the hypothesis of sex- and/or age-related shedding patterns couldn't be confirmed. PMID:26412545

  10. Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999), low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9) and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars. PMID:22943565

  11. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  12. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  13. Epidemiological study of hepatitis E virus infection in European wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Spain.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Nilsa; Peralta, Bibiana; Pina, Sonia; Allepuz, Alberto; Mateu, Enric; Vidal, Dolors; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Martín, Marga; Gortázar, Christian; Segalés, Joaquim

    2008-05-25

    Evidence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Spanish domestic pig has been reported and hence it was advisable to search for this zoonotic pathogen in wild boar populations. A total of 150 wild boar serum samples from eight geographic areas from South-Central Spain were used to investigate HEV infection in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) by means of serology and PCR and its distribution by age, region and management system. Anti-HEV IgG, IgM and IgA were determined by an in-house ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 42.7% (range 30.63-55.65%) and 19.6% (range 13.53-27.40%) of the animals tested positive for HEV RNA. Wild boar sequences were clustered within the genotype 3. This is the first description of HEV infection in Spanish wild boar and the results obtained may suggest a possible role of wild boar as a HEV reservoir for both domestic animals and humans. PMID:18082340

  14. Lead and cadmium in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Mulero, Rocío; Cano-Manuel, Javier; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Pérez, Jesús M; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón; Fandos, Paulino; Granados, José E; Romero, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate Pb and Cd levels in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS) (southern Spain). Heavy metal concentrations in livers, kidneys and bones from 111 animals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Bones and kidneys were the most Pb- and Cd-contaminated tissues, respectively; Cd concentrations were 5.6 times higher in kidneys than in livers. This is the first biomonitoring study of these pollutants in wild boar tissues in the SNNS, and findings indicate that this population is chronically exposed to these heavy metals. The detected Pb and Cd concentrations were lower than those found in many studies performed in Europe on the same species. PMID:27178294

  15. The first description of gastric Helicobacter in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Fabisiak, M; Sapierzyński, R; Salamaszyńska-Guz, A; Kizerwetter-Swida, M

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of gastric mucosa of 17 free-ranging wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot in the Central Poland during 2007/2008 hunting season were investigated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Histopathology, Helicobacter genus-specific 16S rRNA PCR, and DNA sequence analysis were employed. In PCR analysis the presence of Helicobacter's DNA was detected in one stomach. Obtained sequence analysis showed its relatedness to Helicobacter heilmannii type 2. In histopathology of the PCR-positive sample the presence of tightly coiled spiral bacteria was detected on the surface of the antral mucosa, in gastric pits and lumen of the upper parts of antral glands. Potential pathologic significance of the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach of free-ranging wild boars was obscured by the parasitic invasion-caused gastritis, and remains unknown.

  16. Lead and cadmium in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Mulero, Rocío; Cano-Manuel, Javier; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Pérez, Jesús M; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón; Fandos, Paulino; Granados, José E; Romero, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate Pb and Cd levels in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS) (southern Spain). Heavy metal concentrations in livers, kidneys and bones from 111 animals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Bones and kidneys were the most Pb- and Cd-contaminated tissues, respectively; Cd concentrations were 5.6 times higher in kidneys than in livers. This is the first biomonitoring study of these pollutants in wild boar tissues in the SNNS, and findings indicate that this population is chronically exposed to these heavy metals. The detected Pb and Cd concentrations were lower than those found in many studies performed in Europe on the same species.

  17. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig. PMID:21719838

  18. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang won; Yoo, Sung J.; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang hun

    2016-01-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period. PMID:27340389

  19. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan.

  1. Serologic and molecular survey for hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzei, M.; Nardini, R.; Verin, R.; Forzan, M.; Poli, A.; Tolari, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sixty-four blood and faecal samples collected from wild boar hunted in Central Italy in 2011–2012 were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR analysis. Positive RT-PCR samples were further examined by nucleotide sequence determination and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six sera (56.2%) were positive for HEV-specific antibodies, and six (9.4%) faecal samples scored RT-PCR-positive results. Four animals were positive by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected wild boar–derived HEV sequences clustered within genotype 3, with similarity to sequences of human origin collected in a nearby area in 2012. Our data confirm that HEV is endemic in the wild boar population in the research area and that these wild animals could play an important role in the epidemiology of HEV infection. PMID:26199731

  2. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25925185

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  4. Spargana in a Weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a Wild Boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk

    2013-01-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana. PMID:23864753

  5. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys. PMID:26161723

  6. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

  7. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space.

  8. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  9. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined. PMID:27523941

  10. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  11. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined.

  12. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions. PMID:17516948

  13. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  14. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar. PMID:26753342

  15. Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes. PMID:23692883

  16. Trichinella species circulating in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Poland☆

    PubMed Central

    Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Różycki, Mirosław; Chmurzyńska, Ewa; Marucci, Gianluca; Cencek, Tomasz; Karamon, Jacek; Bocian, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Hunting in Poland has a long tradition and became more popular after 1990. Each year over 60,000 wild boar are hunted. Some of them may act as Trichinella carriers thus all carcasses of wild boar are systematically sampled in game-handling establishments as part of the post-mortem examination. The aim of the study was to determine the species of Trichinella and to evaluate the year to year differences in the occurrence of those species in the populations of wild boar in Poland. Samples for the study were provided by the Veterinary Inspection Service. Wild boar carcasses were examined using a digestion method. Only samples recognized as positive for Trichinella in these examinations were sent to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for confirmation of genus identity. Samples from 450 animals were obtained for the study (380 muscle samples and 70 larval isolates preserved in 90% ethyl alcohol). Tissue samples were digested to isolate larvae. Extracted larval DNA was amplified using a modified multiplex PCR protocol to identify the species of Trichinella. Five larvae from each sample were examined by PCR. The study revealed that Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are present in wild boar in Poland in a ratio of 3:1. Mixed infections with T. spiralis and T. britovi were found in 1% of the animals. PMID:24533337

  17. Helminth infections of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the Bursa province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Girisgin, O; Akyol, C V

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the status of helminth infections in wild boars in the Bursa province of Turkey. For this purpose, during 2007-2008, 27 wild boars were necropsied and examined for helminths. Individual samples of tongue and diaphragm from 27 necropsied wild boars and an additional 22 tongue and diaphragm samples provided by hunters were examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion for Trichinella spp. larvae. Twenty animals (74%) were identified as being infected with at least one helminth species. Twelve species of helminths were detected, with the following prevalence rates: Metastrongylus apri (59%), Metastrongylus salmi (52%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (52%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (33%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (22%), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (19%), Gongylonema pulchrum (11%), Physocephalus sexalatus (7%), Trichuris suis (7%), Ascarops strongylina (4%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (4%) and Taenia hydatigena larvae (4%). Generally, lungworms were the predominant helminths. The highest mean abundance was observed for M. pudendotectus, and the lowest was determined for T. hydatigena larvae. Significant differences in the prevalence and intensity were found for D. dendriticum with respect to host age and sex, respectively. The mean intensity of M. pudendotectus was significantly influenced by the sex and age of the wild boars. This study is the first report describing the presence of M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, D. dendriticum, G. urosubulatus, M. hirudinaceus, P. sexalatus, A. strongylina and H. rubidus in wild boars in Turkey. All analysed muscle samples were negative for Trichinella spp. larvae.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden and evaluation of ELISA test performance.

    PubMed

    Wallander, C; Frössling, J; Vågsholm, I; Uggla, A; Lundén, A

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The Swedish wild boar population is expanding and increased hunting provides its meat to a growing group of consumers. We performed a spatio-temporal investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in Swedish wild boars. An ELISA was set up and evaluated against a commercial direct agglutination test, using Bayesian latent class analysis. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were estimated to 79% and 85%, respectively. Of 1327 serum samples, 50% were positive. Thirty-four per cent of young wild boars and 55% of adults were positive (P < 0.001). The total seroprevalence ranged from 72% in 2005 to 38% in 2011 (P < 0.001), suggesting a declining trend. The highest seroprevalence, 65%, was recorded in South Sweden. In other regions it varied from 29% in Stockholm to 46% in East Middle Sweden.

  19. Sparganosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) - Implications for veterinarians, hunters, and consumers.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta; Miniuk, Mariusz; Ruczyńska, Iwona; Tokarska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-30

    From February to March 2016 we found plerocercoids of Spirometra sp. in four wild boar hunted in Białowieża Primeval Forest, north-eastern Poland. Plerocercoids were located subcutaneously and in muscle tissue. A sequence of a nuclear 18S rRNA gene was used for genetic specification of the samples. The analyzed gene fragment showed 100% identity with the Spirometra erinacei sequence. Thus, the emerge of human sparganosis due to consumption of undercooked or smoked wild boar meat is likely in the areas where wild boar is an approved food source, especially in the absence of routine guidelines for vets. It has become a priority to inform the public about possibilities and consequences of this zoonosis. PMID:27523946

  20. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals. PMID:27078648

  1. Serological Investigation of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) As Indicator Animals for Circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment. PMID:24359418

  2. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment.

  3. First detection of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Riehn, K; Lalkovski, N; Hamedy, A; Lücker, Ernst

    2014-06-01

    The trematode Alaria alata, an intestinal parasite of different carnivore species is widely distributed throughout Europe. The mesocercarial stages of Alaria spp. may infect almost all vertebrate species, including humans, and, in particular, omnivorous scavengers such as wild boars serve as paratenic hosts for the parasite. The introduction of the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) opened the way to a reliable detection of Alaria spp. mesocercariae in different body tissues of their paratenic hosts. For the first time, it was possible to detect vital A. alata mesocercariae from two Bulgarian wild boars by means of this new method. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of the respective parasitic DNA allowed the unequivocal species identification of the parasites as A. alata. Isolation and molecular biological identification of the parasite's developmental stages make significant contributions to completion of data on both the distribution of Alaria spp. in stocks of European game and the relationship between different Eurasian Alaria spp. isolates. PMID:23374251

  4. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed. PMID:27055329

  5. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder. PMID:23211797

  6. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): chemical and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-12-04

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder.

  7. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk. PMID:26244659

  8. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation.

    PubMed

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk.

  9. Innate Immunity Correlates with Host Fitness in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Exposed to Classical Swine Fever

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sophie; Doucelin, Anaïs; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Eraud, Cyril; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive humoral immunity (CHI) is thought to be a first-line of protection against pathogens invading vertebrate hosts. However, clear evidence that CHI correlates with host fitness in natural conditions is still lacking. This study explores the relationship between CHI, measured using a haemagglutination-haemolysis assay (HAHL), and resistance to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) among wild boar piglets. The individual dynamics of HAHL during piglet growth was analysed, using 423 serum samples from 92 piglets repeatedly captured in the absence of CSFV (in 2006) within two areas showing contrasting food availability. Natural antibody levels increased with age, but, in the youngest piglets antibody levels were higher in individuals from areas with the highest food availability. Complement activity depended on natural antibody levels and piglets' body condition. In the presence of CSFV (i.e., in 2005 within one area), serum samples from piglets that were repeatedly captured were used to assess whether piglet HAHL levels affected CSFV status at a later capture. The correlation between CHI and resistance to CSFV was tested using 79 HAHL measures from 23 piglets captured during a CSFV outbreak. Both natural antibodies and complement activity levels measured at a given time correlated negatively to the subsequent probability of becoming viremic. Finally, capture-mark-recapture models showed that piglets with medium/high average complement activity, independently of their age, were significantly less at risk of becoming viremic and more likely to develop a specific immune response than piglets with low complement activity. Additionally, piglets with high average complement activity showed the highest survival prospects. This study provides evidence linking CHI to individual fitness within a natural mammal population. The results also highlight the potential of HAHL assays to explore the dynamics and co-evolution between wildlife mammal hosts and blood

  10. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  11. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation. PMID:27068893

  12. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population.

  13. Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand.

  14. Investigating the Role of Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in the Re-Emergence of Enzootic Pneumonia in Domestic Pig Herds: A Pathological, Prevalence and Risk-Factor Study

    PubMed Central

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C.; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3–29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs. PMID:25747151

  15. 137Cs concentration in meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia a decade and half after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Vilic, M; Barisic, D; Kraljevic, P; Lulic, S

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometric measurements of 137Cs activities in meat of wild boars collected in Croatia at several locations with different levels of 137Cs contamination are presented. Samples were collected during the period between 2000 and 2002, about 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. 137Cs concentrations ranged over three orders of magnitude: 0.4-611.5 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of these results, 137Cs concentrations at researched areas could be categorized into three groups: (i) the area of Slavonski Brod, Lipik and Slunj with 137Cs concentrations in meat of only a few Bq kg(-1); (ii) the area of Vrbovsko and Sirac with 137Cs concentrations of a few tens of Bq kg(-1); and (iii) the Fuzine area with 137Cs values in wild boar meat of a few hundreds of Bq kg(-1). In areas with approximately equal contamination level, 137Cs concentrations in wild boar meat varied over two orders of magnitude. This fact suggests that the main reason for high 137Cs values in wild boar meat could be due to food consumed by wild boars, and only secondarily in contamination level of area where they live. Intensive mushroom consumption during autumn months could be one of the factors responsible for high 137Cs values in wild boar meat. An average dose arising from 137Cs due to ingestion of wild boar meat in Croatia is below radiological health concern except in the area of Fuzine, and only in cases of high annual wild boar meat intake, probably by hunters or members of their families.

  16. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in south-western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Khabisi, Samaneh Abdolahi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first molecular and serological evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus infections in wild boars in Iran. Twenty five wild boars were collected in south-western Iran, during authorized hunting program, from March to October 2013, necropsied and examined for E. granulosus infection. Furthermore, seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis in hunted boars was evaluated by an ELISA system. A fertile hydatid cyst due to E. granulosus was detected in the lung of one of the animals. Genotype analysis of the isolate was determined by analyzing a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (co1). DNA was extracted from the cyst sample and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the specific region of the co1 gene was performed. Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a sheep strain, the G1 genotype, in the wild boar in south-western Iran. This is the first report of the presence of G1 genotype of E. granulosus in wild boar in Iran. Serological evaluation of hydatid cyst by antigen-B ELISA revealed E. granulosus antibodies in 5 (20%) of 25 wild boars. A statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of E. granulosus antibodies and gender while the difference between the seroprevalence of E. granulosus and age was insignificant. Findings of this study might have important implications for the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis. PMID:26878625

  17. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in south-western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Khabisi, Samaneh Abdolahi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first molecular and serological evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus infections in wild boars in Iran. Twenty five wild boars were collected in south-western Iran, during authorized hunting program, from March to October 2013, necropsied and examined for E. granulosus infection. Furthermore, seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis in hunted boars was evaluated by an ELISA system. A fertile hydatid cyst due to E. granulosus was detected in the lung of one of the animals. Genotype analysis of the isolate was determined by analyzing a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (co1). DNA was extracted from the cyst sample and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the specific region of the co1 gene was performed. Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a sheep strain, the G1 genotype, in the wild boar in south-western Iran. This is the first report of the presence of G1 genotype of E. granulosus in wild boar in Iran. Serological evaluation of hydatid cyst by antigen-B ELISA revealed E. granulosus antibodies in 5 (20%) of 25 wild boars. A statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of E. granulosus antibodies and gender while the difference between the seroprevalence of E. granulosus and age was insignificant. Findings of this study might have important implications for the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis.

  18. The effect of selected environmental Fusarium mycotoxins on the ovaries in the female wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Ł; Gajęcka, M; Żmudzki, J; Gajęcki, M

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of agricultural crops with Fusarium mycotoxins poses one of the greatest problems in food production. Wild boars live in specific habitats and are physiologically sensitive to Fusarium mycotoxins, therefore, they are an interesting model for studies investigating the effects of the discussed toxin, in particular under low-dose exposure. The objective of this study was to determine potential effects of Fusarium mycotoxins ingested with naturally contaminated food on reproductive function based on the proliferation and apoptotic indices of ovarian follicles in female wild boars. The experiment was conducted on 40 wild boars inhabiting north-eastern Poland. The effect of seasonal variations in the quantity and quality of ingested food on the concentrations of Fusarium mycotoxins and their metabolites in the blood of wild boars was analyzed. The observed differences in toxin levels were accompanied by changes in proliferation and apoptotic indices. Proliferation processes were most intense in autumn-winter and were least advanced in winter-spring. The intensity of apoptotic processes was inversely correlated with proliferation.

  19. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  20. Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the artificial digestion estimate of 0.0% (95% C.I. 0.0-1.1). Real-time PCR testing of muscle from

  1. Muscle fibre characteristics, enzyme activity and meat colour of wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) muscle with 2n=36 compared to those of phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38).

    PubMed

    Skewes, Oscar; Cádiz, Patricia; Merino, Victoria; Islas, Armando; Morales, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate European wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) of chromosomal number 2n=36 in comparison with phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38) with respect to the muscle fibre characteristics and enzyme activity as well as meat colour in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Differences in the proportion of IIA fibre in the LD muscle between karyotypes 2n=37 and 2n=38 were found. The 2n=36 group showed a lower muscle fibre cross-section area than the 2n=38 karyotype. The meat colour of the 2n=36 karyotype group was redder than 2n=37 and 2n=38. The muscle fibre cross-section area might explain the differences in colour of the meat of wild boar.

  2. Effect of cattle on Salmonella carriage, diversity and antimicrobial resistance in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19-43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74-29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern.

  3. Effect of Cattle on Salmonella Carriage, Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M.; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M.; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19–43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74–29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern. PMID:23284725

  4. Ixodid ticks parasitizing Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: geographical and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortazár, Christian

    2006-08-31

    Commercial hunting of Spanish wild ungulates has made them an important economic resource. Wild ungulates may have an important role in the maintenance of ixodid tick populations, and also as reservoirs of pathogens. We studied the ixodid ticks that parasitize Iberian red deer and European wild boar from Spain. Ixodid ticks (n=6,336) were collected from 431 Iberian red deer and 142 wild boar in different regions of Spain. We found 10 different ixodid tick species parasitizing Iberian red deer, mainly Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (63.7%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (7.9%) and R. bursa (7.5%). R. (Boophilus) annulatus was only collected in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). We found 8 ixodid tick species on the wild boar, mainly Hy. m. marginatum (68.7%), R. bursa (14.6%) and Dermacentor marginatus (9.3%). We found one adult Hy. marginatum rufipes and one adult Hy. anatolicum excavatum parasitizing wild boar from south-central Spain. Mean prevalence of ixodid ticks was 41.3+/-0.08% (n=475) and 31+/-0.09% (n=284) and intensity of parasitization was 13.9+/-0.2 (n=283) and 13.6+/-0.3 (n=130) ticks/animal for Iberian red deer and wild boar, respectively. Only 5 of the 13 ixodid tick species found were shared by Iberian red deer and wild boar. This finding could indicate a host preference when Iberian red deer and wild boar share common habitats. In both Iberian red deer and wild boar from south-central Spain the monthly relative frequencies of Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa presented an inverse pattern. The highest Hy. m. marginatum relative frequencies coincided with the lowest R. bursa relative frequencies along the year. R. bursa and I. ricinus were present in areas from northern to southern Spain while Hyalomma sp. and D. marginatus were exclusively collected in the two southern thirds of Spain. Haemaphysalis sp. and D. reticulatus were collected in northern Spain. Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa were present during the whole year in red deer and wild

  5. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet.

  6. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet. PMID:26437356

  7. Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefańska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, Elżbieta; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

  8. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-25

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed.

  9. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed. PMID:26810218

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Hunted Wild Boars (Sus scrofa): Heart Meat Juice as an Alternative Sample to Serum for the Detection of Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Cardoso, Luís; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Detection of antibodies to T. gondii in serum samples from hunted animals may represent a key step for public health protection. It is also important to assess the circulation of this parasite in wild boar population. However, in hunted animals, collection of blood is not feasible and meat juice may represent an alternative sample. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart meat juice of hunted wild boars as an alternative sample for post-mortem detection of antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). The agreement beyond chance between results from meat juice assessed with Cohen's kappa coefficient revealed that the 1:20 meat juice dilution provided the highest agreement. McNemars's test further revealed 1:10 as the most suitable meat juice dilution, as the proportion of positive paired samples (serum and meat juice from the same animal) did not differ at this dilution. All together, these results suggest a reasonable accuracy of heart meat juice to detect antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and support it as an alternative sample in post-mortem analysis in hunted wild boars.

  11. δ18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.

    PubMed

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

    2011-12-30

    δ¹⁸O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When δ¹⁸O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable δ¹⁸O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals.

  12. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef.

  13. Retrograde and destination transfer of sex steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar (Sus scrofa) in short-daylight and long-daylight periods, as well as vernal and autumnal equinox.

    PubMed

    Tabęcka-Łonczyńska, Anna; Kulpa, Magdalena; Grzesiak, Małgorzata; Koziorowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in concentration of steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was also localized in the arteries and veins of the spermatic cord. Arterial blood was collected from the common carotid artery and from two branches of the testicular artery supplying the testis and epididymis to determine progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A2), testosterone (T2) and estradiol (E2) plasma concentrations. The greatest concentration of P4 was found in testicular artery during December (P<0.001), when compared with other periods and vessels. In contrast, the greatest A2 concentration was observed in the epididymal artery during the same season (P<0.001). Greater T2 concentrations were found in both testis and epididymal arteries than in common artery in March (P<0.001, P<0.001; respectively) and in September (P<0.01, P<0.001; respectively). The E2 concentration was weakly affected by seasonal periods, but greater E2 concentrations were found within vessels in the testis and epididymis than in the common artery. The P450arom was immunolocalized in all layers of the arteries and veins of the testicular spermatic cord. The intensity of P450arom staining was greater in December than in June (P<0.001). There were greater steroid concentrations in arterial vessels during December in comparison to June and this may explain the summer infertility in boars and may be related to the local retrograde and destination transfer into the spermatic cord area. The P450arom gene expression in this area seems to be involved in the conversion of T2 into E2 to enrich the testes and epididymis. PMID:26608934

  14. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted.

  15. Genomic Diversity in Pig (Sus scrofa) and its Comparison with Human and other Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyan; Plastow, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed the current pig (Sus scrofa) genomic diversity within and between sites and compared them with human and other livestock. The current Porcine 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel has an average SNP distance in a range of 30 - 40 kb. Most of genetic variation was distributed within populations, and only a small proportion of them existed between populations. The average heterozygosity was lower in pig than in human and other livestock. Genetic inbreeding coefficient (FIS), population differentiation (FST), and Nei’s genetic distance between populations were much larger in pig than in human and other livestock. Higher average genetic distance existed between European and Asian populations than between European or between Asian populations. Asian breeds harboured much larger variability and higher average heterozygosity than European breeds. The samples of wild boar that have been analyzed displayed more extensive genetic variation than domestic breeds. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) in improved pig breeds extended to 1 - 3 cM, much larger than that in human (~ 30 kb) and cattle (~ 100 kb), but smaller than that in sheep (~ 10 cM). European breeds showed greater LD that decayed more slowly than Asian breeds. We briefly discuss some processes for maintaining genomic diversity in pig, including migration, introgression, selection, and drift. We conclude that, due to the long time of domestication, the pig possesses lower heterozygosity, higher FIS, and larger LD compared with human and cattle. This implies that a smaller effective population size and less informative markers are needed in pig for genome wide association studies. PMID:21966252

  16. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    PubMed

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497

  17. Wild boar attacks.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Kalkan, Asim; Turkmen, Suha

    2007-01-01

    Attacks on humans by wild boar (Sus scrofa) are occasionally reported in rural areas of Turkey. While fatalities are rare, individuals may sustain significant soft tissue trauma. Lower extremity lacerations of up to 10 cm in length and 4 cm deep were seen in the 3 cases reviewed. Injuries to the upper abdomen and chest occurred in one case. Attacks frequently occur in forested areas covered by dense brushwood, and their incidence is increased during the rutting season. In contrast to other large, feral animal attacks, injuries sustained from wild boar typically are limited to the lower extremities. This case series examines 3 attacks by wild boar in rural Turkey.

  18. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC. PMID:26025401

  19. The morphology of the inner ear from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Lovell, J M; Harper, G M

    2007-12-01

    The morphology of the hair cells of the inner ear end organs from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) have been studied using a combination of Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM), revealing hair cells from the cochlea and vestibule using a novel surgical and technical approach. This is the first time that the inner ear hair cells from S. scrofa have been studied, thus providing useful anatomical information on the morphology of the hair cells from the cochlea, saccule and utricle from a large mammal. Anatomical information in relation to the morphology of the inner ear is of considerable importance, both in the pathological diagnosis of trauma and in the development of cochlea implants and other biotechnological systems associated with the enhancement of hearing. Standard fixation protocols using cardiac perfusion was not employed in this study as this method cannot always be applied, such as the pathological examination of the human ear, or the study of animals protected by endangered species legislation. With the exception of a very few countries, cetaceans cannot be killed for research purposes, yet physiological information on the inner ear from these species is urgently required for ecological assessment reasons. Supporting the use of S. scrofa as a model for cetacean hearing research is that this animal is a member of the order Artiodactyla, which includes both the hippopotamus and cetaceans. Being of a similar size, the pig is an ideal subject for developing protocols and surgical techniques required to investigate both the human and small cetacean auditory systems. PMID:18045329

  20. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments.

  1. Absence of Mycobacterium bovis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the southern Texas border region.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Tyler A; Long, David B; Bazan, Luis R; Thomsen, Bruce V; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Davey, Ronald B; Soliz, Liza A; Swafford, Seth R; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2011-10-01

    Free-ranging wildlife, such as feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are transmissible to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is needed regarding the exposure and infection rates of Mycobacterium bovis and many other diseases and parasites in feral swine occurring in the Texas border region. Our main objective was to determine exposure rates and possible infection rates of M. bovis in feral swine by opportunistically sampling animals from the Texas border region. From June to September 2010, we obtained samples from 396 feral swine and tested 98 samples for M. bovis by histopathology and mycobacteriologic culture. We found no evidence of M. bovis infection. We believe that it is important to periodically and strategically sample feral swine for M. bovis in high-risk areas of the United States because they are capable of becoming reservoirs of the disease.

  2. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  3. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA. PMID:27514880

  4. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  5. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Swenson, Julie; Carpenter, James W; Ragsdale, John; Kuroki, Kei; Ketz-Riley, Cornelia; Brinkman, Erin; Cole, Gretchen

    2009-11-01

    An 18-year-old, neutered, male Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa) was treated for chronic, intermittent nasal discharge and sneezing. The animal was diagnosed with severe periodontal disease (grade IV), an oronasal fistula, and multiple tooth root abscesses via dental examination and computed tomography of the skull. Dentistry was performed, including multiple tooth extractions, and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Eighteen months later, the animal was evaluated for lethargy, anorexia, and a firm, 12 cm x 12 cm mass between the 2 rami of the mandible. Laboratory testing revealed moderate anemia, severe leukocytosis, and hyperglobulinemia. Skull radiographs indicated osteomyelitis of the mandible and soft-tissue swelling. A fine-needle aspirate and biopsy were taken, and results were consistent with squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment with piroxicam and antibiotics was initiated as needed to control signs of pain and secondary infection, respectively. Three months after diagnosis, the pig was euthanized due to cachexia and severe depression secondary to squamous cell carcinoma. On postmortem examination, the right mandibular area contained multiple, coalescing, irregular masses extending from the ramus rostrally to the mandibular canine teeth and ventrally within the intermandibular space, completely obliterating the normal anatomy. An open midshaft fracture was present on the right mandible. On histopathology, the masses were confirmed as locally invasive and destructive squamous cell carcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noted in regional lymph nodes or in any of the distant sites evaluated.

  6. Functional Cues in the Development of Osseous Tooth Support in the Pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Popowics, T.; Yeh, K.; Rafferty, K.; Herring, S.

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar bone supports teeth during chewing through a ligamentous interface with tooth roots. Although tooth loads are presumed to direct the development and adaptation of these tissues, strain distribution in the alveolar bone at different stages of tooth eruption and periodontal development is unknown. This study investigates the biomechanical effects of tooth loading on developing alveolar bone as a tooth erupts into occlusion. Mandibular segments from miniature pigs, Sus scrofa, containing M1 either erupting or in functional occlusion, were loaded in compression. Simultaneous recordings were made from rosette strain gages affixed to the lingual alveolar bone and the M2 crypt. Overall, specimens with erupting M1's were more deformable than specimens with occluding M1's (mean stiffness of 246 vs. 944 Mpa, respectively, p=0.004). The major difference in alveolar strain between the two stages was in orientation. The vertically applied compressive loads were more directly reflected in the alveolar bone strains of erupting M1's, than those of occluding M1's, presumably because of the mediation of a more mature periodontal ligament (PDL) in the latter. The PDL interface between occluding teeth and alveolar bone is likely to stiffen the system, allowing transmission of occlusal loads. Alveolar strains may provide a stimulus for bone growth in the alveolar process and crest. PMID:19501361

  7. Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment.

  8. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures.

  9. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface. PMID:27368073

  10. Human perception of vocalizations of domestic piglets and modulation by experience with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Tallet, Céline; Spinka, Marek; Maruscáková, Iva; Simecek, Petr

    2010-02-01

    Interspecific communication between humans and pets is possible through vocal cues. We studied how humans with differing experience with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) interpret pig vocalizations. Forty-eight ethologists studying pigs, 31 pig-caretakers and 54 naive students evaluated the emotional intensity and valence (negative/positive) of recordings from two negative (castration, isolation) and two positive (reunion with the sow, postsuckling) contexts. They also identified the context in which the recordings were made. Castration vocalizations were evaluated as highly intense and unpleasant. The positive contexts were evaluated as low in intensity and positive in valence, and isolation fell in the middle for both intensity and valence. Compared with the other two groups, pig-caretakers evaluated the intensity of vocalizations as lower, and ethologists evaluated the valence as more negative. The level of successful classification exceeded that expected by chance for all four contexts but was especially accurate for castration. Ethologists achieved better recognition than students. Classifying (right context) and understanding the emotional content (valence, intensity) of pig vocalizations is thus a general ability of humans, although it varies according to an individual's experience with pigs. PMID:20175599

  11. Snaring to control feral pigs sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Stephen J.; Stone, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Feral pig Sus scrofa control in Kipahulu Valley, a remote rain forest in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, has been achieved with snares over a 45-month period. Initial pig densities in fenced management units of 6·2 km2 and 7·8 km2were estimated at 6 animals/km2 and 14·3 animals/km2 for the two units, based on population reconstruction from animals killed and aged. During the 45 months of the study, 1978 snares were set, and 1·6 million snare nights were logged. Snare density reached 96/km2 and 200/km2 for the two management units by the end of the study. A mean effort of 43 worker hours/pig was used to remove 53 pigs from the upper management unit, and a mean of 7 worker hours/pig to remove 175 animals from the more densely populated lower unit. Pig activity monitoring along transects provided a good measure of control effectiveness until densities of about 1 pig/km2 were achieved, after which transects became less useful than scouting for determining pig activity.

  12. Mandibular molar teeth and the development of mastication in the miniature pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Obrez, A

    1996-01-01

    The only components of the orofacial complex that are fully developed as soon as they establish function are the occlusal surfaces of teeth. It is usually assumed that the occlusal surface of the molar teeth influences the orientation of the power stroke in spite of the fact that the data supporting this claim are lacking. The purpose of this longitudinal study was therefore to determine whether or not this hypothetical form-function relationship existed during development and whether or not it was related to growth. Serial dorsoventral and lateral radiography, and dorsoventral cineradiography were performed during natural feeding of 5 Hanford miniature pigs (Sus scrofa) of both genders between their 8th and 18th weeks. Sequences of power strokes were analyzed frame by frame and compared between sessions, and related to the position of the fourth primary mandibular molar (dm4). The changes in direction of the power stroke and in position of the dm4 relative to the midline were subsequently related to growth. The results of this study indicate that changes in orientation of the power stroke, though significant only on the balancing side, occur independently of the repositioning working and balancing side mandibular molars, as well as of skeletal growth. The null hypothesis that the mandibular primary molars influence the transverse orientation of the power stroke during growth is therefore refuted.

  13. Clean Technique for Prolonged Nonsurvival Cardiothoracic Surgery in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maia M; Rabkin, David G; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal regulations provide little guidance regarding duration of nonsurvival surgery requiring aseptic technique. We hypothesized that swine would experience no sepsis during nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery accomplished by using clean technique and lasting 8 h or less. Incision sites of 5 male farm pigs (Sus scrofa) were shaved and then cleaned with alcohol and povidone–iodine. The surgeon wore sterile gloves, clean scrubs, and hair bonnet; assistants wore clean scrubs and nonsterile gloves; most instruments were autoclaved. A median sternotomy incision was used for thoracic cavity exposure, and the skull was exposed to allow induction of brain death. Heart rate, body temperature, and blood samples were obtained before surgery (0 h; baseline) and at 2, 4, 5 or 6, and 7 or 8 h thereafter. Statistical analysis by t tests showed that heart rate was unchanged and body temperature increased after the 0-h (baseline) time point. Aerobic blood cultures were negative except for 2 samples that were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. at 4 h. RBC, Hgb, and Hct levels were decreased at 2 and 4 h, but WBC and platelets were unchanged. Other alterations included decreased glucose (at 7 or 8 h), increased BUN (at 5 or 6 h and 7 or 8 h) and creatinine (at 5 or 6 h), decreased Na+ and Ca and increased K+ (most time points), decreased total protein and albumin (most time points), and decreased globulin (at 7 or 8 h). Liver enzymes and bilirubin typically were unchanged, and cholesterol consistently was decreased. Together our results indicate a lack of sepsis for 8 h or less in pigs undergoing cardiothoracic surgery by using clean technique. These findings provide new and specific data regarding the use of aseptic technique during prolonged nonsurvival surgeries. PMID:23562035

  14. Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) to domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G

    2009-11-01

    Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.

  15. Volatile emission of decomposing pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) as an indicator for the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Sebastian; Nicke, Sara; Ziegenhagen, Henrik; Schütz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at correlating selected carcass borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the postmortem interval (PMI). Selected volatiles should 1st be reliably emitted during vertebrate decay, 2nd be emitted at high concentrations, and 3rd show a reproducible quantitative dynamic during the decaying process. Four pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed in a deciduous forest in different seasons and volatiles emitted during the decaying process were sampled. Seventeen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Electrophysiological experiments on the antenna of female Calliphora vicina and additional data of Dermestes maculans were used as an evolutionary tuned information filter to evaluate the 1st criterion. The relative quantitative emission of hexanal, nonanal, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-butanol, and phenol were correlated with the PMI, and the observed stages of decay and the limitations of this model were discussed.

  16. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  17. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): the first case in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea. PMID:26726026

  18. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): first case in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-09-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea.

  19. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Diego Silva; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  20. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  1. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts.

  2. Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Mediate Large-Scale Edge Effects in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

  3. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  4. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health. PMID:27224214

  5. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health.

  6. Novel Technique for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  7. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. PMID:27059064

  8. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maxime; Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-06-15

    The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. PMID:27059064

  9. Relative age of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus sequences in Sus scrofa based on the molecular clock hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tönjes, Ralf R; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago.

  10. Relative Age of Proviral Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences in Sus scrofa Based on the Molecular Clock Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Tönjes, Ralf R.; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 × 106 years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 × 106 years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 × 106 years ago. PMID:14581574

  11. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. PMID:25640718

  12. Coprological tests underestimate Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus burden in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Gassó, Diana; Serrano, Emmanuel; Castillo-Contreras, Raquel; Aguilar, Xavier Fernández; Cadena, Andreu Colom; Velarde, Roser; Mentaberre, Gregorio; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Risco, David; Gonçalves, Pilar; Lavín, Santiago; Fernandez-Llário, Pedro; Segalés, Joaquim; Ferrer, David

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the limitations of the coprological sedimentation test to assess Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus infestation in 59 wild boars (Sus scrofa) from central Spain. The coprological sedimentation test appeared to be a poor predictor of both prevalence of infestation and the real parasite burden due to the high number of false negative results (prevalence was reduced from 61 to 16 %). Because of the potential increased risk of this zoonosis, it is suggested that alternative techniques be used in wildlife surveillance programmes.

  13. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  14. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation.

  15. Free-ranging wild boar: a disease threat to domestic pigs in Switzerland?

    PubMed

    Wu, Natacha; Abril, Carlos; Hinić, Vladimira; Brodard, Isabelle; Thür, Barbara; Fattebert, Julien; Hüssy, Daniela; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-10-01

    The risk of transmission of pathogens from free-ranging wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa) to outdoor domestic pigs (S. scrofa domesticus) is of increasing concern in many European countries. We assess this risk, using Switzerland as an example. We estimated 1) the prevalence of important pathogens in wild boars and 2) the risk of interactions between wild boars and outdoor pigs. First, we tested 252 wild boars from selected areas between 2008 and 2010 for infection with Brucella spp. Bacterial prevalence was estimated to 28.8% (confidence interval [CI] 23.0-34.0) when using bacterial culture (B. suis Biovar 2) and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Antibody prevalence was 35.8% (CI 30.0-42.0), which was significantly higher than in previous studies in Switzerland. We also tested 233 wild boars for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Antibody prevalence was 0.43% (CI 0.01-2.4) for EU-PRRSV and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results were negative. These findings suggest that B. suis is increasingly widespread in wild boars and PRRSV is currently not of concern. Second, we documented the spatial overlap between free-ranging wild boars and outdoor piggeries by mapping data on their respective occurrence. Wild boars are most widespread in the mountain range along the western and northern Swiss borders, while most piggeries are located in central lowlands. A risk of interaction is mainly expected at the junction between these two bioregions. This risk may increase if wild boars expand eastward and southward beyond anthropogenic barriers believed to limit their range. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of expansion of the wild boar population. Population trends suggest a continuous increase of wild boars for the past 15 yr. Surveillance of selected wildlife passages using cameras on highways and main roads indicates that these barriers are permeable (average of up to 13 wild boar crossings per 100 days). Thus an

  16. Comparison of post-thaw DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa assessed with the neutral comet assay and Sperm-Sus Halomax test kit.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Parda, A; Filipowicz, K; Strzeżek, J

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether the neutral Comet assay (NCA) and the Sperm-Sus-Halomax (SSH) test kit could provide similar measurements of post-thaw DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa. Whole ejaculates or sperm-rich fractions of boar semen were frozen in an extender containing lactose, lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo), glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G) or in a standard boar semen extender (K3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. In all boars, both the NCA and SSH test showed similar levels of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation in samples of the same ejaculates, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure and extender. Yet, the levels of post-thaw sperm DNA damage, detected by the NCA and SSH test, were more accentuated in spermatozoa frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. Both the NCA and SSH detected variations among individual boars in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation. Agreement between the measurements of the NCA and SSH was confirmed by scatter plots of differences, suggesting that the DNA integrity tests could detect the same sperm populations, which were susceptible to cryo-induced DNA damage. The findings of this study indicate that the NCA and the SSH test are effective in detecting similar levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and reinforce their importance in the assessment of frozen-thawed boar semen quality.

  17. Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe. PMID:24010539

  18. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. J.; Lindsay, D. S.; Sriranganathan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are indigenous in many countries in the world. These free-living swine are known reservoirs for a number of viruses, bacteria and parasites that are transmissible to domestic animals and humans. Changes of human habitation to suburban areas, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, increased hunting activities and consumption of wild boar meat have increased the chances of exposure of wild boars to domestic animals and humans. Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. For examples, wild boars are reservoirs for hepatitis E virus, and cluster cases of hepatitis E have been reported in Japan of humans who consumed wild boar meat. In Canada, an outbreak of trichinellosis was linked to the consumption of wild boar meat. The incidence of tuberculosis owing to Mycobacterium bovis has increased in wild boars, thus posing a potential concern for infections in livestock and humans. It has also been documented that six hunters contracted Brucella suis infections from wild swine in Florida. This article discusses the prevalence and risk of infectious agents in wild boars and their potential transmission to livestock and humans. PMID:19687039

  19. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Roelandt, Sophie; Suin, Vanessa; Van der Stede, Yves; Lamoral, Sophie; Marche, Sylvie; Tignon, Marylène; Saiz, Juan Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Casaer, Jim; Brochier, Bernard; Van Gucht, Steven; Roels, Stefan; Vervaeke, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238) in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT), using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15). Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15) to high (>1/125) SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15). This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended. PMID:27087689

  20. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed.

  1. Cross-Sectional Study of Anti-Trichinella Antibody Prevalence in Domestic Pigs and Hunted Wild Boars in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kärssin, Age; Velström, Kaisa; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Saar, Tiiu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Trichinella spp. are relevant zoonotic pathogens in Estonia. The aim of this nationwide cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa). Serum samples from 374 pigs, originating from 14 farms, and meat juice samples from 470 wild boars were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies against Trichinella excretory/secretory antigens using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against Trichinella were not detected in the domestic pigs, indicating effective parasite control strategies in the farms. By contrast, 42.1% of the wild boars tested positive, indicating substantial infection pressure in the sylvatic cycle. Further analysis of a subset of the wild boar samples, using another ELISA and Western blot, yielded a confirmed seroprevalence estimate of 17.4%. A substantial proportion of wild boars in Estonia had evidence of exposure to Trichinella spp. and may have carried infective larvae. Undercooked Estonian wild boar meat is a potential source of Trichinella spp. infections to humans and other hosts. PMID:27315523

  2. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially (134)Cs and (137)Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The (134)Cs and (137)Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  3. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134Cs and 137Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134Cs and 137Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134Cs and 137Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  4. A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

  5. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar. PMID:26594202

  6. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R 0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar. PMID:26594202

  7. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour. PMID:22941514

  8. Seroprevalence of porcine proliferative enteropathy among wild boars in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the wild boar as a reservoir of Lawsonia intracellularis was assessed by investigating the seroprevalence of this pathogen among wild boars in the Republic of Korea. The extent of exposure to L. intracellularis among wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) was monitored by a country-wide serological survey using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. Results In this study, antibodies to L. intracellularis were observed in 165 of 716 clinically healthy wild boars tested. The overall apparent prevalence calculated directly from the sample and the true prevalence calculated based on the accuracy of the test method were 23.0% (95% confidence interval: 20.0-26.3%) and 25.6% (95% confidence interval: 23.9-27.2%), respectively. Serologically positive animals were found in all the tested provinces. Conclusions Our results confirm that L. intracellularis is present in the wild boar population worldwide, even in Far East Asia. Despite the high seroprevalence shown in wild boars, further studies are warranted to evaluate their potential as a reservoir species because seroprevalence does not prove ongoing infection nor shedding of the bacteria in amounts sufficient to infect other animals. It should also be determined whether the wild boar, like the domestic pig, is a natural host of L. intracellularis. PMID:24393381

  9. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A.F.; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  10. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  11. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future.

  12. Identification of 5alpha-androst-1-ene-3beta,17beta-diol in the fat of Sus scrofa L.: a "nutritional supplement" not found previously in the food supply.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Stephen J; Erickson, Andrew J

    2003-09-01

    5alpha-Androst-1-ene-3beta,17beta-diol (1) was detected in extracts from fat of Sus scrofa L. (pig) by comparison with the commercially available synthetic compound, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This observation is unprecedented because 1 is currently sold as a nutritional supplement, yet has not been previously reported as naturally occurring in the food supply. PMID:14510586

  13. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph

    1992-07-01

    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  14. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite. PMID:26002310

  15. Determining the persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish in select tissues of orally vaccinated feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.).

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Rhyan, Jack C; McCollum, Matt P; Triantis, Joni M; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Salman, Mo D

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for vaccination of feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.). Since BCG is a live bacterium, evaluation of its safety and persistence in tissues is important. Fifteen feral swine received approximately 4.5 × 10(6) colony forming units of BCG Danish via oral bait. Four animals received bait without BCG. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months post-vaccination, four vaccinates were euthanized. Non-vaccinates were euthanized at 9 months. Clinical signs were not noted in vaccinated pigs at any time. Tissues from all 20 pigs were culture-negative for mycobacteria. Based on our data, BCG is safe and appears not to persist in feral swine tissues after one month post-oral vaccination. However, further work must be performed at higher doses, and on a larger number of animals representing the target population, and further evaluation of persistence in tissues within the first month post-vaccination is needed. PMID:26850536

  16. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures.

  17. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up.

  18. Wild boar and red deer display high prevalences of tuberculosis-like lesions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; Fernández-De-Mera, Isabel G; Juste, Ramón; Barral, Marta; Gortazar, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We describe the distribution of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain. Animals with TBL were confirmed in 84.21% of mixed populations (n=57) of red deer and wild boar and in 75% of populations of wild boar alone (n=8) in central and southern Spain (core area). The prevalence of TBL declined towards the periphery of this region. In the core area, the prevalence ranged up to 100% in local populations of wild boar (mean estate prevalence 42.51%) and up to 50% in red deer (mean estate prevalence 13.70%). We carried out exploratory statistical analyses to describe the epidemiology of TBL in both species throughout the core area. Prevalence of TBL increased with age in both species. Wild boar and red deer mean TBL prevalence at the estate level were positively associated, and lesion scores were consistently higher in wild boars than in red deer. The wild boar prevalence of TBL in wild boar did not differ between populations that were or were not cohabiting with red deer. Amongst the wild boars with TBL, 61.19% presented generalized lesions, and the proportion of generalized cases was similar between sex and age classes. In red deer, 57.14% of TBL-positive individuals presented generalized lesions, and the percentage of generalized cases increased with age class, but did not differ between the sexes. These results highlight the potential importance of wild boar and red deer in the maintenance of tuberculosis in south central Spain.

  19. Antibodies to West Nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from Spain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Vicente, Joaquín; Sobrino, Raquel; Perez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-10-12

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central Spain and wild boar from Doñana National Park (DNP), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by ELISA and for antibodies against WNV by VNT. Mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to ELISA was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of 177) in Iberian pigs. A stone marten (Martes foina) also tested positive. Flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar was significantly higher in DNP, and increased with age. Haemolysis of the serum samples limited interpretation of VNT to 28 samples, confirming WNV seroprevalence in one red fox, four Iberian pigs and nine wild boars. ELISA positive, microVNT negative samples suggest presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against WNV or antibodies to other antigenically related flaviviruses. Despite the importance of wetlands for flavivirus maintenance and amplification, WNV/flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar and red foxes was not associated to wetland habitats. This is the first report of exposure of red foxes to WNV. With view to use of the tested species as sentinels for flavivirus activity, limited exposure of Iberian pigs that would be available for regular sampling, low numbers of foxes collected and concentration of wild boar harvest in the winter season are major drawbacks.

  20. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  1. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  2. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources.

  3. Utilization of Sugarcane Habitat by Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) in Northern Tropical Queensland: Evidence from the Stable Isotope Composition of Hair

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Christopher M.; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A.; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally ‘crop raid’ into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ13C and δ15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  4. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  5. Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects.

  6. Comparative mapping of Homo sapiens chromosome 4 (HSA4) and Sus scrofa chromosome 8 (SSC8) using orthologous genes representing different cytogenetic bands as landmarks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; He, Hong; Hamasima, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Verrinder, GibbinsAnnM

    2002-02-01

    The recently published draft sequence of the human genome will provide a basic reference for the comparative mapping of genomes among mammals. In this study, we selected 214 genes with complete coding sequences on Homo sapiens chromosome 4 (HSA4) to search for orthologs and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences in eight other mammalian species (cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse, dog, cat, and rabbit). In particular, 46 of these genes were used as landmarks for comparative mapping of HSA4 and Sus scrofa chromosome 8 (SSC8); most of HSA4 is homologous to SSC8, which is of particular interest because of its association with genes affecting the reproductive performance of pigs. As a reference framework, the 46 genes were selected to represent different cytogenetic bands on HSA4. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products amplified from pig DNA were directly sequenced and their orthologous status was confirmed by a BLAST search. These 46 genes, plus 11 microsatellite markers for SSC8, were typed against DNA from a pig-mouse radiation hybrid (RH) panel with 110 lines. RHMAP analysis assigned these 57 markers to 3 linkage groups in the porcine genome, 52 to SSC8, 4 to SSC15, and 1 to SSC17. By comparing the order and orientation of orthologous landmark genes on the porcine RH maps with those on the human sequence map, HSA4 was recognized as being split into nine conserved segments with respect to the porcine genome, seven with SSC8, one with SSC15, and one with SSC17. With 41 orthologous gene loci mapped, this report provides the largest functional gene map of SSC8, with 30 of these loci representing new single-gene assignments to SSC8. PMID:11908657

  7. Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar. PMID:22848869

  8. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Žele, Diana; Barry, Aline F; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W; Vengušt, Gorazd; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serology, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by HEV RNA detection using a real-time PCR assay. Antibodies against HEV were detected in 30.2% (87/288) of animals tested, whereas HEV RNA was detected in only one sample. This is the first evidence of HEV presence in the wild boar population in Slovenia, and these results suggest that these animals are part of the HEV epidemiological cycle in the country.

  9. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  10. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  11. Molecular characterization of a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) strain obtained from a wild boar in Japan that is highly divergent from the previously recognized HEV strains.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Nagashima, Shigeo; Jirintai, Suljid; Kawakami, Manri; Sonoda, Yoshihide; Suzuki, Tadahiro; Yamamoto, Shogo; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro; Ashida, Kozo; Sato, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-02-13

    Although a consensus classification system for hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes is currently unavailable, HEV variants (JBOAR135-Shiz09 and wbJOY_06) from wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) have provisionally been classified into two novel genotypes (5 and 6). While performing a survey of HEV infections among 566 wild boars that were captured in Japan between January 2010 and August 2013, we found 24 boars (4.2%) with ongoing HEV infections: 13 had genotype 3 HEV, 10 had genotype 4 HEV and the remaining boar possessed a novel HEV variant (designated wbJNN_13). The entire wbJNN_13 genome comprised 7247 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail, and was highly divergent from known genotype 1 to 4 HEV isolates derived from humans, swine, wild boars, deer, mongoose and rabbits by 22.4-28.2%, JBOAR135-Shiz09 and wbJOY_06 by 19.6-21.9% and rat, ferret, bat and avian HEV isolates by 40.9-46.1% over the entire genome. Phylogenetic trees confirmed that wbJNN_13 is distantly related to all known HEV isolates. A Simplot analysis revealed no significant recombination among the existing HEV strains. These results indicate the presence of at least three genetic lineages of presumably boar-indigenous HEV strains. Further studies to fully understand the extent of the genomic heterogeneity of HEV variants infecting wild boars are warranted.

  12. Molecular characterization of a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) strain obtained from a wild boar in Japan that is highly divergent from the previously recognized HEV strains.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Nagashima, Shigeo; Jirintai, Suljid; Kawakami, Manri; Sonoda, Yoshihide; Suzuki, Tadahiro; Yamamoto, Shogo; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro; Ashida, Kozo; Sato, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-02-13

    Although a consensus classification system for hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes is currently unavailable, HEV variants (JBOAR135-Shiz09 and wbJOY_06) from wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) have provisionally been classified into two novel genotypes (5 and 6). While performing a survey of HEV infections among 566 wild boars that were captured in Japan between January 2010 and August 2013, we found 24 boars (4.2%) with ongoing HEV infections: 13 had genotype 3 HEV, 10 had genotype 4 HEV and the remaining boar possessed a novel HEV variant (designated wbJNN_13). The entire wbJNN_13 genome comprised 7247 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail, and was highly divergent from known genotype 1 to 4 HEV isolates derived from humans, swine, wild boars, deer, mongoose and rabbits by 22.4-28.2%, JBOAR135-Shiz09 and wbJOY_06 by 19.6-21.9% and rat, ferret, bat and avian HEV isolates by 40.9-46.1% over the entire genome. Phylogenetic trees confirmed that wbJNN_13 is distantly related to all known HEV isolates. A Simplot analysis revealed no significant recombination among the existing HEV strains. These results indicate the presence of at least three genetic lineages of presumably boar-indigenous HEV strains. Further studies to fully understand the extent of the genomic heterogeneity of HEV variants infecting wild boars are warranted. PMID:24370869

  13. Experimental infection of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J M; Vicente, J; Carrasco-García, R; Galindo, R C; Minguijón, E; Ballesteros, C; Aranaz, A; Romero, B; Sevilla, I; Juste, R; de la Fuente, J; Gortazar, C

    2010-07-29

    The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly relevant as a host for several pathogenic mycobacteria. We aimed to characterize the first experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in wild boar in order to describe the lesions and the immune response as compared to uninfected controls. Twelve 1-4-month-old wild boar piglets were housed in class III bio-containment facilities. Four concentrations of MAA suspension were used: 10, 10(2) and 10(4) mycobacteria (2 animals each, oropharyngeal route) and 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria (2 animals each by the oropharyngeal and nasal routes). No clinical signs were observed and pathology evidenced a low pathogenicity of this MAA strain for this particular host. Bacteriological and pathological evidence of successful infection after experimental inoculation was found for the group challenged with 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria. These four wild boar showed a positive IFN-gamma response to the avian PPD and the real-time RT-PCR data revealed that three genes, complement component C3, IFN-gamma and RANTES, were significantly down regulated in infected animals. These results were similar to those found in naturally and experimentally M. bovis-infected wild boar and may constitute biomarkers of mycobacterial infection in this species.

  14. Trophic Discrimination Factors of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes in Hair of Corn Fed Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Holá, Michaela; Ježek, Miloš; Kušta, Tomáš; Košatová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope measurements are increasingly being used to gain insights into the nutritional ecology of many wildlife species and their role in ecosystem structure and function. Such studies require estimations of trophic discrimination factors (i.e. differences in the isotopic ratio between the consumer and its diet). Although trophic discrimination factors are tissue- and species- specific, researchers often rely on generalized, and fixed trophic discrimination factors that have not been experimentally derived. In this experimental study, captive wild boar (Sus scrofa) were fed a controlled diet of corn (Zea mays), a popular and increasingly dominant food source for wild boar in the Czech Republic and elsewhere in Europe, and trophic discrimination factors for stable carbon (Δ13C) and nitrogen (Δ15N) isotopes were determined from hair samples. The mean Δ13C and Δ15N in wild boar hair were –2.3 ‰ and +3.5 ‰, respectively. Also, in order to facilitate future derivations of isotopic measurements along wild boar hair, we calculated the average hair growth rate to be 1.1 mm d-1. Our results serve as a baseline for interpreting isotopic patterns of free-ranging wild boar in current European agricultural landscapes. However, future research is needed in order to provide a broader understanding of the processes underlying the variation in trophic discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen across of variety of diet types. PMID:25915400

  15. Trophic discrimination factors of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in hair of corn fed wild boar.

    PubMed

    Holá, Michaela; Ježek, Miloš; Kušta, Tomáš; Košatová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope measurements are increasingly being used to gain insights into the nutritional ecology of many wildlife species and their role in ecosystem structure and function. Such studies require estimations of trophic discrimination factors (i.e. differences in the isotopic ratio between the consumer and its diet). Although trophic discrimination factors are tissue- and species-specific, researchers often rely on generalized, and fixed trophic discrimination factors that have not been experimentally derived. In this experimental study, captive wild boar (Sus scrofa) were fed a controlled diet of corn (Zea mays), a popular and increasingly dominant food source for wild boar in the Czech Republic and elsewhere in Europe, and trophic discrimination factors for stable carbon (Δ13C) and nitrogen (Δ15N) isotopes were determined from hair samples. The mean Δ13C and Δ15N in wild boar hair were -2.3‰ and +3.5‰, respectively. Also, in order to facilitate future derivations of isotopic measurements along wild boar hair, we calculated the average hair growth rate to be 1.1 mm d(-1). Our results serve as a baseline for interpreting isotopic patterns of free-ranging wild boar in current European agricultural landscapes. However, future research is needed in order to provide a broader understanding of the processes underlying the variation in trophic discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen across of variety of diet types.

  16. Contact Zone of Asian and European Wild Boar at North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Parinaz; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Fadakar, Davoud; Serati, Malihe; Aliabadian, Mansour; Haile, James; Goshtasb, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed throughout the Old World. Most studies have focused on Europe and East Asia with the genetic diversity of West Asia being less well studied. In particular, the genetic variability and genetic structure of the Iranian populations are not yet known; gaps which prevent scientists from resolving the genetic relationships of the Eurasian wild boar. This paper is the first attempt to provide information about genetic relationships among modern Iranian populations of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) by sequencing 572 bp of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region. As a result of this investigation, it was discovered that Iran contains not only Middle Eastern haplotypes, but also shares haplotypes with Europe and East Asia. The Italian clade, which is endemic in Italy, is not identified in Iran, while all other clades, including Asiatic, European, Near East 1, and Near East 2 are found based on the phylogenetic tree and median-joining network. The results of this study illustrate that north west of Iran (specifically Southwest Caspian Sea) is the contact zone between the Asian (Near Eastern and Far Eastern), and the European clades. In light of the fact that the domestication of pigs occurs in Anatolia, this finding is important. PMID:27442074

  17. Contact Zone of Asian and European Wild Boar at North West of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khalilzadeh, Parinaz; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Fadakar, Davoud; Serati, Malihe; Aliabadian, Mansour; Haile, James; Goshtasb, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed throughout the Old World. Most studies have focused on Europe and East Asia with the genetic diversity of West Asia being less well studied. In particular, the genetic variability and genetic structure of the Iranian populations are not yet known; gaps which prevent scientists from resolving the genetic relationships of the Eurasian wild boar. This paper is the first attempt to provide information about genetic relationships among modern Iranian populations of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) by sequencing 572 bp of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region. As a result of this investigation, it was discovered that Iran contains not only Middle Eastern haplotypes, but also shares haplotypes with Europe and East Asia. The Italian clade, which is endemic in Italy, is not identified in Iran, while all other clades, including Asiatic, European, Near East 1, and Near East 2 are found based on the phylogenetic tree and median-joining network. The results of this study illustrate that north west of Iran (specifically Southwest Caspian Sea) is the contact zone between the Asian (Near Eastern and Far Eastern), and the European clades. In light of the fact that the domestication of pigs occurs in Anatolia, this finding is important. PMID:27442074

  18. Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Mario; Cortinovis, Cristina; Bertoletti, Marco; Alborali, Loris; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Ferretti, Enrica; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of Cd, Pb and organochlorine pesticides were determined. Comparing the two species, Cd concentration in the kidney (3.72 mg/kg), liver (0.67 mg/kg) and muscle (0.02 mg/kg) of wild boar was found to be significantly higher than in the organs of red deer (1.02 mg/kg in the kidneys, 0.07 mg/kg in the liver and 0.006 mg/kg in muscle). Mean Pb concentrations were found to be similar in both animals, with 0.39, 0.52 and 2.60 mg/kg detected in the wild boar kidney, liver and muscle, respectively, and 0.24, 0.21 and 2.04 mg/kg in the respective organs of the red deer. No difference in concentrations were found based on age class, location of tissue sample or contaminant in the case of wild boar. By contrast, a significantly lower Cd concentration was found in the kidney of the young red deer. The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans. PMID:26365428

  19. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in liver and muscle tissue from wild boar in Hesse, Germany.

    PubMed

    Stahl, T; Falk, S; Failing, K; Berger, J; Georgii, S; Brunn, H

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 15,000 tons of wild boar meats (Sus scrofa) are consumed per year in Germany. Boar meat therefore plays a definite role in regard to human diet. Because they are omnivores and because of their high body fat quotient, wild boar may accumulate large concentrations of persistent organic compounds, such as halogenated hydrocarbons, and could thus possibly serve as bioindicators for persistent xenobiotics. In addition, consumption of wild boar meat and liver could lead to increased contaminant levels in humans. Between 2007 and 2009, we tested a total of 529 livers and 506 muscle tissue samples from wild boar for the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA concentrations ≤45 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤1,780 μg/kg were detected in the liver samples. PFOA concentrations ≤7.4 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤28.6 μg/kg were detected in muscle tissue. Our results show that PFOS may be detected in considerably greater concentrations than PFOA in organs and tissues, which is in agreement with results from other published studies. The comparisons between both organs for the same substance, as well as the comparisons between the substances within an organ, showed clear and statistically significant differences at P < 0.0001. Assuming a tolerable daily intake value of PFOA (1.5 μg/kg bw/d) and PFOS (0.15 μg/kg bw/d) as recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, the results of model calculations based on the maximum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS found in wild boar indicate that there should be no PFC-related health danger resulting from moderate consumption of wild boar meat or liver.

  20. Potential risk of zoonotic infections in recreational areas visited by Sus scrofa and Vulpes vulpes. Case study--Wolin Island, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intestinal parasite prevalence in wild boars and red foxes and the sanitary condition of the soil in recreational estates were determined. The analysis was made based on 36 samples of boar faeces and 22 samples of fox faeces, collected in their habitat as well as 60 samples of soil from two recreational areas. Two methods were used for faecal samples--flotation and direct faecal smear; and flotation in NaNO3 for soil samples examination. Zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 25.5% of boar faecal samples; they were Ascaris suum (22.2%) and Trichuris suis (5.6%). Other parasites found were: Metastrongylus sp. (69.4%), Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. (36.6%) and Physocephalus sp. (8.6%) as well as coccidia (69.4%). In fox faeces, zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 31.8% of samples, and they were Toxocara canis (27.2%) and Ancylostoma caninum (18.2%). Tapeworm eggs were found in 36.4% of samples including Taenia sp. (22.7%). The presence of Uncinaria stenocephala (45.5%), Capillaria sp. (36.4%), Trichuris vulpis (4.5%) and coccidia (40.1%) was also detected. It was shown that both, flotation and faecal smear, as mutually complementary should be used for higher rate of detection of parasites in faeces. No eggs of zoonotic helminths in soil from recreational areas were found despite these areas were accessible to wild animals and pets. This could be explained by characteristics of the soil (loose sand soil) as well as by behaviour of the parasite hosts in the examined areas. PMID:21174955

  1. Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Martín-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, José Angel; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; González-Barrio, David; Vicente, Joaquín; Garrido, Joseba M.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts. PMID:24991567

  2. Complex links between natural tuberculosis and porcine circovirus type 2 infection in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Boadella, Mariana; Martín-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, José Angel; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; González-Barrio, David; Sibila, Marina; Vicente, Joaquín; Garrido, Joseba M; Segalés, Joaquim; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

  3. Lesions associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in the European wild boar.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernando, Maria Paz; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquin; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Vidal, Dolors; Barral, Marta; Garrido, Joseba M; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Information on lesion distribution and characteristics is essential to determine the significance of a species as a reservoir host for tuberculosis (TB). Herein, we describe the extension and distribution of lesions in 127 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex culture positive European wild boars (Sus scrofa), and use this information to discuss the role of this wildlife species in TB epidemiology in Mediterranean Spain. Macroscopic TB-compatible lesions were detected in 105 of 127 wild boars (82.68%). Only microscopic lesions were found in 11 wild boars (8.66%). Lesions were not evident in 11 wild boars (8.66%). A total of 49 wild boars had lesions confined to one anatomical region (42.2%, localized TB), while 67 animals had lesions in more than one anatomical region (57.8%, generalized TB). Head lymph nodes (LNs), particularly the mandibular LNs, were most frequently affected (107/116, 92.24%), and 43 wild boar had only mandibular LN lesions. Histopathology evidenced TB lesions in 38.1% of the lungs, 23% of the livers and 13% of the spleens examined. Mammary gland lesions were observed in three cases. When TB lesions were localized, granulomas characterized by a mixed inflammatory cell population were more predominant, whereas strongly necrotic-calcified granulomas were more prevalent in generalized cases of TB infection. Large lesions in more than one anatomical region were more frequent among juveniles. The histopathological characteristics of the tuberculous reaction and the associated tissue damage in various organs, together with the gross pathology, indicate that at least those wild boar with large lesions and generalized infections have the potential to excrete mycobacteria by several routes. This finding, in the context of unusually high densities of wild boar and fencing and feeding, reinforces the suggestion that wild boar can act as a true TB reservoir under the particular circumstances of Mediterranean Spain. Further studies on the routes of excretion as

  4. Protection against tuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.

  5. Reintroductions and genetic introgression from domestic pigs have shaped the genetic population structure of Northwest European wild boar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population genetic studies focus on natural dispersal and isolation by landscape barriers as the main drivers of genetic population structure. However, anthropogenic factors such as reintroductions, translocations and wild x domestic hybridization may also have strong effects on genetic population structure. In this study we genotyped 351 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers evenly spread across the genome in 645 wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Northwest Europe to evaluate determinants of genetic population structure. Results We show that wild boar genetic population structure is influenced by historical reintroductions and by genetic introgression from domestic pigs. Six genetically distinct and geographically coherent wild boar clusters were identified in the Netherlands and Western Germany. The Dutch Veluwe cluster is known to be reintroduced, and three adjacent Dutch and German clusters are suspected to be a result of reintroduction, based on clustering results, low levels of heterozygosity and relatively high genetic distances to nearby populations. Recent wild x domestic hybrids were found geographically widespread across clusters and at low frequencies (average 3.9%). The relationship between pairwise kinship coefficients and geographic distance showed male-biased dispersal at the population genetic level. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that wildlife and landscape management by humans are shaping the genetic diversity of an iconic wildlife species. Historical reintroductions, translocation and recent restocking activities with farmed wild boar have all influenced wild boar genetic population structure. The current trend of wild boar population growth and range expansion has recently led to a number of contact zones between clusters, and further admixture between the different wild boar clusters is to be expected. PMID:23688182

  6. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Gassó, Diana; Vicente, Joaquín; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Soriguer, Ramón; Jiménez Rodríguez, Rocío; Navarro-González, Nora; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Segalés, Joaquim; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS) are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS). The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE); hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i) to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii) to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM) were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers) was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with

  7. The role played by sympatric collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Herrera, H M; Abreu, U G P; Keuroghlian, A; Freitas, T P; Jansen, A M

    2008-08-01

    The Brazilian Pantanal has been considered one of the richest and most diverse wetland ecosystems in the world. It is occupied by cattle ranching, and a variety of wildlife species share the same habitats with domestic livestock. We investigated infections of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in the sympatric suiformes-collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) by parasitological, serological, and molecular tests. Additionally, we evaluated the health status of both positive and negative suiformes by hematological and biochemical parameters. The results show that peccaries and feral pigs play an important role on the maintenance of both T. evansi and T. cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal. Health impairment was observed only in the white-lipped peccary infected with T. evansi. Despite presenting low T. evansi parasitemia, all infected white-lipped peccaries displayed low hematocrit values and marked leucopenia. The hematological values showed that the T. evansi infection is more severe in young white-lipped peccaries. The presented data show that feral pigs and peccaries are immersed in the transmission net of both trypanosome species, T. cruzi and T. evansi, in the Pantanal region.

  8. Comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A; Arkesteijn, G J A; Yang, F; Yerle, M; Zijlstra, C

    2004-01-01

    The Suidae and the Dicotylidae (or Tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder Suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. Cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the Suidae, and two species of the Dicotylidae: the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari; 2n = 26). G-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were hybridized with whole chromosome painting probes derived from domestic pig chromosomes 1-18 and X. For both peccary species, a total of 31 autosomal segments that are conserved between pig and peccary could be identified. The painting results confirm conclusions inferred from G-band analyses that the karyotypes of the collared peccary and the white-lipped peccary are largely different. The karyotypic heterogeneity of the Dicotylidae contrasts with the relative homogeneity among the karyotypes of the Suidae. For this difference between the Dicotylidae and the Suidae, a number of explanations are being postulated: 1) the extant peccaries are phylogenetically less closely related than is usually assumed; 2) the peccary genome is less stable than the genome of the pigs; and 3) special (e.g. biogeographical or biosocial) circumstances have facilitated the fixation of chromosome rearrangements in ancestral dicotylid populations.

  9. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in european wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Barral, Marta; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian; Juste, Ramón A

    2008-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. Results An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Conclusion Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (< 3%), this assay showed a high potential for accurate diagnosis of TB in wild boar, as its large dynamic range supported a good discriminatory power and a satisfactory balance between sensitivity and specificity. PMID:18976491

  10. A serosurvey for selected pathogens in Greek European wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Touloudi, A.; Valiakos, G.; Athanasiou, L. V.; Birtsas, P.; Giannakopoulos, A.; Papaspyropoulos, K.; Kalaitzis, C.; Sokos, C.; Tsokana, C. N.; Spyrou, V.; Petrovska, L.; Billinis, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Serum samples, collected from 94 European wild boar (Sus scrofa) during the hunting seasons 2006 -2010 from different regions of Greece, were examined in order to estimate the role of these wildlife species as reservoir of pathogens important for livestock and/or public health. Materials and Methods The assays used for this purpose were commercial indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (virus) (PRRSV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), influenza A (IA) virus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Salmonella species, Trichinella species and indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for the detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Results Antibodies against PCV-2, PRRSV, ADV, IA virus,A. pleuropneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae,Salmonella species, Trichinella species, T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 19.1 per cent, 12.8 per cent, 35.1 per cent, 1.1 per cent, 57.4 per cent, 0 per cent, 4.3 per cent, 6.4 per cent, 5.2 per cent and 1.1 per cent of the samples, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed a hot spot of seropositivity near Bulgarian border; seropositivity to ADV was more common among female animals. Conclusions These results indicate exposure of wild boar to most of the above-mentioned pathogens, raising concern about the possibility that these species may pose a significant health risk for livestock and/or humans. PMID:26392908

  11. First data on Eurasian wild boar response to oral immunization with BCG and challenge with a Mycobacterium bovis field strain.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, C; Garrido, J M; Vicente, J; Romero, B; Galindo, R C; Minguijón, E; Villar, M; Martín-Hernando, M P; Sevilla, I; Juste, R; Aranaz, A; de la Fuente, J; Gortázar, C

    2009-11-12

    The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is considered a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in south-central Spain. The vaccination of wildlife with BCG offers an alternative to culling and to movement restriction for the control of bTB among wildlife reservoirs. In this study, we hypothesized that oral BCG immunization of wild boar would affect the expression of immunoregulatory genes and confer protection against M. bovis. Three groups were used to describe the infection, pathological findings and gene expression profiles in wild boar: BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-challenged (vaccinated challenged group; N=6), non-vaccinated and M. bovis-challenged (non-vaccinated challenged group; N=4), and non-vaccinated and mock-infected (control group; N=2) animals. M. bovis was isolated from 50% (3/6) and 75% (3/4) of vaccinated challenged and non-vaccinated challenged animals, respectively. All four wild boar from the non-vaccinated challenged group developed bTB-compatible lesions 114 days after challenge. In contrast, only 50% of vaccinated challenged wild boar developed lesions. The PBMC mRNA levels of IL4, RANTES, C3, IFN-gamma and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) were analyzed at several days post-vaccination (dpi). When vaccinated challenged animals were compared to controls, all five genes were significantly upregulated at the time of M. bovis infection at 186dpi but IFN-gamma levels were also upregulated at 11 and 46dpi. The C3 and MUT mRNA levels were higher at 46dpi, and 11 and 186dpi, respectively, in vaccinated protected wild boar when compared to non-vaccinated challenged animals. At the end of the experiment (300dpi), the mRNA levels of selected genes were lower in non-vaccinated challenged animals when compared to control wild boar. Exposing wild boar to a dose of 10(4)cfu of M. bovis by the oropharyngeal route is an adequate protocol to produce an infection model

  12. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  13. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  14. Long-Lasting, Kin-Directed Female Interactions in a Spatially Structured Wild Boar Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Podgórski, Tomasz; Lusseau, David; Scandura, Massimo; Sönnichsen, Leif; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can increase inclusive fitness benefits through a complex network of social interactions directed towards kin. Preferential relationships with relatives lead to the emergence of kin structures in the social system. Cohesive social groups of related individuals and female philopatry of wild boar create conditions for cooperation through kin selection and make the species a good biological model for studying kin structures. Yet, the role of kinship in shaping the social structure of wild boar populations is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of associations and the social network structure of the wild boar Sus scrofa population in Białowieża National Park, Poland, which offered a unique opportunity to understand wild boar social interactions away from anthropogenic factors. We used a combination of telemetry data and genetic information to examine the impact of kinship on network cohesion and the strength of social bonds. Relatedness and spatial proximity between individuals were positively related to the strength of social bond. Consequently, the social network was spatially and genetically structured with well-defined and cohesive social units. However, spatial proximity between individuals could not entirely explain the association patterns and network structure. Genuine, kin-targeted, and temporarily stable relationships of females extended beyond spatial proximity between individuals while males interactions were short-lived and not shaped by relatedness. The findings of this study confirm the matrilineal nature of wild boar social structure and show how social preferences of individuals translate into an emergent socio-genetic population structure. PMID:24919178

  15. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  17. Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5 ± 2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6 ± 25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8 ± 12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

  18. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  19. Analysis of the full-length genome of a hepatitis E virus isolate obtained from a wild boar in Japan that is classifiable into a novel genotype.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yukihiro; Jirintai; Nagashima, Shigeo; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2011-04-01

    While performing a nationwide survey of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among 450 wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) that had been captured in Japan between November 2005 and March 2010, we found 16 boars (3.6%) with ongoing HEV infection: 11 had genotype 3 HEV, four had genotype 4 HEV and the remaining boar was infected with HEV of an unrecognized genotype (designated wbJOY_06). The entire wbJOY_06 genome was sequenced and was found to comprise 7246 nt excluding the poly(A) tail. The wbJOY_06 isolate was highly divergent from known genotype 1-4 HEV isolates derived from humans, swine, wild boars, deer, mongoose and rabbits (n=145) by 22.6-27.7%, rat HEV isolates (n=2) by 46.0-46.2%, and avian HEV isolates (n=5) by 52.5-53.1% over the entire genome. A Simplot analysis revealed no significant recombination between the existing HEV strains of genotypes 1-4. Therefore, we propose that the wbJOY_06 isolate is the first member of a previously unidentified genotype.

  20. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in fenced wild boar and red deer in south central Spain.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Juste, Ramón; Barral, Marta; Gortazar, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades the management of large game mammals has become increasingly intensive in south central Spain (SCS), resulting in complex epidemiological scenarios for disease maintenance, and has probably impeded schemes to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in domestic livestock. We conducted an analysis of risk factors which investigated associations between the pattern of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) across 19 hunting estates from SCS and an extensive set of variables related to game management, land use and habitat structure. The aggregation of wild boar at artificial watering sites was significantly associated with an increasing risk of detecting TBL in both species, which probably relates to enhanced opportunities for transmission. Aggregation of wild boar at feeding sites was also associated with increased risks of TBL in red deer. Hardwood Quercus spp. forest availability was marginally associated with an increased risk of TB in both species, whereas scrubland cover was associated with a reduced individual risk of TBL in the wild boar. It is concluded that management practices that encourage the aggregation of hosts, and some characteristics of Mediterranean habitats could increase the frequency and probability of both direct and indirect transmission of TB. These findings are of concern for both veterinary and public health authorities, and reveal tuberculosis itself as a potential limiting factor for the development and sustainability of such intensive game management systems in Spanish Mediterranean habitats.

  1. The Role of Game (Wild Boar and Roe Deer) in the Spread of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas—municipalities with extended competence (MEC)—used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07–1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic. PMID:25409271

  2. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic. PMID:25409271

  3. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic.

  4. Listeria monocytogenes in Different Specimens from Healthy Red Deer and Wild Boars.

    PubMed

    Weindl, Lucia; Frank, Elisabeth; Ullrich, Ulrike; Heurich, Marco; Kleta, Sylvia; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Gareis, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    In the past, Listeria monocytogenes has been isolated from game feces and meat. However, less information is available on the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in other specimens originating from game animals. Hence, the aim of this study was to get an overview of the occurrence and distribution of L. monocytogenes in game animals by characterization of isolates from different matrices. For that purpose, samples were collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boars (Sus scrofa), and feed during the hunting season 2011-2012 in three different regions of Germany and Austria. Six samples from each animal were examined: tonsils, content of the rumen or the stomach, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, cecum content, and feces. Nineteen of 45 red deer and 12 of 49 wild boars were found to be positive for L. monocytogenes as well as 4 of 22 pooled feed samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated most frequently from the rumen of red deer (14 of 19) and the tonsils of wild boars (7 of 12). Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 4a, and 4b were detected in samples of game animals and feed, and serotypes 1/2a and 4b were the most prevalent serotypes. The presence of L. monocytogenes serotype 4a had not yet been described in red deer. This might be due to the fact that it was only isolated from the content of rumen and that no other study has yet examined ruminal content. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a wide variety of strains. Some strains occurred in both species and feed samples, but one strain was dominant in one region. The results show that red deer and wild boars can be carriers of L. monocytogenes in different matrices, although the feces samples can be negative. PMID:27159352

  5. Genome-wide association scan and phased haplotype construction for quantitative trait loci affecting boar taint in three pig breeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Boar taint is the undesirable smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone and skatole (3-methyl-indole). The steroid androstenone is a sex pheromone produced in the testis of the boars. Skatole is produced from tryptophan by bacteria in the intestine of the pigs. In many countries pigs are castrated as piglets to avoid boar taint, however, this is undesirable for animal welfare reasons. Genetic variations affecting the level of boar taint have previously been demonstrated in many breeds. In the study presented in this paper, markers and haplotypes, which can be applied to DNA-based selection schemes in order to reduce or eliminate the boar taint problem, are identified. Results Approximately 30,000 SNPs segregating in 923 boars from three Danish breeds; Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire, were used to conduct genome wide association studies of boar taint compounds. At 46 suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL), 25 haplotypes and three single markers with effects were identified. Furthermore, 40% of the haplotypes mapped to previously identified regions. Haplotypes were also analysed for effects of slaughter weight and meat content. The most promising haplotype was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 1. The gain in fixed effect of having this haplotype on level of androstenone in Landrace was identified to be high (1.279 μg/g). In addition, this haplotype explained 16.8% of the phenotypic variation within the trait. The haplotype was identified around the gene CYB5A which is known to have an indirect impact on the amount of androstenone. In addition to CYB5A, the genes SRD5A2, LOC100518755, and CYP21A2 are candidate genes for other haplotypes affecting androstenone, whereas, candidate genes for the indolic compounds were identified to be SULT1A1 and CYP2E1. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, a total of 25 haplotypes and three single markers were identified

  6. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  7. Increased Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Disease Prevalence in Domestic Hybrids Among Free-Living Wild Boar.

    PubMed

    Goedbloed, Daniel J; van Hooft, Pim; Lutz, Walburga; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; van Wieren, Sip E; Ydenberg, Ron C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-12-01

    Wildlife immune genes are subject to natural selection exerted by pathogens. In contrast, domestic immune genes are largely protected from pathogen selection by veterinary care. Introgression of domestic alleles into the wild could lead to increased disease susceptibility, but observations are scarce due to low introgression rates, low disease prevalence and reduced survival of domestic hybrids. Here we report the first observation of a deleterious effect of domestic introgression on disease prevalence in a free-living large mammal. A fraction of 462 randomly sampled free-living European wild boar (Sus scrofa) was genetically identified as recent wild boar-domestic pig hybrids based on 351 SNP data. Analysis of antibody prevalence against the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) showed an increased Mhyo prevalence in wild-domestic hybrids. We argue that the most likely mechanism explaining the observed association between domestic hybrid status and Mhyo antibody prevalence would be introgression of deleterious domestic alleles. We hypothesise that large-scale use of antibiotics in the swine breeding sector may have played a role in shaping the relatively deleterious properties of domestic swine immune genes and that domestic introgression may also lead to increased wildlife disease susceptibility in the case of other species.

  8. Detection and characterisation of O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild boars.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, S; Martínez, R; García, A; Vidal, D; Blanco, J; Blanco, M; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Herrera-León, S; Echeita, A; Alonso, J M; Rey, J

    2010-07-14

    The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in free-ranging wild boars killed during the hunting season in southwest Spain. Faecal samples from 212 wild boars (Sus scrofa) were collected and examined for STEC. Characterisation of isolates was performed by PCR, serotyping, phage typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were isolated from 7 (3.3%) and 11 (5.2%) animals, respectively, and the resulting 19 isolates were characterised. The PCR procedure indicated that 4 isolates carried the stx(1) gene, 12 carried the stx(2) gene, and 1 contained both of these genes. The ehxA, eae, and saa genes were detected in 13, 8, and 1 of the isolates, respectively. The eae-positive isolates comprised the types eae-gamma 1 and eae-zeta. The isolates belonged to 11 O:H serotypes, including 4 new serotypes not previously reported within STEC strains, and the majority of them were from serotypes previously associated with human infection. E. coli O157:H7 isolates belonged to phage types associated with severe human illness: PT14, PT34, and PT54. Indistinguishable PFGE types were found in E. coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from a wild boar and from a human patient with diarrhoea living in the same geographic area.

  9. First record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related.

  10. Transferable integrons of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the gut of a wild boar in the buffer zone of a national park.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of integron-bearing Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of a wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) shot in the buffer zone of a national park. Five Gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Serratia odorifera, Hafnia alvei and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated. Four of these strains had class 2 integrase (intI2), and one harbored class 1 integrase (intI1). The integron-positive strains were multiresistant, i.e., resistant to at least three unrelated antibiotics. All of the integrons were transferred to E. coli J-53 (Rif(R)) in a conjugation assay. The results showed that a number of multiresistant, integron-containing bacterial strains of different genera may inhabit a single individual of a wild animal, allowing the possibility of transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:22661922

  11. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  12. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  13. Assessment of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and an inactivated M. bovis preparation for wild boar in terms of adverse reactions, vaccine strain survival, and uptake by nontarget species.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Sevilla, Iker A; Barasona, Jose A; Garrido, Joseba M; González-Barrio, David; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Casal, Carmen; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; Aranaz, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife vaccination is increasingly being considered as an option for tuberculosis control. We combined data from laboratory trials and an ongoing field trial to assess the risk of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and a prototype heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis preparation for Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). We studied adverse reactions, BCG survival, BCG excretion, and bait uptake by nontarget species. No adverse reactions were observed after administration of BCG (n = 27) or inactivated M. bovis (n = 21). BCG was not found at necropsy (175 to 300 days postvaccination [n = 27]). No BCG excretion was detected in fecal samples (n = 162) or in urine or nasal, oral, or fecal swab samples at 258 days postvaccination (n = 29). In the field, we found no evidence of loss of BCG viability in baits collected after 36 h (temperature range, 11°C to 41°C). Camera trapping showed that wild boar (39%) and birds (56%) were the most frequent visitors to bait stations (selective feeders). Wild boar activity patterns were nocturnal, while diurnal activities were recorded for all bird species. We found large proportions of chewed capsules (29%) (likely ingestion of the vaccine) and lost baits (39%) (presumably consumed), and the proportion of chewed capsules showed a positive correlation with the presence of wild boar. Both results suggest proper bait consumption (68%). These results indicate that BCG vaccination in wild boar is safe and that, while bait consumption by other species is possible, this can be minimized by using selective cages and strict timing of bait deployment.

  14. Assessment of an Oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine and an Inactivated M. bovis Preparation for Wild Boar in Terms of Adverse Reactions, Vaccine Strain Survival, and Uptake by Nontarget Species

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Sevilla, Iker A.; Barasona, Jose A.; Garrido, Joseba M.; González-Barrio, David; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Casal, Carmen; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife vaccination is increasingly being considered as an option for tuberculosis control. We combined data from laboratory trials and an ongoing field trial to assess the risk of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and a prototype heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis preparation for Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). We studied adverse reactions, BCG survival, BCG excretion, and bait uptake by nontarget species. No adverse reactions were observed after administration of BCG (n = 27) or inactivated M. bovis (n = 21). BCG was not found at necropsy (175 to 300 days postvaccination [n = 27]). No BCG excretion was detected in fecal samples (n = 162) or in urine or nasal, oral, or fecal swab samples at 258 days postvaccination (n = 29). In the field, we found no evidence of loss of BCG viability in baits collected after 36 h (temperature range, 11°C to 41°C). Camera trapping showed that wild boar (39%) and birds (56%) were the most frequent visitors to bait stations (selective feeders). Wild boar activity patterns were nocturnal, while diurnal activities were recorded for all bird species. We found large proportions of chewed capsules (29%) (likely ingestion of the vaccine) and lost baits (39%) (presumably consumed), and the proportion of chewed capsules showed a positive correlation with the presence of wild boar. Both results suggest proper bait consumption (68%). These results indicate that BCG vaccination in wild boar is safe and that, while bait consumption by other species is possible, this can be minimized by using selective cages and strict timing of bait deployment. PMID:24173022

  15. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  16. Not eating like a pig: European wild boar wash their food.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Dietrich, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Carrying food to water and either dunking or manipulating it before consumption has been observed in various taxa including birds, racoons and primates. Some animals seem to be simply moistening their food. However, true washing aims to remove unpleasant surface substrates such as grit and sand and requires a distinction between items that do and do not need cleaning as well as deliberate transportation of food to a water source. We provide the first evidence for food washing in suids, based on an incidental observation with follow-up experiments on European wild boar (Sus scrofa) kept at Basel Zoo, Switzerland. Here, all adult pigs and some juveniles of a newly formed group carried apple halves soiled with sand to the edge of a creek running through their enclosure where they put the fruits in the water and pushed them to and fro with their snouts before eating. Clean apple halves were never washed. This indicates that pigs can discriminate between soiled and unsoiled foods and that they are able to delay gratification for long enough to transport and wash the items. However, we were unable to ascertain to which degree individual and/or social learning brought this behaviour about. PMID:26194413

  17. Genotype-Independent Transmission of Transgenic Fluorophore Protein by Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Struckmann, Christina; Klein, Sabine; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Ehling, Christine; Rath, Detlef; Ivics, Zoltán; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we generated transposon-transgenic boars (Sus scrofa), which carry three monomeric copies of a fluorophore marker gene. Amazingly, a ubiquitous fluorophore expression in somatic, as well as in germ cells was found. Here, we characterized the prominent fluorophore load in mature spermatozoa of these animals. Sperm samples were analyzed for general fertility parameters, sorted according to X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm fractions, assessed for potential detrimental effects of the reporter, and used for inseminations into estrous sows. Independent of their genotype, all spermatozoa were uniformly fluorescent with a subcellular compartmentalization of the fluorophore protein in postacrosomal sheath, mid piece and tail. Transmission of the fluorophore protein to fertilized oocytes was shown by confocal microscopic analysis of zygotes. The monomeric copies of the transgene segregated during meiosis, rendering a certain fraction of the spermatozoa non-transgenic (about 10% based on analysis of 74 F1 offspring). The genotype-independent transmission of the fluorophore protein by spermatozoa to oocytes represents a non-genetic contribution to the mammalian embryo. PMID:22110672

  18. Modelling transmission of bovine tuberculosis in red deer and wild boar in Normandy, France.

    PubMed

    Zanella, G; Bar-Hen, A; Boschiroli, M-L; Hars, J; Moutou, F; Garin-Bastuji, B; Durand, B

    2012-09-01

    In early 2001, Mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed in red deer (RD) (Cervus elaphus) shot in Normandy region, France. An epidemiological survey conducted during the following hunting season in two connected forests confirmed the occurrence of the disease in both free-ranging RD and wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa). This was the first detected bovine tuberculosis outbreak in wildlife in France. We present a simple deterministic age-structured model of the within- and between-species M. bovis transmission in RD and WB populations that distinguishes direct transmission (horizontal and pseudo-vertical) and indirect transmission through contaminated offal left behind by hunters. Results issued from the epidemiological surveys conducted in Normandy forests were used to estimate transmission parameters. Because data for RD and WB populations were not available, population sizes at demographic equilibrium were estimated and used to run the model. We qualitatively tested different control measure scenarios with our model, considering different mortality rates and offal harvesting, to determine which ones affect the success of infection control. The most realistic control scenario would combine the total depopulation of RD and good compliance with offal harvesting, because the model suggests that infected offal left by hunters represents the main transmission source of M. bovis in the field. PMID:22958262

  19. Effects of human perturbation on the genetic make-up of an island population: the case of the Sardinian wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Scandura, M; Iacolina, L; Cossu, A; Apollonio, M

    2011-01-01

    Game species are often manipulated by human beings, whose activities can deeply affect their genetic make-up and population structure. We focused on a geographically isolated wild boar population (Sardinia, Italy), which is classified, together with the Corsican population, as a separate subspecies (Sus scrofa meridionalis). Two hundred and ten wild boars collected across Sardinia were analysed with a set of 10 microsatellites and compared with 296 reference genotypes from continental wild populations and to a sample of domestic pigs. The Sardinian population showed remarkable diversity and a high proportion of private alleles, and strongly deviated from the equilibrium. A Bayesian cluster analysis of only the Sardinian sample revealed a partition into five subpopulations. However, two different Bayesian approaches to the assignment of individuals, accounting for different possible source populations, produced consistent results and proved the admixed nature of the Sardinian population. Indeed, introgressive hybridization with boars from multiple sources (Italian peninsula, central Europe, domestic stocks) was detected, although poor evidence of crossbreeding with free-ranging domestic pigs was unexpectedly found. After excluding individuals who carried exotic genes, the population re-entered Hardy–Weinberg proportions and a clear population structure with three subpopulations emerged. Therefore, the inclusion of introgressed animals in the Bayesian analysis implied an overestimation of the number of clusters. Nonetheless, two of them were consistent between analyses and corresponded to highly pure stocks, located, respectively, in north-west and south-west Sardinia. This work shows the critical importance of including adequate reference samples when studying the genetic structure of managed wild populations. PMID:21179064

  20. An approach to model monitoring and surveillance data of wildlife diseases-exemplified by Classical Swine Fever in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Stahnke, N; Liebscher, V; Staubach, C; Ziller, M

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of epidemiological field data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSSs) in wild animals is of great importance in order to evaluate the performance of such systems. By parameter estimation from MOSS data, conclusions about disease dynamics in the observed population can be drawn. To strengthen the analysis, the implementation of a maximum likelihood estimation is the main aim of our work. The new approach presented here is based on an underlying simple SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for a disease scenario in a wildlife population. The three corresponding classes are assumed to govern the intensities (number of animals in the classes) of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. A sampling rate was defined which describes the process of data collection (for MOSSs). Further, the performance of the diagnostics was implemented in the model by a diagnostic matrix containing misclassification rates. Both descriptions of these MOSS parts were included in the Poisson process approach. For simulation studies, the combined model demonstrates its ability to validly estimate epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction rate R0. These parameters will help the evaluation of existing disease control systems. They will also enable comparison with other simulation models. The model has been tested with data from a Classical Swine Fever (CSF) outbreak in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) from a region of Germany (1999-2002). The results show that the hunting strategy as a sole control tool is insufficient to decrease the threshold for susceptible animals to eradicate the disease, since the estimated R0 confirms an ongoing epidemic of CSF.

  1. Biological Characteristics of Captive Chinese Wuzhishan Minipigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jinchun; Wang, Xilong; Chen, Rui'ai; Wang, Fengguo; Luo, Shuming; Ye, Jiancong

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of experimental minipigs for biomedical researches, we have aimed at cultivating grazing Chinese Wuzhishan (WZS) minipigs and trying to make them useful and affordable since the 1990s. After more than ten years of captive cultivation following sound management practices and a rigorous selection program for fertility and litter size, we established an outbred WZS minipigs colony with a core group (14 males and 30 females) and an expanding group (20 males and 40 females). In 2010–2013 periods, extensive background data of this colony were recorded and analyzed. This paper was written to provide pertinent information about outbred WZS minipigs for producers, users, and others concerned with WZS minipigs. It contains physical characteristics, growth performance, productive performance, hematology and blood biochemistry, microsatellite analysis, organ coefficients, and carcass properties. Results show that WZS minipigs have characteristics of small body size, slow growth rate, long life cycle, high reproductive rate, and maintaining original genetic diversity. All data present that outbred WZS minipigs are suitable laboratory animal and model animal. PMID:27433533

  2. Efficacy of the Boar-Operated-System to deliver baits to feral swine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Tyler A; Long, David B; Massei, Giovanna

    2011-03-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) pose a significant disease threat to livestock and humans. Emerging technologies to reduce feral swine disease transmission risks include fertility control, vaccination, and toxicants. However, for these technologies to be appropriate for field application, a feral swine-specific oral delivery system is needed. We used two field trials to generate information related to appropriate field application of the Boar-Operated-System (BOS™), an oral delivery system designed to provide bait access only to feral swine. Our objectives were to determine whether pre-baiting BOS™ units increased bait removal and to evaluate the proportion of feral swine and non-target animals that ingest baits designed to deliver pharmaceuticals through the BOS™. During both trials we used baits housed within 10 BOS™ units. We monitored wildlife visitation, bait removal, and ingestion using motion sensing digital photography and baits containing the bait marker tetracycline hydrochloride (TH). During trial 1 we found three of five pre-baited BOS™ units were used by feral swine only. Additionally, we found the five BOS™ units that were not pre-baited were not used by feral swine or non-target wildlife. During trial 2 we determined bait removal from the BOS™ to be reduced by only 10% for feral swine when activated, whereas bait removal from the BOS™ by all other wildlife was reduced by 100% when activated. We captured 81 feral swine and 23 raccoons and found 90% and 13% to have TH-marked teeth, respectively. With minor modifications, the BOS™ should be considered a valuable tool to be used in feral swine disease management in conjunction with existing technologies.

  3. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    PubMed Central

    Iacolina, L; Scandura, M; Goedbloed, D J; Alexandri, P; Crooijmans, R P M A; Larson, G; Archibald, A; Apollonio, M; Schook, L B; Groenen, M A M; Megens, H-J

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49 803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and 105 domestic pigs (DP; 11 breeds). High levels of genetic variation were observed in Sardinia (80.9% of the total number of polymorphisms), which can be only in part associated to recent genetic introgression. Both Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian clustering approach revealed that the Sardinian WB population is highly differentiated from the other European populations (FST=0.126–0.138), and from DP (FST=0.169). Such evidences were mostly unaffected by an uneven sample size, although clustering results in reference populations changed when the number of individuals was standardized. Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) pattern and distribution in Sardinian WB are consistent with a past expansion following a bottleneck (small ROHs) and recent population substructuring (highly homozygous individuals). The observed effect of a non-random selection of Sardinian individuals on diversity, FST and ROH estimates, stressed the importance of sampling design in the study of structured or introgressed populations. Our results support the heterogeneity and distinctiveness of the Sardinian population and prompt further investigations on its origins and conservation status. PMID:26243137

  4. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  5. On the relationship between an Asian haplotype on chromosome 6 that reduces androstenone levels in boars and the differential expression of SULT2A1 in the testis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Androstenone is one of the major compounds responsible for boar taint, a pronounced urine-like odor produced when cooking boar meat. Several studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for androstenone level on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 6. For one of the candidate genes in the region SULT2A1, a difference in expression levels in the testis has been shown at the protein and RNA level. Results Haplotypes were predicted for the QTL region and their effects were estimated showing that haplotype 1 was consistently related with a lower level, and haplotype 2 with a higher level of androstenone. A recombinant haplotype allowed us to narrow down the QTL region from 3.75 Mbp to 1.94 Mbp. An RNA-seq analysis of the liver and testis revealed six genes that were differentially expressed between homozygotes of haplotypes 1 and 2. Genomic sequences of these differentially expressed genes were checked for variations within potential regulatory regions. We identified one variant located within a CpG island that could affect expression of SULT2A1 gene. An allele-specific expression analysis in the testis did not show differential expression between the alleles of SULT2A1 located on the different haplotypes in heterozygous animals. However a synonymous mutation C166T (SSC6: 49,117,861 bp in Sscrofa 10.2; C/T) was identified within the exon 2 of SULT2A1 for which the haplotype 2 only had the C allele which was higher expressed than the T allele, indicating haplotype-independent allelic-imbalanced expression between the two alleles. A phylogenetic analysis for the 1.94 Mbp region revealed that haplotype 1, associated with low androstenone level, originated from Asia. Conclusions Differential expression could be observed for six genes by RNA-seq analysis. No difference in the ratio of C:T expression of SULT2A1 for the haplotypes was found by the allele-specific expression analysis, however, a difference in expression between the C over T allele was found for a

  6. Sertoli Cell Differentiation in Pubertal Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meishan boars experience puberty at a younger age than crossbred (BX) boars in association with earlier cessation of Sertoli cell proliferation and smaller post pubertal testicular size. The current study defined changes in expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry, of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH...

  7. Liquid storage of miniature boar semen.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Uchida, Masaki; Niki, Rikio; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    The effects of liquid storage at 15 degrees C on the fertilizing ability of miniature pig semen were investigated. Characterization of ejaculated semen from 3 miniature boars was carried out. Semen volume and pH were similar among these boars. In one of the boars, sperm motility was slightly low, and sperm concentration and total number of sperm were significantly lower than in the others (P < 0.01). Seminal plasma of the semen was substituted with various extenders (Kiev, Androhep, BTS and Modena) by centrifugation and semen was stored for 7 days at 15 degrees C. Sperm motility was estimated daily at 37 degrees C. For complete substitution of seminal plasma, Modena was significantly more efficient than the other extenders (P < 0.001) in retaining sperm motility. Semen from each of the 3 miniature boars that had been stored for 5 to 7 days at 15 degrees C in Modena was used for artificial insemination of 15 miniature sows. The farrowing rates were 100, 100 and 60%, and litter sizes were 6.4 +/- 1.5, 5.8 +/- 0.8 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 for each boar semen, respectively. The boar that sired the smallest farrowing rate was the same one that showed lower seminal quality with respect to sperm motility, sperm concentration and total number of sperm. These results suggest that miniature boar semen can be stored for at least 5 days at 15 degrees C by the substitution of seminal plasma with Modena extender.

  8. Differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inma; del Olmo, David; Sijses, Laurien; Martinez-Alborcia, María J; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques. Eighteen sperm-rich ejaculate samples from six boars (three per boar) were diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution and split into three aliquots. The aliquots were (1) further diluted to 3×10(7) sperm/mL and stored as a liquid at 17°C for 72 h, (2) frozen-thawed (FT) at 1×10(9) sperm/mL using standard 0.5-mL straw protocols, or (3) sex-sorted with subsequent liquid storage (at 17°C for 6 h) or FT (2×10(7) sperm/mL using a standard 0.25-mL straw protocol). The sperm quality was evaluated based on total sperm motility (the CASA system), viability (plasma membrane integrity assessed using flow cytometry and the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), lipid peroxidation (assessed via indirect measurement of the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) and DNA fragmentation (sperm chromatin dispersion assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) test). Data were normalized to the values assessed for the fresh (for liquid-stored and FT samples) or the sorted semen samples (for liquid stored and the FT sorted spermatozoa). All of the four sperm-processing techniques affected sperm quality (P<0.01), regardless of the semen donor, with reduced percentages of motile and viable sperm and increased MDA generation and percentages of sperm with fragmented DNA. Significant (P<0.05) inter-boar (effect of boars within each semen-processing technique) and intra-boar (effect of semen-processing techniques within each boar) differences were evident for all of the sperm quality parameters assessed, indicating differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boars to withstand the semen-processing techniques. These results are the first evidence that ejaculate spermatozoa from individual boars can respond in a boar-dependent manner to different semen-processing techniques. PMID:22554791

  9. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  10. Some aspects of the craniofacial indices and macro neurometrics of the Nigerian local pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Olopade, James O; Igado, O O; Nwafor, C I; Alamu, A O; Onwuka, S K

    2011-01-01

    This study is about the craniofacial indices and neuromorphometrics of the Nigerian local pig and has been performed on twelve males and fourteen females of ages one and a half to two years. The average values obtained for the tongue length, tongue weight, rasp length, left pinna length, right pinna length, left pinna width, right pinna width, height of left external nares, height of right external nares and the rima oris length were 17 +/- 1.3 cm, 90 +/- 16 g, 4.6 +/- 0.58 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.5 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.4 cm, 0.98 +/- 0.12 cm, 0.96 +/- 0.13 cm and 19.51 +/- 2.89 cm respectively, while the mean brain weight, mean brain length, cerebrum and cerebellum lengths, brain and cerebellar heights were 84 +/- 12 g, 6.9 +/- 1.5 cm, 4.9 +/- 1.7 cm, 2.2 +/- 1.0 cm, 5.2 +/- 0.88 cm and 3.0 +/- 1.1 cm respectively. There was a negative correlation between the weight of the animal and the height of the cerebellum, the length of cerebrum and length of the cerebellum and between the weight of the head and height of the cerebellum. A positive correlation was however observed between the length of brain and the weight of brain, and between the length of the cerebrum and weight of brain. The cerebral length was statistically longer (P < 0.01) in the males than the females. The data obtained from this study will provide added information in the field of comparative anatomy and porcine neuroanatomy research. PMID:21898972

  11. Liposarcoma in animals: literature review and case report in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Doria-Torra, Georgina; Martínez, Jorge; Domingo, Mariano; Vidaña, Beatriz; Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Casanova, María Isabel; Vidal, Enric

    2015-03-01

    Liposarcomas are malignant tumors of adipocytes. The current report describes a liposarcoma in a 2.5-year-old, mixed-breed commercial sow that was detected during meat inspection. On gross examination, a firm, whitish, multinodular, 20 cm ×10 cm mass was observed in the perirenal area along with smaller nodules multifocally scattered within the renal parenchyma. Histological examination revealed an anaplastic sarcoma with clear intracytoplasmic lipidic vacuoles that were positive for Sudan black staining. Most of the cells were also positive for S100 and vimentin immunohistochemistry. Based on these results, a diagnosis of a perirenal liposarcoma was established. To the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of liposarcomas in pigs have been published. This report also includes a review of the literature published on animal liposarcomas.

  12. Evidence for a link between tail biting and central monoamine metabolism in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri

    2015-05-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. PMID:25728243

  13. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium.

  14. Laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy in 2 Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Rosanova, Nadia; Singh, Ameet; Cribb, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This report describes laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy in 2 Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs. Abdominal access was obtained by a modified-Hasson technique allowing for placement of a 6 mm laparoscopic trocar-cannula assembly. Following carbon dioxide insufflation, 2 para-preputial 6 mm instrument portals were established. The cryptorchid testicle was extracted from the abdomen following enlargement of the para-preputial instrument portal and cryptorchidectomy was performed extra-corporeally. PMID:25694664

  15. Growth pattern of the maxillary sinus in the miniature pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Koppe, T; Klauke, T; Lee, S H; Schumacher, G

    2000-01-01

    The biological role of the paranasal sinuses is obscure, can be elucidated through a cross-sectional growth study of the maxillary sinus in miniature pigs. The maxillary sinus area was obtained from lateral cephalograms of left skull halves of 103 female miniature pigs of known ages, from newborn to 24 months. Out of several nonlinear models, the growth of the maxillary sinus was best described with the Gompertz model. The first derivative of the Gompertz curve revealed an increase in the growth rates of the maxillary sinus until 4 months, after which sinus growth slowed down. The eruption of the permanent molars did not seem to have a significant influence on this growth pattern. Furthermore, growth in maxillary sinus size in the miniature pig does not follow growth in skull size closely, which showed the highest growth rates in newborn animals. In addition, a correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between maxillary sinus area and different characteristics of the masticatory apparatus (including linear cranial dimensions, and the dry weight of the masseter and zygomatico-mandibularis muscles) were influenced greatly by skull size. These results suggest that the existence of pneumatic cavities within the mammalian skull is not satisfactorily explained solely by an architectural theory. Epigenetic factors are likely to influence the final shape of the maxillary sinus.

  16. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  17. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kefei; Baxter, Tara; Muir, William M.; Groenen, Martien A.; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity for tracing mammalian evolutionary history and defining signatures of selection resulting from both domestication and natural selection. Completion of the pig genome sequencing project will have significant impacts on both agriculture and human health. Following the pig whole genome sequence drafts, along with large-scale polymorphism data, it will be possible to conduct genome sweeps using association mapping, and identify signatures of selection. Here, we provide a description of the pig genome sequencing project and perspectives on utilizing genomic technologies to exploit pig genome evolution and the molecular basis for phenotypic traits for improving pig production and health. PMID:17384734

  18. Review of Practices Reported for Preoperative Food and Water Restriction of Laboratory Pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, A Guenevere; Clutton, R Eddie

    2016-01-01

    The traditionally cited recommendations for the preoperative restriction of food (including bedding) and water in pigs do not appear to be evidence-based. As a preliminary step in elucidating a rationale for and standardizing preoperative food and water restriction (PFWR), this structured review recorded recent reported practices in PFWR in laboratory pigs and its consequences. Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases were searched for recently published (2012 – 2014) recovery surgery procedures in pigs. Information pertaining to PFWR practices, as delineated in the ARRIVE guidelines, was extracted from the 233 articles retrieved. Food withdrawal was described in 73 of the 233 (31%) papers evaluated, bedding withdrawal in 5 articles (2%), and water withholding in 13 publications (6%) papers. Food, bedding, and water withdrawal regimens had a median (range) duration of 12 (4 to 48), 48 (48 to 72), and 12 (2 to 12) h, respectively. Compared with other types of procedures, articles describing gastrointestinal or abdominal surgery were more likely to report fasting regimes. Liquid diets were described in 11 of the 233 (5%) publications evaluated. Adverse effects of PFWR effects were not reported. These data reveal considerable variation in PFWR practices. The stress of fasting coupled with the absence of evidence for current recommendations makes the rationale and standards for PFWR in pigs worthy of further study. PMID:26817978

  19. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340 m in a 12 hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343 m2 (range 2,937–32,759 m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964 m2 (range 246–3,289 m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  20. Single nucleotide markers of D-loop for identification of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Gaurav Kumar; Rajput, Nidhi; Jadav, Kajal Kumar; Shrivastav, Avadh Bihari; Joshi, Himanshu R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Partial fragment of D-loop region extending from 35 to 770 were compared with corresponding sequences of 16 wild pigs and 9 domestic pig breeds from different parts of the world for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the region. The paper also reappraises SNP markers from two fragments of cytochrome b gene and a fragment 12S rRNA gene distinguishing the Indian wild pig from other pig species of the world. Materials and Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 14 and 12 tissue samples of Indian wild and domestic pigs, respectively, collected from Central India for characterization of the D-loop DNA sequences using universal primers. The sequences obtained were aligned along with the retrieved sequences to analyze species-specific SNP marker. Results: A total of 58 mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences of pig races were aligned to identify 1349 polymorphic sites in the fragment from nucleotide positions 35-770 bp and four SNP markers were identified to differentiate Indian wild pig from all the sequences investigated in this study. With the inclusion of cytochrome b gene and 12S rRNA gene fragments, the present study contributes to the total 15 SNP markers, which have been identified in the mitochondrial fragment of 1936 bp for identification of Indian wild pig. Conclusion: SNP markers have advantages over other marker types and do not require subsequent standardization to compare data across studies or laboratories. PMID:27047129

  1. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25508945

  2. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25486814

  3. [Basic values of blood coagulation parameters in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Hahn, N; Popov-Cenic, S; Dorer, A

    1996-01-01

    On 23 clinical healthy pigs (2-4 months of age, body weight 13-42 kg) under ketamin-pentobarbital anaesthesia blood plasma coagulation parameters have been investigated. To obtain basic values 26 parameters were measured: number of thrombocytes, parameters of thrombelastogram and resonance-thrombogram, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, reptilase time, factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrin degradation products D and E and euglobulin lysis-time. Parameters calculated in percent should be measured against a pig plasma pool. Measurement against a human plasma pool are hardly valid in values higher than 100%. In comparison to man the results indicate modifications of fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis in pigs.

  4. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  5. Crystal Structure of Sus scrofa Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase in Complex with Nicotinate Mononucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Kang, Gil Bu; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, Jung-Gyu; An, Jun Yop; Park, Kyoung Ryoung; Lee, Youngjin; Kang, Jung Youn; Song, Hye-Eun; Park, Inju; Cho, Chunghee; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of porcine quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) in complex with nicotinate mononucleotide (NAMN), which is the first crystal structure of a mammalian QAPRTase with its reaction product. The structure was determined from protein obtained from the porcine kidney. Because the full protein sequence of porcine QAPRTase was not available in either protein or nucleotide databases, cDNA was synthesized using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to determine the porcine QAPRTase amino acid sequence. The crystal structure revealed that porcine QAPRTases have a hexameric structure that is similar to other eukaryotic QAPRTases, such as the human and yeast enzymes. However, the interaction between NAMN and porcine QAPRTase was different from the interaction found in prokaryotic enzymes, such as those of Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The crystal structure of porcine QAPRTase in complex with NAMN provides a structural framework for understanding the unique properties of the mammalian QAPRTase active site and designing new antibiotics that are selective for the QAPRTases of pathogenic bacteria, such as H. pylori and M. tuberculosis. PMID:23626766

  6. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, Michaela; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vítovec, Jiří; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, John; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II and propose the species name Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. to reflect its prevalence in adult pigs worldwide. Oocysts of C. scrofarum are morphologically indistinguishable from C. parvum, measuring 4.81–5.96 µm (mean = 5.16) × 4.23–5.29 µm (mean = 4.83) with a length to width ratio of 1.07 ± 0.06 (n = 400). Oocysts of C. scrofarum obtained from a naturally infected pig were infectious for 8-week-old pigs but not 4-week-old pigs. The prepatent period in 8-week-old Cryptosporidium-naive pigs was 4–6 days and the patent period was longer than 30 days. The infection intensity of C. scrofarum in pigs was generally low, in the range 250-4000 oocysts per gram of faeces. Infected pigs showed no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and no pathology was detected. Cryptosporidium scrofarum was not infectious for adult SCID mice, adult BALB c mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), or guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Phylogenetic analyses based on Small subunit rRNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. scrofarum is genetically distinct from all known Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23021264

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Sustained-Release and Transdermal Buprenorphine in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Allison J; Garcia, Kelly D; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Jenkins, Gary J; Nunamaker, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The opioid buprenorphine has been shown to provide adequate postoperative analgesia in both companion and laboratory animals. However, its use is still hindered by the need for multiple parenteral injections to achieve continuous analgesia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pharmacokinetic analysis of 2 new long-acting formulations of buprenorphine—an injectable sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and a transdermal buprenorphine (TDB) patch—in healthy Göttingen minipigs by using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of 0.18 mg/kg SC SRB and 30 μg/h TDB achieved AUC0-Tlast of 221.6 ± 26.8 and 25.2 ± 3.9 ng × h/mL, respectively, compared with 9.7 ± 1.4 ng*h/mL for 0.02 mg/kg IV buprenorphine. By using a hypothesized therapeutic plasma buprenorphine concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL, therapeutic concentrations were achieved at the first study time point (5 to 30 min) and lasted an average of 8.0 ± 1.3 h for intravenous buprenorphine and 264.0 ± 32.2 h for SRB. TDB achieved therapeutic concentrations in 12 to 24 h after patch application, which lasted until the patch was removed at 72 h. The results of this study suggest that SRB and TDB are long-acting alternatives for pain management, and their use could decrease animal handling and stress, thereby simplifying pain management and improving welfare in laboratory swine. PMID:25650977

  8. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  9. Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus Scrofa Domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Thomas B; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Olsen, Cara H; Christensen, Christine; Chappell, Mark; Whitnall, Mark H; Moroni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of supportive care, exposing Göttingen minipigs to γ-radiation doses of less than 2 Gy achieves lethality due to hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Doses of 2 to 5 Gy are associated with an accelerated hematopoietic syndrome, characterized by villus blunting and fusion, the beginning of sepsis, and a mild transient reduction in plasma citrulline concentration. We exposed male Göttingen minipigs (age, 5 mo; weight, 9 to 11 kg) to γ-radiation doses of 5 to 12 Gy (total body; 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min) to test whether these animals exhibit classic gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). After exposure, the minipigs were monitored for 10 d by using clinical signs, CBC counts, and parameters associated with the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome. Göttingen minipigs exposed to γ radiation of 5 to 12 Gy demonstrate a dose-dependent occurrence of all parameters classically associated with acute GI-ARS. These results suggest that Göttingen minipigs may be a suitable model for studying GI-ARS after total body irradiation, but the use of supportive care to extend survival beyond 10 d is recommended. This study is the first step toward determining the feasibility of using Göttingen minipigs in testing the efficacy of candidate drugs for the treatment of GI-ARS after total body irradiation. PMID:25527026

  10. Dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation in raw boar semen and fertility.

    PubMed

    Batista, C; van Lier, E; Petrocelli, H

    2016-10-01

    The aims were to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in boars through the dispersion of their chromatin in raw semen samples, quantifying the extent of SDF, and to assess dynamic aspects of sperm DNA damage after incubation to obtain the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation (rSDF) under thermal conditions similar to the uterus (37°C) over a period of up to 24 hr and to correlate the reproductive outcome of the sows with the SDF of the boars at ejaculation. The study was performed on a pig-breeding farm in southern Uruguay. Sixty-one ejaculates from five of the most frequently used hybrid boars were evaluated. Semen was collected weekly from each of the boars, using the gloved-hand technique and discarding the jelly-like fraction of the ejaculate. Fresh semen was kept in a water bath at 37°C and protected from light, and was thereafter processed with Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) to evaluate SDF. The smears for time 0 (T0) were made on farm, and thereafter smears were made at the laboratory at 4 hr of obtaining the semen (T4), then every 2 hr (T6, T8, T10, T12) and a final fixation at 24 hr (T24). Differences in SDF were observed among exposure times for all boars (p < .05), but not between T10 and T12 (p = .7751) nor T4 and T24 (p = .9113). In none of the T24 samples, sperm heads could be seen with chromatin dispersion halos. Furthermore, there were differences among boars when comparing sperm rSDF (p < .05). Farrowing rate was not affected by SDF at T0 (r = .38, p = .75), nor was litter size (r = .16, p = .70). With the present experimental conditions, we have not been able to show a relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation at ejaculation and reproductive performance. However, this could be a result of the low number of ejaculates and boars used. PMID:27546051

  11. Farm and management characteristics associated with boar taint.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, C P A; Snoek, H M; van der Fels, J B; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Vermeer, H M; Heres, L

    2013-11-01

    Pig farms in the Netherlands producing boars have different levels of boar taint prevalence, as assessed by sensory evaluation with the human nose at the slaughter line. With a questionnaire to 152 Dutch pig producers (response rate 59%), farm and management characteristics were identified that are potentially associated with farm-level boar taint prevalence. Lower farm-level boar taint prevalence was associated with a smaller group size, a smaller pen surface per boar, newer housing equipment, not practicing restricted feeding in the last period before delivery, a longer fasting period before slaughter, a higher stocking weight and a lower fraction of boars from purebred dam line sows or from Pietrain terminal boars. These characteristics can be used to develop farm-level intervention strategies to control boar taint. More research effort is needed to establish causal relationships. PMID:23867004

  12. 9 CFR 78.33 - Sows and boars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.33 Sows and boars. (a) Sows and boars may be moved..., and the sows and boars either: (1) Are from a validated brucellosis-free herd or a...

  13. Wild boar helminths: risks in animal translocations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-de-Mera, Isabel G; Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquin; Höfle, Ursula; Fierro, Yolanda

    2003-08-14

    The helminth populations found in a group of wild boars collected in central Spain were compared to those in a group of animals imported from a French game farm that produces boars for restocking. Eleven helminth species, including ten nematodes and one acanthocephalan, were found. Gongylonema pulchrum and Macracanthorhynchus hirundinaceus were only detected in autochthonous wild boars, while Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum, and Trichuris suis were detected in imported animals only. Autochthonous wild boars were more frequently and more intensely parasitised by Ascarops strongylina than the imported ones. No differences in prevalence nor intensity were found for the species Capillaria garfiai, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Metastrongylus sp., Physocephalus sexalatus and Simondsia paradoxa. To our knowledge, G. urosubulatus, G. pulchrum and S. paradoxa have not previously been described in wild boars in Spain. Our results highlight the risks of translocating wild animals, with regard to their helminth parasites. Until improved control measures are established, it would be wise to avoid long-distance translocations in order to prevent the potential introduction of foreign parasites.

  14. Reactive oxygen species and boar sperm function.

    PubMed

    Awda, Basim J; Mackenzie-Bell, Meghan; Buhr, Mary M

    2009-09-01

    Boar spermatozoa are very susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS), but ROS involvement in damage and/or capacitation is unclear. The impact of exposing fresh boar spermatozoa to an ROS-generating system (xanthine/xanthine oxidase; XA/XO) on sperm ROS content, membrane lipid peroxidation, phospholipase (PL) A activity, and motility, viability, and capacitation was contrasted to ROS content and sperm function after cryopreservation. Exposing boar sperm (n = 4-5 ejaculates) to the ROS-generating system for 30 min rapidly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation in all sperm, increased PLA in dead sperm, and did not affect intracellular O2- (flow cytometry of sperm labeled with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorscein diacetate, BODIPY 581/591 C11, bis-BODIPY-FL C11, hydroethidine, respectively; counterstained for viability). Sperm viability remained high, but sperm became immotile. Cryopreservation decreased sperm motility, viability, and intracellular O2- significantly, but did not affect H2O2. As expected, more sperm incubated in capacitating media than Beltsville thawing solution buffer underwent acrosome reactions and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (four proteins, 58-174 kDa); which proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated was pH dependent. Pre-exposing sperm to the ROS-generating system increased the percentage of sperm that underwent acrosome reactions after incubation in capacitating conditions (P < 0.025), and decreased capacitation-dependent increases in two tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins (P < or = 0.035). In summary, H2O2 is the major free radical mediating direct ROS effects, but not cryopreservation changes, on boar sperm. Boar sperm motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation are more sensitive indicators of oxidative stress than viability and PLA activity. ROS may stimulate the acrosome reaction in boar sperm through membrane lipid peroxidation and PLA activation. PMID:19357363

  15. A comparison of reproductive characteristics of boars generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer to highly related conventionally produced boars.

    PubMed

    Williams, N E; Walker, S C; Reeves, D E; Sherrer, E; Galvin, J M; Polejaeva, I; Rampacek, G; Benyshek, L; Christenson, R K; Graves, W M; Pratt, S L

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the reproductive performance of boars produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer versus conventional breeding. Two different genotypes were selected for comparison: terminal cross line 1 (TX1) and terminal cross line 2 (TX2). The boars selected for comparison from TX1 were three cloned boars, produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and the conventionally produced progenitor of the clones. The boars selected for comparison from TX2 were a cloned boar produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and two conventionally produced half sibling boars that were offspring of the progenitor of the clone. Semen from each boar was collected, extended, evaluated and shipped offsite. Upon arrival, the semen was reevaluated and utilized for artificial insemination of 89 commercial gilts, at least 12 gilts per boar, producing 625 piglets. Pregnancy rates were determined at day 30 and 110 of gestation; and farrowing rate and gestation length were recorded. Differences were observed in some of the semen characteristics analyzed with the clones usually possessing superior semen quality to the control, this likely being a result of age differences amongst the clones and controls. Additionally no differences were noted between the clones and controls (progenitor) or between individual boars within genetic line for pregnancy rates, gestation length or any of the litter parameters examined between the clones and controls. These data further support previous reports with limited numbers that the reproductive capabilities of cloned boars are equal to that of conventionally produced boars.

  16. Impotence in the boar 2: Clinical and anatomical studies on impotent boars.

    PubMed

    Ashdown, R R; Barnett, S W; Ardalani, G

    1982-04-10

    Six boars were deficient in penile erection and incapable of intromission, but produced ejaculates containing spermatozoa. In five of these boars impotence was primary, but one boar had served normally for two seasons before showing secondary impotence. Sexual libido was good in two, moderate in two and poor in two of these animals. Post mortem studies on the reproductive tracts revealed no abnormalities except in the penes. In one of the boars with primary impotence, the penis showed an abnormal type of spiral deviation during simulated erection, but there was no abnormality in the venous drainage of the organ. In the other five boars, injection experiments revealed venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum penis (ccp) into the dorsolateral (left) tributary of the v dorsalis penis. In four cases, the apical cavernous spaces of the ccp communicated with the vascular spaces of the corpus spongiosum glandis. No direct communications with the corpus spongiosum penis (csp) were demonstrated but the csp was injected from the ccp indirectly, by way of the dorsal venous system. It is suggested that these abnormalities may have been the immediate cause of impotence in these five boars. This possibility is discussed in relationship to the processes of erection and ejaculation and to various clinical signs shown by these animals. The abnormalities of venous drainage were thought to be developmental in origin and the condition may be inherited. PMID:7201181

  17. Controlled freezing studies on boar sperm cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Medrano, A; Holt, W V; Watson, P F

    2009-08-01

    Boar spermatozoa from different males were frozen at a number of cooling rates using a controlled-rate freezing machine designed to minimise thermal variables involved in the cooling process, to see whether inter-boar sperm cryosurvival may be improved by changing cooling rate. Four cooling rates in the range 3 degrees C min(-1) to 24 degrees C min(-1) from +5 degrees C to -5 degrees C and five cooling rates in the range 5 degrees C min(-1) to 80 degrees C min(-1) from -5 degrees C to -80 degrees C were tested. Motile spermatozoa were assessed by CASA, plasma membrane integrity by fluorescent probes (SYBR14/propidium iodide) and flow cytometry, and acrosome membrane integrity by lectins (PSA-rhodamine) and fluorescent microscopy. Cooling rate affected sperm cryosurvival from different boars in different ways; that is, spermatozoa from some individuals were less susceptible than those from others. For some individuals, sperm cryosurvival was poor regardless of cooling rate, but for others it was better with faster rates. This confirms cooling rate effects on sperm cryosurvival depend on inter-individual boar differences more than on the cooling process itself. PMID:19601937

  18. Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for a non-stinging wasp to be used as a biosensor in the pig industry, we trained wasps to 3 individual chemicals associated with boar taint. Training consisted of presenting the odors to hungry wasps while they were feeding on sugar. This associates the chemical with a fo...

  19. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar: 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Østevik, Liv; Elmas, Colette; Rubio-Martinez, Luis M

    2012-09-01

    Surgical techniques for castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar and outcome are described. Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (VPBP) boars (n = 8) were admitted for castration. Data retrieved from medical records (2002-2011) for these pigs included signalment, history, reason for castration, perioperative management, surgical technique, and complications. Follow-up information was obtained from owners. A scrotal approach with closed technique was used for 6 boars with normally descended testes. A scrotal approach and open technique was used in 1 inguinal cryptorchid boar. In a hemicastrated abdominal cryptorchid boar an ipsilateral parainguinal approach was used. No complications occurred. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar is associated with minimal complications and a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We recommend the routine closure of the external inguinal rings, a simple and fast procedure that may prevent post-castration inguinal herniation. PMID:23450857

  20. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-04-01

    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health.

  1. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-04-01

    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health. PMID:26711454

  2. Sensory evaluation of boar loins: trained assessors' olfactory acuity affects the perception of boar taint compounds.

    PubMed

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Sharifi, Ahmad Reza; Tholen, Ernst; Frieden, Luc; Bücking, Mark; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of assessors' varying olfactory acuity on the perceived intensity of androstenone and skatole odour and flavour in boar loins. To discriminate sensitive (SENS) and highly sensitive (SENSHIGH) panellists, two levels of androstenone were used on smell strips. Sensitivity was defined as the correct identification of the androstenone strip in three replicate triangle tests. Judges then assessed loins from boars, castrated pigs and gilts. SENSHIGH assessors scored low-fat boar loins with 1.5 to 2.0μg of androstenone per gram of melted back fat which is significantly different from castrate and gilt loins for androstenone odour and flavour whereas SENS assessors were less discriminating. Panellists' olfactory acuity should thus be considered for selection and training. The presented paper strip system is suggested for objective screening and training purposes and to be used as quantitative references in descriptive analysis. PMID:23357575

  3. Continuous monitoring of ear temperature in boars.

    PubMed

    Bekkering, J; Hoy, S

    2007-01-01

    Seventy boars penned singly in an artificial insemination station were included in this analysis. Each had a special ear tag with an integrated sensor to measure the skin temperature of the ear every 3 min. The readings were averaged per animal and hour, thus, over 18 months, resulted in a total of 37,7351 data points. In the whole investigation period, the system did not work for some days and some sensors did not work for hours. A diurnal rhythm was found for the ear temperature with its minimum reached between 5 and 6 am (22.07 degrees C) and the maximum between 4 and 6 pm (28.90 degrees C). If the ambient temperature was increased by 5 Kelvin then the skin temperature at the ear also increased by 3 to 5 Kelvin. On days when semen was collected, the ear temperature was higher during the relevant hours than at comparable times on days without semen collection. The results of 322 measurements taken from 70 boars, including 24 boars with increased rectal temperature (> 39.3 degrees C), showed that the coefficient of correlation between skin and rectal temperature was low (r = 0.36). Thus, the measurement of the skin temperature at the ear cannot be used as a significant or safe parameter for predicting the rectal temperature and sowith the health status of the animal.

  4. Perceptual masking of boar taint in Swedish fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Lindahl, Gunilla; Lundström, Kerstin; Chen, Gang; Byrne, Derek V

    2009-04-01

    Surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practiced to avoid development of boar taint in pork meat which can occur if entire male pigs are raised. Boar taint is commonly characterised as exhibiting the odour and flavour of urine and manure. This study involves sensory characterisation of the possibilities to mask boar taint in meat from entire male pigs by fermentation and smoking to maintain high sensory quality in meat products if castration is prohibited. Model and commercial type Swedish fermented sausage products based on low or high levels of boar tainted fat, three different starter cultures and two different levels of smoking were studied. In the model sausages, liquid smoke masked the perception of boar taint. In contrast, the smoking procedure of the commercial sausages was insufficient to totally mask the perception of boar taint. In both the model and commercial sausages, the aroma development from the starter cultures lowered the perception of boar taint but was insufficient for total perceptual masking. Due to the total masking effect of smoking in the model sausages, it was clear that smoke may present a potential solution to remove the perception of boar taint in fermented sausages if the smoking procedure is optimised. PMID:20416588

  5. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  6. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen. PMID:16814375

  7. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  8. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF. PMID:26473349

  9. Intravenous Cobinamide Versus Hydroxocobalamin for Acute Treatment of Severe Cyanide Poisoning in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    PubMed Central

    Bebarta, Lt Col Vikhyat S.; Tanen, David A.; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A.; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration–approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Methods Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (P<.001 between the 2 treated groups and the saline solution group). Time to return of spontaneous breathing after antidote was similar between hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide (1 minute 48 seconds versus 1 minute 49 seconds, respectively). Blood cyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Conclusion Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation. The dose of cobinamide was one fifth that of hydroxocobalamin. PMID:24746273

  10. Modulation of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) carbonyl reducing enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Szotáková, Barbora; Nobilis, Milan; Lamka, Jirí; Krízová, Veronika; Savlík, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) is a widely administered benzimidazole anthelmintic indicated for the control of parasitic diseases in farm animals including pigs and pheasants. This study was designed to test the biotransformation of FLU in control animals and animals treated with FLU in recommended therapeutic doses. The activities of several pheasant and porcine hepatic and intestinal carbonyl reducing enzymes and their modulation by FLU were also studied. Twelve adult pheasant hens, approximately 1 year old, were divided into two groups and treated for 7 days with placebo or 6 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Eight male hog weaners, approximately 3 month old, were divided into two groups and treated for 5 days with placebo or 1.57 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Subcellular fractions, prepared from livers and small intestines of control and FLU treated animals, were incubated with FLU. In vitro formation of two main FLU metabolites, reduced FLU, and hydrolyzed FLU were analyzed using HPLC. While FLU was reduced significantly more intensively in FLU-treated pheasants than in control animals, no differences were observed in pigs. These results were confirmed by measuring the enzyme activities: carbonyl reducing enzyme activities were increased in pheasants treated by FLU, whereas FLU did not affect these enzymes in pigs.

  11. Genomewide Scan for Anal Atresia in Swine Identifies Linkage and Association With a Chromosome Region on Sus scrofa Chromosome 1

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Sabine; Fries, Ruedi; Thaller, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Anal atresia is a rare and severe disorder in swine occurring with an incidence of 0.1–1.0%. A whole-genome scan based on affected half-sibs was performed to identify susceptibility loci for anal atresia. The analysis included 27 families with a total of 95 animals and 65 affected piglets among them. Animals were genotyped for 126 microsatellite markers distributed across the 18 autosomal porcine chromosomes and the X chromosome, covering an estimated 2080 cM. Single-point and multipoint nonparametric linkage scores were calculated using the computer package ALLEGRO 1.0. Significant linkage results were obtained for chromosomes 1, 3, and 12. Markers on these chromosomes and additionally on chromosomes for which candidate genes have been postulated in previous studies were subjected to the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). The test statistic exceeded the genomewide significance level for adjacent markers SW1621 (P = 7 × 10−7) and SW1902 (P = 3 × 10−3) on chromosome 1, supporting the results of the linkage analysis. A specific haplotype associated with anal atresia that could prove useful for selection against the disorder was revealed. Suggestive linkage and association were also found for markers S0081 on chromosome 9 and SW957 on chromosome 12. PMID:16020797

  12. Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Gregory, R; Tomlins, P; Jacob, D; Hubble, J; Sahota, T S

    2016-03-16

    The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin(®) R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30 mmol/L (540 mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13 mmol/L (126-234 mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL), the BG peak was 18 mmol/L (324 mg/dL) and fell to 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) after 30 min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8 days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30 mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24 days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8 days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period. PMID:26691655

  13. Molecular and structural assessment of alveolar bone during tooth eruption and function in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuang-Dah; Popowics, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Summary The development of alveolar bone adjacent to the tooth root during tooth eruption is not well understood. This study tested the hypothesis that predominantly woven bone forms adjacent to tooth roots during tooth eruption, but that this immature structure transitions to lamellar bone when the tooth comes into function. Additionally, bone resorption was predicted to play a key role in transitioning immature bone to more mature, load-bearing tissue. Miniature pigs were compared at two occlusal stages, 13 weeks (n=3), corresponding with the mucosal penetration stage of M1 tooth eruption, and 23 weeks (n=3), corresponding with early occlusion of M1/M1. Bone samples for RNA extraction and qRT-PCR analysis were harvested from the diastema and adjacent to M1 roots on one side. Following euthanasia, bone samples for hematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining were harvested from these regions on the other side. In contrast to expectations, both erupting and functioning molars had reticular fibrolamellar structure in alveolar bone adjacent to M1. However, the woven bone matrix in older pigs was thicker and had denser primary osteons. Gene expression data and osteoclast cell counts showed a tendency for more bone resorptive activity near the molars than at distant sites, but no differences between eruptive stages. Thus, although resorption does occur, it is not a primary mechanism in the transition in alveolar bone from eruption to function. Incremental growth of existing woven bone and filling in of primary osteons within the mineralized scaffold generated the fortification necessary to support an erupted and functioning tooth. PMID:21434979

  14. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  15. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China’s complex societies. PMID:27384523

  16. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies. PMID:27384523

  17. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL) to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  18. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature.

  19. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation. PMID:25650328

  20. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature. PMID:27657715

  1. Responses of single taste fibers and whole chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Danilova, V; Roberts, T; Hellekant, G

    1999-06-01

    Whole nerve, as well as single fiber, responses in the chorda tympani proper (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves of 1- to 7-week-old pigs were recorded during taste stimulation. In the CT acids and in the NG bitter compounds gave the largest responses. Both nerves exhibited large responses to monosodium glutamate (MSG), MSG with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and MSG with inositine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) as well as to glycine, xylitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. Alitame, aspartame, betaine, neohesperedin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC), super-aspartame, saccharin and thaumatin elicited no or little response. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 49 CT fibers separated four major clusters. The M cluster, comprising 28.5% of all fibers, is characterized by strong responses to MSG, KCl, LiCl and NaCl. The responses to NaCl and LiCl were unaffected by amiloride. The H cluster (24.5%) includes units responding principally to acids. The Q cluster (18.5%) responds to quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and salts with amiloride. The S cluster (28.5%) exhibits strong responses to xylitol, glycine and the carbohydrates as well as to MSG alone and to MSG with GMP or IMP. In 31 NG fibers, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four clusters: the M cluster (10%), responding to MSG and MSG with GMP or IMP; the H cluster (13%), responding to acids; the Q cluster (29%), responding strongly to QHCl, SOA and tilmicosinR; and the S cluster (48%), responding best to xylitol, carbohydrates and glycine but also to the umami compounds. Multidimensional scaling analysis across fiber responses to all stimuli showed the best separation between compounds with different taste qualities when information from both nerves was utilized.

  2. Vascular Access Port Implantation and Serial Blood Sampling in a Gottingen Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Acute Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

  3. Ubiquitination and its influence in boar sperm physiology and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Purdy, P H

    2008-09-15

    Recent reports document the potential use of the ubiquitin protein as an indicator of mammalian sperm quality or fertility, based on poor morphology, sperm count, and other cellular qualities. However, its influence on cellular physiologic mechanisms and boar sperm cryopreservation are unknown. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of boar sperm ubiquitination (n=12 boars) on motility (using CASA), and flow cytometry and fluorescent probes (in parentheses) to evaluate mitochondrial activity (JC-1), plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity (PI and FITC-PNA), membrane fluidity (M540), and chromatin stability (TUNEL) for fresh and frozen-thawed samples. The effects of ubiquitination (determined flow cytometrically) on the ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm to capacitate (FLUO-3AM) and acrosome react (FITC-PNA) were also investigated using flow cytometry. Cryopreservation induced a decrease in the percentage of sperm that were ubiquitinated from 29 to 20% (P<0.0001), but no significant effects of ubiquitin on sperm quality (motility, membrane integrities and organization) were detected. The ability of sperm to capacitate and acrosome react was influenced by ubiquitination. Samples with more ubiquitinated boar sperm were able to maintain plasma membrane integrity (PMI) better and have fewer live acrosome-reacted cells over 120 min of induced capacitation (P<0.05). In conclusion, frozen-thawed ubiquitinated boar sperm were better able to survive the physical stresses of induced capacitation, yet were still capable of capacitating and acrosome reacting, which may enable use of this assay for in the vitro evaluation of the quality of boar sperm. PMID:18579194

  4. New insights into transduction pathways that regulate boar sperm function.

    PubMed

    Hurtado de Llera, A; Martin-Hidalgo, D; Gil, M C; Garcia-Marin, L J; Bragado, M J

    2016-01-01

    Detailed molecular mechanisms mediating signal transduction cascades that regulate boar sperm function involving Ser/Thr and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins have been reviewed previously. Therefore, this review will focus in those kinase pathways identified recently (<10 years) in boar spermatozoa that regulate different functional spermatozoa processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cell energy sensor kinase that was first identified in mammalian spermatozoa in 2012, and since then it has emerged as an essential regulator of boar sperm function. Signaling pathways leading to AMPK activation in boar sperm are highlighted in this review (PKA, CaMKKα/β, and PKC as well as Ca(2+) and cAMP messengers as upstream regulators). Interestingly, stimuli considered as cell stress (hyperosmotic stress, inhibition of mitochondrial activity, absence of intracellular Ca(2+)) markedly activate AMPK in boar spermatozoa. Moreover, AMPK plays a remarkable and necessary regulatory role in mammalian sperm function, controlling essential boar sperm functional processes such as motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, organization and fluidity of plasma membrane, and outer acrosome membrane integrity. These mentioned processes are all required under fluctuating environment of spermatozoa when transiting through the female reproductive tract to achieve fertilization. An applied role of AMPK in artificial insemination techniques is also suggested as during boar seminal doses preservation at 17 °C, physiological levels of AMPK activity markedly increase (maximum on Day 7) and result essential to maintain the aforementioned fundamental sperm processes. Moreover, regulation of sperm function exerted by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 and Src family kinase pathways is summarized.

  5. Post-thaw motility of frozen boar sperm does not predict success with in vitro fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using cryopreserved boar sperm rather than liquid semen for in vitro fertilization (IVF) allows improved IVF consistency. However, cryopreservation of boar sperm results in reduced post-thaw motility, fertilization and embryo development. Boars are often screened on an individual basis prior to use ...

  6. Efficiency of different selection strategies against boar taint in pigs.

    PubMed

    Haberland, A M; Luther, H; Hofer, A; Tholen, E; Simianer, H; Lind, B; Baes, C

    2014-01-01

    The breeding scheme of a Swiss sire line was modeled to compare different target traits and information sources for selection against boar taint. The impact of selection against boar taint on production traits was assessed for different economic weights of boar taint compounds. Genetic gain and breeding costs were evaluated using ZPlan+, a software based on selection index theory, gene flow method and economic modeling. Scenario I reflected the currently practiced breeding strategy as a reference scenario without selection against boar taint. Scenario II incorporated selection against the chemical compounds of boar taint, androstenone (AND), skatole (SKA) and indole (IND) with economic weights of -2.74, -1.69 and -0.99 Euro per unit of the log transformed trait, respectively. As information sources, biopsy-based performance testing of live boars (BPT) was compared with genomic selection (GS) and a combination of both. Scenario III included selection against the subjectively assessed human nose score (HNS) of boar taint. Information sources were either station testing of full and half sibs of the selection candidate or GS against HNS of boar taint compounds. In scenario I, annual genetic gain of log-transformed AND (SKA; IND) was 0.06 (0.09; 0.02) Euro, which was because of favorable genetic correlations with lean meat percentage and meat surface. In scenario II, genetic gain increased to 0.28 (0.20; 0.09) Euro per year when conducting BPT. Compared with BPT, genetic gain was smaller with GS. A combination of BPT and GS only marginally increased annual genetic gain, whereas variable costs per selection candidate augmented from 230 Euro (BPT) to 330 Euro (GS) or 380 Euro (both). The potential of GS was found to be higher when selecting against HNS, which has a low heritability. Annual genetic gain from GS was higher than from station testing of 4 full sibs and 76 half sibs with one or two measurements. The most effective strategy to reduce HNS was selecting against

  7. Efficiency of different selection strategies against boar taint in pigs.

    PubMed

    Haberland, A M; Luther, H; Hofer, A; Tholen, E; Simianer, H; Lind, B; Baes, C

    2014-01-01

    The breeding scheme of a Swiss sire line was modeled to compare different target traits and information sources for selection against boar taint. The impact of selection against boar taint on production traits was assessed for different economic weights of boar taint compounds. Genetic gain and breeding costs were evaluated using ZPlan+, a software based on selection index theory, gene flow method and economic modeling. Scenario I reflected the currently practiced breeding strategy as a reference scenario without selection against boar taint. Scenario II incorporated selection against the chemical compounds of boar taint, androstenone (AND), skatole (SKA) and indole (IND) with economic weights of -2.74, -1.69 and -0.99 Euro per unit of the log transformed trait, respectively. As information sources, biopsy-based performance testing of live boars (BPT) was compared with genomic selection (GS) and a combination of both. Scenario III included selection against the subjectively assessed human nose score (HNS) of boar taint. Information sources were either station testing of full and half sibs of the selection candidate or GS against HNS of boar taint compounds. In scenario I, annual genetic gain of log-transformed AND (SKA; IND) was 0.06 (0.09; 0.02) Euro, which was because of favorable genetic correlations with lean meat percentage and meat surface. In scenario II, genetic gain increased to 0.28 (0.20; 0.09) Euro per year when conducting BPT. Compared with BPT, genetic gain was smaller with GS. A combination of BPT and GS only marginally increased annual genetic gain, whereas variable costs per selection candidate augmented from 230 Euro (BPT) to 330 Euro (GS) or 380 Euro (both). The potential of GS was found to be higher when selecting against HNS, which has a low heritability. Annual genetic gain from GS was higher than from station testing of 4 full sibs and 76 half sibs with one or two measurements. The most effective strategy to reduce HNS was selecting against

  8. Feasibility of boar taint classification using a portable Raman device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoye; Schmidt, Heinar; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for boar taint detection and classification was investigated using tainted and untainted backfat samples of 46 boars. For this exploratory study, backfat samples were selected according to their levels of androstenone and skatole as determined by gas chromatography and their sensory score by a trained panel. Raman spectra were collected with a portable device at freshly cut surfaces of frozen-thawed samples. Both inner and outer layers of subcutaneous fat were studied. Their varying level of unsaturation was reflected in the Raman spectra. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to the spectra together with various pre-processing methods. A model using only spectra obtained at the inner layer resulted in the highest classification accuracy for boar taint (81% of samples correctly classified). The discrimination is shown to reflect differences in the degree of fatty acid saturation between tainted and untainted boars. In conclusion, the findings suggest that with further development Raman spectroscopy may be used to classify boar taint. PMID:26882212

  9. Evaluation of different cryoprotectants (CPAs) in boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Young-Jun; Ji, Dong-Beom; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2011-07-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the use of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in boar sperm cryopreservation. Semen from eight boars was cryopreserved following treatment with 3, 5, and 7% DMA and DMSO, and 3% glycerol (control). After thawing, sperm conventional parameters and membrane integrities were evaluated. There were no significant differences among different DMA concentrations in all evaluations. Membrane intactness were higher in 5% and 7% DMSO than 3% DMSO (P<0.05). Sperm motility of 5% DMSO was lower than that of 3% glycerol (P<0.005), and membrane intactness were lower in 5% DMA and DMSO than 3% glycerol (P<0.05). DMA and DMSO didn't improve sperm quality and glycerol remains the most useful for boar sperm cryopreservation. PMID:21441721

  10. Impact of genetic selection on management of boar replacement.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J A B; Buhr, M M

    2005-01-15

    Boars in an artificial insemination centre have been selected for their superior genetic potential, with 'superior' being defined as having traits the customer wants transmitted to his herd. The ability to meet the customers' needs depends on the heritability of the trait, the geneticist's success in devising a selection scheme for the trait in balance with other economically important traits, and the boar's ability to produce sperm that can fertilise oocytes. Genetic evaluation research over the past 20 years has greatly increased the number of traits for which a boar can be selected: currently in the Canadian national program, these include age at 100 kg, backfat at 100 kg, feed efficiency, lean yield and litter size. In the near future, traits that are very likely to be added to this selection list include piglet survival, marbling, loin eye area and structure traits. In Canada, sires are ranked on two estimated breeding value (EBV) indices; one, focused on development of terminal sire lines, is based on the growth and yield traits and another, primarily focused on maternal line development, de-emphasises these traits and incorporates litter size. Boars that are in Canadian AI centres because of their excellent growth traits are typically in the top 5-10% of the national population for terminal sire line index, but they may be only average or substandard for litter size. Conversely, boars selected to be in the top 5-10% for conveying such reproductive traits as litter size may only be in the top 33% for growth traits. The more offspring from a superior boar in either of these indices, the faster the population average for the trait improves. The original sire gets knocked out of the elite group, is culled and replaced by a higher ranked young boar from the now improved general population. Although genetic superiority should govern an AI centre's selection and culling of boars, decision-making in real life is seldom that simple. Selection criteria may be

  11. Unraveling Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis infections in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina; Gomes, Jacinto; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Pires, Isabel; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-09-15

    Sarcocystis species are worldwide spread cyst-forming protozoa that can infect wild boar but little is known about the prevalence of these parasites. In this study we assessed the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infections in wild boars from northeastern Portugal, for which novel PCR testing assays targeting Sarcocystis genus, S. miescheriana and S. suihominis were implemented, and risk factors potentially associated with these infections were evaluated. Samples from muscle tissue, namely diaphragm (n=102), oesophagus (n=96) and heart (n=101), were collected from a total of 103 wild boar hunted between October 2011 and February 2012. Diaphragm muscle was used for the PCR detection of Sarcocystis nucleic acids since a higher proportion of samples showed the presence of cysts during histological examination. PCR assay targeting Sarcocystis genus yielded a 73.8% infection rate, which indicate a high level of exposure to these protozoan parasites among wild boars. These samples showed to be positive with the S. miescheriana-specific PCR assay and no sample was positive with the S. suihominis-specific assay, suggesting that a single species infecting wild boar is circulating in Portugal. These results were confirmed by the partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene amplified from selected samples from different geographic regions. Adults, young adults and female wild boars were found to be more likely infected. Hunters have an important role in the life cycle of S. miescheriana since potentially infected viscera and carcasses can be left behind promoting the protozoan dissemination to the scavenging final hosts. If hunting dogs bite and ingest infected meat they can perpetuate the life cycle of Sarcocystis spp. spreading oocysts or sporocysts in the environment.

  12. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, S; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, N; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker can be used to reduce boar taint levels in fat of boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MC4R marker-assisted selection for lower boar taint prevalence affects plasma levels of boar taint compounds and testosterone; sexual maturity; behaviour; skin lesions; and lameness in boars and gilts. Using an intervention study with a 2×2 design, 264 boars and gilts differing on position 893 of the MC4R gene (AA v. GG) were compared. The MC4R polymorphism did not affect the plasma concentration of either androstenone or testosterone at different time points, whereas the concentration of skatole was significantly lower (P=0.003) and the concentration of indole tended to be lower (P=0.074) in GG compared with AA boars. A higher percentage of gilts of the GG genotype were in puberty at slaughter age compared with AA gilts (P<0.001). The age of the boars at sexual maturity (as indicated by the first positive preputial smear test) did not differ between AA and GG boars. In contrast, weight of GG boars at sexual maturity tended to be lower (P=0.065). During the period from 6 weeks of age to slaughter, boars and gilts of the GG genotype showed more playing behaviour (P=0.015) and less passive and feeding behaviour (P=0.003). They showed more skin lesions on their back and caudal area (P=0.022), and tended to show more skin lesions on their head and anterior area (P=0.093) compared with AA animals. In conclusion, the polymorphism in the MC4R gene can be used as a marker without

  13. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, S; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, N; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker can be used to reduce boar taint levels in fat of boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MC4R marker-assisted selection for lower boar taint prevalence affects plasma levels of boar taint compounds and testosterone; sexual maturity; behaviour; skin lesions; and lameness in boars and gilts. Using an intervention study with a 2×2 design, 264 boars and gilts differing on position 893 of the MC4R gene (AA v. GG) were compared. The MC4R polymorphism did not affect the plasma concentration of either androstenone or testosterone at different time points, whereas the concentration of skatole was significantly lower (P=0.003) and the concentration of indole tended to be lower (P=0.074) in GG compared with AA boars. A higher percentage of gilts of the GG genotype were in puberty at slaughter age compared with AA gilts (P<0.001). The age of the boars at sexual maturity (as indicated by the first positive preputial smear test) did not differ between AA and GG boars. In contrast, weight of GG boars at sexual maturity tended to be lower (P=0.065). During the period from 6 weeks of age to slaughter, boars and gilts of the GG genotype showed more playing behaviour (P=0.015) and less passive and feeding behaviour (P=0.003). They showed more skin lesions on their back and caudal area (P=0.022), and tended to show more skin lesions on their head and anterior area (P=0.093) compared with AA animals. In conclusion, the polymorphism in the MC4R gene can be used as a marker without

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (Northeastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance in Indicator Escherichia coli Isolates from Free-Ranging Livestock and Sympatric Wild Ungulates in a Natural Environment (Northeastern Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Porrero, M. C.; Mentaberre, G.; Serrano, E.; Mateos, A.; Domínguez, L.; Lavín, S.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected. PMID:23892753

  16. Trichiniasis among the animals in North Eastern Iran (1), 1969, 1976, 1977.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A N

    1979-01-01

    In 1969, 1976 and 1977, 1,039 rodents and carnivores collected from North East Iran were examined for Trichinella spiralis. Eighty four per cent of golden jackals, 30 per cent of red foxes and nine per dent of dogs were found to be infected. The importance of wild boar Sus scrofa as the source of infection is discussed. PMID:318000

  17. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  18. Storage of sexed boar spermatozoa: Limits and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, M; Perteghella, S; Chlapanidas, T; Galeati, G; Vigo, D; Tamanini, C; Bucci, D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great potential application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine, the technology is not practiced in the pig industry because of technical factors and species-specific issues. The susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to stresses induced by the sorting procedure, the relative slowness of the sex-sorting process together with the high sperm numbers required for routine artificial insemination in pig are some of the main factors limiting the commercial application of this technology in pigs. This review briefly describes the damage to spermatozoa during sex sorting, focusing on an additional limiting factor: increased susceptibility of sexed boar spermatozoa to injuries induced by liquid storage and cryopreservation that, in turn, impairs sperm quality leading to unsatisfactory results in vivo. Strategies to extend the lifespan of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa and to improve their fertilizing ability after liquid storage or cryopreservation need to be implemented before this technology can be used in pig farms. In this regard, encapsulation in barium alginate membranes could be a promising technique to optimize the in vivo use of sexed boar spermatozoa, by protecting, targeting, and controlling the release of sperm into the female genital tract. PMID:26116059

  19. 9 CFR 78.33 - Sows and boars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sows and boars. 78.33 Section 78.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions...

  20. Boar semen can tolerate rapid cooling rates prior to freezing.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Jorge D; Parrilla, Inma; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in the present study that demonstrated that boar spermatozoa are capable of surviving rapid cooling rates within a range of 15-5 °C before freezing. Boar ejaculates diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) (1:1, v/v) were held at 17-20 °C and shipped over a 24-h time period from two AI centres to a cryobiology laboratory, where they were pooled (Experiment 1) or cryopreserved individually (Experiment 2) using a standard 0.5-mL straw freezing protocol. The effects of cooling before freezing were assessed after thawing through the objective evaluation of sperm motility and flow cytometric analysis of membrane integrity, acrosomal status, changes in membrane lipid architecture monitored by merocyanine and annexin V binding and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. In Experiment 1 (six replicates), two semen pools (five ejaculates per pool) were cooled from 15 to 5 °C at rates of 0.08, 0.13, 0.40 and 1.50 °C min(-1). These cooling rates did not result in any significant differences (P>0.05) in any of the post-thaw sperm assessments, even in thawed samples incubated under capacitation conditions. In Experiment 2, three individual ejaculates from 16 boars were slowly (0.08 °C min(-1)) or rapidly (1.5 °C min(-1)) cooled before freezing. A consistent interboar variability (P<0.01) was detected, which was independent of the cooling rate used. Cooling rate only significantly influenced (P<0.05) sperm assessments in four of 16 boars, which exhibited slightly higher percentages of motile cells and intact plasma and acrosomal membranes in the samples that had been cooled slowly. These findings demonstrate that boar spermatozoa undergoing cryopreservation can withstand rapid cooling rates before freezing. PMID:21635817

  1. [CO-CULTURE OF BOAR SPERMATOGONIAL CELLS WITH SERTOLI CELLS].

    PubMed

    Savchenkova, I P; Vasil'eva, S A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using co-culture of boar spermatogonial cells with Sertoli cells. Testes from 60-day-old crossbred boar were used. A spermatogonia-enriched culture was achieved by enzymatic digestion method and purification by density gradient centrifugation using a discontinuous Percoll gradient and differentiated adherence technique. Lipid drops were detected in isolated Sertoli cells by Oil Red O staining. We have found that the cultivation of boar spermatogonia in the presence of Sertoli cells (up to 35 days) leads to their differentiation as well as in vivo in testis. Association of cells in groups, formation of chains and suspension clusters of the spermatogenic cells were observed on the 10th day. Spermatogonial cellular colonies were noted at the same time. These cellular colonies were analyzed for the expression of genes: Nanog and Plzf in RT PCR. The expression of the Nanog gene in the experimental cellular clones obtained by short-term culture of spermatogonial cells in the presence of Sertoli cells was 200 times higher than the expression of this gene in the freshly isolated spermatogonial cells expression was found in freshly isolated germ cells and in cellular clones derived in vitro. We have found that, in the case of longer cultivation of these cells on Sertoli cells, in vitro process of differentiation of germ cells and formation of single mobile boar spermatozoa occurs at 30-33 days. Cellular population is heterogeneous at this stage. Spermatogenic differentiation in vitro without Sertoli cells stays on the 7th day of cultivation. The results show that co-culture of boar spermatogonia-enriched cells with Sertoli cells can induce their differentiation into spermatozoa in vitro and facilitate obtaining of porcine germ cell culture.

  2. Genetic relationship between boar taint compounds, human nose scores, and reproduction traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P K; ten Napel, J; Crump, R E; Mulder, H A; Knol, E F

    2013-09-01

    A reduction in boar taint, an unpleasant odor arising in pork from some intact males, is desirable if routine castration of piglets needs to be stopped. Commercial slaughter pigs are typically crosses between sire lines mainly selected for finishing traits and dam lines mainly selected for reproduction traits. Previous studies suggest the possibility of reducing boar taint in sire lines due to favorable genetic correlations between boar taint and finishing traits. However, there are indications of unfavorable genetic associations between boar taint and female reproduction traits, but a lack of genetic correlation estimates remain a major roadblock in reducing boar taint in dam lines. This study was conducted to estimate genetic correlations between boar taint traits and female reproduction traits, investigate differences in these genetic relationships among sire and dam lines, and evaluate possible consequences of selection against boar taint in dam lines. The data consisted of 32,549 reproduction records from a Landrace dam line, 23,874 records from a Yorkshire dam line, and 3,745 records from a Pietrain sire line. Androstenone, skatole, and indole were measured on 1,896 carcasses, and human nose scores were recorded on 7,742 carcass samples. In general, the level of boar taint was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the two dam lines than in the sire line. A majority of genetic correlations of boar taint compounds with reproduction traits were either low or nonsignificant, except for those of skatole and indole, with age at first insemination in dam lines that were -0.32 and -0.46, respectively. Genetic correlations also differed (P < 0.05) between sire and dam lines. The consequences of selection against boar taint in dam lines were evaluated, using selection indexes based on reproduction traits only, boar taint traits only, and both boar taint and reproduction traits. Selection on an index of only reproduction traits increased the number of carcasses with boar

  3. Impact of boar exposure on puberty attainment and breeding outcomes in gilts.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J L; Willis, H J; Kirkwood, R N; Foxcroft, G R

    2002-05-01

    We examined the most effective method of boar exposure for the attainment of puberty in 89 gilts. At 160 days of age, we allocated gilts to daily direct contact with a vasectomized boar after movement of pen groups of gilts to a detection-mating area (DGB: n = 30); daily direct contact with boars in the gilt home pens (DBG: n = 31); or daily fenceline contact between boars and gilts housed in individual gilt stalls (FBG: n = 28). DGB gilts were younger (P < or = 0.05) than FBG gilts at puberty. Direct boar contact reduced the interval from initial boar contact to puberty in DGB and DBG gilts, compared to fenceline contact in FBG gilts (P < 0.05). There was no difference (P > or = 0.05) between treatment for pubertal weight, backfat, lifetime growth rate, or duration of first pubertal estrus. Backfat depth and leptin concentration at 160 days of age were positively correlated (P < or = 0.05). We detected no relationships between leptin or IGF-1 concentration at 160 days of age and the interval from initial exposure to a vasectomized boar to puberty (P > 0.05). Based on objective criteria, fenceline contact with a boar (BC) during artificial insemination improved the quality of artificial insemination compared to no boar contact (NC) (P < 0.05).

  4. Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends and implications for Europe.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Kindberg, Jonas; Licoppe, Alain; Gačić, Dragan; Šprem, Nikica; Kamler, Jiří; Baubet, Eric; Hohmann, Ulf; Monaco, Andrea; Ozoliņš, Janis; Cellina, Sandra; Podgórski, Tomasz; Fonseca, Carlos; Markov, Nickolay; Pokorny, Boštjan; Rosell, Carme; Náhlik, András

    2015-04-01

    Across Europe, wild boar numbers increased in the 1960s-1970s but stabilised in the 1980s; recent evidence suggests that the numbers and impact of wild boar has grown steadily since the 1980s. As hunting is the main cause of mortality for this species, we reviewed wild boar hunting bags and hunter population trends in 18 European countries from 1982 to 2012. Hunting statistics and numbers of hunters were used as indicators of animal numbers and hunting pressure. The results confirmed that wild boar increased consistently throughout Europe, while the number of hunters remained relatively stable or declined in most countries. We conclude that recreational hunting is insufficient to limit wild boar population growth and that the relative impact of hunting on wild boar mortality had decreased. Other factors, such as mild winters, reforestation, intensification of crop production, supplementary feeding and compensatory population responses of wild boar to hunting pressure might also explain population growth. As populations continue to grow, more human-wild boar conflicts are expected unless this trend is reversed. New interdisciplinary approaches are urgently required to mitigate human-wild boar conflicts, which are otherwise destined to grow further.

  5. Increased number of skin lesions as a measure of aggression following the mixing of slaughter boars from western Canada assembled for export

    PubMed Central

    Paetkau, Leanne N.; Whiting, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary observational study was conducted to evaluate the animal welfare impacts of holding and mixing on boars; specifically, the need to tusk trim on arrival at assembly. Cull boars assembled in Manitoba from 3 western Canadian provinces were observed without intervention. Although aggression among boars was common, significant physical injury to boars from handling and other boars was rare. Tusk trimming was widely practised in mature boars prior to transport in the population studied. Length of time assembled, number of boars in a pen, temperature, size of boar, and presence of tusk were not associated with change in the skin score of new boars introduced into a pen. Holding groups of previously unfamiliar boars en route to slaughter did not appear to be a significant risk for increased skin lesions in the population studied. Further research is required into the methods and welfare implications to boars subjected to tusk trimming. PMID:18512461

  6. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice. PMID:25974759

  7. Antibiotic resistances of intestinal lactobacilli isolated from wild boars.

    PubMed

    Klose, Viviana; Bayer, Katharina; Kern, Corinna; Goelß, Florian; Fibi, Silvia; Wegl, Gertrude

    2014-01-10

    Acquired antibiotic resistances have been reported in lactobacilli of various animal and food sources, but there are no data from wild boar. The objective was a preliminary examination of the antibiotic resistance prevalence of intrinsically vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli isolated from wild boar intestines and analysis of the genetic determinants implicated. Out of three wild boars, 121 lactobacilli were recovered and grouped according to their whole cell protein patterns. Initial phenotypic screening revealed that all were susceptible to erythromycin (2 μg/ml), but 30 were resistant to tetracycline (32 μg/ml). Based on Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR clustering, 64 strains were selected as representative genotypes for identification and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified four species: (i) L. mucosae (n=57), (ii) L. reuteri (n=47), (iii) L. fermentum (n=12), and (iv) L. murinus (n=5). Most heterofermentative strains displayed low MICs for ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CHL), streptomycin (STR), kanamycin (KAN), gentamicin (GEN), erythromycin (ERY), quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), and clindamycin (CLI). Atypical MICs were found mainly in L. mucosae and L. reuteri for TET, KAN, STR, AMP and CHL, but except the TET MICs of L. mucosae mostly at low level. L. murinus strains revealed atypical MICs for aminoglycosides, and/or CHL, AMP, CLI. PCR screening detected tet(W) in 12 and tet(M) in one of heterofermentative strains, as well as the aph(3')-III kanamycin gene in L. murinus. This is the first report showing acquired antibiotic resistance determinants in intestinal lactobacilli of wild boar origin.

  8. Nitric oxide induces caspase activity in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Moran, J M; Madejón, L; Ortega Ferrusola, C; Peña, F J

    2008-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical that plays a key role in intra- and intercellular signaling. Production of radical oxygen species and an apoptotic-like phenomenon have recently been implicated in cryodamage during sperm cryopreservation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, on boar sperm viability. Semen samples were pooled from four boars that were routinely used for artificial insemination. Flow cytometry was used to compare semen incubated with SNP to control semen. Specifically, NO production was measured using the NO indicator dye diaminofluorescein diacetate, and caspase activity was determined using the permeable pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD linked to FITC. SNP induced a significant increase in the percentage of sperm cells showing caspase activity, from 9.3% in control samples to 76.2% in SNP-incubated samples (P<0.01). This study suggests that NO is a major free radical involved in boar sperm damage. PMID:18433854

  9. New Approaches to Boar Semen Evaluation, Processing and Improvement.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, P

    2015-07-01

    The improvement of boar reproductive performance may be the next frontier in reproductive management of swine herd in Unites States, facilitated by better understanding of boar sperm function and by the introduction of new advanced instrumentation in the andrology field. Objective single ejaculate evaluation and individual boar fertility prediction may be possible by introducing automated flow cytometric semen analysis with vital stains (e.g. acrosomal integrity and mito-potential), DNA fragmentation analysis and biomarkers (ubiquitin, PAWP, ALOX15, aggresome) associated with normal or defective sperm phenotypes. Measurement of sperm-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a helpful indicator of normal semen sample. Semen ROS levels could be managed by the addition of ROS-scavenging antioxidants. Alternative energy regeneration substrates and sperm stimulants such as inorganic pyrophosphate and caffeine could increase sperm lifespan in extended semen and within the female reproductive system. Such technology could be combined with timed sperm release in the female reproductive system after artificial insemination. Sperm phenotype analysis by the image-based flow cytometry will go hand in hand with the advancement of swine genomics, linking aberrant sperm phenotype to the fertility influencing gene polymorphisms. Finally, poor-quality ejaculates could be rescued and acceptable ejaculates improved by semen purification methods such as the nanoparticle-based semen purification and magnetic-activated sperm sorting. Altogether, these scientific and technological advances could benefit swine industry, provided that the challenges of new technology adoption, dissemination and cost reduction are met. PMID:26174914

  10. Prevalence of boar taint in commercial pigs from Spanish farms.

    PubMed

    Borrisser-Pairó, F; Panella-Riera, N; Zammerini, D; Olivares, A; Garrido, M D; Martínez, B; Gil, M; García-Regueiro, J A; Oliver, M A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of boar taint can affect the sensory quality of pork because the "off" odours and flavours can be detected by consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of boar taint in pig carcasses from 30 Spanish farms located in different regions of the country. Hot carcass weight and subcutaneous fat thickness means were 79.4±8.19 kg and 18.4±5.09 mm, respectively. Subcutaneous fat samples were classified into different levels according to androstenone and skatole concentrations in adipose tissue measured using GC-MS and HPLC. Androstenone results were: 87.4% of the carcasses below 0.50 μg/g, 7.1% from 0.50 to 1.00 μg/g (medium level), and 5.5% ≥1.00 μg/g (high level). Skatole results were: 88.9% of the carcasses below 0.10 μg/g, 4.5% from 0.10 to 0.20 μg/g (medium level), and 6.6% ≥0.20 μg/g (high level). Given these results, a future online method to classify carcasses according to boar taint is strongly recommended. PMID:26468980

  11. Boar taint detection: A comparison of three sensory protocols.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Johanna; Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While recent studies state an important role of human sensory methods for daily routine control of so-called boar taint, the evaluation of different heating methods is still incomplete. This study investigated three common heating methods (microwave (MW), hot-water (HW), hot-iron (HI)) for boar fat evaluation. The comparison was carried out on 72 samples with a 10-person sensory panel. The heating method significantly affected the probability of a deviant rating. Compared to an assumed 'gold standard' (chemical analysis), the performance was best for HI when both sensitivity and specificity were considered. The results show the superiority of the panel result compared to individual assessors. However, the consistency of the individual sensory ratings was not significantly different between MW, HW, and HI. The three protocols showed only fair to moderate agreement. Concluding from the present results, the hot-iron method appears to be advantageous for boar taint evaluation as compared to microwave and hot-water. PMID:26348414

  12. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections.

    PubMed

    Portier, J; Jouet, D; Ferté, H; Gibout, O; Heckmann, A; Boireau, P; Vallée, I

    2011-08-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work.

  13. Distinct effects of boar seminal plasma fractions exhibiting different protein profiles on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    García, E M; Calvete, J J; Sanz, L; Roca, J; Martínez, E A; Vázquez, J M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how different protein profiles of seminal plasma (SP) fractions affect sperm functionality in vitro. Ejaculates from three boars were separated into six fractions. The fractions differed from each other in their sperm content, in their total SP protein content, and their spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and heparin-binding protein (HBP) concentrations. Spermatozoa were mainly recovered in fraction 2 (sperm-rich fraction, >1800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml), whereas the pre-sperm fraction 1 and the post-sperm fractions 4-6 contained low numbers of spermatozoa (<500 x 10(6)/ml). Except in fraction 2, the total SP protein concentration and the concentration of both, spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and the HBPs increased with fraction order. Distinct time-dependent effects were observed on motility characteristics and membrane integrity of highly diluted boar spermatozoa upon incubation with a 10% dilution of the SP from each fraction. The highest sperm viability was recorded after exposure for 5 h to fraction 2, followed by fractions 1 and 3. The percentages of motile spermatozoa also differed significantly among fractions after 5 h of incubation. Spermatozoa incubated with SP of fractions 1-3 showed the highest percentage motility. We conclude that different SP fractions exert distinct effects on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. Fractions 1-3 appear to promote sperm survival, whereas fractions 4-6 seem to be harmful for preserving the physiological functions of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. PMID:19323794

  14. The biological traits of the large red scorpionfish, Scorpaena scrofa: Temporal and ontogenetic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matić-Skoko, Sanja; Stagličić, Nika; Kraljević, Miro; Pallaoro, Armin; Dulčić, Jakov

    2015-01-01

    Large red scorpionfish, Scorpaena scrofa, is a prevalent, important and highly valued commercial species throughout the rocky coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, there is a surprising scarcity of biological and ecological information for this species. As artisanal fisheries have a very long tradition in the whole Mediterranean, a considerable impact of continuous fishing pressure is expected on this valuable rockfish. To elucidate some biological parameters that indicate the status of S. scrofa in the Adriatic Sea and to show which consequences high fishery effort may have on its age, growth and reproduction, sampling was carried out in the middle Adriatic using trammel nets. Temporal trends in body size/weight of S. scrofa were also assessed using long-term data including specimens caught from 1960 to 2010. Temporal trends of S. scrofa in the middle Adriatic indicated significant decreases of 19% in length and 43% in total weight over time. In contrast, official landings for the last five years showed an increase of 13%. However, this increasing trend most likely reflects the continuous change in national policies for reporting the catches. Both catch data and landings statistics showed peak in catch per unit effort during summer which coincides with spawning period of S. scrofa. Length at first sexual maturity was observed at 29.0 cm for females and 24.9 cm for males. All specimens larger than 32 cm were mature. Age analysis revealed 15 age classes with a 25 year old female as the oldest specimen. However, age classes 3+ and 4+ were predominant in the total catch. The growth rate is relatively high during the first four years of life and afterwards it considerably slows down, with females growing at slightly slower rate and attaining slightly larger sizes than males. Given the identified biological implications that confirm our assumptions of inherent vulnerabilities and negative effects arising from continued artisanal fisheries practice

  15. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and ubiquitin as fertility markers in boars.

    PubMed

    Lovercamp, K W; Safranski, T J; Fischer, K A; Manandhar, G; Sutovsky, M; Herring, W; Sutovsky, P

    2007-03-01

    Accurate semen analysis is an important issue in the swine industry. We evaluated two candidate fertility marker proteins associated with sperm cytoplasmic droplet (CD), including 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and ubiquitin (UBI) in a controlled single-sire artificial insemination (AI) trial. Ejaculates (n=116) were collected from 18 fertile Large White boars monthly for 8 mo, and analyzed by semi-quantitative, densitometry-based Western blotting and flow cytometry with antibodies against 15-LOX and UBI. Data were correlated with farrowing rates (FR) and total numbers of piglets born (TNB) from 1754 AI services by 13 of 18 boars, and compared with a conventional microscopic semen analysis. In semi-quantitative Western blotting, both 15-LOX and UBI were correlated with seasonal changes in the percentage of normal (r=-0.38, P<0.01; r=-0.27, P<0.05, respectively) and CD-bearing spermatozoa (r=0.35, P<0.01; r=0.27, P<0.05, respectively). In flow cytometry, UBI and 15-LOX levels showed seasonal changes coinciding with seasonal changes of FR and TNB, representing 13 boars, 88 ejaculates and 1,232 AI services. There were correlations between flow cytometric values of UBI and FR (r=0.31; P<0.05), adjusted FR (r=0.30; P<0.05), TNB (r=-0.38; P<0.01) and adjusted TNB (r=-0.37; P<0.01). Flow cytometric measurements of 15-LOX correlated negatively with TNB (r=-0.33; P<0.05) and adjusted TNB (r=-0.34; P<0.05). These data suggested that boar fertility estimation could be achieved within a group of fertile boars by the use of objectively measurable fertility markers. Flow cytometry appeared more informative and more practical than semi-quantitative Western blotting. This technology could be further optimized for the selection of the most fertile sires in an artificial insemination program. PMID:17116325

  16. Detection of boar sperm plasma membrane protein using Rhodamine 640; implications for cryobiology and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhodamine 640 (R640) was used to detect changes in boar sperm plasma membrane protein (PMP) during cryopreservation; a poorly understood phenomenon. The protocol was adapted for boar sperm so that semen samples (n = 17) could be analyzed for PMP (R640 positive) and plasma membrane integrity (PMI; Y...

  17. Effects of Social Interactions on Empirical Responses to Selection for Average Daily Gain of Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of competition on responses to selection for ADG were examined with records of 9,720 boars from dam lines (1 and 2) and sire lines (3 and 4) provided by Pig Improvement Company. Each line was analyzed separately. Pens contained 15 boars. Gains (ADG) were measured from about 71 to 161 d of...

  18. Effects of commercial selenium products on glutathione peroxidase activity and semen quality in stud boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine how dietary supplementation of inorganic and organic selenium affects selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood and sperm of sexually mature stud boars. Twenty-four boars of the Large White, Landrace, Pietrain, and Duroc breeds of opt...

  19. Histological and transcriptome analyses of testes from Duroc and Meishan boars

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haisheng; Luo, Yan; Liu, Min; Huang, Jingshu; Xu, Dequan

    2016-01-01

    Meishan boars are known for their early sexual maturity. However, they exhibit a significantly smaller testicular size and a reduced proportion of Sertoli cells and daily sperm production compared with Duroc boars. The testes of Duroc and Meishan boars at 20, 75 and 270 days of age were used for histological and transcriptome analyses. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was conducted to observe histological structure of the testes in Duroc and Meishan boars at different ages. Although spermatogenesis occurred prior to 75 days in Meishan boars, the number of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells in Meishan boars were less than in Duroc boars at adulthood. The diameters of the seminiferous tubules of the testes differed significantly during the initiation of development of the seminiferous tubules between the two breeds. We obtained differentially expressed functional genes and analysed seven pathways involved in male sexual maturity and spermatogenesis using RNA-seq. We also detected four main alternative splicing events and many single nucleotide polymorphisms from testes. Eight functionally important genes were validated by qPCR, and Neurotrophin 3 was subjected to quantification and cellular localization analysis. Our study provides the first transcriptome evidence for the differences in sexual function development between Meishan and Duroc boars. PMID:26865000

  20. Detection of antibodies against classical swine fever virus in fecal samples from wild boar.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang won; Sunwoo, Sun young; Hyun, Bang hoon; Lyoo, Young S

    2012-12-28

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious viral disease that affects pigs. Wild boars can play an important epidemiological role in CSF outbreaks. In the past decades, studies conducted in many countries have reported that the CSF virus (CSFV) may persist in wild boar populations. The existence of CSFV in the free-ranging wild boar populations was indirectly confirmed by determining the prevalence of antibodies against CSFV in the serum of hunted wild boars. However, analyzing sero-prevalence in hunted wild boars to study the risk of CSF outbreaks is difficult due to insufficient number of samples, limitation of hunting area and biased age distribution of hunted wild boars. To improve this survey method, we collected feces of wild boars from their habitat and tested them using CSFV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and CSF virus neutralization (VN) test. In this study, ELISA was found to be highly sensitive for detecting antibodies against CSFV in fecal samples. Most of doubtful or positive results obtained in CSFV ELISA were confirmed by VN tests. Despite the high coincidence rate of antibody-positive samples between CSFV ELISA and VN test, the possibility of false positive reaction should be considered. In the regional distribution, a fact that antibody-positive fecal and serum samples were found in geographically close area was shown. Hence, presence of antibodies in fecal samples may provide vital information regarding the risk of CSF outbreaks in wild boar groups in geographical proximity. PMID:22841406

  1. Disease risks associated with free-ranging wild boar in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Glenna F; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Godson, Dale L; Wilkins, Wendy; Bollinger, Trent K

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the disease status of Saskatchewan's feral wild boar population. Whole carcasses, tissue samples, and/or serum from 81 hunter-killed boars from Saskatchewan were submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) between 2009 and 2014. Serological tests were negative for PRRS, H1N1, and H3N2 swine influenza, PCV-2, and TGE/PRCV in 22/22 boars and for Toxoplasma gondii and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in 20/20 boars. Of 20 boars whose sera were tested 20 were positive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, with 7 positive for, among other strains, serotype 14; 16 were positive for Lawsonia intracellularis, 1 was positive and 6 were suspicious for Salmonella spp. Polymerase chain reaction tests were negative for PRRS and PCV2 in 58/58 boars and positive for Torque teno virus in 1/8 boars. Digestion assays were negative for Trichinella spp. in 22/22 boars. The high seroprevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 is noteworthy as this serotype has not been previously reported in North America.

  2. The Effect of Azaperone on the Agonistic Behaviour of Boars: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Previously unacquainted adult boars are often penned together and transported over long distances. This study examined the effect of azaperone, a drug used to reduce fighting in young pigs, on the behaviour of adult boars in close confinement. Five groups of six adult boars were used. Three groups were treated with 4% azaperone at 1.5 mg/kg, the other two groups served as controls. Behaviour was monitored for 24 hours. Azaperone reduced the intensity and ferocity of fighting during the peak activity of the drug but it did not eliminate aggressive behaviour. There was an increase in threat behaviour and the number (but not the intensity) of fights greater than one minute in the treated animals. This drug could be used when transporting boars in close confinement for short periods (less than four hours) if the boars are detusked. PMID:17422677

  3. How olfactory acuity affects the sensory assessment of boar fat: a proposal for quantification.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Johanna; Gertheiss, Jan; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Due to animal welfare concerns the production of entire male pigs is one viable alternative to surgical castration. Elevated levels of boar taint may, however, impair consumer acceptance. Due to the lack of technical methods, control of boar taint is currently done using sensory quality control. While the need for control measures with respect to boar taint has been clearly stated in EU legislation, no specific requirements for selecting assessors have yet been documented. This study proposes tests for the psychophysical evaluation of olfactory acuity to key volatiles contributing to boar taint. Odor detection thresholds for androstenone and skatole are assessed as well as the subject's ability to identify odorants at various levels through easy-to-use paper smell strips. Subsequently, fat samples are rated by the assessors, and the accuracy of boar taint evaluation is studied. Considerable variation of olfactory performance is observed demonstrating the need for objective criteria to select assessors. PMID:24976560

  4. Surveillance of classical swine fever in wild boar in South Korea from 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Yong Kwan; LIM, Seong-In; KIM, Jae-Jo; CHO, Yoon-Young; SONG, Jae-Young; CHO, In-Soo; HYUN, Bang-Hun; CHOI, Sung-Hyun; KIM, Seung-Hoe; PARK, Eun-Hye; AN, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide. PMID:26178821

  5. Surveillance of classical swine fever in wild boar in South Korea from 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Jae-Jo; Cho, Yoon-Young; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hoe; Park, Eun-Hye; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide. PMID:26178821

  6. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-03-01

    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences found in fertilizing capacity between spermatozoa frozen in maxi-straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  7. Sero-surveillance of wild boar in The Netherlands, 1996-1999.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R; Dekkers, L J; van der Giessen, J W

    2000-12-01

    From 1996 to 1999, blood samples were collected from wild boar shot during the hunting season in Crown properties, national parks and the free wildlife belt in the Netherlands. Sera were screened for the presence of antibodies against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and Trichinella spiralis. The results of the sero-surveillance system indicate that CSFV, SVDV and ADV are uncommon within the wild boar population. Hence, the wild boar population is not thought to be an important reservoir of these viruses in the Netherlands. Infection with ADV and CSFV is endemic in the wild boar population in Germany. Since contact between the wild boar populations of Germany and the Netherlands cannot be excluded in the southern part of the Netherlands, continuation of the sero-surveillance system seems appropriate. In the decade before 1998, no antibodies to Trichinella spp. were found in the wild boar population of the Netherlands. The detection of some seropositive animals during the hunting season of 1998-1999 corresponds to the previous findings in wild boar before 1988. However, the recent data do not have consequences for the pig industry of the Netherlands, since the country has been considered Trichinella-free for many decades.

  8. Comparison of specimens for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in boar studs.

    PubMed

    Pepin, B J; Kittawornrat, A; Liu, F; Gauger, P C; Harmon, K; Abate, S; Main, R; Garton, C; Hargrove, J; Rademacher, C; Ramirez, A; Zimmerman, J

    2015-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-contaminated semen from boars is a route of transmission to females, and early detection of PRRSV infection in boars is a key component in sow farm biosecurity. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum diagnostic specimen(s) for the detection of acute PRRSV infection in boars. Individually housed boars (n = 15) were trained for semen and oral fluid collection and then vaccinated with a commercial PRRSV modified live virus vaccine. Starting on the day of vaccination and for 14 days thereafter, oral fluid specimens were collected daily from all boars. The 15 boars were subdivided into three groups of 5, and serum, blood swabs and 'frothy saliva' were collected at the time of semen collection on a 3-day rotation. Frothy saliva, derived from the submandibular salivary gland, is produced by aroused boars. Semen was centrifuged, and semen supernatant and cell fractions were tested separately. All samples were randomly ordered and then tested by PRRSV real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (rRT-PCR) and PRRSV antibody ELISA. In this study, a comparison of serum, blood swab, and oral fluid rRT-PCR results found no statistically significant differences in the onset of detection or proportion of positives, but serum was numerically superior to oral fluids for early detection. Serum and oral fluid provided identical rRT-PCR results at ≥ 5 day post-vaccination. Likewise, the onset of detection of PRRSV antibody in serum, oral fluid and frothy saliva was statistically equivalent, with serum results again showing a numerical advantage. These results showed that the highest assurance of providing PRRSV-negative semen to sow farms should be based on rRT-PCR testing of serum collected at the time of semen collection. This approach can be augmented with oral fluid sampling from a random selection of uncollected boars to provide for statistically valid surveillance of the

  9. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  10. Epidemiological survey of enteric viruses in wild boars in the Czech Republic: First evidence of close relationship between wild boar and human rotavirus A strains.

    PubMed

    Moutelíková, Romana; Dufková, Lucie; Kamler, Jiří; Drimaj, Jakub; Plhal, Radim; Prodělalová, Jana

    2016-09-25

    Population of wild boar is increasing in the whole Europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. The aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the Czech Republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups A and C (RVA and RVC), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and members of family Coronaviridae (transmissible gastroenteritis virus - TGEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - PEDV, porcine respiratory coronavirus - PRCV, and porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus - PHEV) and Picornaviridae,(teschovirus A - PTV, sapelovirus A - PSV, and enterovirus G - EV-G). In our study, stool samples from 203 wild boars culled during hunting season 2014-2015 (from October to January) were examined by RT-PCR. RVA was detected in 2.5% of tested samples. Nucleotide analysis of VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes revealed that four RVA strains belong to G4P[25]I1, G4P[6]I5, G11P[13]I5, and G5P[13]I5 genotypes and phylogenetic analysis suggested close relation to porcine and human RVAs. The prevalence of RVC in wild boar population reached 12.8%, PTV was detected in 20.2%, PSV in 8.9%, and EV-G in 2.5% of samples. During our study no PRRSV or coronaviruses were detected. Our study provides the first evidence of RVC prevalence in wild boars and indicates that wild boars might contribute to the genetic variability of RVA and also serve as an important reservoir of other enteric viruses. PMID:27599927

  11. Evaluation of l-glutamine for cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    de Mercado, E; Hernandez, M; Sanz, E; Rodriguez, A; Gomez, E; Vazquez, J M; Martinez, E A; Roca, J

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of L-glutamine (L-Gln) against cryopreservation injuries on boar sperm. In Experiment 1, L-Gln from 20 to 80 mM was evaluated as a supplement for a standard freezing extender (egg yolk - EY - 20%, and glycerol 3%). No significant improvement (P>0.05) was obtained for any post-thaw sperm parameter assessed (objective sperm motility - CASA system - and flow cytometric analysis of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity -SYBR14/PI/PE-PNA- and plasma membrane stability -M540/YoPro1-). In Experiment 2, L-Gln was evaluated as a partial glycerol substitute in the freezing extender. Significant (P<0.05) enhancement of post-thaw sperm motion parameters was achieved in sperm frozen in the presence of 2% glycerol and 80 mM L-Gln compared to control (3% glycerol). In Experiment 3, L-Gln was evaluated as an EY substitute in the freezing extender, and no functional sperm were recovered after thawing sperm frozen in the presence of L-Gln and the absence of EY. In conclusion, L-Gln has the ability to cryoprotect boar sperm when it is used as a partial glycerol substitute in the freezing extender. PMID:19118955

  12. [Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in red foxes and wild boars in the northwestern part of Poland].

    PubMed

    Balicka-Ramisz, A; Grupiński, T; Ramisz, A; Pilarczyk, B; Laurans, L

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to establish in which degree wild boars and red foxes are reservoir of Trichinella spp. in North-West Poland. Research was carried out between 1997 and 2004 on 505 foxes and 56,462 wild boars in muscle samples. The muscle samples were examined using the digestion method. The average prevalence rate of Trichinella spp. infection of foxes was 4.4 %. Large differences of the infection rate in wild boars were observed. In the years 1999-2001 Trichinella spp. larvae were observed in 58 animals (0.2 %) and between 2002 and 2004 the Trichinella spp. prevalence in 227 wild boars was 0.9 %, demonstrating that the animals were 5.1 times more often infected than in 1999-2001. The growth of red fox population after the oral vaccination against rabies was probably the cause of this phenomenon. PMID:17927077

  13. Boar taint compound levels in back fat versus meat products: Do they correlate?

    PubMed

    Wauters, Jella; Vercruysse, Vicky; Aluwé, Marijke; Verplanken, Kaat; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Surgical castration of male pigs will soon be abandoned, turning a major advantage of this practice, the elimination of boar taint, into the biggest challenge for pig industry when raising intact male pigs becomes common practice. To map the (economical) consequences in relation to boar-taint consumer acceptance, as well as offer a processing strategy for tainted carcasses to stockholders, the current study investigated not only back fat boar taint levels, but additionally generated information on the levels of boar taint compounds recovered after the production of commercially relevant meat products using UHPLC-HRMS laboratory analysis. Our results demonstrate that levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in back fat and meat products tend to correlate strongly, particularly in fatty meat products (generally r>0.80). Concentration values in the edible (lean) meat fraction were significantly lower compared to back fat and fat sampled from fresh or processed meat (p<0.05). PMID:27041294

  14. Semen production and fertility issues related to differences in genetic lines of boars.

    PubMed

    Sonderman, J P; Luebbe, J J

    2008-11-01

    Boars have been reported to differ in various characteristics important to productivity of AI units. These aspects include sensitivity to seasonal infertility, ejaculate volume x age interactions, optimum collection frequency, discard (trash) rate of ejaculates, age of puberty, libido and trainability, and semen shelf life. In addition to differences among individual boars, there were also identifiable differences among breeds, between purebreds and crossbreds, and between lines. The percentage of ejaculates discarded varied among seasons and among breeds within season, with maternal purebred lines being the most sensitive to warmer temperatures. These same lines were also slower to mature and produced fewer sperm per ejaculate. Breeds differed in the sustainability of motility in stored extended semen, and in farrowing rates. Boar centers need to factor breed differences into their decision-making processes to ensure adequate boar power and customer satisfaction. PMID:18783820

  15. Sequence-based characterization of five SLA loci in Asian wild boars.

    PubMed

    Jung, W Y; Choi, N R; Seo, D W; Lim, H T; Ho, C S; Lee, J H

    2014-10-01

    Two swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) class I (SLA-1 and SLA-2) and three class II (DRB1, DQB1 and DQA) genes were investigated for their diversity in Asian wild boars using a sequence-based typing method. A total of 15 alleles were detected at these loci, with eleven being novel. The findings provide one of the first glimpses of the SLA allelic diversity and architecture in the wild boar populations.

  16. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on boar spermatozoa quality during freezing-thawing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known as a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar sperm and the antioxidant effect of ALA on boar sperm during freezing-thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0, mg/m...

  17. BAC mediated transgenic Large White boars with FSHα/β genes from Chinese Erhualian pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pan; Li, Qiuyan; Jiang, Kai; Yang, Qiang; Bi, Mingjun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Chengbin; Li, Longyun; Qiao, Chuanmin; Gong, Huanfa; Xing, Yuyun; Ren, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a critical hormone regulating reproduction in mammals. Transgenic mice show that overexpression of FSH can improve female fecundity. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system and somatic cell nuclear transfer, we herein generated 67 Large White transgenic (TG) boars harboring FSHα/β genes from Chinese Erhualian pigs, the most prolific breed in the world. We selected two F0 TG boars for further breeding and conducted molecular characterization and biosafety assessment for F1 boars. We showed that 8-9 copies of exogenous FSHα and 5-6 copies of exogenous FSHβ were integrated into the genome of transgenic pigs. The inheritance of exogenous genes conforms to the Mendel's law of segregation. TG boars had higher levels of serum FSH, FSHα mRNA in multiple tissues, FSHβ protein in pituitary and more germ cells per seminiferous tubule compared with their wild-type half sibs without any reproductive defects. Analysis of growth curve, hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology illustrated that TG boars grew healthily and normally. By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we demonstrated that exogenous genes had no impact on the bacterial community structures of pig guts. Moreover, foreign gene drift did not occur as verified by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings indicate that overexpression of FSH could improve spermatogenesis ability of boars. This work provides insight into the effect of FSHα/β genes on male reproductive performance on pigs by a BAC-mediated transgenic approach. PMID:27229510

  18. Effects of glycerol on apoptotic signaling pathways during boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changjun; Tang, Keyi; He, Lian; Peng, Wenpei; Ding, Li; Fang, Donghui; Zhang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) with post-thawed boar spermatozoa results in low farrowing rates and reduced litter sizes mainly due to cryoinjury or damages to spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Low viability and motility of post-thawed boar spermatozoa are highly associated with apoptosis during cryopreservation. Although glycerol is widely used a cryoprotectant (CPA) for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation, the mechanism and relationship between glycerol and apoptosis-related gene expression needs to be clarified. In this study, we treated boar spermatozoa with different concentrations of glycerol in lactose egg yolk (LEY) extender to evaluate the apoptosis-related gene expression and protease activities of caspases. These results show that: (1) low concentrations of glycerol (2% and 3%) were more suitable for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation; (2) apoptosis-related genes involved in intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor apoptotic signaling pathways were widely expressed in different concentrations of glycerol treated boar spermatozoa; (3) there was a significant positive correlation (r=0.840, P=0.037) between the percentage of Annexin V(+)/PI(+) staining spermatozoa and caspase-6/9 protease activity. In conclusion, 2% and 3% glycerol have the best anti-apoptotic effects, and the expression of Fas/FasL and Bcl-2/Bax have a strong correlation with spermatozoa parameters. PMID:24680861

  19. Increasing storage time of extended boar semen reduces sperm DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, Gry B; Ersbøll, Annette K; Greve, Torben; Christensen, Preben

    2005-04-15

    There is an extensive use of artificial insemination (AI) in the pig industry. Extended liquid boar semen may be used for insemination for up to 5 days after collection. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in sperm quality, when boar semen was extended and stored at 18 degrees C for up to 72 h post-collection. The study included three ejaculates from five boars, for each of the four breeds: Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace and Danish Large White (n=60 ejaculates). The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) showed an increase in DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 72 h of incubation (P<0.001), with no differences between breeds (P=0.07). For two Hampshire boars, all ejaculates had a large increase in DFI after 24 h of incubation. The standard deviation of DFI (SD-DFI) differed between breeds, with the SD-DFI for Hampshire being significantly greater than for the other breeds. The SD-DFI did not change during the 72 h of storage. Sperm viability was determined using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide in combination with flow cytometry. The sperm viability did not differ between breeds (P=0.21), but a difference in viability during storage (P<0.001) was detected. In conclusion, the SCSA cytogram patterns were consistent for different ejaculates within boars and storage of extended boar semen at 18 degrees C for 72 h significantly decreased the integrity of sperm DNA. PMID:15823356

  20. Age-related changes in semen quality characteristics and expectations of reproductive longevity in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Hung; Lo, Ling Ling; Liu, Shyh Hwa; Yang, Tien Shuh

    2010-08-01

    Quadratic fitting was used to regress semen characteristics of 1441 samples consisting of 12-month collection from 58 Duroc boars against animal age varied from 10 to 80 months. Data was divided into two groups of cool (14.0-22.7 degrees C, RH 81.5%) and hot season (22.9-29.9 degrees C, RH 86.6%), to test effects of age, season and their interactions. Results revealed that young boars of around 1 year old could endure the hot season. The endurance gradually diminished as animals grew. In the hot season animals exhibited peak performance at age around 33 month and it remained for 1 month, while cool-season kept boars could last for 48 months from 16 months old onward. The reproductive longevity should be 51 month in a subtropical environment and it may extend to 70 month if heat stress can be avoided. The estimated total sperm contribution of a Duroc boar would be 1.8 times more when kept below 22 degrees C than in a natural subtropical environment. It is concluded that to maintain Duroc boars as semen donor to at least 4 years of age is feasible in a subtropical environment and boar longevity could reach 6 years old if well kept in a temperate region. PMID:20662811

  1. Aquaporins 7 and 11 in boar spermatozoa: detection, localisation and relationship with sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Vilagran, Ingrid; Morató, Roser; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane water channels that allow transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Although water permeability is known to play a critical role in mammalian cells, including spermatozoa, little is known about their localisation in boar spermatozoa. Two aquaporins, AQP7 and AQP11, in boar spermatozoa were identified by western blotting and localised through immunocytochemistry analyses. Western blot results showed that boar spermatozoa expressed AQP7 (25kDa) and AQP11 (50kDa). Immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that AQP7 was localised in the connecting piece of boar spermatozoa, while AQP11 was found in the head and mid-piece and diffuse labelling was also seen along the tail. Despite differences in AQP7 and AQP11 content between boar ejaculates, these differences were not found to be correlated with sperm quality in the case of AQP7. Conversely, AQP11 content showed a significant correlation (P<0.05) with sperm membrane integrity and fluidity and sperm motility. In conclusion, boar spermatozoa express AQP7 and AQP11, and the amounts of AQP11 but not those of AQP7 are correlated with sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  2. Challenges and Limits Using Antimicrobial Peptides in Boar Semen Preservation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Grobbel, M; Müller, K; Junkes, C; Dathe, M; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are of great importance for the preservation of ejaculates for livestock breading. The use of antibiotics, however, is not an appropriate compensation for a lack of hygiene standards in artificial insemination (AI) centres. Sophisticated hygiene management and the proper identification of hygienic critical control points (HCCPs) at AI centres provide the basis for counteracting the development of antibiotic resistance in contaminant bacteria and their settlement in AI centres. In recent years, efforts have been made to use antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the preservation of boar semen. Investigations have included the testing of synthetic magainin derivatives and cyclic hexapeptides. One prerequisite for the application of AMPs is that they have a minor impact on eukaryotic cells. Bacterial selectivity, proteolytic stability, thermodynamic resistance, and mechanisms including synergistic interaction with conventional antibiotics have made cyclic hexapeptides highly promising candidates for potential application as peptide antibiotics for semen preservation. PMID:26174913

  3. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation. PMID:27556478

  4. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France.

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%-31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%-56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%-91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation. PMID:27556478

  5. Season of ejaculate collection influences the freezability of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Ortega, Maria D; Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether the season of ejaculate collection influences the freezability of porcine sperm. A total of 434 ejaculates were collected from boars of six different breeds over three years (2008-2011) and throughout the four seasons of the year identified in the northern hemisphere (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The ejaculates were cryopreserved using a standard 0.5 mL straw freezing protocol. Sperm quality was assessed before (fresh semen samples kept 24h at 17°C) and after freezing and thawing (at 30 and 150 min post-thawing in semen samples kept in a water bath at 37 °C), according to the percentages of total motility, as assessed by the CASA system, and viability, as assessed by flow cytometry after staining with SYBR-14, PI and PE-PNA. The data, in percentages, on sperm motility and viability after freezing and thawing were obtained at each evaluation time (recovered) and were normalized to the values before freezing (normalized). The season of ejaculate collection influenced (P<0.01) sperm quality before freezing and after thawing (recovered and normalized), irrespective of the breed of boar. Sperm quality was lower in summer, both in terms of motility and viability, and in autumn, in terms of motility, than in winter and spring. Seasonality in the normalized data indicates that the season of ejaculate collection influences sperm freezability, regardless of the season's influence on sperm quality before freezing. Consequently, the spermatozoa from ejaculates collected during summer and, to a lesser extent, also in autumn, are more sensitive to cryopreservation than those from ejaculates collected during winter and spring. PMID:24045067

  6. Energy metabolism and intracellular pH in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kamp, G; Büsselmann, G; Jones, N; Wiesner, B; Lauterwein, J

    2003-10-01

    The effect of energy metabolism on intracellular pH was studied in boar spermatozoa using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and confocal microscopy with the pH-sensitive dye seminaphthorhodafluor (SNARF-1). Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa had a high adenylate energy charge (AEC=0.8), which decreased to 0.6 under aerobic conditions and to 0.2 under anaerobic conditions. Correspondingly, no ATP resonances but high AMP resonance were visible in (31)P-NMR-spectra of the spermatozoa. When an artificial oxygen buffer (Fluosol) and a purpose-built air supply system were used during (31)P-NMR data acquisition, ATP resonances reappeared whereas the AMP resonance disappeared. Boar spermatozoa kept under aerobic conditions have intracellular compartments that differ markedly in pH, as demonstrated by both (31)P-NMR spectroscopy and confocal microscopy. Using confocal microscopy, the midpiece of the flagellum in which all mitochondria are located was identified as an acidic compartment (pH(i-mp) 6.7). The intracellular pH of both the head (pH(i-h)) and the long principal piece of the flagellum (pH(i-pp)) were 7.2 and, thus, only slightly below the extracellular pH (pH(e) 7.3). Storage of spermatozoa in a glucose-free medium at 15 degrees C when they are immotile slowly shifted the pH(i-mp) from 6.7 to 6.9 within 20 h, whereas pH(i-h) and pH(i-pp) remained unchanged (pH 7.1-7.2). When glucose was present in the medium, all visible compartments of the spermatozoa as well as the medium were acidified to pH 6.2 within 20 h. Under these conditions a resonance at 4.8 mg kg(-1) appeared representing glycerol 3-phosphate.

  7. DNA extraction from skins of wild (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Pecari tajacu) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) species using a novel protocol.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, G N; Amavet, P S; Rueda, E C; Siroski, P A

    2012-03-19

    Sometimes, commercial products obtained from wild animals are sold as if they were from domestic animals and vice versa. At this point of the productive chain, legal control of possible wildlife products is difficult. Common in the commerce of northern Argentina, skins of two wild species, the carpincho and the collared peccary, look very similar to each other and to those of the domestic pig; it is extremely difficult to differentiate them after they have been tanned. Because there was no an adequate methodology to discriminate between leather of these three species, we developed a new methodology of DNA extraction from skin and leather. This new method involves digesting a leather sample using proteinase K, followed by precipitation of proteins with 5 M NaCl, cleaning with absolute isopropanol and DNA precipitation with 70% ethanol. DNA is hydrated in Tris-EDTA buffer. This protocol provided good-quality DNA suitable for analysis with molecular markers. This new protocol has potential for use in identifying leather products of these species using molecular markers based on RAPDs.

  8. DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) induced delay of blowfly landing and oviposition rates on treated pig carrion (Sus scrofa L.).

    PubMed

    Shelomi, Matan; Matern, Leia M; Dinstell, Jenna M; Harris, Daren W; Kimsey, Robert B

    2012-11-01

    The question of whether the insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) affected fly attraction, oviposition, and larval development was investigated; in part, to determine whether the common habit of wearing DEET as a repellent could affect the rate of human decomposition. Experiments using pig surrogates of human decedents were carried out in a rural environment. Dead piglets were sprayed with DEET, and fly behavior, colonization levels, and maggot development were compared with those in nonsprayed controls. Piglets treated with DEET experienced significant delays in fly visitation and oviposition and delayed appearance of each larval instar, as well as reduced total larval numbers (p < 0.01 for all variables), with subsequently reduced decomposition (p < 0.05). Such changes in fly behavior and larval population development would significantly impact the estimation of the period following the death from entomological evidence in decedents wearing DEET at the time of their death.

  9. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  10. Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life. PMID:17274259

  11. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus) and pig (Sus scrofa) domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    PubMed

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9(th)-8(th) millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th) millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Pig (Sus scrofa) Olfactory Soluble Proteome Reveals O-Linked-N-Acetylglucosaminylation of Secreted Odorant-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Vercoutter-Edouart, Anne-Sophie; Hilliou, Frédérique; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Lévy, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs) is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT) was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination. PMID:25538681

  13. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...

  14. Humans (Homo sapiens) judge the emotional content of piglet (Sus scrofa domestica) calls based on simple acoustic parameters, not personality, empathy, nor attitude toward animals.

    PubMed

    Maruščáková, Iva L; Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Tallet, Céline; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The vocal expression of emotion is likely driven by shared physiological principles among species. However, which acoustic features promote decoding of emotional state and how the decoding is affected by their listener's psychology remain poorly understood. Here we tested how acoustic features of piglet vocalizations interact with psychological profiles of human listeners to affect judgments of emotional content of heterospecific vocalizations. We played back 48 piglet call sequences recorded in four different contexts (castration, isolation, reunion, nursing) to 60 listeners. Listeners judged the emotional intensity and valence of the recordings and were further asked to attribute a context of emission from four proposed contexts. Furthermore, listeners completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality (NEO-FFI personality inventory), empathy [Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] and attitudes to animals (Animal Attitudes Scale). None of the listeners' psychological traits affected the judgments. On the contrary, acoustic properties of recordings had a substantial effect on ratings. Recordings were rated as more intense with increasing pitch (mean fundamental frequency) and increasing proportion of vocalized sound within each stimulus recording and more negative with increasing pitch and increasing duration of the calls within the recording. More complex acoustic properties (jitter, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and presence of subharmonics) did not seem to affect the judgments. The probability of correct context recognition correlated positively with the assessed emotion intensity for castration and reunion calls, and negatively for nursing calls. In conclusion, listeners judged emotions from pig calls using simple acoustic properties and the perceived emotional intensity might guide the identification of the context.

  15. Tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine and tetracycline hydrochloride of swine (Sus scrofa domestica) as it relates to withdrawal methods for international export.

    PubMed

    Mason, Sharon E; Wu, Huali; Yeatts, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-04-01

    The use of water medications is a common practice in the US swine industry to treat and prevent infections in swine herds with minimal labor and without risk of needle breakage. There are concerns that FDA-approved withdrawal times (WDT) may be inadequate for several water medications when exporting pork products to countries where MRLs (maximum residue limits) are lower than US tolerance levels. In this study, withdrawal intervals (WDI) were estimated for pigs when dosed with tetracycline and sulfamethazine in water. The WDI were calculated using the FDA tolerance method (TLM) and a population-based pharmacokinetic method (PopPK). The estimated WDIs (14-16 days using TLM) were similar to the approved WDT of 15 days for sulfamethazine. However, the PopPK method extended WDIs for both sulfamethazine (19-20 days) and tetracycline (12 days) compared to the currently approved WDTs in the U.S. This study also identified potential differences in WDI between weanling and finisher pigs. In conclusion, the TLM may not always provide adequate WDT for foreign export markets especially when MRLs differ from tolerance levels approved for US markets. However, PopPK methods can provide conservative WDIs in situations with considerable variability in medication exposure such as with administration in water.

  16. Identification and differential expression of microRNAs in the ovaries of pigs (Sus scrofa) with high and low litter sizes.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Yin, Z J; Feng, Y F; Zhang, X D; Wu, T; Ding, Y Y; Ye, P F; Fu, K; Zhang, M Q

    2016-10-01

    Litter size affects profitability in the swine industry. Mammalian ovaries play important roles during reproduction, including ovulation and hormone secretion, which are tightly regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we investigated the effects of specific miRNAs on porcine litter size. We compared the ovarian miRNAs of Yorkshire pigs with high (YH) and low (YL) litter sizes using Solexa sequencing technology. We identified 327 and 320 miRNAs in the ovaries of YH and YL pigs respectively. A total of 297 miRNAs were co-expressed; 30 and 23 miRNAs respectively were specifically expressed in the two libraries. A total of 83 novel miRNAs were predicted; 37 specific miRNAs were obtained, of which 21 miRNAs were upregulated and 16 miRNAs were downregulated in YH compared with YL. Additionally, 19 628 and 19 250 target genes were predicted in the two libraries respectively. The results revealed that specific miRNAs (i.e., miR-224, miR-99a, let-7c, miR-181c, miR-214 and miR-21) may affect porcine litter size. The results of this study will help in gaining understanding of the role of miRNAs in porcine litter size regulation. PMID:27435155

  17. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  18. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management. PMID:27246576

  19. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica)—Neuronal Tracing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zalecki, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6) and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6). Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle). After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV – 7.5cm) starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs. Conclusions/Significance Obtained results revealed for the first time significant impact of antral ulcerations on intramural descending nerve pathways supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs, animals of increasing value in biomedical research and great economic importance. PMID:25962176

  20. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars.

    PubMed

    Strathe, A B; Velander, I H; Mark, T; Ostersen, T; Hansen, C; Kadarmideen, H N

    2013-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding selection against the boar taint compounds, androstenone and skatole, due to potential unfavorable genetic correlations with important male fertility traits (i.e., selection of boars with low levels of these boar taint compounds might also reduce male fertility). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars, respectively. The litter size traits, such as total number born, live piglets at d 5, and piglet survival until d 5 on relatives of the slaughter boars, were extracted from the Danish Landrace breeding program, yielding 35,715 records. Semen volume, sperm concentration, subjective sperm quality score, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models. Skatole and androstenone concentrations were moderate to highly heritable (i.e., 0.33 and 0.59, respectively). The genetic correlation between the two compounds was moderate (0.40). Genetic variance of sperm production per ejaculate increased during the productive life of the boar, resulting in heritability estimates increasing from 0.18 to 0.31. Genetic correlations between sperm production per ejaculate at different ages were high and generally larger than 0.8, indicating that later genetic merit can be predicted from records at an early age. The heritability (based on service-sire genetic component) of both total number of piglets born and survival to d 5 were 0.02, and the correlation between these effects and the additive genetic effect on boar taint ranged from 0.05 to -0

  1. Comparative effects of autologous and homologous seminal plasma on the viability of largely extended boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Caballero, I; Vazquez, J M; Centurión, F; Rodríguez-Martinez, H; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Martinez, E A

    2004-10-01

    Sperm handling, associated to artificial reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or the use of flow cytometry for cell analysis or sorting imposes volumetric extension of the sperm suspension and decreases sperm viability, presumably because of the removal of seminal plasma (SP) components. This study evaluated whether a 10% v/v of autologous SP (retrieved from the same donor boar) or homologous SP (e.g. from any of the four fertile boars included, other than the one providing the spermatozoa) would differently affect the viability of boar spermatozoa subjected to large extension in a simple saline medium [phosphate-buffered saline and 0.1% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), PBSm] to a concentration of 0.3 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and incubated for 2 h at 30 degrees C. Sperm viability was monitored as membrane integrity [using the fluorophore carboxyfluorescein diacetate (C-FDA) and propidium iodide (PI)], mitochondrial function (using the fluorophore R-123) and motility characteristics [using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA)]. Substraction of the SP and extension followed by incubation in PBSm significantly (p < 0.05) decreased sperm viability, which could be restored by addition of autologous SP. Furthermore, exposure of the extended spermatozoa to homologous SP (from any other individual boar) significantly (p < 0.05) varied with the source of the sire; some boars exerting beneficial effects (even surpassing the effects of the autologous SP; p < 0.05) while at least one boar negatively (p < 0.05) influencing the viability of the incubated spermatozoa. It is concluded that SP should be present when incubating highly extended spermatozoa. As a result of the obvious differences among boars, it would be advantageous to examine the ability of SP to maintain sperm viability prior to the use of SP pools during sperm handling in vitro. PMID:15367272

  2. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on sperm capacitation and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have reported the detrimental effects that bacteriospermia causes on boar sperm quality, but little is known about its effects on IVC. Considering that, the present study sought to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different indicators of capacitation status (sperm viability, membrane lipid disorder, sperm motility kinematics, and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa) after IVC. Flow cytometry and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed that the presence of P aeruginosa in boar sperm samples, mostly at concentrations greater than 10(6) CFU/mL, is associated with a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the percentages of both sperm membrane integrity and sperm with low membrane lipid disorder, and also with a reduction in sperm motility kinetic parameters when compared with results obtained from the control sample, which presented the typical motility pattern of capacitated-like boar spermatozoa. Moreover, Western blot results also showed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the levels of tyrosine, serine, and threonine protein phosphorylation because of bacterial contamination, the decrease in phosphotyrosine levels of p32, a well-known marker of IVC achievement in boar sperm, being the most relevant. Indeed, after 3 hours of IVC, phosphotyrosine levels of p32 in the control sample were 3.13 ± 0.81, whereas in the tubes with 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/mL were 1.05 ± 0.20 and 0.36 ± 0.07, respectively. Therefore, the present study provides novel data regarding the effects of bacterial contamination on boar sperm, suggesting that the presence of P aeruginosa affects the fertilizing ability of boar sperm by altering its ability to accomplish IVC.

  3. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe. PMID:26344041

  4. Genetic relationships between measures of sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness in pigs.

    PubMed

    Parois, S P; Prunier, A; Mercat, M J; Merlot, E; Larzul, C

    2015-08-01

    Breeding intact boars is a promising alternative to surgical castration of piglets. Genetic selection should enable farmers to solve problems due to boar taint and aggressiveness while taking into account potential consequences on other traits of interest. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic relations between sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness. About 1,600 Pietrain (purebred) or Pietrain × Large White (crossbred) boars were raised in a testing station. Blood samples were collected at about 105 kg BW for measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and indicators of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein [CRP], pig major acute-phase protein [pigMAP], and blood formula). Animals were slaughtered 9 d later and measured for boar taint compounds present in fat (androstenone and skatole) and skin lesions on carcass, an indicator of aggressiveness. For both genetic types, heritability was moderate for sex hormones (from 0.17 to 0.29) and skatole (0.24 for purebred and 0.37 for crossbred) and high for androstenone (0.63 and 0.70 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Genetic correlations between sex hormones and boar taint compounds were moderate to high (from 0.31 to 0.95). Heritability was moderate for CRP (0.24 and 0.46 for purebred and crossbred, respectively) and very low for pigMAP (0.06 and 0.05 for purebred and crossbred, respectively. Numbers of leukocytes had moderate to high heritabilities according to the genetic type (from 0.21 to 0.52). Heritability of skin lesions was moderate for both genetic types (0.31). Genetic correlations were negative between sex hormones and inflammatory measures (from -0.46 to -0.05), positive between testosterone and number of lesions (0.43 and 0.53 for purebred and crossbred, respectively), and low between androstenone and lesions (-0.06 and -0.17 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Overall, both breeds of pigs had very similar estimations of heritabilities, but estimates of

  5. Genetic relationships between measures of sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness in pigs.

    PubMed

    Parois, S P; Prunier, A; Mercat, M J; Merlot, E; Larzul, C

    2015-08-01

    Breeding intact boars is a promising alternative to surgical castration of piglets. Genetic selection should enable farmers to solve problems due to boar taint and aggressiveness while taking into account potential consequences on other traits of interest. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic relations between sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness. About 1,600 Pietrain (purebred) or Pietrain × Large White (crossbred) boars were raised in a testing station. Blood samples were collected at about 105 kg BW for measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and indicators of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein [CRP], pig major acute-phase protein [pigMAP], and blood formula). Animals were slaughtered 9 d later and measured for boar taint compounds present in fat (androstenone and skatole) and skin lesions on carcass, an indicator of aggressiveness. For both genetic types, heritability was moderate for sex hormones (from 0.17 to 0.29) and skatole (0.24 for purebred and 0.37 for crossbred) and high for androstenone (0.63 and 0.70 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Genetic correlations between sex hormones and boar taint compounds were moderate to high (from 0.31 to 0.95). Heritability was moderate for CRP (0.24 and 0.46 for purebred and crossbred, respectively) and very low for pigMAP (0.06 and 0.05 for purebred and crossbred, respectively. Numbers of leukocytes had moderate to high heritabilities according to the genetic type (from 0.21 to 0.52). Heritability of skin lesions was moderate for both genetic types (0.31). Genetic correlations were negative between sex hormones and inflammatory measures (from -0.46 to -0.05), positive between testosterone and number of lesions (0.43 and 0.53 for purebred and crossbred, respectively), and low between androstenone and lesions (-0.06 and -0.17 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Overall, both breeds of pigs had very similar estimations of heritabilities, but estimates of

  6. Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza pigs have a European ancestry and harbour genetic signatures compatible with past population bottlenecks

    PubMed Central

    Manunza, A.; Amills, M.; Noce, A.; Cabrera, B.; Zidi, A.; Eghbalsaied, S.; de Albornoz, E. Carrillo; Portell, M.; Mercadé, A.; Sànchez, A.; Balteanu, V.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the genetic diversity of Romanian wild boars and to compare it with that from other wild boar and pig populations from Europe and Asia. Partial sequencing of the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b (MT-CYB) gene from 36 Romanian wild boars and 36 domestic pigs (Mangalitza, Bazna and Vietnamese breeds) showed that the diversity of Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza pigs is fairly reduced, and that most of the members of these two populations share a common MT-CYB haplotype. Besides, in strong contrast with the Bazna animals, Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza swine did not carry Asian variants at the MT-CYB locus. The autosomal genotyping of 18 Romanian wild boars with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip revealed that their genetic background is fundamentally European, even though signs of a potential Near Eastern ancestry (~25%) were detectable at K = 4 (the most significant number of clusters), but not at higher K-values. Admixture analysis also showed that two wild boars are of a hybrid origin, which could be explained by the mating of feral animals with domestic pigs. Finally, a number of Romanian wild boars displayed long runs of homozygosity, an observation that is consistent with the occurrence of past population bottlenecks and the raise of inbreeding possibly due to overhunting or to the outbreak of infectious diseases. PMID:27418428

  7. Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

    PubMed

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Navarro-González, Nora; Velarde, Roser; Mateos, Ana; Marco, Ignasi; Olivé-Boix, Xavier; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed. PMID:24558435

  8. Long-Term Assessment of Wild Boar Harvesting and Cattle Removal for Bovine Tuberculosis Control in Free Ranging Populations

    PubMed Central

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Navarro-González, Nora; Velarde, Roser; Mateos, Ana; Marco, Ignasi; Olivé-Boix, Xavier; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed. PMID:24558435

  9. Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza pigs have a European ancestry and harbour genetic signatures compatible with past population bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Manunza, A; Amills, M; Noce, A; Cabrera, B; Zidi, A; Eghbalsaied, S; de Albornoz, E Carrillo; Portell, M; Mercadé, A; Sànchez, A; Balteanu, V

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the genetic diversity of Romanian wild boars and to compare it with that from other wild boar and pig populations from Europe and Asia. Partial sequencing of the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b (MT-CYB) gene from 36 Romanian wild boars and 36 domestic pigs (Mangalitza, Bazna and Vietnamese breeds) showed that the diversity of Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza pigs is fairly reduced, and that most of the members of these two populations share a common MT-CYB haplotype. Besides, in strong contrast with the Bazna animals, Romanian wild boars and Mangalitza swine did not carry Asian variants at the MT-CYB locus. The autosomal genotyping of 18 Romanian wild boars with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip revealed that their genetic background is fundamentally European, even though signs of a potential Near Eastern ancestry (~25%) were detectable at K = 4 (the most significant number of clusters), but not at higher K-values. Admixture analysis also showed that two wild boars are of a hybrid origin, which could be explained by the mating of feral animals with domestic pigs. Finally, a number of Romanian wild boars displayed long runs of homozygosity, an observation that is consistent with the occurrence of past population bottlenecks and the raise of inbreeding possibly due to overhunting or to the outbreak of infectious diseases. PMID:27418428

  10. Relationship of flow cytometric sperm integrity assessments with boar fertility performance under optimized field conditions.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Šoštarić, E; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2012-12-01

    The number of intact and functional spermatozoa in semen can be assessed with flow cytometry and is believed to relate to male fertility. The aim of this study was to examine whether currently used sperm integrity assessments with flow cytometry correlate with field fertility data obtained for boar semen. For this purpose, 20 boars were followed for a 20-wk period (with a total average production of 33 ejaculates per boar) and the obtained fertility results (farrowing rate and number of piglets born) of commercial artificial insemination doses made from these ejaculates were recorded. Fertility results were corrected for farm, sow, boar, and semen-related parameters. From the same semen samples, sperm cell integrity was assessed with respect to DNA and to membrane integrity, acrosome intactness and responsiveness, and mitochondrial potential using established flow cytometric assays. This was done on freshly produced semen and on semen stored for up to 15 d. Remarkably, none of the individual membrane integrity variables was significantly related to fertility results. In contrast, the amount of DNA damage as assessed at 7 to 10 d and at 14 to 15 d of semen storage related to farrowing rate (P = 0.0400) and total number of piglets born (P = 0.0310), respectively. Therefore, the degree of DNA damage in stored boar semen samples may be a useful factor to evaluate semen as an indicator for litter size and farrowing rate. PMID:23255815

  11. Cytogenetic analysis of somatic and germinal cells from 38,XX/38,XY phenotypically normal boars.

    PubMed

    Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Mary, Nicolas; Cucchi, Marie Adélaïde; Lucena, Amalia Naranjo; Letron, Isabelle Raymond; Calgaro, Anne; Bonnet, Nathalie; Dudez, Anne Marie; Yerle, Martine; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain

    2014-01-15

    Many chromosomal abnormalities have been reported to date in pigs. Most of them have been balanced structural rearrangements, especially reciprocal translocations. A few cases of XY/XX chimerism have also been diagnosed within the national systematic chromosomal control program of young purebred boars carried out in France. Until now, this kind of chromosomal abnormality has been mainly reported in intersex individuals. We investigated 38,XY/38,XX boars presenting apparently normal phenotypes to evaluate the potential effects of this particular chromosomal constitution on their reproductive performance. To do this, we analyzed (1) the chromosomal constitution of cells from different organs in one boar; (2) the aneuploidy rates for chromosomes X, Y, and 13 in sperm nuclei sampled from seven XY/XX boars. 2n = 38,XX cells were identified in different nonhematopoietic tissues including testis (frequency, <8%). Similar aneuploidy rates were observed in the sperm nuclei of XY/XX and normal individuals (controls). Altogether, these results suggest that the presence of XX cells had no or only a very limited effect on the reproduction abilities of the analyzed boars.

  12. Suppression of boar taint in cryptorchid pigs using a vaccine against the gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, A; Ampuero Kragten, S

    2013-12-01

    Thirteen unilaterally cryptorchid Large White pigs, which had been immunized at 4 and 8 weeks of age and a third time at 64 ± 4 kg body weight against the gonadotropin releasing hormone with the vaccine Improvac®, were slaughtered at the age of 170 ± 9 days at a body weight of 102 ± 12 kg. Twelve pigs tested negative in the olfactory test of the salivary gland; their descended testicles were small and their fat androstenone concentration was low compared to normally developed boars of a previous experiment which had been vaccinated twice with Improvac® according the manufacturer's recommendation. One cryptorchid boar, which tested positive in the olfactory test and whose testicular weight and fat androstenone concentration corresponded to values of unvaccinated boars of the same age, obviously had not responded to the vaccination. It is an open question if the vaccination protocol for normal boars is sufficient to prevent boar taint in the majority of cryptorchid pigs, too.

  13. Effects of Improvac and Bopriva on the testicular function of boars ten weeks after immunization.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Nicholas; Crouch, Spencer; Pearl, Christopher A

    2013-11-30

    This study investigated the effects of Improvac and Bopriva, two anti-GnRF immunization products, on testicular function in boars. We predicted that both products would diminish testicular function; however, we specifically tested the hypothesis that the duration of efficacy for Bopriva would be longer than that of Improvac. Animals were immunized with either Improvac or Bopriva and then observed ten weeks after the second injection. Serum GnRF antibody titers rose after the second injection and peaked approximately two weeks later. At the same time testosterone concentrations decreased to undetectable levels and remained below assay detection for at least six weeks. At approximately eight weeks, testosterone began to increase in animals treated with Improvac though levels remained decreased in Bopriva treated animals throughout the ten weeks. Daily sperm production at 10 weeks was significantly reduced in both treatment groups; however, the reduction was greater in Bopriva treated boars. Examination of testes of both treatments revealed incomplete spermatogenesis with impaired spermatid production and reduced seminiferous tubule diameter. These findings were universal in Bopriva treated animals, but Improvac treated animals exhibited morphologies intermediate between Bopriva treated animals and control boars. Overall testicular function in Bopriva boars remained suppressed ten weeks post-immunization while Improvac boars appeared to be recovering. PMID:24139761

  14. Suppression of boar taint in cryptorchid pigs using a vaccine against the gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, A; Ampuero Kragten, S

    2013-12-01

    Thirteen unilaterally cryptorchid Large White pigs, which had been immunized at 4 and 8 weeks of age and a third time at 64 ± 4 kg body weight against the gonadotropin releasing hormone with the vaccine Improvac®, were slaughtered at the age of 170 ± 9 days at a body weight of 102 ± 12 kg. Twelve pigs tested negative in the olfactory test of the salivary gland; their descended testicles were small and their fat androstenone concentration was low compared to normally developed boars of a previous experiment which had been vaccinated twice with Improvac® according the manufacturer's recommendation. One cryptorchid boar, which tested positive in the olfactory test and whose testicular weight and fat androstenone concentration corresponded to values of unvaccinated boars of the same age, obviously had not responded to the vaccination. It is an open question if the vaccination protocol for normal boars is sufficient to prevent boar taint in the majority of cryptorchid pigs, too. PMID:24297842

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars.

  16. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  17. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Lervik, S; Kristoffersen, A B; Conley, L N; Oskam, I C; Hedegaard, J; Ropstad, E; Olsaker, I

    2015-11-01

    Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes at 12, 16, 20 and 27 weeks was investigated using a porcine cDNA microarray. The morphological status and androgenic levels of the same individuals have been described in a previous publication. In the present paper, expression of genes and pathways has been analysed with reference to these findings. Nine clusters of genes with significant differential expression over time and 49 functional charts were found in the analysed testis samples. Prominent pathways in the prepubertal testis were associated with tissue renewal, cell respiration and increased endocytocis. E-cadherines may be associated with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways coincided with the morphological onset of puberty. Puberty-related change in Ca(2+) pathway transcripts, neurosteroids, neuronal changes and signalling in redox pathways suggested a developmental-specific period of neuromorphogenesis. Several growth factors were found to increase differentially over time as the testis matured. There may be interactions between MAPK, STAR and growth factors during specific periods. In conclusion, pathways for neurogenesis, morphological pathways and several transcripts for growth factors, which have known modulating effects on steroidogenesis and gonadotropins in humans and rodents, act at specific ages and developmental stages in the boar testis. The age dependency and complexity shown for development-specific testis transcripts must be considered

  18. Increasing circulation of Alaria alata mesocercaria in wild boar populations of the Rhine valley, France, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Portier, Julien; Vallée, Isabelle; Lacour, Sandrine A; Martin-Schaller, Régine; Ferté, Hubert; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-31

    The presence of the mesocercarial stage of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in wild boar meat represents a potential risk for human, but little is known about the circulation of mesocercaria in wild boar populations. Routine Trichinella inspection, mandatorily performed in wild boar in France, also allowed detecting mesocercaria. We analyzed the results of this detection in the carcasses of 27,582 wild boars hunted in 2007-2011, in 502 hunting areas of the Rhine valley. Prevalence was globally low (0.6%), but 12% of the hunting areas were affected. These were clustered in lowlands of the Rhine valley, and prevalence strongly decreased with increasing elevation. In the lowlands, prevalence doubled between 2007 and 2011. This time trend and the geographic aggregation of positive wild boars suggest risk management measures based on targeted surveillance, control and prevention.

  19. Strategic use of anti-GnRH vaccine allowing selection of breeding boars without adverse effects on reproductive or production performances.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Claudio; Ollila, Anna; Andersson, Magnus; Heinonen, Mari; Voutila, Liisa; Serenius, Timo; Peltoniemi, Olli

    2016-02-01

    Boar stations raise only entire male pigs for selection as reproductive boars, but the majority of them will fail the selection process, ending at slaughter with a high risk of boar tainted meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Improvac given to 16-week old boars had a negative effect on their subsequent sperm numbers and motility in 16 artificial insemination boars. We also aimed to generate more knowledge on incidence of boar taint at slaughter among Finnish pigs, compare production performances as average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass and meat quality (lean meat percentage, back fat, pH, color, androstenone, and skatole) of immunocastrated boars (n = 248) with those of entire boars (n = 268). Moreover, we aimed also to explore whether a fat biopsy taken at 16 weeks of age could already reveal the presence of boar taint compounds and be predictive of boar taint development at slaughter age. We found that 32% of entire boars (Figen Landrace, Figen Large White, and their crossbreed) slaughtered at an age of 25 weeks presented levels of androstenone and/or skatole above the threshold for boar taint in their meat. These boars (control) had higher androstenone and skatole levels in the back fat samples at slaughter (0.77 ± 0.55 and 0.09 ± 0.06 μg/g, respectively, mean ± standard deviation) than those in the immuno group (0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g, respectively, P < 0.001). A single dose of anti-GnRH vaccine, given at 16 weeks of age, did not affect future sperm numbers and motility of boars selected for artificial insemination. We found no difference in the levels of testosterone, anti-GnRH antibodies titers, testicle morphology, and sperm numbers and motility between the boars vaccinated once, at 16 weeks of age, with anti-GnRH vaccine and the control boars (no vaccination). There were no differences in average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, and back fat between the

  20. Strategic use of anti-GnRH vaccine allowing selection of breeding boars without adverse effects on reproductive or production performances.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Claudio; Ollila, Anna; Andersson, Magnus; Heinonen, Mari; Voutila, Liisa; Serenius, Timo; Peltoniemi, Olli

    2016-02-01

    Boar stations raise only entire male pigs for selection as reproductive boars, but the majority of them will fail the selection process, ending at slaughter with a high risk of boar tainted meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Improvac given to 16-week old boars had a negative effect on their subsequent sperm numbers and motility in 16 artificial insemination boars. We also aimed to generate more knowledge on incidence of boar taint at slaughter among Finnish pigs, compare production performances as average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass and meat quality (lean meat percentage, back fat, pH, color, androstenone, and skatole) of immunocastrated boars (n = 248) with those of entire boars (n = 268). Moreover, we aimed also to explore whether a fat biopsy taken at 16 weeks of age could already reveal the presence of boar taint compounds and be predictive of boar taint development at slaughter age. We found that 32% of entire boars (Figen Landrace, Figen Large White, and their crossbreed) slaughtered at an age of 25 weeks presented levels of androstenone and/or skatole above the threshold for boar taint in their meat. These boars (control) had higher androstenone and skatole levels in the back fat samples at slaughter (0.77 ± 0.55 and 0.09 ± 0.06 μg/g, respectively, mean ± standard deviation) than those in the immuno group (0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g, respectively, P < 0.001). A single dose of anti-GnRH vaccine, given at 16 weeks of age, did not affect future sperm numbers and motility of boars selected for artificial insemination. We found no difference in the levels of testosterone, anti-GnRH antibodies titers, testicle morphology, and sperm numbers and motility between the boars vaccinated once, at 16 weeks of age, with anti-GnRH vaccine and the control boars (no vaccination). There were no differences in average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, and back fat between the

  1. A simple osmotic stress test to predict boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Perez, Cesar; Flores, Hector F; Medrano, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    This work was carried out to test whether viability of pig spermatozoa subjected to an osmotic test is correlated to sperm cryosurvival. Spermatozoa were cooled from 22 degrees C to -5 degrees C, aliquots were exposed to a series of hyperosmotic solutions (300-2100 mOsm/kg) for 15 min, immediately spermatozoa were re-warmed to 37 degrees C and isosmolarity was restored. Spermatozoa were cooled from 22 degrees C to -5 degrees C and one aliquot was exposed to the osmotic test while diluted spermatozoa were frozen-thawed. Plasma membrane-intact spermatozoa decreased as osmolarity increased (P < 0.0001), a further decreased (P < 0.0001) was observed when isotonicity was restored. Proportions of plasma membrane-intact and acrosome-intact cells from the osmotic test were no different from those after freeze-thawing: 36% vs. 35%, 80% vs. 80%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the proportion of acrosome-intact cells after freeze-thawing and that from the osmotic test (r = 0.81, P <0.01). This test provides a useful and economical mean to predict in vitro boar sperm cryosurvival.

  2. Fusion of Boar Sperm with Nanoliposomes Prepared from Synthetic Phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, V R; Buhr, M M

    2016-08-01

    Liposomes are artificial membrane vesicles that can be used to test and model the functions and interactions of various biological membranes, or as a carrier system to deliver biologically active substances into the cells, or to incorporate lipids into the plasma membrane of target cells to modify membrane structure-function relationships. Sperm plasma membrane undergoes lipid modification during maturation in epididymis and during capacitation in the female reproductive tract to facilitate fertilization. Natural variation in the amounts and composition of lipids in the sperm plasma membrane may also contribute to the species-specific sperm sensitivities to handling and storage conditions. Boar sperm are notoriously susceptible to membrane damage and are resistant to compositional alteration by artificial liposomes. This study used flow cytometry to demonstrate stable incorporation of nanoliposomes prepared from a complex mixture of various phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine : phosphatidylethanolamine : sphingomyelin : phosphatidylserine : phosphatidylinositol) with high fusion efficiency. Over 90% of sperm rapidly took up fluorescently labelled liposomes and retained the lipids for at least 60 min, in a significant time- and concentration-dependent manner. This unique fusion efficacy could be used to alter sperm plasma membrane composition and hence membrane-based functional responses. PMID:27217373

  3. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    PubMed

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  4. Fusion of Boar Sperm with Nanoliposomes Prepared from Synthetic Phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, V R; Buhr, M M

    2016-08-01

    Liposomes are artificial membrane vesicles that can be used to test and model the functions and interactions of various biological membranes, or as a carrier system to deliver biologically active substances into the cells, or to incorporate lipids into the plasma membrane of target cells to modify membrane structure-function relationships. Sperm plasma membrane undergoes lipid modification during maturation in epididymis and during capacitation in the female reproductive tract to facilitate fertilization. Natural variation in the amounts and composition of lipids in the sperm plasma membrane may also contribute to the species-specific sperm sensitivities to handling and storage conditions. Boar sperm are notoriously susceptible to membrane damage and are resistant to compositional alteration by artificial liposomes. This study used flow cytometry to demonstrate stable incorporation of nanoliposomes prepared from a complex mixture of various phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine : phosphatidylethanolamine : sphingomyelin : phosphatidylserine : phosphatidylinositol) with high fusion efficiency. Over 90% of sperm rapidly took up fluorescently labelled liposomes and retained the lipids for at least 60 min, in a significant time- and concentration-dependent manner. This unique fusion efficacy could be used to alter sperm plasma membrane composition and hence membrane-based functional responses.

  5. A Case of Recto-Vesico-Cutaneous Fistula Following Perineal Injury by Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Bhingare, Pravin D.; Bang, Yogesh A.

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for a boar to become aggressive in nature against human unless they are cornered. A wild boar attacked a 24-year-old male from behind in perineal region. At presentation, he had continuous dribbling of urine and fecal matter from perineal wound. On CT-scan, a well defined tract delineated by contrast was seen between postero-lateral aspect of bladder and anterior wall of rectum, and there was contrast extravasation through perineal wound. After resuscitation, fistula was repaired through abdominal approach, and perineal wound was debrided. Emergency physician should be aware of such cases as increasing deforestation and shifting of humans to sub-urban area, have resulted in increased incidences of wild boar attack. Prompt stabilization of patient, treatment of infection with proper antibiotics, prevention of tetanus and rabies infection and emergency surgical interventions are necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality from such trauma. PMID:27437297

  6. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients’ muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level.

  7. A Case of Recto-Vesico-Cutaneous Fistula Following Perineal Injury by Wild Boar.

    PubMed

    Bhingare, Pravin D; Shelke, Umesh Ravikant; Bang, Yogesh A

    2016-05-01

    It is very uncommon for a boar to become aggressive in nature against human unless they are cornered. A wild boar attacked a 24-year-old male from behind in perineal region. At presentation, he had continuous dribbling of urine and fecal matter from perineal wound. On CT-scan, a well defined tract delineated by contrast was seen between postero-lateral aspect of bladder and anterior wall of rectum, and there was contrast extravasation through perineal wound. After resuscitation, fistula was repaired through abdominal approach, and perineal wound was debrided. Emergency physician should be aware of such cases as increasing deforestation and shifting of humans to sub-urban area, have resulted in increased incidences of wild boar attack. Prompt stabilization of patient, treatment of infection with proper antibiotics, prevention of tetanus and rabies infection and emergency surgical interventions are necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality from such trauma. PMID:27437297

  8. Extensive dataset of boar seminal plasma proteome displaying putative reproductive functions of identified proteins.

    PubMed

    Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    A complete proteomic profile of seminal plasma (SP) remains challenging, particularly in porcine. The data reports on the analysis of boar SP-proteins by using a combination of SEC, 1-D SDS PAGE and NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS from 33 pooled SP-samples (11 boars, 3 ejaculates/boar). A complete dataset of the 536 SP-proteins identified and validated with confidence ≥95% (Unused Score >1.3) and a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤1%, is provided. In addition, the relative abundance of 432 of them is also shown. Gene ontology annotation of the complete SP-proteome complemented by an extensive description of the putative reproductive role of SP-proteins, providing a valuable source for a better understanding of SP role in the reproductive success. This data article refers to the article entitled "Characterization of the porcine seminal plasma proteome comparing ejaculate portions" (Perez-Patiño et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27583342

  9. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P < 0.05) was not maintained to 40 weeks of age in their letrozole-treated littermates. Reducing endogenous estrogen production neonatally or prepuberally had no detectable adverse effect on libido or sperm fertilizing capacity. PMID:24985358

  10. Age-Related Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Dutch Wild Boar Inconsistent with Lifelong Persistence of Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the “Roerstreek” (n = 673) or the “Veluwe” (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (−0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1–27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764

  11. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, B W; McNamara, K A; Purdy, P H; Krisher, R L; Knox, R V; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Miller, D J

    2015-05-01

    Due to reduced fertility, cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI). Predicting the fertility of individual frozen ejaculates for selection of higher quality semen prior to AI would increase overall success. Our objective was to test novel and traditional laboratory analyses to identify characteristics of cryopreserved spermatozoa that are related to boar fertility. Traditional post-thaw analyses of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity were performed on each ejaculate. In vitro fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst development were also determined. Finally, spermatozoa-oviduct binding and competitive zona-binding assays were applied to assess sperm adhesion to these two matrices. Fertility of the same ejaculates subjected to laboratory assays was determined for each boar by multi-sire AI and defined as (i) the mean percentage of the litter sired and (ii) the mean number of piglets sired in each litter. Means of each laboratory evaluation were calculated for each boar and those values were applied to multiple linear regression analyses to determine which sperm traits could collectively estimate fertility in the simplest model. The regression model to predict the percent of litter sired by each boar was highly effective (p < 0.001, r(2) = 0.87) and included five traits; acrosome-compromised spermatozoa, percent live spermatozoa (0 and 60 min post-thaw), percent total motility, and the number of zona-bound spermatozoa. A second model to predict the number of piglets sired by boar was also effective (p < 0.05, r(2) = 0.57). These models indicate that the fertility of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa can be predicted effectively by including traditional and novel laboratory assays that consider functions of spermatozoa.

  12. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673) or the "Veluwe" (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764

  13. Biochemical, nutritional and genetic effects on boar taint in entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Zamaratskaia, G; Squires, E J

    2009-11-01

    Pork odour is to a great extent affected by the presence of malodorous compounds, mainly androstenone and skatole. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge about factors involved in the regulation of androstenone and skatole in entire male pigs. Androstenone is a pheromonal steroid synthesised in the testes and metabolised in the liver. Part of androstenone accumulates in adipose tissue causing a urine-like odour. Skatole is produced in the large intestine by bacterial degradation of tryptophan and metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulphotransferase. The un-metabolised part accumulates in adipose tissue, causing faecal-like odour. Androstenone levels are mostly determined by genetic factors and stage of puberty, whereas skatole levels in addition to genetic background and hormonal status of the pigs are also controlled by nutritional and environmental factors. To reduce the risk of tainted carcasses entering the market, male pigs are surgically castrated in many countries. However, entire males compared to castrates have superior production characteristics: higher growth rate, better feed efficiency and leaner carcasses. Additionally, animal welfare aspects are currently of particular importance in light of increasing consumers' concerns. Nutrition, hormonal status, genetic influence on boar taint compounds and the methods to develop genetic markers are discussed. Boar taint due to high levels of skatole and androstenone is moderately heritable and not all market weight entire males have boar taint; it should thus be possible to select for pigs that do not have boar taint. In these studies, it is critical to assess the steroidogenic potential of the pigs in order to separate late-maturing pigs from those with a low genetic potential for boar taint. A number of candidate genes for boar taint have been identified and work is continuing to develop genetic markers for low boar taint. More research is needed to clarify the factors

  14. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Hansen, Marianne HS; Bendixen, Christian; Grindflek, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Background Boar taint is an unpleasant odour and flavour of the meat from some uncastrated male pigs primarily caused by elevated levels of androstenone and skatole in adipose tissue. Androstenone is produced in the same biochemical pathway as testosterone and estrogens, which represents a particular challenge when selecting against high levels of androstenone in the breeding programme, without simultaneously decreasing levels of other steroids. Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with compounds affecting boar taint is important both for gaining a better understanding of the complex regulation of the trait and for the purpose of identifying markers that can be used to improve the gain of breeding. The beneficial SNPs to be used in breeding would have the combinational effects of reducing levels of boar taint without affecting fertility of the animals. The aim of this study was to detect SNPs in boar taint candidate genes and to perform association studies for both single SNPs and haplotypes with levels of boar taint compounds and phenotypes related to reproduction. Results An association study involving 275 SNPs in 121 genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17β-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped in more than 2800 individuals and several SNPs were found to be significantly (LRT > 5.4) associated with the different phenotypes. Genes with significant SNPs in either of the traits investigated include cytochrome P450 members CYP2E1, CYP21, CYP2D6 and CYP2C49, steroid 5α-reductase SRD5A2, nuclear receptor NGFIB, catenin CTNND1, BRCA1 associated protein BAP1 and hyaluronoglucosaminidase HYAL2. Haplotype analysis provided additional evidence for an effect of CYP2E1 on levels

  15. An intervention study demonstrates effects of MC4R genotype on boar taint and performances of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Vanhaecke, L; Wauters, J; Janssens, S; Coussé, A; Buys, N; Millet, S

    2015-03-01

    The Asp298Asn polymorphism of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in pigs is known to affect economically important traits such as growth rate and backfat thickness. We have assessed the possible use of this polymorphism as a molecular marker to perform genetic selection toward lower boar taint levels without compromising growth performance and carcass and meat quality in commercial boars and gilts. Homozygous boars and gilts of the AA genotype and GG genotype were compared in an intervention study with a 2 × 2 design to assess main effects and possible interactions between sex and genotype. The concentrations of the 3 boar taint compounds androstenone ( = 0.044), skatole ( = 0.049), and indole ( = 0.006) were significantly higher in fat of AA boars compared to GG boars. However, no effect on the sensory analysis of the fat samples could be observed. Between 20 and 115 kg BW, AA pigs showed higher ADFI than GG pigs ( < 0.001). An interaction between genotype and sex was observed for ADG ( = 0.044): AA boars had a significantly higher ADG than GG boars but there was no significant difference between the gilts. Daily lean meat gain tended to be higher in boars compared to gilts ( = 0.051), independent of genotype. Similarly, boars showed higher G:F compared to gilts ( < 0.001), without effect of genotype. Genotype and sex affected several carcass quality parameters but there was no interaction. Pigs of the AA genotype displayed a lower dressing percentage ( = 0.005), lower ham width ( = 0.024), lower muscle thickness ( = 0.011), and higher fat thickness ( < 0.001), resulting in a lower lean meat percentage ( < 0.001) in comparison with GG pigs. Gilts had a significantly higher dressing percentage ( < 0.001), higher muscle thickness ( < 0.001), higher ham width ( < 0.001), and lower ham angle ( < 0.001) compared to boars. Other than the boar taint compounds, meat quality was not affected by genotype. Pork of gilts was darker ( = 0.014) and less exudative during

  16. Impact of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on boar semen quality and quantity using two different vaccines.

    PubMed

    Caspari, K; Henning, H; Schreiber, F; Maass, P; Gössl, R; Schaller, C; Waberski, D

    2014-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) is widespread in domestic pig populations. It can be shed with boar semen, but the role boars have in epidemiology is still unclear. Vaccinating boars against PCV2 can reduce disease and virus load in semen, but may have unwanted side effects, that is, impairment of spermatogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect and impact of two different PCV2 vaccines on boar semen quality and quantity. Healthy normospermic Large White boars in three groups of 12 each were vaccinated with either Circovac, Ingelvac CircoFLEX, or received NaCl. Eight ejaculates were collected starting 1 week after vaccination and assessed for quantitative traits. In general, sperm quantity and quality parameters did not change due to the vaccination (P > 0.05). Only DNA integrity between the Circovac and control group was P < 0.05 but remained at a low level (<2%). One boar showed clinical signs with body temperature up to 39.9 °C and went off feed. For this animal, a clear relation between vaccination, fever period, and impaired sperm quality could be observed. The results indicate that both vaccines did not have a major impact on sperm quality or quantity. Therefore, vaccination of boars against PCV2 seems to be feasible. However, one boar treated with the oil-based vaccine showed a temporarily impaired semen quality after elevated body temperature after vaccination. Thus, possible systemic reactions and the subsequent impact on sperm quality should be taken into account when choosing a PCV2 vaccine for boars.

  17. Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa. PMID:17460094

  18. Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa.

  19. The Usefulness of Selected Physicochemical Indices, Cell Membrane Integrity and Sperm Chromatin Structure in Assessments of Boar Semen Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wysokińska, A.; Kondracki, S.; Iwanina, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes experiments undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of selected physicochemical indices of semen, cell membrane integrity and sperm chromatin structure for the assessment of boar semen sensitivity to processes connected with pre-insemination procedures. The experiments were carried out on 30 boars: including 15 regarded as providers of sensitive semen and 15 regarded as providers of semen that is little sensitive to laboratory processing. The selection of boars for both groups was based on sperm morphology analyses, assuming secondary morphological change incidence in spermatozoa as the criterion. Two ejaculates were manually collected from each boar at an interval of 3 to 4 months. The following analyses were carried out for each ejaculate: sperm motility assessment, sperm pH measurement, sperm morphology assessment, sperm chromatin structure evaluation and cell membrane integrity assessment. The analyses were performed three times. Semen storage did not cause an increase in the incidence of secondary morphological changes in the group of boars considered to provide sperm of low sensitivity. On the other hand, with continued storage there was a marked increase in the incidence of spermatozoa with secondary morphological changes in the group of boars regarded as producing more sensitive semen. Ejaculates of group I boars evaluated directly after collection had an approximately 6% smaller share of spermatozoa with undamaged cell membranes than the ejaculates of boars in group II (p≤0.05). In the process of time the percentage of spermatozoa with undamaged cell membranes decreased. The sperm of group I boars was characterised with a lower sperm motility than the semen of group II boars. After 1 hour of storing diluted semen, the sperm motility of boars producing highly sensitive semen was already 4% lower (p≤0.05), and after 24 hours of storage it was 6.33% lower than that of the boars that produced semen with a low sensitivity. Factors

  20. Influence of pre-cryopreservation pH and temperature on boar semen quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of shipping temperature and pH on semen quality parameters could determine the effectiveness of current National Animal Germplasm Program protocols. The purpose of this project is to determine associations between pH, shipping temperature, and boar semen quality: cell size, cell inte...

  1. The influence of short-term exposure to tropical sunlight on boar seminal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbunike, G. N.; Dede, T. I.

    1980-06-01

    The seminal characteristics of 4 Large White boars exposed to direct tropical sunlight 45 min daily for three days were compared to those of their mates that were maintained under shade in the barn. During the period of exposure, both respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased significantly by 276.84 and 5.13% respectively in the exposed over the unexposed boars, thus indicating a high degree of hyperthermia. Although libido, as judged from the reaction time, was unaffected, the ejaculation time appeared to be longer for the stressed than unstressed animals. Gel mass, semen volume and pH appeared to be stable inspite of the treatment, unlike sperm motility and concentration which deteriorated. Also, the dehydrogenase activity of the semen was inferior in the stressed animals. Sperm output per ejaculate dropped drastically only in the week following exposure from 58.22 to 28.42 billion sperm as compared to corresponding values of 54.83 and 47.87 by the unexposed boars. Similarly, the frequency of sperm abnormality was higher in the stressed boars in this period after which the animals appeared to have recovered.

  2. Effect of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin on sperm viability and acrosome reaction in boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Seung; Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Boo-Keun; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC) on boar sperm viability and spermatozoa cryosurvival during boar semen cryopreservation, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) was treated for comparing with CLC. Boar semen treated with CLC and MBCD before freezing process to monitor the effect on survival and capacitation status by flow cytometry with appropriate fluorescent probes. Sperm viability was higher in 1.5mg CLC-treated sperm (76.9±1.01%, P<0.05) than un-treated and MBCD-treated sperm before cryopreservation (58.7±1.31% and 60.3±0.31%, respectively). For CTC patterns, F-pattern was higher in CLC treated sperm than MBCD-treated sperm, for B-pattern was higher in CLC-treated sperm than fresh sperm (P<0.05). For AR pattern (an acrosome-reacted sperm) was lower in CLC-treated sperm than MBCD-treated sperm (P<0.05). Moreover, we examined in vitro development of porcine oocytes after in vitro fertilization using CLC-treated frozen-thawed semen, in which CLC treatment prior to freezing and thawing increased the development of oocytes to blastocyst stage in vitro. In conclusion, CLC could protect the viability of spermatozoa from cryodamage prior to cryopreservation in boar semen. PMID:26091957

  3. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI) despite many advantages that cryopreservation provides. Compared to fresh semen, the fertility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is more variable but usually less. Predicting the fertility of individual ejaculates for s...

  4. Fertility prediction of frozen boar sperm using novel and conventional analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frozen-thawed boar sperm is seldom used for artificial insemination (AI) because fertility is lower than fresh or cooled semen. Despite the many advantages of AI including reduced pathogen exposure and ease of semen transport, cryo-induced damage to sperm usually results in decreased litter sizes a...

  5. Use of indoor boars as models for understanding seasonal infertility: Preliminary data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential impacts of external temperature and relative humidity (RH) variations on semen production of boars maintained in thermo-regulated barns (indoor housing). Data were collected from a local commercial hog operation. Temperature and relative humidity (R...

  6. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on boar spermatozoa quality during freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Cong-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Chen; Li, Qing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing-thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.

  7. Unexpected but welcome. Artificially selected traits may increase fitness in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Fulgione, Domenico; Rippa, Daniela; Buglione, Maria; Trapanese, Martina; Petrelli, Simona; Maselli, Valeria

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection affects phenotypes differently by natural selection. Domestic traits, which pass into the wild, are usually negatively selected. Yet, exceptionally, this axiom may fail to apply if genes, from the domestic animals, increase fertility in the wild. We studied a rare case of a wild boar population under the framework of Wright's interdemic selection model, which could explain gene flow between wild boar and pig, both considered as demes. We analysed the MC1R gene and microsatellite neutral loci in 62 pregnant wild boars as markers of hybridization, and we correlated nucleotide mutations on MC1R (which are common in domestic breeds) to litter size, as an evaluation of fitness in wild sow. Regardless of body size and phyletic effects, wild boar sows bearing nonsynonymous MC1R mutations produced larger litters. This directly suggests that artificially selected traits reaching wild populations, through interdemic gene flow, could bypass natural selection if and only if they increase the fitness in the wild. PMID:27330553

  8. High hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in forestry workers and in wild boars in France.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Audrey; Chaussade, Hélène; Rigaud, Emma; Rodriguez, Josefa; Berthault, Camille; Boué, Franck; Tognon, Mauro; Touzé, Antoine; Garcia-Bonnet, Nathalie; Choutet, Patrick; Coursaget, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecally and orally transmitted human pathogen of worldwide distribution. In industrial countries, HEV is observed in an increasing number of autochthonous cases and is considered to be an emerging pathogen. A growing body of evidence suggests that HEV is a zoonotic disease, and pig handlers and pig veterinarians have been reported to be high-risk groups for HEV infection. The aims of the present study were to establish the prevalence of anti-HEV in wild boars in France and to identify whether forestry workers are at a higher risk of HEV infection. Three different anti-HEV tests were used to compare their effectiveness in detecting anti-HEV in the general population. The most sensitive test was then used to investigate HEV seroprevalence in 593 forestry workers and 421 wild boars. Anti-HEV was detected in 31% of the forestry workers and 14% of the wild boars. Detection of anti-HEV in humans was correlated with age, geographical location, and occupational activity and in wild boars was correlated with geographical location. HEV infection is frequent in woodcutters in France, and it varies geographically. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the transmission route and the exact virus reservoirs.

  9. 7 CFR 59.203 - Mandatory daily reporting for sows and boars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... packer of sows and boars shall report to the Secretary for each business day of the packer not later than... priced, excluding inferior swine, during the prior business day of the packer all purchase data, reported... sows in each weight class specified by the Secretary; and (3) The average price paid by each...

  10. Trichinella infection in wild boars and synanthropic rats in northwest Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thi, N Vu; Nguyen, V D; Praet, N; Claes, L; Gabriël, S; Huyen, N T; Dorny, P

    2014-02-24

    Trichinellosis is an emerging parasitic zoonosis in North Vietnam. In this survey, hunted and farm-bred wild boars as well as synanthropic rats were sampled in two provinces of northwest Vietnam where outbreaks of trichinellosis have recently occurred. Evidence of Trichinella infection was studied by parasitological, serological and molecular methods. The results showed relatively low prevalence of Trichinella spiralis in hunted wild boars (2/62 (3.2%; 95% CI: 0.8- 4.8)) and rats (23/820 (2.8%; 95% CI: 13.7-32.3)). Parasite burdens in the muscle tissues were between 0.1 and 0.03 larvae/g, and 0.1 and 7 larvae/g in wild boars and rats, respectively. Seroprevalence in farm-bred wild boars was negative. The findings of Trichinella-infected rats in 7 of the 20 districts of Dien Bien and Son La provinces suggest that the parasite is circulating in these regions. These results indicate that the local population and health centers should be made aware of the risks of eating raw or undercooked meat dishes prepared from wild animals. PMID:24360291

  11. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint. PMID:26773971

  12. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint.

  13. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5). PMID:23756043

  14. Sperm chromatin structure integrity in liquid stored boar semen and its relationships with field fertility.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Christensen, P; Vibjerg, D; Nielsen, M B F; Hedeboe, A M

    2008-04-01

    Extended semen doses from some boars used for AI have been shown to develop high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation during storage. Studies in other animals and humans have shown that if DNA damage is present in a certain percentage of the sperm cells the fertility potential of the semen sample is reduced. The objectives of the present study was to determine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) in extended stored semen and field fertility in the boar. Three ejaculates from each of 145 boars were collected. Preparation of the semen doses included dilution with an EDTA extender and storage for up to 72 h post collection. The semen doses were assessed using flow cytometric methods for the percentage of viable sperm (PI/SYBR-14) and sperm DNA fragmentation (SCSA) at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. A total of 3276 experimental inseminations in Danish breeding herds were conducted. The results showed that for 11 (7.6%) of the boars at least one of the three samples showed a value of DNA fragmentation index (DFI) above 20% within the storage period. Total number of piglets born (litter size) for Hampshire, Landrace and Danish Large White boars was, respectively, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 piglets smaller per litter when DFI values were above 2.1% as opposed to below this value. In conclusion the SCSA technique appears to be able to identify individuals with lower fertility with respect to litter size, and could in the future be implemented by the pig industry after a cost-benefit analysis. PMID:18242673

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates from Wild Boars Hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Seinige, Diana; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-07-01

    Yersiniosis is strongly associated with the consumption of pork contaminated with enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is harbored by domestic pigs without showing clinical signs of disease. In contrast to data on Y. enterocolitica isolated from conventionally reared swine, investigations into the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in wild boars in Germany are rare. The objectives of the study were to get knowledge about these bacteria and their occurrence in wild boars hunted in northern Germany by isolation of the bacteria from the tonsils, identification of the bioserotypes, determination of selected virulence factors, macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, tonsils from 17.1% of 111 tested wild boars were positive for Y. enterocolitica by culture methods. All but two isolates belonged to biotype (BT) 1A, with the majority of isolates bearing a ystB nucleotide sequence which was revealed to have 85% identity to internal regions of Y. enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin type B genes. The remaining Y. enterocolitica isolates were identified to be BT 1B and did not carry the virulence plasmid. However, two BT 1A isolates carried the ail gene. Macrorestriction analysis and results from MLST showed a high degree of genetic diversity of the isolates, although the region where the samples were taken was restricted to Lower Saxony, Germany, and wild boars were shot during one hunting season. In conclusion, most Y. enterocolitica isolates from wild boars investigated in this study belonged to biotype 1A. Enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9, usually harbored by commercially raised pigs in Europe, could not be identified.

  16. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries--even from negative studs--poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates from Wild Boars Hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Seinige, Diana; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-07-01

    Yersiniosis is strongly associated with the consumption of pork contaminated with enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is harbored by domestic pigs without showing clinical signs of disease. In contrast to data on Y. enterocolitica isolated from conventionally reared swine, investigations into the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in wild boars in Germany are rare. The objectives of the study were to get knowledge about these bacteria and their occurrence in wild boars hunted in northern Germany by isolation of the bacteria from the tonsils, identification of the bioserotypes, determination of selected virulence factors, macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, tonsils from 17.1% of 111 tested wild boars were positive for Y. enterocolitica by culture methods. All but two isolates belonged to biotype (BT) 1A, with the majority of isolates bearing a ystB nucleotide sequence which was revealed to have 85% identity to internal regions of Y. enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin type B genes. The remaining Y. enterocolitica isolates were identified to be BT 1B and did not carry the virulence plasmid. However, two BT 1A isolates carried the ail gene. Macrorestriction analysis and results from MLST showed a high degree of genetic diversity of the isolates, although the region where the samples were taken was restricted to Lower Saxony, Germany, and wild boars were shot during one hunting season. In conclusion, most Y. enterocolitica isolates from wild boars investigated in this study belonged to biotype 1A. Enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9, usually harbored by commercially raised pigs in Europe, could not be identified. PMID:25956779

  18. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Liu, Hong; Li, Qing-Wang

    2015-08-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides (SMPs) were extracted from S. miltiorrhiza in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SMP on the motility of boar sperm, including the antioxidant effect of SMP on boar sperm and the effect of SMP on the in vivo fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Fifty ejaculates from 5 Swagger boars were collected and diluted with an extender, which contained 3% glycerol (v/v) with five concentrations of SMP (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL). The semen was frozen in 0.25mL straws at 1.0×10(9) cells/mL. Sixty gilts were inseminated using fresh semen, frozen semen with 0.4mg/mL of SMP and frozen semen without SMP. The results indicate that the addition of SMP to the extender results in a higher percentage of motile sperm post-thaw (P<0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease and catalase were all determined to be significantly higher than the control group after adding SMP to the extender (P<0.05). The artificial insemination (AI) results demonstrated that the litter size was significantly higher in the 0.4mg/mL of SMP group than in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, during the process of freezing, SMP can protect boar sperm from peroxidative damage and increase sperm motility and litter size during the process of freezing-thawing. The optimal concentration of SMP for the frozen extenders in this study was determined to be 0.4mg/mL. PMID:26077771

  19. A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion.

  20. 2-Aminoacetophenone Is the Main Volatile Phase I Skatole Metabolite in Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg Hybrid Type Boars.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christoph; Elsinghorst, Paul W; Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Wüst, Matthias

    2016-02-10

    Skatole metabolites have been considered as putative contributors to boar taint. Recently, 2-aminoacetophenone, a volatile phase I skatole metabolite, was identified in back fat samples from boars of Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type. This paper addresses the question of the physiological origin of the observed 2-aminoacetophenone in these pigs. Microsomal fractions from nine boars were isolated, and formation of skatole metabolites was subsequently analyzed by stable-isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Significant breed-related differences in phase I skatole metabolism were observed, explaining the high levels of 2-aminoacetophenone in Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type boars. PMID:26804051

  1. Evaluation of different heating methods for the detection of boar taint by means of the human nose.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, K M; Aluwé, M; Vanhaecke, L; Heres, L; Duchateau, L; Vandendriessche, F; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-05-01

    No automated detection system for boar taint detection is currently available, thus boar taint at the slaughterline can currently only be assessed using the singeing method (olfactory scoring). This study compares several heating methods (microwave, soldering iron and pyropen) and evaluates the effect of habituation, cleaning the soldering iron, singeing the fat twice in the same place, and variations in the technical procedures. All methods seem to be suitable for detecting boar taint but the choice of heating method for sensory scoring of boar taint depends on habituation of the trained assessor and specific conditions applied. The pyropen seems to be most suitable because it does not contact the fat and is easy to handle (wireless). Finally, the intensity score may also be influenced by: contamination from not cleaning the soldering iron, singeing the fat twice in the same place, and the effect of habituation.

  2. 2-Aminoacetophenone Is the Main Volatile Phase I Skatole Metabolite in Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg Hybrid Type Boars.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christoph; Elsinghorst, Paul W; Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Wüst, Matthias

    2016-02-10

    Skatole metabolites have been considered as putative contributors to boar taint. Recently, 2-aminoacetophenone, a volatile phase I skatole metabolite, was identified in back fat samples from boars of Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type. This paper addresses the question of the physiological origin of the observed 2-aminoacetophenone in these pigs. Microsomal fractions from nine boars were isolated, and formation of skatole metabolites was subsequently analyzed by stable-isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Significant breed-related differences in phase I skatole metabolism were observed, explaining the high levels of 2-aminoacetophenone in Pietrain × Baden-Württemberg hybrid type boars.

  3. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe. PMID:25421429

  4. Molecular tracing of classical swine fever viruses isolated from wild boars and pigs in France from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gaëlle; Le Dimna, Mireille; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Pol, Françoise

    2013-10-25

    There were three outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) in north-eastern France between 2002 and 2011. The first two occurred in April 2002 in the Moselle department, in a wild boar and pig herd, respectively, while the third occurred in April 2003, in the Bas-Rhin department, in a wild boar. A survey was subsequently implemented in wild boar and domestic pig populations, during which 43 CSF viruses (CSFVs) were genetically characterized to provide information on virus sources, trace virus evolution and help in the monitoring of effective control measures. Phylogenetic analyses, based on fragments of the 5'NTR, E2 and NS5B genes, showed that all French CSFVs could be assigned to genotype 2, subgenotype 2.3. CSFVs isolated in Moselle were classified in the "Rostock" lineage, a strain first described in 2001 in wild boar populations in the Eifel region of north-western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, and in Luxemburg. In contrast, the CSFVs isolated in Bas-Rhin were homologous to strains from the "Uelzen" lineage, a strain previously isolated from wild boars in south-eastern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, as well as in Vosges du Nord, France, during a previous outbreak that had occurred in wild boars between 1992 and 2001. The outbreak in Moselle domestic pigs was quickly resolved as it concerned only one herd. The infection in wild boars from Moselle was extinguished after a few months whereas wild boars from Bas-Rhin remained infected until 2007. Molecular tracing showed that the Bas-Rhin index virus strain evolved slightly during the period but that no strain from a novel lineage was introduced until this outbreak ended after application of a vaccination scheme for six years.

  5. Effect of natural betaine on estimates of semen quality in mature AI boars during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Cabezón, F A; Stewart, K R; Schinckel, A P; Barnes, W; Boyd, R D; Wilcock, P; Woodliff, J

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. PMID:27095614

  6. RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Novel Candidate Genes and Polymorphisms in Boar Testis and Liver Tissues with Divergent Androstenone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gunawan, Asep; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Neuhoff, Christiane; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Gad, Ahmed; Frieden, Luc; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas

    2013-01-01

    Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one) and skatole (3-methylindole). It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq). The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from −4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and −2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs. PMID:23696805

  7. Effects of low-density lipoproteins extracted from different avian yolks on boar spermatozoa quality following freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Chun-Wei; Bu, Shu-Hai; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Pang, Wei-Jun; Yang, Gong-She

    2014-05-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is known to protect boar sperm during freezing-thawing, but little information is known about the effects of LDL extracted from different avian egg yolks on post-thaw boar semen quality. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the effects of LDL at various concentrations and different species on boar sperm quality after freezing-thawing. LDL extracted from the yolk of hen egg, duck egg, quail egg, pigeon egg or ostrich egg was added to the extender at the concentrations of 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.1 g/ml, respectively, and their effects on frozen-thawed boar sperm quality were assessed. According to all measured parameters, the results showed that sperm motility, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity were 43.20%, 52.57% and 48.13%, respectively, after being frozen-thawed with 0.09 g/ml LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk. All these quality parameters were higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results confirmed that LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk had the best cryoprotective effects on frozen-thawed boar sperm among all of the groups supplemented with LDL from five kinds of avian egg in extender. The optimum concentration of LDL extracted from pigeon egg in boar semen freezing extender was 0.09 g/ml.

  8. Selenium in pig nutrition and reproduction: boars and semen quality-a review.

    PubMed

    Surai, Peter F; Fisinin, Vladimir I

    2015-05-01

    Selenium plays an important role in boar nutrition via participating in selenoprotein synthesis. It seems likely that selenoproteins are central for antioxidant system regulation in the body. Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is the most studied selenoprotein in swine production. However, roles of other selenoproteins in boar semen production and maintenance of semen quality also need to be studied. Boar semen is characterised by a high proportion of easily oxidized long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and requires an effective antioxidant defense. The requirement of swine for selenium varies depending on many environmental and other conditions and, in general, is considered to be 0.15 to 0.30 mg/kg feed. It seems likely that reproducing sows and boars are especially sensitive to Se deficiency, and meeting their requirements is an important challenge for pig nutritionists. In fact, in many countries there are legal limits as to how much Se may be included into the diet and this restricts flexibility in terms of addressing the Se needs of the developing and reproducing swine. The analysis of data of various boar trials with different Se sources indicates that in some cases when background Se levels were low, there were advantages of Se dietary supplementation. It is necessary to take into account that only an optimal Se status of animals is associated with the best antioxidant protection and could have positive effects on boar semen production and its quality. However, in many cases, background Se levels were not determined and therefore, it is difficult to judge if the basic diets were deficient in Se. It can also be suggested that, because of higher efficacy of assimilation from the diet, and possibilities of building Se reserves in the body, organic selenium in the form of selenomethionine (SeMet) provided by a range of products, including Se-Yeast and SeMet preparations is an important source of Se to better meet the needs of modern pig

  9. Selenium in Pig Nutrition and Reproduction: Boars and Semen Quality—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Surai, Peter F.; Fisinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium plays an important role in boar nutrition via participating in selenoprotein synthesis. It seems likely that selenoproteins are central for antioxidant system regulation in the body. Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is the most studied selenoprotein in swine production. However, roles of other selenoproteins in boar semen production and maintenance of semen quality also need to be studied. Boar semen is characterised by a high proportion of easily oxidized long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and requires an effective antioxidant defense. The requirement of swine for selenium varies depending on many environmental and other conditions and, in general, is considered to be 0.15 to 0.30 mg/kg feed. It seems likely that reproducing sows and boars are especially sensitive to Se deficiency, and meeting their requirements is an important challenge for pig nutritionists. In fact, in many countries there are legal limits as to how much Se may be included into the diet and this restricts flexibility in terms of addressing the Se needs of the developing and reproducing swine. The analysis of data of various boar trials with different Se sources indicates that in some cases when background Se levels were low, there were advantages of Se dietary supplementation. It is necessary to take into account that only an optimal Se status of animals is associated with the best antioxidant protection and could have positive effects on boar semen production and its quality. However, in many cases, background Se levels were not determined and therefore, it is difficult to judge if the basic diets were deficient in Se. It can also be suggested that, because of higher efficacy of assimilation from the diet, and possibilities of building Se reserves in the body, organic selenium in the form of selenomethionine (SeMet) provided by a range of products, including Se-Yeast and SeMet preparations is an important source of Se to better meet the needs of modern pig

  10. Effects of an Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine on PCV2 Virus Shedding in Semen from Experimentally Infected Boars

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon; Kim, Duyeol; Oh, Yeonsu; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon; Jang, Hyun; Chae, Chanhee

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of an inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine on PCV2b virus shedding in the semen of experimentally infected boars by measuring the immunological response and the PCV2b DNA load in blood and semen. Twelve boars were randomly divided into three groups. The boars in group 1 (n = 4) were immunized with an inactivated PCV2 vaccine and were challenged with PCV2b. The boars in group 2 (n = 4) were only challenged with PCV2b. The boars in group 3 (n = 4) served as negative controls. The number of PCV2 genome copies of PCV2 in the serum and semen were significantly lower in vaccinated challenged boars than in nonvaccinated challenged boars at 7, 10, 14, 21, 32, 35, 42, 49, and 60 days postinoculation. The number of PCV2b genomes in the semen correlated with the number of PCV2b genomes in the blood in both vaccinated challenged (R = 0.714) and nonvaccinated challenged (R = 0.861) boars. The results of the present study demonstrate that the inactivated PCV2 vaccine significantly decreases the amount of PCV2b DNA shedding in semen from vaccinated boars after experimental infection with PCV2b. PMID:21613465

  11. Pre-slaughter conditions influence skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue of boars.

    PubMed

    Wesoly, Raffael; Jungbluth, Ina; Stefanski, Volker; Weiler, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Boar taint in carcasses may vary between farms and abattoirs, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In the present study, 169 boars from three farms were split into two groups and slaughtered at two abattoirs. Duration of transport and the time between arrival at the abattoir and unloading (pre-unloading time) were recorded. During slaughter, blood, feces, and urine were collected to measure testosterone and cortisol levels. Carcasses were classified according to the number of skin lesions, and fat samples were taken to determine skatole, indole and androstenone levels. Androstenone in fat and testosterone in blood, feces, and urine were mainly influenced by the duration of transport. Skatole and indole concentrations were increased by both pre-unloading time and duration of transport, but were also related to skin lesions. Thus it is concluded that androstenone and skatole concentrations in fat are significantly modified by pre-slaughter conditions.

  12. Pre-slaughter conditions influence skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue of boars.

    PubMed

    Wesoly, Raffael; Jungbluth, Ina; Stefanski, Volker; Weiler, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Boar taint in carcasses may vary between farms and abattoirs, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In the present study, 169 boars from three farms were split into two groups and slaughtered at two abattoirs. Duration of transport and the time between arrival at the abattoir and unloading (pre-unloading time) were recorded. During slaughter, blood, feces, and urine were collected to measure testosterone and cortisol levels. Carcasses were classified according to the number of skin lesions, and fat samples were taken to determine skatole, indole and androstenone levels. Androstenone in fat and testosterone in blood, feces, and urine were mainly influenced by the duration of transport. Skatole and indole concentrations were increased by both pre-unloading time and duration of transport, but were also related to skin lesions. Thus it is concluded that androstenone and skatole concentrations in fat are significantly modified by pre-slaughter conditions. PMID:25282669

  13. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  14. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress. PMID:26017296

  15. Effects of herbal preparation on libido and semen quality in boars.

    PubMed

    Frydrychová, S; Opletal, L; Macáková, K; Lustyková, A; Rozkot, M; Lipenský, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a preparation from herbal extracts (PHE) on libido and semen quality in breeding artificial insemination boars. Ten fertile boars were divided into control and experimental groups according to significant difference of libido. There were no differences in semen quality between groups. Animals were fed a commercial feeding mixture for boars. The feeding mixture for the experimental group was enriched with PHE, which was prepared from Eurycoma longifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Leuzea carthamoides. Duration of the experiment was 10 weeks. Samples of ejaculate were collected weekly. Libido was evaluated according to a scale of 0-5 points. Semen volume, sperm motility, percentage of viable spermatozoa, sperm concentration, morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, daily sperm production and sperm survival were assessed. Amounts of mineral components and free amino acids were analysed in seminal plasma. Significant differences were found in these parameters: libido (4.05 ± 0.22 vs 3.48 ± 0.78; p < 0.001), semen volume (331.75 ± 61.91 vs 263.13 ± 87.17 g; p < 0.001), sperm concentration (386.25 ± 107.95 vs 487.25 ± 165.50 × 10(3) /mm(3); p < 0.01), morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (15.94 ± 11.08 vs 20.88 ± 9.19%; p < 0.001) and Mg concentration (28.36 ± 11.59 vs 20.27 ± 13.93 mm; p < 0.05). The experimental group's libido was increased by 20% in comparison with the beginning of the experiment. Results of this study showed positive effect of PHE on libido and some parameters of boar semen quality. PMID:21092065

  16. Deep freezing of concentrated boar semen for intra-uterine insemination: effects on sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Fernando; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Johannisson, Anders; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2005-03-15

    The use of deep-frozen boar semen for artificial insemination (AI) is constrained by the need for high sperm numbers per dose, yielding few doses per ejaculate. With the advancement of new, intra-uterine insemination strategies, there is an opportunity for freezing small volumes containing high sperm numbers, provided the spermatozoa properly sustain cryopreservation. The present study aimed to concentrate (2 x 10(9) spz/mL) and freeze boar spermatozoa packed in a 0.5 mL volume plastic medium straw (MS) or a multiple FlatPack (MFP) (four 0.7 mL volume segments of a single FlatPack [SFP]) intended as AI doses for intra-uterine AI. A single freezing protocol was used, with a conventional FlatPack (SFP, 5 x 10(9) spz/5 mL volume) as control. Sperm viability post-thaw was monitored as sperm motility (measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis, CASA), as plasma membrane integrity (PMI, assessed either by SYBR-14/PI, combined with flow cytometry, or a rapid hypo-osmotic swelling test [sHOST]). Sperm motility did not differ statistically (NS) between test-packages and control, neither in terms of overall sperm motility (range of means: 37-46%) nor sperm velocity. The percentages of linearly motile spermatozoa were, however, significantly higher in controls (SFP) than in the test packages. Spermatozoa frozen in the SFP (control) and MFP depicted the highest PMI (54 and 49%, respectively) compared to MS (38%, P < 0.05) when assessed with flow cytometry. In absolute numbers, more viable spermatozoa post-thaw were present in the MFP dose than in the MS (P < 0.05). Inter-boar variation was present, albeit only significant for MS (sperm motility) and SFP (PMI). In conclusion, the results indicate that boar spermatozoa can be successfully frozen when concentrated in a small volume. PMID:15725440

  17. Sex-sorting of boar spermatozoa does not influence the localization of glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Diego; Galeati, Giovanna; Giaretta, Elisa; Tamanini, Carlo; Spinaci, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    Sex-sorting damages spermatozoa function, shortening their lifespan and fertility. This study used an immunofluorescence technique to investigate the effect of sex-sorting on the localization of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in boar spermatozoa. GLUTs are trans-membrane proteins responsible for glucose transport within cells. Distribution of GLUTs on sperm cells was similar in unsorted and sex-sorted semen, suggesting that the flow cytometric sex-sorting process did not affect the sperm energy apparatus. PMID:24287043

  18. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (P<0.05). However, from the three monosaccharides tested, glucose provided the best sperm quality after freezing-thawing. With respect to the disaccharides studied, samples frozen with the extender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (P<0.05) in the samples cryopreserved with the trehalose extender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition. PMID:22771077

  19. Development of an in vitro index to characterize fertilizing capacity of boar ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Ruediger, K; Mueller, K; Jung, M; Well, C; Reissmann, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this research was the selection of spermatozoa parameters related to boar fertility performance and their combination into an in vitro index. A first set (data set 1) of 36 Pietrain boars with 138 ejaculates from two seasons with 5083 single-sire inseminations from 34 farms was used to determine correlations between in vitro sperm quality parameters and fertility performance. 2970 ejaculates representing a second set (data set 2) served calculation of seasonal and age effects on semen quality. Morphological spermatozoa parameters were estimated manually with a phase contrast microscope on the day of semen collection, whereas mitochondrial activity and viability were analyzed by double-staining with rhodamine123/propidium iodide on day 2 of semen storage using flow cytometry. Sperm motility was tested on day 7 by thermoresistance (TRT) after 30min (TRT1) and 300min (TRT2) incubation at 38̊C using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). Correlations revealed four independent sperm quality parameters qualifying as relevant predictors of boar fertility: (i) percentage of spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets, (ii) percentage of spermatozoa with active mitochondria, (iii) beat cross frequency of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT1, and (iv) oscillation measure of the actual path of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT2. There were no significant effects of sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, and total number of sperm cells per ejaculate on litter size (LS) and on pregnancy rate (PR). Our findings suggest the usefulness of sperm quality parameters based on adjusted range of methods and enable the construction of an in vitro index as a means to predicting boar fertility. PMID:23773327

  20. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region.

  1. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (P<0.05). However, from the three monosaccharides tested, glucose provided the best sperm quality after freezing-thawing. With respect to the disaccharides studied, samples frozen with the extender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (P<0.05) in the samples cryopreserved with the trehalose extender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition.

  2. Fertility of boar semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Monika; Bryła, Magdalena; Gajda, Barbara; Gogol, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    The present study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on quality and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar semen. In the first experiment, five crossbreds of Polish Landrace and Large White boars (five ejaculates per boar) were frozen in 0.5 mL straws after dilution with lactose-egg yolk-glycerol extender supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM BHT. The sperm quality was verified based on the motility (computer-assisted sperm analysis; total motility, %; progressive motility, %), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide [PI] assay), acrosome integrity (fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated with peanut agglutinin/PI), and lipid peroxidation (chemiluminescence method) at 15 minutes postthaw. In the second experiment, the semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT were selected for intrauterine artificial insemination of synchronized gilts. An intrauterine artificial insemination with low numbers of spermatozoa (500 × 10(6)) was surgically infused into each uterine horn. The highest (P < 0.001) progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and acrosomal integrity were noted by the addition of 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender. Moreover, the various concentrations (0.5-2.0 mM) of BHT caused a considerable decrease in lipid peroxidation in relation to the control extender (P < 0.001). The highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (farrowing rate, 86.7%; litter size, 10.8 ± 1.6) was observed when semen was cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 mM BHT. These findings demonstrate that the addition of 1.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender efficiently improves the fertilizing ability of postthaw boar spermatozoa.

  3. Improvement of boar sperm cryosurvival by using single-layer colloid centrifugation prior freezing.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Alborcia, M J; Morrell, J M; Parrilla, I; Barranco, I; Vázquez, J M; Martinez, E A; Roca, J

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sperm selection using single-layer centrifugation (SLC) prior to freezing on the sperm cryosurvival of boar ejaculates. Twenty-four sperm rich ejaculate fractions (SREF), collected from 24 boars (one per boar), were divided into two groups according to their initial semen traits: standard (n = 15) and substandard (n = 9). Semen samples from each SREF were split in two aliquots, one remained untreated (control samples) and the other was single-layer centrifuged (500 g for 20 min) using 15 mL of Androcoll-P Large (SLC samples). The yield of total, motile (assessed by CASA) and viable (cytometrically evaluated after staining with H-42, propidium iodide (PI) and FITC-PNA) sperm after SLC was higher (P < 0.05) in standard than substandard semen samples. The semen samples were cryopreserved using a standard 0.5-mL straw freezing protocol. Post-thaw sperm motility and viability (assessed at 30 and 150 min post-thawing) were higher (P < 0.05) in SLC than in control samples, regardless of the initial semen traits of the ejaculates. Additionally, thawed spermatozoa from SLC samples were more resistant (P < 0.05) to lipid peroxidation (BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) than those from control samples, regardless of the initial semen traits of the ejaculates. The SLC-treatment also influenced the functionality of thawed spermatozoa undergoing an in vitro capacitation process. The percentage of viable sperm showing high membrane fluidity (assessed with merocyanine 540) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SLC than in the control samples, regardless of the initial semen traits of the ejaculates. Thawed viable spermatozoa of SLC samples generated less (P < 0.05) reactive oxygen species (assessed with CM-H(2)DCFDA) than those of control samples in the substandard ejaculates. These findings indicate that the sperm selection before freezing using SLC improves the freezability of boar sperm.

  4. Fertility of boar semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Monika; Bryła, Magdalena; Gajda, Barbara; Gogol, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    The present study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on quality and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar semen. In the first experiment, five crossbreds of Polish Landrace and Large White boars (five ejaculates per boar) were frozen in 0.5 mL straws after dilution with lactose-egg yolk-glycerol extender supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM BHT. The sperm quality was verified based on the motility (computer-assisted sperm analysis; total motility, %; progressive motility, %), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide [PI] assay), acrosome integrity (fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated with peanut agglutinin/PI), and lipid peroxidation (chemiluminescence method) at 15 minutes postthaw. In the second experiment, the semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT were selected for intrauterine artificial insemination of synchronized gilts. An intrauterine artificial insemination with low numbers of spermatozoa (500 × 10(6)) was surgically infused into each uterine horn. The highest (P < 0.001) progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and acrosomal integrity were noted by the addition of 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender. Moreover, the various concentrations (0.5-2.0 mM) of BHT caused a considerable decrease in lipid peroxidation in relation to the control extender (P < 0.001). The highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (farrowing rate, 86.7%; litter size, 10.8 ± 1.6) was observed when semen was cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 mM BHT. These findings demonstrate that the addition of 1.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender efficiently improves the fertilizing ability of postthaw boar spermatozoa. PMID:25468554

  5. High-density dependence but low impact on selected reproduction parameters of Brucella suis biovar 2 in wild boar hunting estates from South-Western Spain.

    PubMed

    Risco, D; García, A; Serrano, E; Fernandez-Llario, P; Benítez, J M; Martínez, R; García, W L; de Mendoza, J Hermoso

    2014-12-01

    Porcine brucellosis is a disease caused by Brucella suis, which is characterized by reproductive disorders in pigs. The number of cases of swine brucellosis has risen in many European countries, likely because of the presence of a wild reservoir of B. suis in wild boar. This study aimed at evaluating factors that may influence the probability of infection with Brucella spp. in wild boar and at assessing the impact of a previous contact with Brucella spp. on reproductive parameters of wild boar. Two hundred and four wild boar living in Extremadura (south-western Spain) were studied. The presence of anti-Brucella antibodies was determined using an indirect ELISA, while the presence of living bacteria in genital organs was evaluated through microbiological cultures. Sex, age, density of wild boar in summer and presence of outdoor pigs were selected as possible risk factors for being seropositive for Brucella spp. in wild boar. In addition, reproductive parameters such as breeding status or potential fertility in females and testis weight in males were estimated and related to the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 121 animals were seropositive, resulting in a prevalence of 59.3% (95% CI). In addition, seven isolates of B. suis biovar 2 were obtained. Wild boar density in summer, as well as age and sex, was proposed as factors to explain the probability of Brucella seroconversion, although wild boar density in summer was the key factor. Current measures of reproductive parameters were not influenced by a previous contact with Brucella spp. Isolation of B. suis confirms that wild boar could represent a risk to domestic pig health in the study area. Wild boar density seems to have a great influence in the probability of infections with B. suis and suggests that density management could be useful to control Brucella infection in wild boar.

  6. [The mutation site analysis on CAPN1 gene of Wild boar, Min pig and Yorkshire].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Qin; Liu, Hui; Guo, Li-Juan; Xu, Yao; Liu, Di

    2007-05-01

    In order to further evaluate the relationship between the variations of CAPN1 gene and meat tenderness, the CAPN1 genomic sequences were cloned and sequenced, its CDS was analyzed with PCR-SSCP, and the genotype analyses covered 109 individuals from Wild boar, Min pig and Yorkshire. Fifteen of total 21 introns were cloned. Five pairs polymorphic primers for PCR-SSCP analysis were designed based on the CDS of CAPN1 from GenBank and the cloned introns. Eight SNPs, resulting from single point mutation G to C, C to T, T to C, G to A, G to A, G to A, C to T and C to T at the base position 161 in exon2, 60 in exon5, 96 in exon5, 119 in exon5, 270 in intron8, 83 in exon10, 126 in exon13 and 138 in exon13 respectively, were identified, and 3 of which are missense mutations resulting to amino acid substitutions of S/T, G/E, V/I at the amino acid position of 54, 192 and 363 respectively. chi2 analysis showed that the distribution of genotypes among Yorkshire, Min pig and Wild boar are extremely significant difference, while there are no significant difference be-tween Min pig and Wild boar except in the S1 primer. The polymorphic sites may be used as molecular markers for meat tenderness and pork quality.

  7. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Hsun; Wu, Ting-Wen; Cheng, Feng-Pang; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glycerol (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%) and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N). Semen was collected from Duroc boars and was allocated to 32 treatment groups for cryopreservation. Analysis of post-thaw semen quality and fertility after artificial insemination (AI) was used to examine the combinatorial effects of different treatments. The best scores for post-thaw sperm motility, sperm viability, and sperm acrosomal integrity were observed in semen frozen in: (a) dry ice in the presence of 5% glycerol and no DMA (16D-treatment); (b) dry ice in the presence of 3% glycerol and no DMA (9D-treatment); and (c) liquid nitrogen in the presence of 3% glycerol and 1% DMA (10N-treatment), with no significant difference observed among these three treatments. The farrowing rates after AI with post-thawed semen after 9D- and 10N-treatments were 33% and 50%, respectively. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that the freezing extender containing 3% glycerol in combination with the straw-freezing method using dry ice produced the best post-thaw quality parameters of boar semen. Combinations of glycerol and DMA did not enhance the cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa. PMID:26952752

  8. Dynamics of the induced acrosome reaction in boar sperm evaluated by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Birck, Anders; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Christensen, Preben

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the dynamics of the in vitro induced acrosome reaction (AR) in boar sperm in response to medium composition, incubation time and ionophore concentration. The AR is a prerequisite for normal sperm fertilizing capability and can be studied in vitro following induction by various agents. The ability of a sperm population to undergo the AR in vivo is expected to influence male fertilizing potential, and attempts to relate the in vitro induced AR to fertility has been reported. However, to relate the induced AR to fertility one should be aware of the dynamics of the in vitro induced AR. A detailed description of the dynamics of sperm viability and acrosomal status of boar sperm following in vitro induction of the AR has to our knowledge not previously been conducted. In the present study, a triple color flow cytometric detection technique was used, which gave simultaneous information on sperm viability and acrosomal status. The ionophore induced AR was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+), but could be easily induced in boar sperm without capacitation. Capacitation-associated plasma membrane phospholipid scrambling was assessed and a medium specific ability to induce these membrane changes was observed. Both sperm viability and the induced AR were significantly affected by sperm capacitation, incubation time and ionophore concentration. The results lead to suggestions for an optimized AR induction protocol that takes both sperm viability and the effectiveness of AR induction into consideration. PMID:19084358

  9. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  10. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Hsun; Wu, Ting-Wen; Cheng, Feng-Pang; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glycerol (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%) and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N). Semen was collected from Duroc boars and was allocated to 32 treatment groups for cryopreservation. Analysis of post-thaw semen quality and fertility after artificial insemination (AI) was used to examine the combinatorial effects of different treatments. The best scores for post-thaw sperm motility, sperm viability, and sperm acrosomal integrity were observed in semen frozen in: (a) dry ice in the presence of 5% glycerol and no DMA (16D-treatment); (b) dry ice in the presence of 3% glycerol and no DMA (9D-treatment); and (c) liquid nitrogen in the presence of 3% glycerol and 1% DMA (10N-treatment), with no significant difference observed among these three treatments. The farrowing rates after AI with post-thawed semen after 9D- and 10N-treatments were 33% and 50%, respectively. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that the freezing extender containing 3% glycerol in combination with the straw-freezing method using dry ice produced the best post-thaw quality parameters of boar semen. Combinations of glycerol and DMA did not enhance the cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa.

  11. Antioxidant effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on boar epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; Martínez, F; Galé, I

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ability of rosemary to protect epididymal boar spermatozoa from freeze-thaw damage. Testis from eight boars were collected at the slaughterhouse in two trials. In the laboratory, sperm from epididymis were recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (low; medium; high) of rosemary. After thawing, total motility, viability, acrosome integrity, response to hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and malonaldehide (MDA) concentration were assessed. The results showed that there was an increase in motility at 1, 2 and 3 h in the presence of rosemary. The addition of this herb provided a significant beneficial effect on viability at 2 h of incubation, compared to the control group. Conversely, acrosome status was not affected by any extender. Higher concentration of rosemary produced significant improvement in percentages of positive HOST at 0 and 1 h, whereas no impact was observed at the end of incubation. Considering membrane lipid peroxidation, a greater decrease in MDA production was observed when rosemary content was raised. Rosemary-enriched freezing extender improved the post-thaw epididymis boar spermatozoa quality, showing a significant correlation between rosemary concentration and concentration of MDA. Further studies are needed to define the active component in rosemary that prevents peroxidation.

  12. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients’ muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level. PMID:27684098

  13. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients' muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level. PMID:27684098

  14. Ferrous ion induced photon emission as a method to quantify oxidative stress in stored boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr; Pieszka, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of semen storage on ferrous ion induced luminescence of boar spermatozoa and to determine the relationship between parameters of this luminescence and lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Boar semen samples were diluted in Biosolwens extender and stored for 12 days at 15 degrees C. Luminescence and MDA were measured directly after dilution (day 0) and at 6 and 12 days of semen storage. Luminescence was measured at 20 degrees C using a luminometer equipped with a cooled photomultiplier with a spectral response range from 370 to 620 nm. Emission was induced by adding FeSO4 solution (final concentration 0.05 mM). MDA content was measured by the HPLC method. The day of storage had a significant effect on some luminescence parameters and MDA content in spermatozoa. A significant correlation was observed between luminescence parameters and MDA concentration. The results of the study confirm that induced luminescence is strictly related to lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa that occur during boar semen storage. Parameters of luminescence treated as a holistic response of cells to oxidative stress can be useful for monitoring spermatozoa quality during semen preservation. PMID:19055043

  15. A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky's disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, G; Freuling, C; Denzin, N; Schaarschmidt, U; Nieper, H; Hlinak, A; Burkhardt, S; Klopries, M; Dedek, J; Hoffmann, L; Kramer, M; Selhorst, T; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T; Müller, T

    2012-02-01

    Between 1985 and 2008, a total of 102,387 wild boar sera originating from Eastern Germany covering an area of 108 589 km2 were tested for the presence of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)-specific antibodies. From 1985 until 1991 and from 1992 until 2008, wild boar sera were exclusively investigated using either conventional seroneutralization assays (n=39 621) or commercial gB and full antigen ELISAs (n=62,766), respectively. Spatial-temporal analysis revealed an increasing ADV seroprevalence from 0·4% to 15·9%, on average, during the 24-year observation period that went along with a continuous spread of the infection in a western direction. During 2006 and 2008, 18% of the 66 affected districts had ADV seroprevalences >30%. There was a significant correlation between ADV seroprevalence and the hunting index of population density (HIPD) of wild boar in the entire study area, although this did not hold true for some regions. Seroprevalences did not differ between sexes but were age-dependent. East Germany has been officially free of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) in domestic pigs since 1985. Although a risk for domestic pigs cannot be completely ruled out, experience has shown that ADV in domestic pigs could be eliminated although the virus was present in the wild boar population. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalence in the East German wild boar population no spillover infections from wild boar to domestic pigs have been reported. To further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population in Germany, a nationwide serological monitoring programme should be implemented. PMID:21320372

  16. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sophie; Staubach, Christoph; Blome, Sandra; Guberti, Vittorio; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Vos, Ad; Koenen, Frank; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV) has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990’s and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000’s among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop vaccination efforts

  17. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sophie; Staubach, Christoph; Blome, Sandra; Guberti, Vittorio; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Vos, Ad; Koenen, Frank; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV) has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990's and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000's among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop vaccination efforts. After

  18. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination is effective in reducing disease and PCV2 shedding in semen of boars concurrently infected with PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in semen will be increased in boars experimentally coinfected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and if PCV2 vaccination of the boars prior to PCV2 exposure will result in reduced PCV2 viremia and...

  19. Preliminary study of FMO1, FMO5, CYP21, ESR1, PLIN2 and SULT2A1 as candidate gene for compounds related to boar taint.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, Christiane; Gunawan, Asep; Farooq, Malik Omar; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Frieden, Luc; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim

    2015-10-01

    An association study between polymorphisms of six genes and boar taint related compounds androstenone, skatole and indole was performed in a boar population (n=370). Significant association (P<0.05) was detected for SNP of FMO5 (g.494A>G) with all boar taint compounds, SNP of CYP21 (g.3911T>C) with skatole and indole, and SNP of ESR1 (g.672C>T) with androstenone and indole. mRNA expression of CYP21 and ESR1 was higher in CAB (castrated boar) compared to non-castrated boars; whereas, the expression of FMO5 and ESR1 was higher in LBT (low boar taint) compared to HBT (high boar taint) in liver tissue. FMO5, CYP21 and ESR1 proteins were less detectable in HBT compared with LBT and CAB in liver tissues. These findings suggest that FMO5, CYP21 and ESR1 gene variants might have effects on the boar taint compounds. PMID:26047979

  20. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions. PMID:21745408

  1. The MC4R c.893G>A mutation: a marker for growth and leanness associated with boar taint odour in Belgian pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, M; Janssens, S; Stinckens, A; Brebels, M; Bertolini, F; Lamberigts, C; Bekaert, K; Vanhaecke, L; Aluwé, M; Tuyttens, F A M; Millet, S; Buys, N

    2015-03-01

    Since surgical castration of male piglets without anaesthesia is under heavy societal pressure, finding a sustainable solution to reduce boar taint has become urgent. One way to circumvent this animal welfare violation is raising entire male pigs whilst selecting against the tainted phenotype through marker-assisted selection. Since slaughtering at a lower weight is often suggested to reduce boar taint, selection using a marker for that trait could be a promising strategy. Therefore, in this study a melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) mutation, frequently described in different pig breeds as marker for fat content, weight gain and feed intake, was examined in relation to boar taint in pig breeds used in Belgian pig farms. Although results suggest an association between this mutation and a boar taint odour score assigned by experts, no association was found between the mutation and the concentration of the individual chemical boar taint components androstenone, skatole and indole. PMID:25462375

  2. Time-dependency of the 137Cs contamination of wild boar from a region in Southern Germany in the years 1998 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Semizhon, Tatiana; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Zibold, Gregor; Klemt, Eckehard

    2009-11-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, (137)Cs contamination levels of wild boar in some districts of Southern Germany are still exceeding thousands of Bq kg(-1). While the long term (137)Cs concentration in forest plants, mushrooms, and roe deer meat has decreased significantly, for wild boar it has remained constant during the last decade. Between 1998 and 2008, we analysed the muscle meat of 656 wild boars shot in the district ("Landkreis") Ravensburg. The (137)Cs activity concentration showed considerable variability from less than 5 up to 8266 Bq kg(-1) and it followed a seasonal pattern, which is attributed to changes in dietary habits, fodder availability, meteorological conditions and specific behaviour of (137)Cs in wild boar organism. T(ag) values for wild boars from the district Ravensburg varied from 0.008 to 0.062 m(2)kg(-1) during 2000-2008.

  3. Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10 mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300 min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p < 0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p < 0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p < 0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. PMID:25037026

  4. Identification of the novel candidate genes and variants in boar liver tissues with divergent skatole levels using RNA deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Asep; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Neuhoff, Christiane; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Frieden, Luc; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Wondim, Dessie Salilew; Hölker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim

    2013-01-01

    Boar taint is the unpleasant odour of meat derived from non-castrated male pigs, caused by the accumulation of androstenone and skatole in fat. Skatole is a tryptophan metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria in gut and catabolised in liver. Since boar taint affects consumer's preference, the aim of this study was to perform transcriptome profiling in liver of boars with divergent skatole levels in backfat by using RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each liver sample ranged from 11.8 to 39.0 million. Approximately 448 genes were differentially regulated (p-adjusted <0.05). Among them, 383 genes were up-regulated in higher skatole group and 65 were down-regulated (p<0.01, FC>1.5). Differentially regulated genes in the high skatole liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as small molecule biochemistry, protein synthesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pathway analysis identified the remodeling of epithelial adherens junction and TCA cycle as the most dominant pathways which may play important roles in skatole metabolism. Differential gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in ATP synthesis, cytochrome P450, keratin, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and solute carrier family. Additionally, polymorphism and association analysis revealed that mutations in ATP5B, KRT8, PGM1, SLC22A7 and IDH1 genes could be potential markers for skatole levels in boars. Furthermore, expression analysis of exon usage of three genes (ATP5B, KRT8 and PGM1) revealed significant differential expression of exons of these genes in different skatole levels. These polymorphisms and exon expression differences may have impacts on the gene activity ultimately leading to skatole variation and could be used as genetic marker for boar taint related traits. However, further validation is required to confirm the effect of these genetic markers in other pig populations in order to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding

  5. Immunoreactivity to cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the enteric nervous system of the pig and wild boar stomach.

    PubMed

    Zacharko-Siembida, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2014-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered peptide inducing strong anxiogenic-like effect. CART distribution and its role(s) at periphery are not well understood. Immunohistochemisty was utilized to investigate the distribution patterns of CART in the stomach of the pig and wild boar. Double immunohistochemisty was applied to elucidate whether CART-immunoreactive (IR) neuronal elements coexpress galanin, substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). In the pig stomach, different proportions of CART-IR myenteric neurons were found in the antrum (42.3 ± 3.5%), corpus (18.0 ± 1.9%) and pylorus (33.2 ± 3.0%). CART-IR myeneric neurons were also found in the antrum, corpus and pylorus of the wild boar stomach (41.7 ± 3.2, 36.0 ± 2.2 and 35.8 ± 3.5%; respectively). In both species, none of gastric submucous neurons were CART-IR; however, CART-IR nerve fibres encircled submucous perikarya. In all portions of the pig and wild boar stomach, CART-IR nerve fibres were frequently found in the smooth muscle layer as well as in the lamina muscularis mucosae. In all regions of the pig and wild boar stomach, the expression of galanin and SP was found in CART-IR myenteric neurons and smooth muscle-supplying nerve fibres. CART/NPY coexpression was not found in the porcine stomach; however, in different regions of the wild boar stomach, subpopulations of CART-IR/NPY-IR myenteric neurons were noted. In conclusion, in this study, the existence and distribution patterns of CART in discrete regions of the pig and wild boar stomach were described in details. Colocalization studies revealed that in both animal species, a functional cooperation of CART with several neuropeptides is likely.

  6. Identification of the Novel Candidate Genes and Variants in Boar Liver Tissues with Divergent Skatole Levels Using RNA Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gunawan, Asep; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Neuhoff, Christiane; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Frieden, Luc; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Wondim, Dessie Salilew; Hölker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim

    2013-01-01

    Boar taint is the unpleasant odour of meat derived from non-castrated male pigs, caused by the accumulation of androstenone and skatole in fat. Skatole is a tryptophan metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria in gut and catabolised in liver. Since boar taint affects consumer’s preference, the aim of this study was to perform transcriptome profiling in liver of boars with divergent skatole levels in backfat by using RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each liver sample ranged from 11.8 to 39.0 million. Approximately 448 genes were differentially regulated (p-adjusted <0.05). Among them, 383 genes were up-regulated in higher skatole group and 65 were down-regulated (p<0.01, FC>1.5). Differentially regulated genes in the high skatole liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as small molecule biochemistry, protein synthesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pathway analysis identified the remodeling of epithelial adherens junction and TCA cycle as the most dominant pathways which may play important roles in skatole metabolism. Differential gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in ATP synthesis, cytochrome P450, keratin, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and solute carrier family. Additionally, polymorphism and association analysis revealed that mutations in ATP5B, KRT8, PGM1, SLC22A7 and IDH1 genes could be potential markers for skatole levels in boars. Furthermore, expression analysis of exon usage of three genes (ATP5B, KRT8 and PGM1) revealed significant differential expression of exons of these genes in different skatole levels. These polymorphisms and exon expression differences may have impacts on the gene activity ultimately leading to skatole variation and could be used as genetic marker for boar taint related traits. However, further validation is required to confirm the effect of these genetic markers in other pig populations in order to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding

  7. Spatio-temporal modeling of the invasive potential of wild boar--a conflict-prone species-using multi-source citizen science data.

    PubMed

    Jordt, Astrid Moltke; Lange, Martin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Nielsen, Lisbeth Harm; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Vejre, Henrik; Alban, Lis

    2016-02-01

    Denmark was considered not to have an established population of free-ranging wild boar. Today, sporadic observations of wild boar challenge that view. Due to its reservoir role for economic devastating swine diseases, wild boar represents a potential threat for Denmark's position as a large pig- and pork-exporting country. This study assessed the prospects of wild boar invasion in Denmark. Multi-source citizen science data of wild boar observations were integrated into a multi-modelling approach linking habitat suitability models with agent-based, spatially-explicit simulations. We tested whether the currently observed presence of wild boar is due to natural immigration across the Danish-German border, or whether it is more likely that wild boar escaped fenced premises. Five observational data sources served as evaluation data: (1) questionnaires sent to all 1625 registered owners of Danish farm land, located in the 60 parishes closest to the border, (2) an online questionnaire, (3) a mobile web-based GPS application, (4) reports in the media or by governmental agencies, and (5) geo-referenced locations of fenced wild boar populations. Data covering 2008-2013 included 195 observations of wild boar, including 16 observations of breeding sows. The data from the Danish Nature Agency and the mailed questionnaires were consistent regarding the location of wild boar observations, while data from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, the media and the electronic questionnaires documented individual scattered observations in the rest of Jutland. Most observations were made in the region bordering Germany. It is uncertain whether the relatively few observations represent an established population. Model outcomes suggested that the origin of wild boar in about half of the area with sporadic observations of wild boar could be attributed to spatial expansions from a local Danish population near the border and consisting of wild boar originally of German origin

  8. Spatio-temporal modeling of the invasive potential of wild boar--a conflict-prone species-using multi-source citizen science data.

    PubMed

    Jordt, Astrid Moltke; Lange, Martin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Nielsen, Lisbeth Harm; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Vejre, Henrik; Alban, Lis

    2016-02-01

    Denmark was considered not to have an established population of free-ranging wild boar. Today, sporadic observations of wild boar challenge that view. Due to its reservoir role for economic devastating swine diseases, wild boar represents a potential threat for Denmark's position as a large pig- and pork-exporting country. This study assessed the prospects of wild boar invasion in Denmark. Multi-source citizen science data of wild boar observations were integrated into a multi-modelling approach linking habitat suitability models with agent-based, spatially-explicit simulations. We tested whether the currently observed presence of wild boar is due to natural immigration across the Danish-German border, or whether it is more likely that wild boar escaped fenced premises. Five observational data sources served as evaluation data: (1) questionnaires sent to all 1625 registered owners of Danish farm land, located in the 60 parishes closest to the border, (2) an online questionnaire, (3) a mobile web-based GPS application, (4) reports in the media or by governmental agencies, and (5) geo-referenced locations of fenced wild boar populations. Data covering 2008-2013 included 195 observations of wild boar, including 16 observations of breeding sows. The data from the Danish Nature Agency and the mailed questionnaires were consistent regarding the location of wild boar observations, while data from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, the media and the electronic questionnaires documented individual scattered observations in the rest of Jutland. Most observations were made in the region bordering Germany. It is uncertain whether the relatively few observations represent an established population. Model outcomes suggested that the origin of wild boar in about half of the area with sporadic observations of wild boar could be attributed to spatial expansions from a local Danish population near the border and consisting of wild boar originally of German origin

  9. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium microti Isolates in Wild Boar from Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gaffuri, Alessandra; Gelmetti, Daniela; Tagliabue, Silvia; Chiari, Mario; Mangeli, Anna; Spisani, Matteo; Nassuato, Claudia; Gibelli, Lucia; Sacchi, Cristina; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Pacciarini, M. Lodovica

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 23,000 hunter-harvested wild boars from the pre-Alpine area of northern Italy were examined for tuberculosis over a 9-year period (2003 to 2011). Retropharyngeal and mandibular lymph nodes from the wild boars were examined grossly, and 1,151 of the lymph nodes were analyzed in our laboratory by histology (728 samples) and culture isolation (819 samples). Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC)-specific PCR (1,142 samples) was used for molecular-level detection in tissue samples, as was a gyrB restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay (322 samples). Lesions compatible with tuberculosis and indistinguishable from those described in cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection had been observed since 2003. Mycobacterium microti was identified directly in 256 tissue samples by the adopted molecular approaches. However, only 26 M. microti strains were obtained by culture isolation due to the well-known difficulties in isolating this slow-growing mycobacterium. During 2006, a prevalence study was performed in two provinces of the area, and the diffusion of M. microti was calculated to be 5.8% (95% confidence intervals surrounding the estimated prevalences [CIP95%], 3.94 to 7.68%). Over the following years (2007 to 2011), the presence of M. microti appeared to be stable. All isolates were genotyped by spoligotyping and exact tandem repeat analysis (ETR types A to F). In addition to the typical vole type (SB0118), a new spoligotype lacking the 43 spacers was found. Spoligotyping was also applied directly to tissue samples, and a geographical cluster distribution of the two spoligotypes was observed. This is the first report studying the diffusion and genetic variability of M. microti in wild boar. PMID:24871212

  10. Association between vitamin D supplementation and severity of tuberculosis in wild boar and red deer.

    PubMed

    Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Cerrato, R; Gutierrez-Merino, J; Lanham-New, S; Barquero-Pérez, O; Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Fernández-Llario, P

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease affecting humans and other mammal species. Severity of TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans seems to be influenced by nutritional factors like vitamin D3 intake. However, this relationship has been scarcely studied in cattle and other mammals infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The aim of this work was to assess if wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis show different levels of TB severity depending on the level of vitamin D found in serum after supplementation with vitamin D3. Forty hunted wildlife mammals were included in this study: 20 wild boar and 20 red deer. Ten wild boar and ten red deer had been supplemented with a vitamin D3-enriched food, whereas the remaining animals had received no supplementation. TB diagnosis was carried out in each animal based on microbiological isolation of M. bovis. Animals infected with M. bovis were then classified as animals with localized or generalized TB depending on the location and dissemination of the lesions. Furthermore, serum levels of vitamin D2 and D3 were determined in each animal to evaluate differences not only between supplemented and non-supplemented animals but also between those with localized and generalized TB. Levels of vitamin D3 found in both, supplemented wild boar and red deer, were significantly higher than those found in the non-supplemented animals. Interestingly, higher levels of vitamin D3 were observed in animals suffering localized TB when compared to animals with generalized TB suggesting that vitamin D3 concentration correlates negatively with TB severity in these wildlife reservoirs. PMID:27663379

  11. Is photometry an accurate and reliable method to assess boar semen concentration?

    PubMed

    Camus, A; Camugli, S; Lévêque, C; Schmitt, E; Staub, C

    2011-02-01

    Sperm concentration assessment is a key point to insure appropriate sperm number per dose in species subjected to artificial insemination (AI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of two commercially available photometers, AccuCell™ and AccuRead™ pre-calibrated for boar semen in comparison to UltiMate™ boar version 12.3D, NucleoCounter SP100 and Thoma hemacytometer. For each type of instrument, concentration was measured on 34 boar semen samples in quadruplicate and agreement between measurements and instruments were evaluated. Accuracy for both photometers was illustrated by mean of percentage differences to the general mean. It was -0.6% and 0.5% for Accucell™ and Accuread™ respectively, no significant differences were found between instrument and mean of measurement among all equipment. Repeatability for both photometers was 1.8% and 3.2% for AccuCell™ and AccuRead™ respectively. Low differences were observed between instruments (confidence interval 3%) except when hemacytometer was used as a reference. Even though hemacytometer is considered worldwide as the gold standard, it is the more variable instrument (confidence interval 7.1%). The conclusion is that routine photometry measures of raw semen concentration are reliable, accurate and precise using AccuRead™ or AccuCell™. There are multiple steps in semen processing that can induce sperm loss and therefore increase differences between theoretical and real sperm numbers in doses. Potential biases that depend on the workflow but not on the initial photometric measure of semen concentration are discussed.

  12. Seminal plasma proteins inhibit in vitro- and cooling-induced capacitation in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vadnais, Melissa L; Roberts, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Dilute boar seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes in boar spermatozoa, as assessed by the ability of the spermatozoa to undergo an ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. We hypothesised that the protein component of SP is responsible for this effect. To test this hypothesis, varying concentrations of total SP protein or SP proteins fractionated by heparin binding were assayed for their ability to inhibit in vitro capacitation, as well as cooling- and cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. In vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes were prevented by 10% whole SP, as well as by total proteins extracted from SP at concentrations greater than 500 microg mL(-1). No amount of SP protein was able to prevent cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. Total SP proteins were fractionated based on their heparin-binding properties and the heparin-binding fraction was shown to possess capacitation inhibitory activity at concentrations as low as 250 microg mL(-1). The proteins in the heparin-binding fraction were subjected to mass spectrometry and identified. The predominant proteins were three members of the spermadhesin families, namely AQN-3, AQN-1 and AWN, and SP protein pB1. We conclude that one or more of these heparin-binding SP proteins is able to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes, but not cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes, in boar spermatozoa. PMID:20591323

  13. Effects of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides on Liquid-Preserved Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Martin; Junkes, Christof; Mueller, Peter; Speck, Stephanie; Ruediger, Karin; Dathe, Margitta; Mueller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW) and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E) on boar sperm during semen storage at 16°C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard), was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW) sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation. PMID:24940997

  14. Computer aided boar semen motility analysis for cereulide detection in different food matrices.

    PubMed

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2007-02-28

    Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other microbial and chemical food contaminants with the bio-assay. Current study provides evidence that none of included Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A, B, C and D nor B. cereus Hemolysin BL (HBL) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and three mycotoxins (Sterigmatocystin, Fumonisin B1 and Patulin) exhibited a toxic impact on semen progressive motility. Aflatoxin M1, M3 and zearalenone impaired semen motility only at concentrations (0.004 mg ml(-1), 0.1 mg ml(-1) and 10 mg ml(-1), respectively) much higher than those found in foods and those permitted by legislation, in comparison to cereulide which induces motility cease at concentrations lower than 20 ng ml(-1). Ten commonly used preservatives, namely potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, (DL) malic acid, citric acid, (L+) tartaric acid, acetic acid, (DL) lactic acid, (L+) ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sucrose induced no cease in spermatozoa motility even at preservative concentrations higher than permitted by legislation. Dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and acrylamide had no acute effect on spermatozoa motility at concentrations of 500 and 10,000 mg ml(-1), respectively. Robustness of computer aided boar semen motility analysis, tested with 14 different foods inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus, showed distinct cereulide production in seven samples (although B. cereus growth to counts higher than 8 log CFU g(-1) was noted in 11 samples), in amounts close to those reported in foodborne outbreaks. Test evaluation in 33 samples suspected to hold cereulide showed actual cereulide presence in ten samples and no interference of food matrix

  15. The effect of Curcuma longa extracted (curcumin) on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of curcumin needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Semen samples (n = 9) were collected from nine Duroc boars which having proven fertility were used for routine artificial insemination. Semen samples were collected and divided into six groups (groups A-F) according to various concentrations of curcumin in freezing extender (i.e. 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). The semen was frozen by traditional liquid nitrogen vapor method and stored at -196°C in the liquid nitrogen tank. After storage, frozen semen samples were thawed at 50°C for 12 s and evaluated for progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity. The present results indicated that the addition of curcumin at 0.25 (group C) or 0.50 mmol/L curcumin (group D) yielded the higher percentage of progressive motility (33.3 and 36.1%, respectively) (P < 0.001). A significantly higher percentage of acrosome integrity was found in groups B (29.7%), C (31.1%) and D (30.2%) than in the other groups (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in percentage of viability among groups. In conclusion, addition to the freezing extender of curcumin during cryopreservation at a concentration of 0.25 or 0.50 mmol/L is the optimal concentration of curcumin for improving the quality (i.e. increased progressive motility and acrosome integrity) of cryopreserved boar semen.

  16. Changes in sperm quality and lipid composition during cryopreservation of boar semen.

    PubMed

    Maldjian, A; Pizzi, F; Gliozzi, T; Cerolini, S; Penny, P; Noble, R

    2005-01-15

    Egg yolks are commonly used in diluents in order to improve the freezability of semen. Two aspects of the role of lipids in boar semen freezability are reported in this article. The first one concerns the eventual exchanges of lipid components between the spermatozoa and the yolk-based diluent during cryopreservation. Two types of yolk have been considered as ingredients in diluents for cryopreservation: yolks with a standard fatty acid composition and yolks enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The relation between lipid exchanges and the quality of fresh semen is considered. The other aspect concerns the possibility to enhance the freezability of boar spermatozoa by altering the plasma membranes under the influence of dietary fatty acids. Spermatozoa were damaged significantly by the cryopreservation cycle in all experiments. Spermatozoa with the best fresh quality had accumulated the largest quantity of lipids upon thawing. A general decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed after thawing. The yolks enriched in n-3 fatty acids failed to improve the quality of sperm following cryopreservation. The proportion of DHA was significantly higher in spermatozoan phospholipids from thawed cells that had been in contact with n-3 yolks. A significant reduction in cholesterol was observed in spermatozoa after the cryopreservation cycle, which correlated with an increased number of acrosome-reacted cells and changes in the parameters of motility. The addition of 3% fish oil to the daily boar ration significantly increased the content of DHA (from 33 to 45% of the total fatty acids) in the spermatozoa. Ejaculate concentrations were significantly increased in the experimental group. DHA-enriched semen did not show improved freezability, at least not as assessed by in vitro parameters. PMID:15626408

  17. Association between vitamin D supplementation and severity of tuberculosis in wild boar and red deer.

    PubMed

    Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Cerrato, R; Gutierrez-Merino, J; Lanham-New, S; Barquero-Pérez, O; Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Fernández-Llario, P

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease affecting humans and other mammal species. Severity of TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans seems to be influenced by nutritional factors like vitamin D3 intake. However, this relationship has been scarcely studied in cattle and other mammals infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The aim of this work was to assess if wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis show different levels of TB severity depending on the level of vitamin D found in serum after supplementation with vitamin D3. Forty hunted wildlife mammals were included in this study: 20 wild boar and 20 red deer. Ten wild boar and ten red deer had been supplemented with a vitamin D3-enriched food, whereas the remaining animals had received no supplementation. TB diagnosis was carried out in each animal based on microbiological isolation of M. bovis. Animals infected with M. bovis were then classified as animals with localized or generalized TB depending on the location and dissemination of the lesions. Furthermore, serum levels of vitamin D2 and D3 were determined in each animal to evaluate differences not only between supplemented and non-supplemented animals but also between those with localized and generalized TB. Levels of vitamin D3 found in both, supplemented wild boar and red deer, were significantly higher than those found in the non-supplemented animals. Interestingly, higher levels of vitamin D3 were observed in animals suffering localized TB when compared to animals with generalized TB suggesting that vitamin D3 concentration correlates negatively with TB severity in these wildlife reservoirs.

  18. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W.; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km2 large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172–377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  19. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2) large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria.

  20. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2) large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  1. [Fatal anaphylaxis after eating wild boar meat in a patient with pork-cat syndrome].

    PubMed

    Drouet, M; Sabbah, A; Le Sellin, J; Bonneau, J C; Gay, G; Dubois-Gosnet, C

    2001-04-01

    Crossed allergy between pork and cat epithelia was described by us in 1994. It is due to serum albumin. Nowadays, other bio-chemical observations allow "completion" of the syndrome by extension of the crossed reactivity between other mammal meats and other epithelia of dog and horse. The authors report an observation of the pork-cat syndrome (developing in the form of anaphylaxis, and then ending in the death of the patient), following consumption of wild boar meat. Co-factors, such as effort, taking alcohol or hormonal condition may complicate the picture to make diagnosis more difficult.

  2. Detection of cooling-induced membrane changes in the response of boar sperm to capacitating conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrunkina, Anna M; Volker, Gabriele; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Beyerbach, Martin; Töpfer-Petersen, Edda; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-05-01

    There is a need for methods of rapid and sensitive sperm function assessment. As spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an oocyte before having undergone a series of complex physiological changes collectively called capacitation, it is logical to assess sperm function under fertilizing conditions in vitro. In this study, the responsiveness of sperm to capacitating conditions in vitro was monitored by changes in sperm response to ionophore and by changes in the amount of intracellular calcium ions in stored boar semen. Boar semen was diluted at 32 and 20 degrees C and stored for 24 and 72 h at 16 and 10 degrees C. Ionophore-induced changes and increased intracellular calcium ion content in boar spermatozoa were recorded by flow cytometry and found to progress as a function of time during incubation under capacitating conditions. All responsiveness parameters (increases in proportions of membrane-defective spermatozoa, acrosome-reacted spermatozoa, and cells with high intracellular calcium levels) were shown to be sensitive to subtle physiological changes occurring at low storage temperatures. The initial levels of sperm with a high calcium content were higher in semen stored at 10 degrees C, but the accumulation of internal calcium was lower than in semen stored at 16 degrees C. The loss of membrane integrity and increase in the proportion of acrosome-reacted cells were higher in semen stored at 10 degrees C. Dilution at 20 degrees C had no negative effect on membrane integrity or responsiveness to capacitating conditions. There was no significant difference between semen stored for 24 and 72 h in terms of membrane integrity, acrosome reaction, and intracellular calcium after capacitation treatment. However, dynamics of cell death and acrosome reaction in response to capacitating conditions were somewhat accelerated after 72 h storage, especially in semen stored at 10 degrees C. It can be concluded that the simultaneous use of the sperm membrane responsiveness and

  3. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-09-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05 fold regulation ≤‑2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions.

  4. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-09-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05 fold regulation ≤-2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions.

  5. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤-2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. PMID:27597569

  6. Survival and fertility of boar spermatozoa after freeze-thawing in extender supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria A; Hernandez, Marta; Parrilla, Inma; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. In experiment 1, the lowest BHT concentrations able to reduce lipid peroxidation in boar spermatozoa were determined. Nine BHT concentrations (ranging from 0.025 to 3.2 mM) were evaluated, and the lowest (P <.05) production of malondialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was obtained when BHT ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 mM. In experiment 2, sperm survivability was evaluated when BHT was added to a postthaw freezing extender by measuring the degree of sperm lipid peroxidation (using MDA production) and by measuring parameter such as motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, and cell apoptosis. The ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured oocytes and of embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro was also assessed. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 3 mature Pietrain boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after dilution with lactose-egg yolk-glycerol-Orvus ES Paste extender supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mM BHT. Postthaw sperm survival, evaluated 30 and 150 minutes after thawing, was higher in BHT-treated spermatozoa, being significant (P <.05) when the freezing extender was supplemented with 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mM BHT. The addition of BHT to the freezing extender resulted in a significant (P <.05) decrease in the MDA concentration in thawed spermatozoa, irrespective of the level of BHT used. BHT had no effect on oocyte cleavage rates, but the development to blastocyst was improved for embryos derived from spermatozoa frozen in extender supplemented with 0.4 mM BHT (16% vs 29% of blastocysts per total oocytes; P <.05). In conclusion, under the conditions tested in the present study, the addition of BHT to the freezing extender improved the overall efficiency of thawed boar spermatozoa.

  7. Genetic trends of conformation traits and genetic correlations to osteochondrosis in boars.

    PubMed

    Aasmundstad, T; Gjerlaug-Enger, E; Grindflek, E; Vangen, O

    2014-07-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the heritabilities and genetic correlations between traits from a linear exterior assessment system and osteochondrosis (OC) measured by computed tomography (CT), and in addition, to study the genetic trend in a population where the conformation traits have been included in the breeding goal. The data material consisted of phenotypes from a total of 4571 Norsvin Landrace test boars. At the end of the test period, all boars were subjected to a detailed exterior assessment system. Within 10 days of the assessment, the boars were CT scanned for measuring OC. The total score of osteochondrosis (OCT), used in this study, is the sum of phenotypes from the assessment on the medial and lateral condyles at the distal end of both the humerus and the femur of the right and the left leg of the boar based on images from CT. The exterior assessment traits included in the study were; 'front leg knee' (FKNE), 'front leg pasterns' (FPAS), 'front leg stance' (FSTA), 'front leg twisted pasterns' (FFLK), 'hind leg stance', 'hind leg pasterns' (HPAS), 'hind leg standing under' (HSTU), 'hind leg small inner toe', 'dipped back', 'arched back' (ARCH) and 'waddling hindquarters' (WADL). The estimation of (co)variance components and breeding values were performed using bivariate animal genetic models. Breeding values for HSTU, HPAS, FPAS, WADL and OCT traits were additional outputs from the same bivariate analyses. The lowest heritability was found for FFLK (h 2 FFLK=0.05), whereas FPAS was estimated to have the highest heritability (h 2 FPAS=0.36), and OCT demonstrating a heritability of 0.29. Significant genetic correlations were found between several traits; the strongest correlation was between FSTA and FFLK (0.94), which was followed by the correlation between FPAS and FKNE (0.69). The traits ARCH and FSTA had significant genetic correlations to OCT, whereas all other genetic correlations between OCT and the conformation traits were low and

  8. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars

    PubMed Central

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤−2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. PMID:27597569

  9. New strategies of boar sperm cryopreservation: development of novel freezing and thawing methods with a focus on the roles of seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Tetsuji; Shimada, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa offers an effective means of long-term storage of important genetic material. Many researchers have investigated how to improve reproductive performance by artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved boar spermatozoa. Recently, we and other groups reported that high conception rates (70-80%) can be achieved by AI with frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa using a modified temperature program during freezing, or a novel cryopreservation extender to improve sperm quality (including sperm survivability, motility, membrane status and fertilization ability) after thawing, or a novel sperm infusion method, deep intra uterine insemination. However, these techniques have not yet been used for commercial pig production. The variation in sperm freezability among boars or among ejaculations in an identical boar is one of the main reasons for this problem. In our previous study, it was revealed that some components of seminal plasma have a negative effect on the freezability of boar sperm. One of these factors is bacteria-released endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS). LPS binds to Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expressed on the sperm surface, resulting in induction of apoptosis. On the other hand, seminal plasma suppresses cryo-capacitation induced by thawing stress. On the basis of these findings, we designed a novel protocol of AI using frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  10. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue from entire male pigs with extremely divergent levels of boar taint compounds--an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mörlein, Daniel; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the variability of fatty acid composition in entire male pigs with extremely divergent levels of boar taint compounds. Fatty acids were quantified in back fat samples from 20 selected carcasses of Pietrain*F1 sired boars (average carcass weight 84 kg) with extremely low (LL) or extremely high (HH) levels of androstenone, skatole, and indole. Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were significantly (p<0.05) increased in LL boars (23.4%) compared to HH boars (19.7%). This was mainly due to increased levels of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3). Correspondingly, unsaturated fatty acids (SFA) were significantly lower (p<0.05) in LL boars (35.2%) compared to HH boars (37.7%). The findings are discussed with respect to potential effects on flavor formation in boar fat and meat. Further research is needed to study the gender specificity and the interplay of the synthesis and the metabolism of steroids, lipids, and the clearance of skatole in pigs. PMID:25280356

  11. Wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic and Japan possess intact mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, I M; Okumura, N; Uenishi, H; Hammer, S E; Knoll, A; Edfors, I; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2015-06-01

    The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks. PMID:25809846

  12. Effect of naloxone treatment on luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations in boars with high and low libido

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of naloxone, an opioid peptide receptor antagonist on circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in boars characterized as having high (n = 8) or low libido (n = 8) based on the willingness to mount an artificial sow and allow s...

  13. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health.