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Sample records for board crewed spacecraft

  1. An Environmental Impact Assessment of Perfluorocarbon Thermal Working Fluid Use On Board Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Arnold, William a.

    2006-01-01

    The design and operation of crewed spacecraft requires identifying and evaluating chemical compounds that may present reactivity and compatibility risks with the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. Such risks must be understood so that appropriate design and operational controls, including specifying containment levels, can be instituted or an appropriate substitute material selected. Operational experience acquired during the International Space Station (ISS) program has found that understanding ECLS system and environmental impact presented by thermal control system working fluids is imperative to safely operating any crewed space exploration vehicle. Perfluorocarbon fluids are used as working fluids in thermal control fluid loops on board the ISS. Also, payload hardware developers have identified perfluorocarbon fluids as preferred thermal control working fluids. Interest in using perfluorocarbon fluids as thermal control system working fluids for future crewed space vehicles and outposts is high. Potential hazards associated with perfluorocarbon fluids are discussed with specific attention given to engineering assessment of ECLS system compatibility, compatibility testing results, and spacecraft environmental impact. Considerations for perfluorocarbon fluid use on crewed spacecraft and outposts are summarized.

  2. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  3. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  4. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  5. Spacecraft crew procedures from paper to computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Michael; Manahan, Meera

    1991-01-01

    Described here is a research project that uses human factors and computer systems knowledge to explore and help guide the design and creation of an effective Human-Computer Interface (HCI) for spacecraft crew procedures. By having a computer system behind the user interface, it is possible to have increased procedure automation, related system monitoring, and personalized annotation and help facilities. The research project includes the development of computer-based procedure system HCI prototypes and a testbed for experiments that measure the effectiveness of HCI alternatives in order to make design recommendations. The testbed will include a system for procedure authoring, editing, training, and execution. Progress on developing HCI prototypes for a middeck experiment performed on Space Shuttle Mission STS-34 and for upcoming medical experiments are discussed. The status of the experimental testbed is also discussed.

  6. An Alternative Approach to Human Servicing of Crewed Earth Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularski, John R.; Alpert, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    As crewed spacecraft have grown larger and more complex, they have come to rely on spacewalks, or Extravehicular Activities (EVA), for mission success and crew safety. Typically, these spacecraft maintain all of the hardware and trained personnel needed to perform an EVA on-board at all times. Maintaining this capability requires volume and up-mass for storage of EVA hardware, crew time for ground and on-orbit training, and on-orbit maintenance of EVA hardware. This paper proposes an alternative methodology, utilizing launch on-need hardware and crew to provide EVA capability for space stations in Earth orbit after assembly complete, in the same way that one would call a repairman to fix something at their home. This approach would reduce ground training requirements, save Intravehicular Activity (IVA) crew time in the form of EVA hardware maintenance and on-orbit training, and lead to more efficient EVAs because they would be performed by specialists with detailed knowledge and training stemming from their direct involvement in the development of the EVA. The on-orbit crew would then be available to focus on the immediate response to the failure as well as the day-to-day operations of the spacecraft and payloads. This paper will look at how current unplanned EVAs are conducted, including the time required for preparation, and offer alternatives for future spacecraft. As this methodology relies on the on-time and on-need launch of spacecraft, any space station that utilized this approach would need a robust transportation system including more than one launch vehicle capable of carrying crew. In addition, the fault tolerance of the space station would be an important consideration in how much time was available for EVA preparation after the failure. Each future program would have to weigh the risk of on-time launch against the increase in available crew time for the main objective of the spacecraft.

  7. Quantifying Danger To Spacecraft Crews From Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamsen, Joel

    1996-01-01

    MSCSurv computer program designed to quantify conditional probability of losing one or more crew members following remote likelihood of penetration of orbital debris into cluster of spacecraft modules containing crew members. Contributions to probability of losing one or more crew members quantified from three significant penetration-induced hazards: rupture of pressure wall (explosive decompression), injuries induced by fragments, and "slow" depressurization. Uses Monte Carlo-style subroutine to simulate penetration of thousands of orbital debris particles of various sizes, velocities, and angles of approach into spacecraft of selected exterior geometry. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Next Generation Spacecraft, Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes research on reusable launch vehicles, aerospace planes, shuttle replacement, crew/cargo transfer vehicle, related X-craft, orbital space plane, and next generation launch technology.

  9. Fire suppression in human-crew spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Dietrich, Daniel L.

    1991-01-01

    Fire extinguishment agents range from water and foam in early-design spacecraft (Halon 1301 in the present Shuttle) to carbon dioxide proposed for the Space Station Freedom. The major challenge to spacecraft fire extinguishment design and operations is from the micro-gravity environment, which minimizes natural convection and profoundly influences combustion and extinguishing agent effectiveness, dispersal, and post-fire cleanup. Discussed here are extinguishment in microgravity, fire-suppression problems anticipated in future spacecraft, and research needs and opportunities.

  10. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  11. Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

  12. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Commander Jeffrey Ashby receives assistance with his spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first star board truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  13. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Commander Jeffrey Ashby receives assistance with his spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first star board truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  14. Apollo 12 prime crew during spacecraft checkout at Rockwell Downey

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-10-07

    S69-53716 (1969) --- The prime crew of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission is photographed during spacecraft checkout activity at North American Rockwell Space Division at Downey, California. Left to right, are astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot; and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  15. Gemini 11 prime crew prepare to enter Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-10

    S66-57967 (10 Sept. 1966) --- Gemini-11 prime crew, astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (right), command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr. (left), pilot, prepare to enter the Gemini-11 spacecraft in the White Room atop Pad 19. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Spacecraft crew procedures from paper to computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Michael; Manahan, Meera

    1993-01-01

    Large volumes of paper are launched with each Space Shuttle Mission that contain step-by-step instructions for various activities that are to be performed by the crew during the mission. These instructions include normal operational procedures and malfunction or contingency procedures and are collectively known as the Flight Data File (FDF). An example of nominal procedures would be those used in the deployment of a satellite from the Space Shuttle; a malfunction procedure would describe actions to be taken if a specific problem developed during the deployment. A new FDF and associated system is being created for Space Station Freedom. The system will be called the Space Station Flight Data File (SFDF). NASA has determined that the SFDF will be computer-based rather than paper-based. Various aspects of the SFDF are discussed.

  17. An Alternative Approach to Human Servicing of Crewed Earth Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularski, John R.; Alpert, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    As crewed spacecraft have grown larger and more complex, they have come to rely on spacewalks, or Extravehicular Activities (EVA), for assembly and to assure mission success. Typically, these spacecraft maintain all of the hardware and trained personnel needed to perform an EVA on-board at all times. Maintaining this capability requires up-mass, volume for storage of EVA hardware, crew time for ground and on-orbit training, and on-orbit maintenance of EVA hardware. This paper proposes an alternative methodology, utilizing either launch-on-need hardware and crew or regularly scheduled missions to provide EVA capability for space stations in low Earth orbit after assembly complete. Much the same way that one would call a repairman to fix something at their home these EVAs are dedicated to maintenance and upgrades of the orbiting station. For crew safety contingencies it is assumed the station would be designed such the crew could either solve those issues from inside the spacecraft or use the docked Earth to Orbit vehicles as a return lifeboat, in the same manner as the International Space Station (ISS) which does not rely on EVA for crew safety related contingencies. This approach would reduce ground training requirements for long duration crews, save Intravehicular Activity (IVA) crew time in the form of EVA hardware maintenance and on-orbit training, and lead to more efficient EVAs because they would be performed by specialists with detailed knowledge and training stemming from their direct involvement in the development of the EVA. The on-orbit crew would then be available to focus on the immediate response to any failures such as IVA systems reconfiguration or jumper installation as well as the day-to-day operations of the spacecraft and payloads. This paper will look at how current unplanned EVAs are conducted on ISS, including the time required for preparation, and offer an alternative for future spacecraft. As this methodology relies on the on-time and on

  18. American ASTP backup crew suited for testing of Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-01-31

    S75-21063 (January 1975) --- The three members of the American ASTP backup crew are suited up for the testing of the Apollo spacecraft at the Kennedy Space Center. They are (from foreground) astronauts Alan L. Bean, commander; Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot; and Jack R. Lousma, docking module pilot. Later, they entered the Apollo Command Module in an altitude chamber for tests of spacecraft systems. The testing was in preparation for the joint U.S.?USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project docking mission in Earth orbit scheduled for July 1975.

  19. Soyuz spacecraft taken by the Expedition 25 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-09

    ISS025-E-013635 (9 Nov. 2010) --- The Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft dominates the foreground of this image exposed by one of the Expedition 25 crew members as the International Space Station and the docked Russian spacecraft were 220 miles above the Caribbean Sea. The island of Andros, in the Bahamas chain, can be seen in the background. Three members of the current six-person staffing aboard the orbital complex are expected to return to Earth in the Soyuz in about two and half weeks.

  20. Soyuz spacecraft taken by the Expedition 25 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-09

    ISS025-E-013634 (9 Nov. 2010) --- The Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft dominates the foreground of this image exposed by one of the Expedition 25 crew members as the International Space Station and the docked Russian spacecraft were 220 miles above the Caribbean Sea. The island of Andros, in the Bahamas chain, can be seen in the background. Three members of the current six-person staffing aboard the orbital complex are expected to return to Earth in the Soyuz in about two and half weeks.

  1. On-board STS-61 crew portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-05

    STS061-05-031 (2-13 Dec 1993) --- With the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) berthed in Endeavour's cargo bay, crew members for the STS-61 mission pause for a crew portrait on the flight deck. Left to right are F. Story Musgrave, Richard O. Covey, Claude Nicollier, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Kenneth D. Bowersox, Kathryn C. Thornton and Thomas D. Akers.

  2. Trade Spaces in Crewed Spacecraft Atmosphere Revitalization System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing the technological response to realizing an efficient atmosphere revitalization system for future crewed spacecraft and space habitats requires identifying and describing functional trade spaces. Mission concepts and requirements dictate the necessary functions; however, the combination and sequence of those functions possess significant flexibility. Us-ing a closed loop environmental control and life support (ECLS) system architecture as a starting basis, a functional unit operations approach is developed to identify trade spaces. Generalized technological responses to each trade space are discussed. Key performance parameters that apply to functional areas are described.

  3. Vulnerability of manned spacecraft to crew loss from orbital debris penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamsen, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital debris growth threatens the survival of spacecraft systems from impact-induced failures. Whereas the probability of debris impact and spacecraft penetration may currently be calculated, another parameter of great interest to safety engineers is the probability that debris penetration will cause actual spacecraft or crew loss. Quantifying the likelihood of crew loss following a penetration allows spacecraft designers to identify those design features and crew operational protocols that offer the highest improvement in crew safety for available resources. Within this study, a manned spacecraft crew survivability (MSCSurv) computer model is developed that quantifies the conditional probability of losing one or more crew members, P(sub loss/pen), following the remote likelihood of an orbital debris penetration into an eight module space station. Contributions to P(sub loss/pen) are quantified from three significant penetration-induced hazards: pressure wall rupture (explosive decompression), fragment-induced injury, and 'slow' depressurization. Sensitivity analyses are performed using alternate assumptions for hazard-generating functions, crew vulnerability thresholds, and selected spacecraft design and crew operations parameters. These results are then used to recommend modifications to the spacecraft design and expected crew operations that quantitatively increase crew safety from orbital debris impacts.

  4. STS-98 crew prepares to board bus at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-98 Mission Commander Kenneth Cockrell waves to his family at the Shuttle Landing Facility after the crew's arrival Sunday to complete preparations for launch. In the background, Mission Specialist Robert Curbeam (left) and Pilot Mark Polansky are also caught waving. The crew is preparing to board a bus for transport to the Operations and Checkout Building where the crew quarters at KSC is located. Crew members Thomas Jones and Marsha Ivins, both mission specialists, are not in plain view. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station, carrying as payload the U.S. Lab Destiny, a key element in the construction of the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  5. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Piers Sellers, Ph.D., prepares to enter Space Shuttle Atlantis during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  6. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin, Ph.D., a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency, receives assistance with his spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  7. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus, Ph.D., receives assistance with her spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  8. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy adjusts her spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  9. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy adjusts her spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  10. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus, Ph.D., receives assistance with her spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  11. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Piers Sellers, Ph.D., prepares to enter Space Shuttle Atlantis during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  12. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin, Ph.D., a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency, receives assistance with his spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  13. Cabin Noise Studies for the Orion Spacecraft Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dandaroy, Indranil; Chu, S. Reynold; Larson, Lauren; Allen, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Controlling cabin acoustic noise levels in the Crew Module (CM) of the Orion spacecraft is critical for adequate speech intelligibility, to avoid fatigue and to prevent any possibility of temporary and permanent hearing loss. A vibroacoustic model of the Orion CM cabin has been developed using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to assess compliance with acoustic Constellation Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the on-orbit mission phase. Cabin noise in the Orion CM needs to be analyzed at the vehicle-level to assess the cumulative acoustic effect of various Orion systems at the crewmember's ear. The SEA model includes all major structural and acoustic subsystems inside the CM including the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), which is the primary noise contributor in the cabin during the on-orbit phase. The ECLSS noise sources used to excite the vehicle acoustic model were derived using a combination of established empirical predictions and fan development acoustic testing. Baseline noise predictions were compared against acoustic HSIR requirements. Key noise offenders and paths were identified and ranked using noise transfer path analysis. Parametric studies were conducted with various acoustic treatment packages in the cabin to reduce the noise levels and define vehicle-level mass impacts. An acoustic test mockup of the CM cabin has also been developed and noise treatment optimization tests were conducted to validate the results of the analyses.

  14. Spacecraft on-board SAR processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.; Arens, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the on-board SAR processing technology for Eos-type missions. The proposed Eos SAR sensor and flight data system are introduced, and the SAR processing requirements are described. The SAR on-board SAR processor architecture selection is discussed, and a baseline processor architecture using a frequency-domain processor for range correlation and a modular fault-tolerant VLSI time-domain parallel array for azimuth correlation are described. The mass storage and VLSI technologies needed for implementing the proposed SAR processing are assessed. It is shown that acceptable processor power and mass characteristics should be feasible for Eos-type applications. A proposed development strategy for the on-board SAR processor is presented.

  15. ISS Expedition 42 / 43 Soyuz Spacecraft and Crew Preparations for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-26

    NASA TV (NTV) video file of crewmembers Terry Virts, Anton Shkaplerov (Roskosmos) and Samantha Cristoforetti (ESA) during final fit check of the Soyuz TMA 15M spacedraft at the Integration Facility, Baikonurk, Kazakhstan. Includes footage of the crew climbing into the Soyuz spacecraft, interviews, visit to museum where the crew sign posters and a flag; flag raising ceremony; and visit to mating facility.

  16. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feoktistov, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The task of building a spacecraft is compared to the construction of an artificial cybernetic system able to acquire and process information. Typical features for future spacecraft are outlined and the assignment of duties in spacecraft control between automatic devices and the crew is analyzed.

  17. Commercial Crew Program and the Safety Technical Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Macy

    2016-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is unique to any other program office at NASA. After the agency suffered devastating budget cuts and the Shuttle Program retired, the U.S. gave up its human spaceflight capabilities. Since 2011 the U.S. has been dependent on Russia to transport American astronauts and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and back. NASA adapted and formed CCP, which gives private, domestic, aerospace companies unprecedented reign over America's next ride to space. The program began back in 2010 with 5 companies and is now in the final phase of certification with 2 commercial partners. The Commercial Crew Program is made up of 7 divisions, each working rigorously with the commercial providers to complete the certification phase. One of these 7 divisions is Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) which is partly comprised of the Safety Technical Review Board (STRB). The STRB is primarily concerned with mitigating improbable, but catastrophic hazards. It does this by identifying, managing, and tracking these hazards in reports. With the STRB being in SE&I, it significantly contributes to the overall certification of the partners' vehicles. After the partners receive agency certification approval, they will have the capability to provide the U.S. with a reliable, safe, and cost-effective means of human spaceflight and cargo transport to the ISS and back.

  18. Evaluation of textiles proposed for spacecraft crew apparel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Textiles proposed for spacecraft wearing apparel were tested for possible primary irritancy and allergenicity using guinea pigs and human subjects. The materials submitted for testing were: (1) blue, loosely knit fabric of a copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and ethylene (CTFE), (2) a white fabric, 100% cotton double knit, treated with fire retardant Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium hydroxide/ammonia, and (3) a gold colored polyimide fabric. There were no adverse reactions to any of the fabrics.

  19. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Spacecraft Retrieval and the Crew in the Anti-Contamination Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage shows the launch of the Apollo 11 spacecraft and the retrieval of the module after reentering Earth's atmosphere and landing in the ocean (reentry and landing scenes not included). President Richard Nixon is seen greeting the crew of Apollo 11 while they are in the anti-contamination chamber.

  20. Advanced On-Board Processor (AOP). [for future spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Advanced On-board Processor the (AOP) uses large scale integration throughout and is the most advanced space qualified computer of its class in existence today. It was designed to satisfy most spacecraft requirements which are anticipated over the next several years. The AOP design utilizes custom metallized multigate arrays (CMMA) which have been designed specifically for this computer. This approach provides the most efficient use of circuits, reduces volume, weight, assembly costs and provides for a significant increase in reliability by the significant reduction in conventional circuit interconnections. The required 69 CMMA packages are assembled on a single multilayer printed circuit board which together with associated connectors constitutes the complete AOP. This approach also reduces conventional interconnections thus further reducing weight, volume and assembly costs.

  1. Reconfigurable modular computer networks for spacecraft on-board processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennels, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The core electronics subsystems on unmanned spacecraft, which have been sent over the last 20 years to investigate the moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, have progressed through an evolution from simple fixed controllers and analog computers in the 1960's to general-purpose digital computers in current designs. This evolution is now moving in the direction of distributed computer networks. Current Voyager spacecraft already use three on-board computers. One is used to store commands and provide overall spacecraft management. Another is used for instrument control and telemetry collection, and the third computer is used for attitude control and scientific instrument pointing. An examination of the control logic in the instruments shows that, for many, it is cost-effective to replace the sequencing logic with a microcomputer. The Unified Data System architecture considered consists of a set of standard microcomputers connected by several redundant buses. A typical self-checking computer module will contain 23 RAMs, two microprocessors, one memory interface, three bus interfaces, and one core building block.

  2. Reconfigurable modular computer networks for spacecraft on-board processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennels, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The core electronics subsystems on unmanned spacecraft, which have been sent over the last 20 years to investigate the moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, have progressed through an evolution from simple fixed controllers and analog computers in the 1960's to general-purpose digital computers in current designs. This evolution is now moving in the direction of distributed computer networks. Current Voyager spacecraft already use three on-board computers. One is used to store commands and provide overall spacecraft management. Another is used for instrument control and telemetry collection, and the third computer is used for attitude control and scientific instrument pointing. An examination of the control logic in the instruments shows that, for many, it is cost-effective to replace the sequencing logic with a microcomputer. The Unified Data System architecture considered consists of a set of standard microcomputers connected by several redundant buses. A typical self-checking computer module will contain 23 RAMs, two microprocessors, one memory interface, three bus interfaces, and one core building block.

  3. Challenge of lightning detection with LAC on board Akatsuki spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Sato, Mitsutero; Imai, Masataka; Yair, Yoav; Fischer, Georg; Aplin, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Even after extensive investigations with spacecraft and ground-based observations, there is still no consensus on the existence of lightning in Venus. It has been reported that the magnetometer on board Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source could be lightning discharge occurring well below the spacecraft. On the other hand, with an infrared sensor, VIRTIS of Venus Express, does not show the positive indication of lightning flashes. In order to identify the optical flashes caused by electrical discharge in the atmosphere of Venus, at least, with an optical intensity of 1/10 of the average lightning in the Earth, we built a high-speed optical detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), on board Akatsuki spacecraft. The unique performance of the LAC compared to other instruments is the high-speed sampling rate at 32 us interval for all 32 pixels, enabling us to distinguish the optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises. Though, unfortunately, the first attempt of the insertion of Akatsuki into the orbit around Venus failed in December 2010, the second one carried out in December 7 in 2015 was quite successful. We checked out the condition of the LAC on January 5, 2016, and it is healthy as in 2010. Due to some elongated orbit than that planned originally, we have umbra for ~30 min to observe the lightning flash in the night side of Venus every ~10 days, starting on April 2016. Here we would report the instrumental status of LAC and the preliminary results of the first attempt to observe optical lightning emissions.

  4. On-board fault management for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesq, Lorraine M.; Stephan, Amy; Doyle, Susan C.; Martin, Eric; Sellers, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle's (CTV) mission and the high level of autonomy required mandate a complete fault management system capable of operating under uncertain conditions. Such a fault management system must take into account the current mission phase and the environment (including the target vehicle), as well as the CTV's state of health. This level of capability is beyond the scope of current on-board fault management systems. This presentation will discuss work in progress at TRW to apply artificial intelligence to the problem of on-board fault management. The goal of this work is to develop fault management systems. This presentation will discuss work in progress at TRW to apply artificial intelligence to the problem of on-board fault management. The goal of this work is to develop fault management systems that can meet the needs of spacecraft that have long-range autonomy requirements. We have implemented a model-based approach to fault detection and isolation that does not require explicit characterization of failures prior to launch. It is thus able to detect failures that were not considered in the failure and effects analysis. We have applied this technique to several different subsystems and tested our approach against both simulations and an electrical power system hardware testbed. We present findings from simulation and hardware tests which demonstrate the ability of our model-based system to detect and isolate failures, and describe our work in porting the Ada version of this system to a flight-qualified processor. We also discuss current research aimed at expanding our system to monitor the entire spacecraft.

  5. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  6. Overview of Potable Water Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing water necessary to maintain life support has been accomplished in spacecraft vehicles for over forty years. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. space vehicles provided potable water. The water source for the spacecraft, biocide used to preserve the water on-orbit, water stowage methodology, materials, pumping mechanisms, on-orbit water requirements, and water temperature requirements will be discussed. Where available, the hardware used to provide the water and the general function of that hardware will also be detailed. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) water systems will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to water systems in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that could be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft water systems will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  7. Overview of Potable Water Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing water necessary to maintain life support has been accomplished in spacecraft vehicles for over forty years. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. space vehicles provided potable water. The water source for the spacecraft, biocide used to preserve the water on-orbit, water stowage methodology, materials, pumping mechanisms, on-orbit water requirements, and water temperature requirements will be discussed. Where available, the hardware used to provide the water and the general function of that hardware will also be detailed. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) water systems will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to water systems in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that could be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft water systems will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  8. Unofficial On-board STS-61 crew portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-05

    STS061-11-004 (2-13 Dec 1993) --- Traditional inflight portrait for the crew of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission. On the front row are the three crew members who assisted from inside the Space Shuttle Endeavour's cabin throughout the five space walks. They are, left to right, Swiss scientist Claude Nicollier, mission specialist, along with astronauts Kenneth D. Bowersox, pilot; and Richard O. Covey, mission commander. Back row -- all space walkers on this flight -- are astronauts F. Story Musgrave, payload commander; Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Kathryn D. Thornton and Thomas D. Akers, all mission specialists.

  9. A Quantitative Human Spacecraft Design Evaluation Model for Assessing Crew Accommodation and Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchiang, Christine

    Crew performance, including both accommodation and utilization factors, is an integral part of every human spaceflight mission from commercial space tourism, to the demanding journey to Mars and beyond. Spacecraft were historically built by engineers and technologists trying to adapt the vehicle into cutting edge rocketry with the assumption that the astronauts could be trained and will adapt to the design. By and large, that is still the current state of the art. It is recognized, however, that poor human-machine design integration can lead to catastrophic and deadly mishaps. The premise of this work relies on the idea that if an accurate predictive model exists to forecast crew performance issues as a result of spacecraft design and operations, it can help designers and managers make better decisions throughout the design process, and ensure that the crewmembers are well-integrated with the system from the very start. The result should be a high-quality, user-friendly spacecraft that optimizes the utilization of the crew while keeping them alive, healthy, and happy during the course of the mission. Therefore, the goal of this work was to develop an integrative framework to quantitatively evaluate a spacecraft design from the crew performance perspective. The approach presented here is done at a very fundamental level starting with identifying and defining basic terminology, and then builds up important axioms of human spaceflight that lay the foundation for how such a framework can be developed. With the framework established, a methodology for characterizing the outcome using a mathematical model was developed by pulling from existing metrics and data collected on human performance in space. Representative test scenarios were run to show what information could be garnered and how it could be applied as a useful, understandable metric for future spacecraft design. While the model is the primary tangible product from this research, the more interesting outcome of

  10. Mathematical crew motion disturbance models for spacecraft control system design. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several techniques for modeling the disturbances to a spacecraft's attitude caused by moving crew members are presented. These disturbances can be the largest moments acting on a manned spacecraft, and knowledge of their effect is important in the sizing, design, and analysis/simulation of spacecraft attitude control systems. The modeling techniques are identified as two principal types: deterministic and stochastic. Three techniques of each type are presented. The deterministic models include point-mass motion derivatives and a discussion on dynamic models of moving crew members. The stochastic techniques are highlighted by a Fourier transform method and the representation of long-term crew disturbance activities as outputs from appropriately designed filters. A z-transform technique is developed to obtain a difference-equation form of stochastic models for use on digital computers. An appendix derives spacecraft equations of motion which can be used with many of the models discussed.

  11. The Fate of Trace Contaminants in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced via equipment offgassing, human metabolic sources, and vehicle operations are removed from the cabin atmosphere by active contamination control equipment and incidental removal by other air quality control equipment. The fate of representative trace contaminants commonly observed in spacecraft cabin atmospheres is explored. Removal mechanisms are described and predictive mass balance techniques are reviewed. Results from the predictive techniques are compared to cabin air quality analysis results. Considerations are discussed for an integrated trace contaminant control architecture suitable for long duration crewed space exploration missions.

  12. On-board emergent scheduling of autonomous spacecraft payload operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a behavioral competency level concerned with emergent scheduling of spacecraft payload operations. The level is part of a multi-level subsumption architecture model for autonomous spacecraft, and it functions as an action selection system for processing a spacecraft commands that can be considered as 'plans-as-communication'. Several versions of the selection mechanism are described, and their robustness is qualitatively compared.

  13. A Human Factors Evaluation of a Methodology for Pressurized Crew Module Acceptability for Zero-Gravity Ingress of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Merri J.

    2000-01-01

    This project aimed to develop a methodology for evaluating performance and acceptability characteristics of the pressurized crew module volume suitability for zero-gravity (g) ingress of a spacecraft and to evaluate the operational acceptability of the NASA crew return vehicle (CRV) for zero-g ingress of astronaut crew, volume for crew tasks, and general crew module and seat layout. No standard or methodology has been established for evaluating volume acceptability in human spaceflight vehicles. Volume affects astronauts'ability to ingress and egress the vehicle, and to maneuver in and perform critical operational tasks inside the vehicle. Much research has been conducted on aircraft ingress, egress, and rescue in order to establish military and civil aircraft standards. However, due to the extremely limited number of human-rated spacecraft, this topic has been un-addressed. The NASA CRV was used for this study. The prototype vehicle can return a 7-member crew from the International Space Station in an emergency. The vehicle's internal arrangement must be designed to facilitate rapid zero-g ingress, zero-g maneuverability, ease of one-g egress and rescue, and ease of operational tasks in multiple acceleration environments. A full-scale crew module mockup was built and outfitted with representative adjustable seats, crew equipment, and a volumetrically equivalent hatch. Human factors testing was conducted in three acceleration environments using ground-based facilities and the KC-135 aircraft. Performance and acceptability measurements were collected. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and nonparametric techniques.

  14. The high energy multicharged particle exposure of the microbial ecology evaluation device on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The high energy multicharged cosmic-ray-particle exposure of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device package on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft was monitored using cellulose nitrate, Lexan polycarbonate, nuclear emulsion, and silver chloride crystal nuclear-track detectors. The results of the analysis of these detectors include the measured particle fluences, the linear energy transfer spectra, and the integral atomic number spectrum of stopping particle density. The linear energy transfer spectrum is used to compute the fractional cell loss in human kidney (T1) cells caused by heavy particles. Because the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device was better shielded, the high-energy multicharged particle exposure was less than that measured on the crew passive dosimeters.

  15. Re-scheduling as a tool for the power management on board a spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albasheer, Omar; Momoh, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The scheduling of events on board a spacecraft is based on forecast energy levels. The real time values of energy may not coincide with the forecast values; consequently, a dynamic revising to the allocation of power is needed. The re-scheduling is also needed for other reasons on board a spacecraft like the addition of new event which must be scheduled, or a failure of an event due to many different contingencies. This need of rescheduling is very important to the survivability of the spacecraft. In this presentation, a re-scheduling tool will be presented as a part of an overall scheme for the power management on board a spacecraft from the allocation of energy point of view. The overall scheme is based on the optimal use of energy available on board a spacecraft using expert systems combined with linear optimization techniques. The system will be able to schedule maximum number of events utilizing most energy available. The outcome is more events scheduled to share the operation cost of that spacecraft. The system will also be able to re-schedule in case of a contingency with minimal time and minimal disturbance of the original schedule. The end product is a fully integrated planning system capable of producing the right decisions in short time with less human error. The overall system will be presented with the re-scheduling algorithm discussed in detail, then the tests and results will be presented for validations.

  16. Commerical Crew Program (CCP) Crew Access Arm Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-15

    A crane lifts the Crew Access Arm and White Room for Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft to be attached to the Crew Access Tower at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Space Launch Complex 41. When attached to the 200-foot tall Crew Access Tower, the arm will serve as the connection that astronauts will walk through prior to boarding the Starliner spacecraft when stacked atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket. This installation completes the major construction of the first new Crew Access Tower to be built at the Cape since the Apollo era. Under a Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contract with NASA, Boeing’s Starliner system will be certified by NASA's Commercial Crew Program to fly crews to and from the International Space Station.

  17. Commerical Crew Program (CCP) Crew Access Arm Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-15

    A crane is attached to the Crew Access Arm and White Room for Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft to be attached to the Crew Access Tower at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Space Launch Complex 41. When attached to the 200-foot tall Crew Access Tower, the arm will serve as the connection that astronauts will walk through prior to boarding the Starliner spacecraft when stacked atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket. This installation completes the major construction of the first new Crew Access Tower to be built at the Cape since the Apollo era. Under a Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contract with NASA, Boeing’s Starliner system will be certified by NASA's Commercial Crew Program to fly crews to and from the International Space Station.

  18. Spacecraft Charging Considerations and Design Efforts for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Bob

    2017-01-01

    The Orion Crew Module (CM) is nearing completion for the next flight, designated as Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). For the uncrewed mission, the flight path will take the CM through a Perigee Raise Maneuver (PRM) out to an altitude of approximately 1800 km, followed by a Trans-Lunar Injection burn, a pass through the Van Allen belts then out to the moon for a lunar flyby, a Distant Retrograde Insertion (DRI) burn, a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO), a Distant Retrograde Departure (DRD) burn, a second lunar flyby, an Earth Insertion (EI) burn, and finally entry and landing. All of this, with the exception of the DRO associated maneuvers, is similar to the previous Apollo 8 mission in late 1968. In recent discussions, it is now possible that EM-1 will be a crewed mission, and if this happens, the orbit may be quite different from that just described. In this case, the flight path may take the CM on an out and back pass through the Van Allen belts twice, then out to the moon, again passing through the Van Allen belts twice, then finally back home. Even if the current EM-1 mission doesn't end up as a crewed mission, EM-2 and subsequent missions will undoubtedly follow orbital trajectories that offer comparable exposures to heightened vehicle charging effects. Because of this, and regardless of flight path, the CM vehicle will likely experience a wide range of exposures to energetic ions and electrons, essentially covering the gamut between low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit and beyond. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) and Lockheed Martin (LM) engineers and scientists have been working to fully understand and characterize the vehicle's immunity level with regard to surface and deep dielectric charging, and the ramifications of that immunity level pertaining to materials and impacts to operational avionics, communications, and navigational systems. This presentation attempts to chronicle these efforts in a summary fashion, and attempts to capture

  19. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  20. Experimental study on trace chemical contaminant generation rates of human metabolism in spacecraft crew module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihua, Guo; Xinxing, He; Guoxin, Xu; Xin, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Trace chemical contaminants generated by human metabolism is a major source of contamination in spacecraft crew module. In this research, types and generation rates of pollutants from human metabolism were determined in the Chinese diets. Expired air, skin gas, and sweat of 20 subjects were analyzed at different exercise states in a simulated module. The exercise states were designed according to the basic activities in the orbit of astronauts. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of contaminants generated by human metabolic were performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometer. Sixteen chemical compounds from metabolic sources were found. With the increase in physical load, the concentrations of chemical compounds from human skin and expired air correspondingly increased. The species and the offgassing rates of pollutants from human metabolism are different among the Chinese, Americans and the Russians due to differences in ethnicity and dietary customs. This research provides data to aid in the design, development and operation of China's long duration space mission.

  1. The Evolution of On-Board Emergency Training for the International Space Station Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBuff, Skyler

    2015-01-01

    The crew of the International Space Station (ISS) receives extensive ground-training in order to safely and effectively respond to any potential emergency event while on-orbit, but few people realize that their training is not concluded when they launch into space. The evolution of the emergency On- Board Training events (OBTs) has recently moved from paper "scripts" to an intranet-based software simulation that allows for the crew, as well as the flight control teams in Mission Control Centers across the world, to share in an improved and more realistic training event. This emergency OBT simulator ensures that the participants experience the training event as it unfolds, completely unaware of the type, location, or severity of the simulated emergency until the scenario begins. The crew interfaces with the simulation software via iPads that they keep with them as they translate through the ISS modules, receiving prompts and information as they proceed through the response. Personnel in the control centers bring up the simulation via an intranet browser at their console workstations, and can view additional telemetry signatures in simulated ground displays in order to assist the crew and communicate vital information to them as applicable. The Chief Training Officers and emergency instructors set the simulation in motion, choosing the type of emergency (rapid depressurization, fire, or toxic atmosphere) and specific initial conditions to emphasize the desired training objectives. Project development, testing, and implementation was a collaborative effort between ISS emergency instructors, Chief Training Officers, Flight Directors, and the Crew Office using commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware along with simulation software created in-house. Due to the success of the Emergency OBT simulator, the already-developed software has been leveraged and repurposed to develop a new emulator used during fire response ground-training to deliver data that the crew receives

  2. Evaluation of the use of on-board spacecraft energy storage for electric propulsion missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Palmer, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    On-board spacecraft energy storage represents an under utilized resource for some types of missions that also benefit from using relatively high specific impulse capability of electric propulsion. This resource can provide an appreciable fraction of the power required for operating the electric propulsion subsystem in some missions. The most probable mission requirement for utilization of this energy is that of geostationary satellites which have secondary batteries for operating at high power levels during eclipse. The study summarized in this report selected four examples of missions that could benefit from use of electric propulsion and on-board energy storage. Engineering analyses were performed to evaluate the mass saved and economic benefit expected when electric propulsion and on-board batteries perform some propulsion maneuvers that would conventionally be provided by chemical propulsion. For a given payload mass in geosynchronous orbit, use of electric propulsion in this manner typically provides a 10% reduction in spacecraft mass.

  3. Effort to recover SOHO spacecraft continue as investigation board focuses on most likely causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Meanwhile, the ESA/NASA investigation board concentrates its inquiry on three errors that appear to have led to the interruption of communications with SOHO on June 25. Officials remain hopeful that, based on ESA's successful recovery of the Olympus spacecraft after four weeks under similar conditions in 1991, recovery of SOHO may be possible. The SOHO Mission Interruption Joint ESA/NASA Investigation Board has determined that the first two errors were contained in preprogrammed command sequences executed on ground system computers, while the last error was a decision to send a command to the spacecraft in response to unexpected telemetry readings. The spacecraft is controlled by the Flight Operations Team, based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The first error was in a preprogrammed command sequence that lacked a command to enable an on-board software function designed to activate a gyro needed for control in Emergency Sun Reacquisition (ESR) mode. ESR mode is entered by the spacecraft in the event of anomalies. The second error, which was in a different preprogrammed command sequence, resulted in incorrect readings from one of the spacecraft's three gyroscopes, which in turn triggered an ESR. At the current stage of the investigation, the board believes that the two anomalous command sequences, in combination with a decision to send a command to SOHO to turn off a gyro in response to unexpected telemetry values, caused the spacecraft to enter a series of ESRs, and ultimately led to the loss of control. The efforts of the investigation board are now directed at identifying the circumstances that led to the errors, and at developing a recovery plan should efforts to regain contact with the spacecraft succeed. ESA and NASA engineers believe the spacecraft is currently spinning with its solar panels nearly edge-on towards the Sun, and thus not generating any power. Since the spacecraft is spinning around a fixed axis, as the spacecraft progresses

  4. Spacecraft drag-free technology development: On-board estimation and control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, R. W.; Mettler, E.; Milman, M. H.; Schaechter, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Estimation and control methods for a Drag-Free spacecraft are discussed. The functional and analytical synthesis of on-board estimators and controllers for an integrated attitude and translation control system is represented. The framework for detail definition and design of the baseline drag-free system is created. The techniques for solution of self-gravity and electrostatic charging problems are applicable generally, as is the control system development.

  5. Broadband Internet Based Service to Passengers and Crew On-board Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzarelli, Tony

    2003-07-01

    The Connexion by BoeingSM (CbB) global network will provide broadband information services to aircraft passengers and crews. Through this Ku-band (14 GHz (uplink) and 11/12 GHz (downlink)) satellite-based system, aircraft passengers and crew will no longer be limited to pre-packaged services, but instead will be able to access the full range of broadband services from their seats using their laptop, PDA or the on-board IFE console.The kind of services offered to passengers are based on the internet/intranet access via their own laptops and PDA (using Ethernet wired cable, or wireless 802.11b access), while those offered to the crew can range between various crew application (such as weather updates and travel information) and aircraft health monitoring.The CbB system is divided into four basic layers of infrastructure:(1) an airborne segment, i.e. the Aircraft Earth Station (AES) consisting of proprietary high gain antenna, transceivers and other on-board subsystems providing a nominal return link data rate of 1 Mbps and a forward link data rates up to 20 Mbps;(2) a space segment consisting of leased satellite transponders on existing in-orbit Geostationary satellites;(3) a ground segment consisting of one or more leased satellite land earth stations (LESs) and redundant interconnection facilities; and;(4) a network operations centre (NOC) segment.During 2003, trials with Lufthansa (DLH) and British Airways (BA) have proved very successful. This has resulted in the recent signing of an agreement with Lufthansa which calls for the Connexion by BoeingSM service to be installed on Lufthansa's fleet of approximately 80 long-haul aircraft, including Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A330 and A340 aircraft, beginning in early 2004. BA is expected to follow soon. In addition to the successful recent service demonstrations, both Japan Airlines (JAL) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) have announced their intent to install the revolutionary service on their long-range aircraft.

  6. CCP Crew Access Arm Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A heavy-lift transport truck, carrying the Crew Access Arm for Space Launch Complex 41, passes through the entrance to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm will be installed on the Complex 41 Crew Access Tower at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  7. CCP Crew Access Arm Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A heavy-lift transport truck, carrying the Crew Access Arm for Space Launch Complex 41, backs up toward Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The arm will be installed on the Complex 41 Crew Access Tower. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  8. CCP Crew Access Arm Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A heavy-lift transport truck, carrying the Crew Access Arm for Space Launch Complex 41, departs from Oak Hill, Florida, and heads to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm will be installed on the Complex 41 Crew Access Tower at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  9. CCP Crew Access Arm Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A heavy-lift transport truck, carrying the Crew Access Arm for Space Launch Complex 41, travels along the road toward Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The arm will be installed on the Complex 41 Crew Access Tower. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  10. CCP Crew Access Arm Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A heavy-lift transport truck, carrying the Crew Access Arm for Space Launch Complex 41, arrives at Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The arm will be installed on the Complex 41 Crew Access Tower. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  11. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  12. On-board autonomous attitude maneuver planning for planetary spacecraft using genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    A key enabling technology that leads to greater spacecraft autonomy is the capability to autonomously and optimally slew the spacecraft from and to different attitudes while operating under a number of celestial and dynamic constraints. The task of finding an attitude trajectory that meets all the constraints is a formidable one, in particular for orbiting or fly-by spacecraft where the constraints and initial and final conditions are of time-varying nature. This paper presents an approach for attitude path planning that makes full use of a priori constraint knowledge and is computationally tractable enough to be executed on-board a spacecraft. The approach is based on incorporating the constraints into a cost function and using a Genetic Algorithm to iteratively search for and optimize the solution. This results in a directed random search that explores a large part of the solution space while maintaining the knowledge of good solutions from iteration to iteration. A solution obtained this way may be used 'as is' or as an initial solution to initialize additional deterministic optimization algorithms. A number of example simulations are presented including the case examples of a generic Europa Orbiter spacecraft in cruise as well as in orbit around Europa. The search times are typically on the order of minutes, thus demonstrating the viability of the presented approach. The results are applicable to all future deep space missions where greater spacecraft autonomy is required. In addition, onboard autonomous attitude planning greatly facilitates navigation and science observation planning, benefiting thus all missions to planet Earth as well.

  13. Apollo 11 Crew Boards U.S.S. Hornet Aircraft Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here are the three astronauts (L-R) Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins leaving the recovery helicopter aboard the U.S.S. Hornet after their splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. Wearing biological isolation garments donned before leaving the spacecraft, the three went directly into the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) on the aircraft carrier. The MQF served as their home for 21 days following the mission. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Water immersion facility general description, spacecraft design division, crew station branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Water Immersion Facility provides an accurate, safe, neutral buoyancy simulation of zero gravity conditions for development of equipment and procedures, and the training of crews. A detailed description is given of some of the following systems: (1) water tank and support equipment; (2) communications systems; (3) environmental control and liquid cooled garment system (EcS/LCG); (4) closed circuit television system; and (5) medical support system.

  15. [Experimental study on ergonomical color matching design of virtual crew cabin layout in manned spacecraft].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q X; Qu, Z S; Wang, C H; Jiang, G H

    2001-12-01

    Objective. To approach general principles of color matching for crew module layout and to provide its ergonomical evaluation with basic data. Method. First, according to some ergonomic rules a virtual reality experimental system was set up, then 64 subjects of different ages and with some background of spaceflight were offered a color matching example according to their own choice in advance. Finally, all the hues, saturations, and lightnesses of the selected colors and their total number were statistically analyzed by SPSS 8.0 software. Result. After choosing the colors for items (standard cabinets, floor, handrails, supports and etc.) in the crew cabin, the mean kinds of color hue matching in the cockpit was 5. In addition, above half of subjects endorsed the example colors but its saturation and lightness were a little higher than those of the example every time. Although its distribution was discrete, there still was a common agreement on color matching (about 50%). Conclusion. When the color matching of crew module in long time flight was ergonomically designed, generally, cool and warm hues should be taken into consideration, and their total number need be controlled to be under 5 so as to satisfy human psychological characters.

  16. Skylab 2 crew during "open house" press day at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-01-19

    S72-17509 (19 Jan. 1972) --- These three men are the crewmen for the first manned Skylab mission. They are astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, standing left; scientist-astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, seated; and astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot. They were photographed and interviewed during an "open house" press day in the realistic atmosphere of the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The control and display panel for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) is at right. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Electrostatic Discharge Effects Caused by Plasma Spacecraft Charging of the NASA Orion Crew and Service Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, B.; Norgard, J.; Neergaard Parker, L.; Lallement, L.; McDonald, T.; Neufeld, B.; Pothier, N.

    2016-05-01

    Spacecraft in Earth orbit and beyond operate in a dynamic plasma environment composed of free electrons and ion species. This plasma environment varies in density and energy level as a function of both altitude and latitude, with highly energetic behaviour noted in polar orbits and in the Van Allen radiation belts. In its various mission profiles, the NASA/Orion space vehicle will be operating in Earth orbit and beyond. This paper briefly examines the expected plasma environment for the NASA/Orion vehicle, and explores various structural, electrical and electronic design features that act to mitigate electrostatic discharge effects that may occur throughout expected mission profiles.

  18. Flexray - An Answer to the Challenges Faced by Spacecraft On-Board Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes-Lasnet, S.; Furano, G.

    2007-08-01

    The current spacecraft on-board network protocols are facing challenges: They need to consume low power, to handle a high data rate, and eventually need to have real-time capabilities as well as fault-tolerance; all of this at a low cost. Meanwhile, the automotive protocols are showing ever increasing enhanced performances: the automotive industry has shown recent break-throughs in communication networks. Among them, FlexRay targets specifically the next generation of automotive applications allowing Steer-by-Wire and Brake-by- Wire. FlexRay supports a very high data rate, is fault- tolerant, has real-time capabilities, and supports both periodic and aperiodic data transfer on a single bus. Space avionics has benefited from the automotive spin- ins in the past, so could FlexRay answer the space systems demands? This paper aims at demonstrating that space avionics could profit from the use of FlexRay.

  19. Astronaut Gordon Cooper smiles for recovery crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., has a smile for the recovery crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, after he is on board from a successful 22 orbit mission of the earth in his spacecraft 'Faith 7'. Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off.

  20. Astronaut Gordon Cooper smiles for recovery crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., has a smile for the recovery crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, after he is on board from a successful 22 orbit mission of the earth in his spacecraft 'Faith 7'. Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off.

  1. Improved spacecraft radio science using an on-board atomic clock: Application to gravitational wave searches

    SciTech Connect

    Tinto, Massimo; Dick, George J.; Prestage, John D.; Armstrong, J. W.

    2009-05-15

    Recent advances in space-qualified atomic clocks (low-mass, low power-consumption, frequency stability comparable to that of ground-based clocks) can enable interplanetary spacecraft radio science experiments at unprecedented Doppler sensitivities. The addition of an on-board digital receiver would allow the up- and down-link Doppler frequencies to be measured separately. Such separate, high-quality measurements allow optimal data combinations that suppress the currently leading noise sources: phase scintillation noise from the Earth's atmosphere and Doppler noise caused by mechanical vibrations of the ground antenna. Here we provide a general expression for the optimal combination of ground and on-board Doppler data and compute the sensitivity such a system would have to low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs). Assuming a plasma scintillation noise calibration comparable to that already demonstrated with the multilink CASSINI radio system, the space-clock/digital-receiver instrumentation enhancements would give GW strain sensitivity of 3.7x10{sup -14} Hz{sup -1/2} for randomly polarized, monochromatic GW signals isotropically distributed over the celestial sphere, over a two-decade ({approx}0.0001-0.01 Hz) region of the low-frequency band. This is about an order of magnitude better than currently achieved with traditional two-way coherent Doppler experiments. The utility of optimally combining simultaneous up- and down-link observations is not limited to GW searches. The Doppler tracking technique discussed here could be performed at minimal incremental cost to improve also other radio science experiments (i.e., tests of relativistic gravity, planetary and satellite gravity field measurements, atmospheric and ring occultations) on future interplanetary missions.

  2. Plasma wave observation using waveform capture in the Lunar Radar Sounder on board the SELENE spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hashimoto, Kozo; Imachi, Tomohiko; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    The waveform capture (WFC) instrument is one of the subsystems of the Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) on board the SELENE spacecraft. By taking advantage of a moon orbiter, the WFC is expected to measure plasma waves and radio emissions that are generated around the moon and/or that originated from the sun and from the earth and other planets. It is a high-performance and multifunctional software receiver in which most functions are realized by the onboard software implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP). The WFC consists of a fast-sweep frequency analyzer (WFC-H) covering the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and a waveform receiver (WFC-L) in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. By introducing the hybrid IC called PDC in the WFC-H, we created a spectral analyzer with a very high time and frequency resolution. In addition, new techniques such as digital filtering, automatic filter selection, and data compression are implemented for data processing of the WFC-L to extract the important data adequately under the severe restriction of total amount of telemetry data. Because of the flexibility of the instruments, various kinds of observation modes can be achieved, and we expect the WFC to generate many interesting data.

  3. CCP Crew Access Arm Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A heavy-lift transport truck, carrying the Crew Access Arm for Space Launch Complex 41, crosses the Haulover Canal Bridge on its way to the entrance of NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm will be installed on the Complex 41 Crew Access Tower at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  4. Applying Rules of the Code of Conduct to the First Crews on Board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Sgrosso G.

    2002-01-01

    Three years after the launch of the first Russian module Zarya, the Space Station is now operational, being made up of a central block, to which the various pressurised modules where the astronauts live and work during their stay on board are connected, of a first linking and docking node, "Unity", of the first of the four research labs, the American module"Destiny", and of the Russian module "Zvezda" with control and living functions. During these first years of the Station, the astronauts live in the service module Zvezda. The fourth crew has been positioned in the Station, carrying out maintenance and control operations of the Station itself, scientific experiments and space walks. The paper intends to analyse the rules of the code of conduct, agreed upon by all Partners, in accordance with art. 11 of the IGA. Together with the standards of conduct, applicable to all crew members, the paper will focus on the exercise of the Commander's authority, the chain of command on orbit and the relationship with the Flight Director on ground. In order to transport goods and experiments, some Multi-Purpose Logistic Modules have already been used (Leonardo, Donatello, Raffaello), transported to the Space Shuttle Station at times together with the new Station crew. Attention will be placed on the flight rules which should be issued, in such cases, in order to regulate the relationship between the ISS Commander, the ETOV (Earth to Orbit Vehicle) Commander and the Rescue Vehicle Commander. Jurisdiction over the astronauts, during the time spent in activities outside the vehicle - which are becoming more and more frequent in order to control the functionality and docking of the modules - is a new question to be solved. Finally, the paper will cover the questions concerning jurisdiction, responsibility and relationship with the crew in view of the transportation and subsequent presence in the Station of "space tourists".

  5. STS-84 crew boards Astrovan for trip to LC 39A during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-84 leaves the Operations and Checkout Building en route to Launch Pad 39A via the astronaut van, at right. The crew is participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. Leading the seven-member crew, from left, are Pilot Eileen Marie Collins and Commander Charles J. Precourt. Mission Specialist Elena V. Kondakova from the Russian Space Agency is directly behind them. In the next row, from left, are Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale and Carlos I. Noriega. In the last row, from left, are Mission Specialists Jean-Francois Clervoy of the European Space Agency and Edward Tsang Lu. STS-84 will be the sixth docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. After docking, Foale will transfer to the space station and become a member of the Mir 23 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut Jerry M. Linenger, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis. Foale will live and work on Mir until mid-September when his replacement is expected to arrive on the STS-86 mission. STS-84 is targeted for a May 15 liftoff.

  6. Crew Resource Management Applied to Space Safety Review Panels/Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert W.; Thibodeaux, Kellye R.

    2005-12-01

    While technical training and advanced education assure proficiency at specific tasks or engineering disciplines, they fail to address the potential for communication and decision making errors created in dynamic environments where engineers, scientists and managers evaluate increasingly more complex technical systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS), and the upcoming Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Experts in aviation developed safety training focused on effective team management within complex, dynamic environments, known as Crew Resource Management (CRM), with roots traceable to a 1979 workshop sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), "Resource Management on the Flightdeck". [1]This paper focuses on the applicability of CRM within the construct of NASA's current space safety review panels, adapts applicable features within CRM, and creates a Panel Resource Management (PRM) tool for potential use in the next generation space vehicle safety review panels.

  7. Soyuz Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-12

    ISS038-E-000250 (12 Nov. 2013) --- The Russian Soyuz TMA-11M spacecraft dominates this image exposed by one of the Expedition 38 crew members aboard the International Space Station over Earth on Nov. 12. Now docked to the Rassvet or Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1), the spacecraft had delivered three crew members to the orbital outpost five days earlier, temporarily bringing the total population to nine aboard the station.

  8. Application of numerical Fourier transformation on measurements made on board rotating spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, R.; Boesch, B.; Wolf, H.

    Use of a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm to perform digital evaluation of signals from spacecraft featuring spin modulation and nutational effects is described. The case of a rotating spacecraft without nutation is modeled, with account taken of demodulation performed simultaneously with respect to amplitude and phase. Applying the demodulation technique twice removes the nutational effects. Assumptions are made that the spectral functions do not vary as fast as the spin modulation, and the signal variance independent of spacecraft rotation occurs at a rate significantly less than the spin rate. A demodulation example is given for a signal received from a probe on the Porcupine 2 rocket.

  9. Aerospace crew station design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Gerald P. (Editor); Montemerlo, Melvin D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Consideration is given to spacecraft cockpits and work stations, commercial aircraft cockpits and crew stations, high performance aircraft cockpits and crew stations, and space stations and habitat crew stations. Particular attention is given to an historical review of NASA manned spacecraft crew stations, ESA spacelab crew stations, the evolution of commercial aircraft flight station design, Boeing 757/767 flight deck, a historical review of Concorde flight deck design, trends in the cockpit design of new European fighters, and state-of-the-art applications for Space Station crew interface design.

  10. Exposure of aircraft crew to cosmic radiation: on-board intercomparison of various dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Bottollier-Depois, J-F; Trompier, F; Clairand, I; Spurny, F; Bartlett, D; Beck, P; Lewis, B; Lindborg, L; O'Sullivan, D; Roos, H; Tommasino, L

    2004-01-01

    Owing to their professional activity, flight crews may receive a dose of some millisieverts within a year; airline passengers may also be concerned. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation tools. The European project DOSMAX (Dosimetry of Aircrew Exposure during Solar Maximum) was initiated in 2000 extending to 2004 to complete studies over the current solar cycle during the solar maximum phase. To compare various dosemeters in real conditions simultaneously in the same radiation field, an intercomparison was organised aboard a Paris-Tokyo round-trip flight. Both passive and active detectors were used. Good agreement was observed for instruments determining the different components of the radiation field; the mean ambient dose equivalent for the round trip was 129 +/- 10 microSv. The agreement of values obtained for the total dose obtained by measurements and by calculations is very satisfying.

  11. Crew Station Aspects of Manned Spacecraft. Degree awared by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a frame work for a crew station handbook and includes samples of the broader areas which such a handbook should cover. The completed sections of this thesis serve as extensive treatments of the topics covered. The content of the individual sections of Chapters I and II varied with my experience and knowledge.

  12. Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  13. New Soyuz Crew Launches to the International Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-12

    Expedition 53-54 Soyuz Commander Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos and flight engineers Mark Vande Hei and Joe Acaba of NASA launched on the Russian Soyuz MS-06 spacecraft Sept. 13 (Kazakhstan time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The trio began a six-hour journey to the International Space Station and the start of a five-and-a-half month mission on the outpost. The footage contains the crew’s prelaunch activities including their departure from their crew quarters, suit-up in the Cosmodrome’s Integration Facility, walkout to the crew bus and arrival at the launch pad to board the spacecraft

  14. The Solar Spectral Irradiance Measured on Board the International Space Station and the Picard Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, G. O.; Bolsee, D.; Schmidtke, G.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    On board the International Space Station, the spectrometers SOL-ACES and SOLSPEC measure the solar spectrum irradiance from 17 to 150 nm and 170 to 2900 nm, respectively. On board PICARD launched on 15 June 2010, the PREMOS instrument consists in a radiometer and several sunphotometers operated at several fixed wavelengths. We shall present spectra at different solar activity levels as well as their quoted accuracy. Comparison with similar data from other missions presently running in space will be shown incorporating the PREMOS measurements. Some special solar events will be also presented and interpreted.

  15. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-06

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space.

  16. The In-Orbit Battery Reconditioning Experience On Board the Orion 1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, S. A.; Daughtridge, S.; Johnson, P. J.; King, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Orion 1 spacecraft is a three-axis stabilized geostationary earth orbiting commercial communications satellite which was launched on November 29, 1994 aboard an Atlas II launch vehicle. The power subsystem is a dual bus, dual battery semi-regulated system with one 78 Ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen battery per bus. The batteries were built and tested by Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., of Joplin, MO and were integrated into the spacecraft by its manufacturer, Matra Marconi Space UK Ltd. This paper presents the results obtained during the first four in-orbit reconditioning cycles and compares the battery performance to ground test data. In addition, the on-station battery management strategy and implementation constraints are described. Battery performance has been nominal throughout each reconditioning cycle and subsequent eclipse season.

  17. The Solar Oblateness Measured On Board The PICARD Spacecraft, and The Solar Disk Sextant Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, G. O.; Hauchecorne, A.; Sofia, S.; Girard, T.; Hochedez, J.; Irbah, A.; Marcovici, J.; Meissonnier, M.; Meftah, M.; Sofia, U. J.

    2011-12-01

    The PICARD Spacecraft was launched on 15 June 2010. It carries four instruments. One of them, SODISM is an imaging telescope with a 2K x 2K CCD detector, dedicated to the measurement of the solar diameter and the limb shape. Although the data processing is still in a validation phase, we can already present some preliminary results concerning the solar oblateness. These measurements are obtained during a special operation in which the spacecraft turns around the Sun direction. The rotation, made by 300 angular increments, allows us to determine the instrument optical distortion and the solar oblateness. The method used to extract this information will be described. We shall present the preliminary results as a function of wavelength, and compare them with measurements obtained with the SDS instrument, and with the predictions from theoretical modeling.

  18. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  19. Designing Spacecraft and Mission Operations Plans to Meet Flight Crew Radiation Dose Requirements: Why is this an "Epic Challenge" for Long-Term Manned Interplanetary Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Outline of presentation: (1) Radiation Shielding Concepts and Performance - Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) (1a) Some general considerations (1b) Galactic Cosmic Rays (2)GCR Shielding I: What material should I use and how much do I need? (2a) GCR shielding materials design and verification (2b) Spacecraft materials point dose cosmic ray shielding performance - hydrogen content and atomic number (2c) Accelerator point dose materials testing (2d) Material ranking and selection guidelines (2e) Development directions and return on investment (point dose metric) (2f) Secondary particle showers in the human body (2f-1) limited return of investment for low-Z, high-hydrogen content materials (3) GCR shielding II: How much will it cost? (3a) Spacecraft design and verification for mission radiation dose to the crew (3b) Habitat volume, shielding areal density, total weight, and launch cost for two habitat volumes (3c) It's All about the Money - Historical NASA budgets and budget limits (4) So, what can I do about all this? (4a) Program Design Architecture Trade Space (4b) The Vehicle Design Trade Space (4c) Some Near Term Recommendations

  20. RELEC mission: Relativistic electron precipitation and TLE study on-board small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Svertilov, S. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Balan, E. A.; Barinova, V. O.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Golovanov, I. A.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Morozov, O. V.; Myagkova, I. N.; Osedlo, V. I.; Petrov, V. L.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Saleev, K. Yu.; Sigaeva, E. A.; Veden'kin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.; Klimov, S. I.; Grechko, T. V.; Grushin, V. A.; Vavilov, D. I.; Korepanov, V. E.; Belyaev, S. V.; Demidov, A. N.; Ferencz, Cs.; Bodnár, L.; Szegedi, P.; Rothkaehl, H.; Moravski, M.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Jeon, J.; Jeong, S.; Park, A. H.; Papkov, A. P.; Krasnopejev, S. V.; Khartov, V. V.; Kudrjashov, V. A.; Bortnikov, S. V.; Mzhelskii, P. V.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of the Vernov mission is the study of magnetospheric relativistic electron precipitation and its possible influence on the upper atmosphere as well as the observation of Transient Luminous Events (TLE) and Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGF) across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The RELEC (Relativistic Electrons) instrument complex onboard the Vernov spacecraft includes two identical X- and gamma-ray detectors of high temporal resolution and sensitivity (DRGE-1 and DRGE-2), three axis position detectors for high-energy electrons and protons (DRGE-3), a UV TLE imager (MTEL), a UV detector (DUV), a low frequency analyser (LFA), a radio frequency analyser (RFA), and AN electronics module responsible for control and data collection (BE).

  1. Artificial Neural Networks Applications: from Aircraft Design Optimization to Orbiting Spacecraft On-board Environment Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent applications of artificial neural networks taken from various works performed by the authors over the last four years at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper focuses mainly on two areas. First, artificial neural networks application in design and optimization of aircraft/engine propulsion systems to shorten the overall design cycle. Out of that specific application, a generic design tool was developed, which can be used for most design optimization process. Second, artificial neural networks application in monitoring the microgravity quality onboard the International Space Station, using on-board accelerometers for data acquisition. These two different applications are reviewed in this paper to show the broad applicability of artificial intelligence in various disciplines. The intent of this paper is not to give in-depth details of these two applications, but to show the need to combine different artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms in order to design an optimized or versatile system.

  2. Survey and future directions of fault-tolerant distributed computing on board spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayyaz, Muhammad; Vladimirova, Tanya

    2016-12-01

    Current and future space missions demand highly reliable on-board computing systems, which are capable of carrying out high-performance data processing. At present, no single computing scheme satisfies both, the highly reliable operation requirement and the high-performance computing requirement. The aim of this paper is to review existing systems and offer a new approach to addressing the problem. In the first part of the paper, a detailed survey of fault-tolerant distributed computing systems for space applications is presented. Fault types and assessment criteria for fault-tolerant systems are introduced. Redundancy schemes for distributed systems are analyzed. A review of the state-of-the-art on fault-tolerant distributed systems is presented and limitations of current approaches are discussed. In the second part of the paper, a new fault-tolerant distributed computing platform with wireless links among the computing nodes is proposed. Novel algorithms, enabling important aspects of the architecture, such as time slot priority adaptive fault-tolerant channel access and fault-tolerant distributed computing using task migration are introduced.

  3. CCP Boeing/ULA Crew Access Arm Emergency Evacuation Water Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    The Crew Access Arm is seen following a water deluge systems test March 23 at a construction yard near NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm is being tested before being installed on Space Launch Complex 41 Crew Access Tower later this year. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  4. CCP Boeing/ULA Crew Access Arm Emergency Evacuation Water Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    Water sprays on the Crew Access Arm during a deluge systems test March 23 at a construction yard near NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm is being tested before being installed on Space Launch Complex 41 Crew Access Tower later this year. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  5. CCP Boeing/ULA Crew Access Arm Emergency Evacuation Water Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    The walkway portion of the Crew Access Arm is seen prior to a deluge systems test March 23 at a construction yard near NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm is being tested before being installed on Space Launch Complex 41 Crew Access Tower later this year. It will be used as a bridge by astronauts to board Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands on the launch pad atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

  6. Penile ulceration caused by a foreign body reaction in a crew member on board a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Castaneda, Jenny; Harb-De la Rosa, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    A crew member had a foreign body implanted subcutaneously on his dorsum penis stealthily 6 years earlier by a fellow crew member without any medical training. He presented to the ship's medical centre after a week of pain, erythema and oedema over the foreign body, which was eventually removed by the patient, leaving behind a penile ulceration. He was treated conservatively initially with intravenous and then with oral antibiotics until complete secondary wound closure was achieved.

  7. Changes in Plastid and Mitochondria Protein Expression in Arabidopsis Thaliana Callus on Board Chinese Spacecraft SZ-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Hui Qiong

    2015-11-01

    Microgravity represents an adverse abiotic environment, which causes rearrangements in cellular organelles and changes in the energy metabolism of cells. Plastids and mitochondria are two subcellular energy organelles that are responsible for major metabolic processes, including photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, ß-oxidation, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In our previous study performed on board the Chinese spacecraft SZ-8, we evaluated the global changes exerted by microgravity on the proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures by comparing the microgravity-exposed samples with the controls either under 1 g centrifugation in space or 1 g ground conditions. Here, we report additional data from this space experiment that highlights the plastid and mitochondria proteins that responded to space flight conditions. We observed that 43 plastidial proteins and 50 mitochondrial proteins changed their abundances under microgravity in space. The major changes in both plastids and mitochondria involved proteins that functions in a suite of redox antioxidant and metabolic pathways. These results suggested that these antioxidant and metabolic changes in plastids and mitochondria could be important components of the adaptive strategy in plants subjected to microgravity in space.

  8. Antenna Measurements: Test & Analysis of the Radiated Emissions/Immunity of the NASA/Orion Spacecraft Dart Parachute Simulator & Prototype Capsule - The Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgard, John D.

    2012-01-01

    For future NASA Manned Space Exploration of the Moon and Mars, a blunt body capsule, called the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), composed of a Crew Module (CM) and a Service Module (SM), with a parachute decent assembly is planned for reentry back to Earth. A Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being developed for preliminary prototype parachute drop tests at the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) to simulate high-speed reentry to Earth from beyond Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) and to provide measurements of position, velocity, acceleration, attitude, temperature, pressure, humidity, and parachute loads. The primary and secondary (backup) avionics systems on CPAS also provide mission critical firing events to deploy, reef, and release the parachutes in three stages (extraction, drogues, mains) using mortars and pressure cartridge assemblies. In addition, a Mid-Air Delivery System (MDS) is used to separate the capsule from the sled that is used to eject the capsule from the back of the drop plane. Also, high-speed and high-definition cameras in a Video Camera System (VCS) are used to film the drop plane extraction and parachute landing events. Intentional and unintentional radiation emitted from and received by antennas and electronic devices on/in the CEV capsule, the MDS sled, and the VCS system are being tested for radiated emissions/immunity (susceptibility) (RE/RS). To verify Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of the Orion capsule, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) measurements are being made inside a semi-anechoic chamber at NASA/JSC on the components of the CPAS system. Measurements are made at 1m from the components-under-test (CUT). In addition, EMI measurements of the integrated CEV system are being made inside a hanger at YPG. These measurements are made in a complete circle, at 30? angles or less, around the Orion Capsule, the spacecraft system under-test (SUT). Near-field B-Dot probe measurements on the surface of the Orion capsule are being extrapolated

  9. Differential protein expression profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana callus under microgravity on board the Chinese SZ-8 spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lihua; Xie, Junyan; Zheng, Huiqiong

    2015-02-01

    Exposure of Arabidopsis callus to microgravity has a significant impact on the expression of proteins involved in stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis, intracellular trafficking, signaling, and cell wall biosynthesis. Microgravity is among the main environmental stress factors that affect plant growth and development in space. Understanding how plants acclimate to space microgravity is important to develop bioregenerative life-support systems for long-term space missions. To evaluate the spaceflight-associated stress and identify molecular events important for acquired microgravity tolerance, we compared proteomic profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana callus grown under microgravity on board the Chinese spacecraft SZ-8 with callus grown under 1g centrifugation (1g control) in space. Alterations in the proteome induced by microgravity were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling. Forty-five proteins showed significant (p < 0.05) and reproducible quantitative differences in expression between the microgravity and 1g control conditions. Of these proteins, the expression level of 24 proteins was significantly up-regulated and that of 21 proteins was significantly down-regulated. The functions of these proteins were involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including general stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/degradation, intracellular trafficking/transportation, signaling, and cell wall biosynthesis. Several proteins not previously known to be involved in the response to microgravity or gravitational stimuli, such as pathogenesis-related thaumatin-like protein, leucine-rich repeat extension-like protein, and temperature-induce lipocalin, were significantly up- or down-regulated by microgravity. The results imply that either the normal gravity-response signaling is affected by microgravity

  10. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  11. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  12. Video File - Expedition 52-53 Crew Docks to the Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-28

    Expedition 52-53 Soyuz Commander Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos and Flight Engineers Randy Bresnik of NASA and Paolo Nespoli of ESA (European Space Agency) launched on the Russian Soyuz MS-05 spacecraft July 28 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The trio began a six-hour journey to the International Space Station and the start of a four-and-a-half month mission on the outpost. The footage contains the crew’s prelaunch activities including their departure from their crew quarters, suit-up in the Cosmodrome’s Integration Facility, walk out to the crew bus and arrival at the launch pad to board the spacecraft.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  14. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  15. Development of integrated, zero-G pneumatic transporter/rotating paddle incinerator/catalytic afterburner subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. F.; Labak, L. J.; Honegger, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A four component system was developed which consists of a particle size reduction mechanism, a pneumatic waste transport system, a rotating-paddle incinerator, and a catalytic afterburner to be integrated into a six-man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft. The study included the development of different concepts or functions, the establishment of operational specifications, and a critical evaluation for each of the four components. A series of laboratory tests was run, and a baseline subsystem design was established. An operational specification was also written in preparation for detailed design and testing of this baseline subsystem.

  16. Crystal growth of Cd1-xZnxTe by the traveling heater method in microgravity on board of Foton-M4 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, E. B.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Senchenkov, A. S.; Fiederle, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride crystals were grown using the traveling heater method (THM) under microgravity conditions on board of Foton-M4 spacecraft, and a reference crystal was grown on Earth under gravity conditions. Structure, chemical and phase compositions of these crystals, their optical characteristics and microhardness were compared. It can be concluded that the THM growth in microgravity has a positive effect on CZT crystals, since they have more homogeneous composition and their structural perfection is improved as compared with the crystals grown under terrestrial conditions, which results in improvement of electric and optical characteristics.

  17. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States's human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After nearly 50 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return to the home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent as to how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a

  18. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  19. Orion Crew Module Adapter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-12

    Offloading of the Orion Crew Module Adapter, CMA, at Plum Brook Station. The adapter will connect Orion’s crew module to a service module provided by ESA (European Space Agency). NASA is preparing for a series of tests that will check out the Orion European Service Module, a critical part of the spacecraft that will be launched on future missions to an asteroid and on toward Mars.

  20. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  1. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States' human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After over 40 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent and how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a spacecraft under very

  2. Crew Training - Apollo 9 (Alt. Chamber) - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-01-01

    S68-55255 (6 Nov. 1968) --- Overhead view of Altitude Chamber "L" in the Kennedy Space Center's Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing a member of the Apollo 9 backup crew preparing to ingress the Apollo 9 spacecraft for egress test and simulated altitude run. The Apollo 9 backup crew consists of astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., Richard F. Gordon Jr., and Alan L. Bean.

  3. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks, as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, left, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station look on during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    From left, NASA Public Affairs Officer Stephanie Schierholz, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, are seen during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Introduction of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident, Investigation Details, Findings and Crew Survival Investigation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle Program comes to an end, it is important that the lessons learned from the Columbia accident be captured and understood by those who will be developing future aerospace programs and supporting current programs. Aeromedical lessons learned from the Accident were presented at AsMA in 2005. This Panel will update that information, closeout the lessons learned, provide additional information on the accident and provide suggestions for the future. To set the stage, an overview of the accident is required. The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts on 1Feb, 2003. It disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana and observers along part of the track filmed the breakup of Columbia. Debris was recovered from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana, along a 567 statute mile track; the largest ever recorded debris field. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) concluded its investigation in August 2003, and released their findings in a report published in February 2004. NASA recognized the importance of capturing the lessons learned from the loss of Columbia and her crew and the Space Shuttle Program managers commissioned the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team (SCSIIT) to accomplish this. Their task was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival, including the design features, equipment, training and procedures intended to protect the crew. NASA released the Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report in December 2008. Key personnel have been assembled to give you an overview of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, the medical response, the medico-legal issues, the SCSIIT findings and recommendations and future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training. Educational Objectives: Set the stage for the Panel to address the

  7. Date: 03-11-15.Location: Bldg 30, FCR-1.Subject: Expedition 42 flight controllers on console in FCR-1 during the undocking of Expedition 42 crew (Samokutyaev, Wilmore, Serova) on the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft from the Poisk module on ISS.Photographer: James Blair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-11

    Date: 03-11-15 Location: Bldg 30, FCR-1 Subject: Expedition 42 flight controllers on console in FCR-1 during the undocking of Expedition 42 crew (Samokutyaev, Wilmore, Serova) on the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft from the Poisk module on ISS Photographer: James Blair

  8. ISS Update: Dream Chaser Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Michael Curie talks with Cheryl McPhillips, Commercial Crew Program Partner Manager for the Sierra Nevada Corporation, the company developing the Dream Chaser spacecraft...

  9. 46 CFR 45.125 - Crew passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crew passageways. 45.125 Section 45.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.125 Crew passageways. The vessel must have means for protection of the crew from boarding...

  10. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A helicopter crew member waits for weather to clear outside his Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Cars carrying Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin pull up to the terminal at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after the crew landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. The Development and Optimization of Techniques for Monitoring Water Quality on-Board Spacecraft Using Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, April Ann

    2007-12-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is the design, development, and ground and microgravity validation of methods for monitoring drinking water quality on-board NASA spacecraft using clorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE). The Introduction will overview the need for in-flight water quality analysis and will detail some of the challenges associated with operations in the absence of gravity. The ability of C-SPE methods to meet these challenges will then be discussed, followed by a literature review on existing applications of C-SPE and similar techniques. Finally, a brief discussion of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy theory, which provides a means for analyte identification and quantification in C-SPE analyses, is presented. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 reports the results from microgravity testing of existing C-SPE methods and procedures aboard NASA's C-9 microgravity simulator. Chapter 2 discusses the development of a C-SPE method for determining the total concentration of biocidal silver (i.e., in both dissolved and colloidal forms) in water samples. Chapter 3 presents the first application of the C-SPE technique to the determination of an organic analyte (i.e., formaldehyde). Chapter 4, which is a departure from the main focus of the thesis, details the results of an investigation into the effect of substrate rotation on the kinetics involved in the antigen and labeling steps in sandwich immunoassays. These research chapters are followed by general conclusions and a prospectus section.

  13. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  14. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, announces the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida looks on at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to a reporter’s question after he announced the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 13 crew portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-01

    ISS013-S-002 (12 Jan. 2006) --- Cosmonaut Pavel V. Vinogradov (left), Expedition 13 commander representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, and astronaut Jeffrey N. Williams, NASA space station science officer and flight engineer, pause from their training schedule to pose for their official crew portrait. The two are scheduled to be launched to the International Space Station in early spring of this year in a Soyuz TMA-8 spacecraft. Photo credit: Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center/NASA

  19. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA is helped out a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after flying from his Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landing site outside the town of Arkalyk to Kustanay, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, along with Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of Russia returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of Russia is helped out a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after flying from his Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landing site outside the town of Arkalyk to Kustanay, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Tarelkin, along with Commander Kevin Ford of NASA and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 1 Crew Resource Reel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This video shows footage of the Expedition 1 crew, William Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev, training for their stay on the International Space Station. Shepherd is seen training in the Soyuz spacecraft and inspecting the Service Module and Node 1. The three crewmembers are seen training for winter survival and extravehicular activity (in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab). They are taught how to use the fire extinguishers and extravehicular activity tools. Scenes show Gidzenko training in the crew compartment trainer and on the Mir Space Station and Krikalev on the STS-60 mission. A computer animation shows the Soyuz spacecraft docking with the Service Module.

  2. Fellow astronauts join Gemini 7 crew for preflight breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Fellow astronauts join the Gemini 7 prime crew for breakfeast in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building, Merritt Island, on the day of the Gemini 7 launch. Clockwise around table, starting lower left, are Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini 7 prime crew pilot; Walter M. Schirra Jr., Donald K. Slayton, MSC Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; Richard F. Gordon Jr., Gemini 8 backup crew pilot; Virgil I. Grissom, Charles Conrad Jr., and Frank Borman, Gemini 7 prime crew command pilot.

  3. Egress Training for Crew of AS-204

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-19

    Boilerplate (B/P) model of the Apollo Spacecraft resting nose down in the swimming pool at EAFB during a training session with the first (1st) crew named by NASA. NASA swimmers are in the water to assist during the practice session. Inside the spacecraft are Astronauts Roger B. Chaffee, and Edward H. White II, members of the crew. Astronaut Virgial I. Grissom is visible in the entrance to the craft.

  4. Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

  5. ASTRONAUT GROUP - GT-7 PRELAUNCH - PRIME CREW - BREAKFAST

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-59927 (4 Dec. 1965) --- Fellow astronauts join the Gemini-7 prime crew for breakfast in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building, Merritt Island, on the day of the Gemini-7 launch. Clockwise around the table, starting lower left, are astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini-7 prime crew pilot; Walter M. Schirra Jr., Gemini-6 prime crew command pilot; Donald K. Slayton, MSC assistant director for Flight Crew Operations; Virgil I. Grissom, Gemini-6 backup crew command pilot; Charles Conrad Jr., Gemini-5 prime crew pilot; and Frank Borman, Gemini-7 prime crew command pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  6. The SATRAM Timepix spacecraft payload in open space on board the Proba-V satellite for wide range radiation monitoring in LEO orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Polansky, Stepan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Owens, Alan; Kozacek, Zdenek; Mellab, Karim; Simcak, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The Space Application of Timepix based Radiation Monitor (SATRAM) is a spacecraft platform radiation monitor on board the Proba-V satellite launched in an 820 km altitude low Earth orbit in 2013. The is a technology demonstration payload is based on the Timepix chip equipped with a 300 μm silicon sensor with signal threshold of 8 keV/pixel to low-energy X-rays and all charged particles including minimum ionizing particles. For X-rays the energy working range is 10-30 keV. Event count rates can be up to 106 cnt/(cm2 s) for detailed event-by-event analysis or over 1011 cnt/(cm2 s) for particle-counting only measurements. The single quantum sensitivity (zero-dark current noise level) combined with per-pixel spectrometry and micro-scale pattern recognition analysis of single particle tracks enables the composition (particle type) and spectral characterization (energy loss) of mixed radiation fields to be determined. Timepix's pixel granularity and particle tracking capability also provides directional sensitivity for energetic charged particles. The payload detector response operates in wide dynamic range in terms of absorbed dose starting from single particle doses in the pGy level, particle count rate up to 106-10 /cm2/s and particle energy loss (threshold at 150 eV/μm). The flight model in orbit was successfully commissioned in 2013 and has been sampling the space radiation field in the satellite environment along its orbit at a rate of several frames per minute of varying exposure time. This article describes the design and operation of SATRAM together with an overview of the response and resolving power to the mixed radiation field including summary of the principal data products (dose rate, equivalent dose rate, particle-type count rate). The preliminary evaluation of response of the embedded Timepix detector to space radiation in the satellite environment is presented together with first results in the form of a detailed visualization of the mixed radiation

  7. Inflight - Apollo VIII (Crew Activities)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-12-24

    S68-56045 (26 Dec. 1968) --- Television viewers saw this picture of Earth during the sixth live telecast from the Apollo 8 spacecraft as it continued its journey home. At the time this picture was made, the Apollo 8 spacecraft, with astronauts Frank Borman, commander; James A. Lovell Jr., command module pilot; and William A. Anders, lunar module pilot, aboard, was about 97,000 nautical miles from Earth, and was traveling at a speed of 6,084 feet per second. As the spacecraft continued its trans-Earth course, the Apollo 8 crew noted that "Earth was getting larger" and that they were looking forward to being home.

  8. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  9. Crew health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    Crew health concerns for Space Station Freedom are numerous due to medical hazards from isolation and confinement, internal and external environments, zero gravity effects, occupational exposures, and possible endogenous medical events. The operational crew health program will evolve from existing programs and from life sciences investigations aboard Space Station Freedom to include medical monitoring and certification, medical intervention, health maintenance and countermeasures, psychosocial support, and environmental health monitoring. The knowledge and experience gained regarding crew health issues and needs aboard Space Station Freedom will be used not only to verify requirements and programs for long duration space flight, but also in planning and preparation for Lunar and Mars exploration and colonization.

  10. Spacecraft Fire Suppression: Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Wu, Ming-Shin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is the testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of a variety of fire suppressants and fire-response techniques that will be used in the next generation of spacecraft (Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV) and planetary habitats. From the many lessons learned in the last 40 years of space travel, there is common agreement in the spacecraft fire safety community that a new fire suppression system will be needed for the various types of fire threats anticipated in new space vehicles and habitats. To date, there is no single fire extinguishing system that can address all possible fire situations in a spacecraft in an effective, reliable, clean, and safe way. The testing conducted under this investigation will not only validate the various numerical models that are currently being developed, but it will provide new design standards on fire suppression that can then be applied to the next generation of spacecraft extinguishment systems. The test program will provide validation of scaling methods by conducting small, medium, and large scale fires. A variety of suppression methods will be tested, such as water mist, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen with single and multiple injection points and direct or distributed agent deployment. These injection methods cover the current ISS fire suppression method of a portable hand-held fire extinguisher spraying through a port in a rack and also next generation spacecraft units that may have a multi-point suppression delivery system built into the design. Consideration will be given to the need of a crew to clean-up the agent and recharge the extinguishers in flight in a long-duration mission. The fire suppression methods mentioned above will be used to extinguish several fire scenarios that have been identified as the most relevant to spaceflight, such as overheated wires, cable bundles, and circuit boards, as well as burning cloth and paper. Further testing will be conducted in which obstructions and

  11. An Alternative Approach to Human Servicing of Manned Earth Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularski, John; Alpert, Brian

    2011-01-01

    As manned spacecraft have grown larger and more complex, they have come to rely on spacewalks or Extravehicular Activities (EVA) for both mission success and crew safety. Typically these spacecraft maintain all of the hardware and trained personnel needed to perform an EVA on-board at all times. Maintaining this capability requires volume and up-mass for storage of EVA hardware, crew time for ground and on-orbit training, and on-orbit maintenance of EVA hardware . This paper proposes an alternative methodology to utilize launch-on-need hardware and crew to provide EVA capability for space stations in Earth orbit after assembly complete, in the same way that most people would call a repairman to fix something at their home. This approach would not only reduce ground training requirements and save Intravehicular Activity (IVA) crew time in the form of EVA hardware maintenance and on-orbit training, but would also lead to more efficient EVAs because they would be performed by specialists with detailed knowledge and training stemming from their direct involvement in the development of the EVA. The on-orbit crew would then be available to focus on the immediate response to the failure as well as the day-to-day operations of the spacecraft and payloads. This paper will look at how current ISS unplanned EVAs are conducted, including the time required for preparation, and offer alternatives for future spacecraft utilizing lessons learned from ISS. As this methodology relies entirely on the on-time and on-need launch of spacecraft, any space station that utilized this approach would need a robust transportation system including more than one launch vehicle capable of carrying crew. In addition the fault tolerance of the space station would be an important consideration in how much time was available for EVA preparation after the failure. Each future program would have to weigh the risk of on-time launch against the increase in available crew time for the main objective of

  12. Commercial Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  13. Crew operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The requirements for the activities involved, and the procedures used by the crew in the operations of the modular space station are presented. All crew-related characteristics of the station and its operations are indicated. The interior configuration and arrangement of each of the space station modules, the facilities and equipment in the module and their operation are described as related to crew habitability. The crew activities and procedures involved in the operation of the station in the accomplishment of its primary mission are defined. The operations involved in initial station buildup, and the on-orbit operation and maintenance of the station and its subsystems to support the experimental program are included. A general description of experiment operations is also given.

  14. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  15. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  16. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A view of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A heavily frosted rotor of a Search and Rescue helicopter is seen as it is grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, left, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin pose for a photograph with women in ceremonial Kazakh dress at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after they, along with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Novitskiy, Tarelkin, and Ford returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    NASA Astronauts Eric Boe, left, and Bob Behnken are seen making contact with other team members outside a Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA poses for a photograph after receiving welcome home gifts at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after he, along with Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Search and Rescue helicopters are seen grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA poses for a photograph with women in ceremonial Kazakh dress at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after he, along with Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A Search and Rescue helicopter is seen grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A Russian helicopter commander waits inside his Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 42 Crew Wave

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-24

    Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti, of the European Space Agency (ESA), top, Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA, center, and Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), bottom, wave farewell prior to boarding the Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft for launch, Monday, Nov. 24, 2014 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Cristoforetti, Virts, and Shkaplerov will spend the next five and a half months aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Expedition 41 Crew Wave

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-25

    Expedition 41 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), bottom, Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, middle, and Elena Serova of Roscosmos, top, wave farewell prior to boarding the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft for launch, Thursday, Sept. 25, 2014 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Samokutyaev, Wilmore, and Serova will spend the next five and a half months aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  8. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  9. Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Volume One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board's independent investigation into the February 1, 2003, loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and its seven-member crew lasted nearly seven months. A staff of more than 120, along with some 400 NASA engineers, supported the Board's 13 members. Investigators examined more than 30,000 documents, conducted more than 200 formal interviews, heard testimony from dozens of expert witnesses, and reviewed more than 3,000 inputs from the general public. In addition, more than 25,000 searchers combed vast stretches of the Western United States to retrieve the spacecraft's debris. In the process, Columbia's tragedy was compounded when two debris searchers with the U.S. Forest Service perished in a helicopter accident. This report concludes with recommendations, some of which are specifically identified and prefaced as 'before return to flight.' These recommendations are largely related to the physical cause of the accident, and include preventing the loss of foam, improved imaging of the Space Shuttle stack from liftoff through separation of the External Tank, and on-orbit inspection and repair of the Thermal Protection System. The remaining recommendations, for the most part, stem from the Board's findings on organizational cause factors. While they are not 'before return to flight' recommendations, they can be viewed as 'continuing to fly' recommendations, as they capture the Board's thinking on what changes are necessary to operate the Shuttle and future spacecraft safely in the mid- to long-term. These recommendations reflect both the Board's strong support for return to flight at the earliest date consistent with the overriding objective of safety, and the Board's conviction that operation of the Space Shuttle, and all human space-flight, is a developmental activity with high inherent risks.

  10. Smart Executives for Autonomous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.; Pell, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this article we explore the design of an executive for an autonomous spacecraft. The executive is responsible for translating high-level commands, whether they come from the ground or from an on-board planner, into the low-level commands understood directly by the spacecraft hardware.

  11. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  12. Crew of the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime crew for the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress procedures with full scale boilerplate model of their spacecraft. Astronaut Edward H. White II rides life raft in the foreground. Astronaut Roger B. Chaffee sits in hatch of the boilerplate model of the spacecraft. Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, third member of the crew, waits inside the spacecraft.

  13. Backup Crew of the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Backup crew for the first manned Apollo space flight practice water egress procedures with full scale boilerplate model of their spacecraft. Training took place at Ellington AFB, near the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Crew members are Astronauts David R. Scott (top of spacecraft); Russell L. Schweickart (upper right); and James McDivitt (standing in hatch).

  14. Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Pictured left is Cosmonaut Alexander Y, Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and Michael C. Foale (right), Expedition-8 Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer. The crew posed for this portrait while training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The two were launched for the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, along with European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, on October 18, 2003.

  15. Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Pictured left is Cosmonaut Alexander Y, Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and Michael C. Foale (right), Expedition-8 Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer. The crew posed for this portrait while training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The two were launched for the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, along with European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, on October 18, 2003.

  16. On-Ground Measurements of Time-Varying Magnetic Fields On Board BepiColombo's Mercury Planetary Orbiter Spacecraft from a Solar Array Drive Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junge, A.; Przyklenk, A.; Auster, H.-U.; Heyner, D.; D'Arcio, L. A.; Kempkens, K.

    2016-05-01

    The time-varying magnetic fields generated on ESA's BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) spacecraft have been measured recently to assess their influence on the Mercury magnetometer (MERMAG) instrument.We describe the basic measurement setup and present as an example some early results from a Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM).

  17. The Influence of Microbiology on Spacecraft Design and Controls: A Historical Perspective of the Shuttle and International Space Station Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Victoria A.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    For over 40 years, NASA has been putting humans safely into space in part by minimizing microbial risks to crew members. Success of the program to minimize such risks has resulted from a combination of engineering and design controls as well as active monitoring of the crew, food, water, hardware, and spacecraft interior. The evolution of engineering and design controls is exemplified by the implementation of HEPA filters for air treatment, antimicrobial surface materials, and the disinfection regimen currently used on board the International Space Station. Data from spaceflight missions confirm the effectiveness of current measures; however, fluctuations in microbial concentrations and trends in contamination events suggest the need for continued diligence in monitoring and evaluation as well as further improvements in engineering systems. The knowledge of microbial controls and monitoring from assessments of past missions will be critical in driving the design of future spacecraft.

  18. The Influence of Microbiology on Spacecraft Design and Controls: A Historical Perspective of the Shuttle and International Space Station Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Victoria A.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    For over 40 years, NASA has been putting humans safely into space in part by minimizing microbial risks to crew members. Success of the program to minimize such risks has resulted from a combination of engineering and design controls as well as active monitoring of the crew, food, water, hardware, and spacecraft interior. The evolution of engineering and design controls is exemplified by the implementation of HEPA filters for air treatment, antimicrobial surface materials, and the disinfection regimen currently used on board the International Space Station. Data from spaceflight missions confirm the effectiveness of current measures; however, fluctuations in microbial concentrations and trends in contamination events suggest the need for continued diligence in monitoring and evaluation as well as further improvements in engineering systems. The knowledge of microbial controls and monitoring from assessments of past missions will be critical in driving the design of future spacecraft.

  19. STS-70 Crew Insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-03-01

    STS070-S-001 (March 1995) --- Designed by the crew members, the STS-70 crew patch depicts the space shuttle Discovery orbiting Earth in the vast blackness of space. The primary mission of deploying a NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) is depicted by three gold stars. They represent the triad composed of spacecraft transmitting data to Earth through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The stylized red, white and blue ribbon represents the American goal of linking space exploration to the advancement of all humankind. Surnames of the five astronaut crew members are spaced around the periphery of the patch. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Expedition 5 Crew Interviews: Valery Korzun, Commander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 5 Commander Valery Kozun is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission and what his responsibilities will be as commander, what the crew exchange will be like (the Expedition 5 crew will replace the Expedition 4 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the daily life on an extended stay mission, the loading operations that will take place, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and the planned extravehicular activities (EVAs) scheduled for the mission. Kozun discusses the EVAs in greater detail and explains the significance of the Mobile Base System and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart for the ISS. He also explains at some length the science experiments which will be conducted on board by the Expedition 5 crew members. Korzun also touches on how his previous space experience on Mir (including dealing with a very serious fire) will benefit the Expedition 5 mission.

  1. Expedition 5 Crew Interviews: Valery Korzun, Commander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 5 Commander Valery Kozun is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission and what his responsibilities will be as commander, what the crew exchange will be like (the Expedition 5 crew will replace the Expedition 4 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the daily life on an extended stay mission, the loading operations that will take place, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and the planned extravehicular activities (EVAs) scheduled for the mission. Kozun discusses the EVAs in greater detail and explains the significance of the Mobile Base System and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart for the ISS. He also explains at some length the science experiments which will be conducted on board by the Expedition 5 crew members. Korzun also touches on how his previous space experience on Mir (including dealing with a very serious fire) will benefit the Expedition 5 mission.

  2. Expedition 2 crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    ISS002-S-001 (January 2001) --- The International Space Station Expedition Two patch depicts the Space Station as it appears during the time the second crew will be on board. The Station flying over the Earth represents the overall reason for having a space station: to benefit the world through scientific research and international cooperation in space. The number 2 is for the second expedition and is enclosed in the Cyrillic MKS and Latin ISS which are the respective Russian and English abbreviations for the International Space Station. The United States and Russian flags show the nationalities of the crew indicating the joint nature of the program. When asked about the stars in the background, a crew spokesman said they "...represent the thousands of space workers throughout the ISS partnership who have contributed to the successful construction of our International Space Station." The insignia design for ISS flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and cosmonauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator and NASA's international partners may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  3. ASTRONAUT GROUP - GT-6 AND GT-7 CREWS - WELCOME

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-19

    S65-66728 (19 Dec. 1965) --- This happy round of handshakes took place in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building crew quarters, Merritt Island, as the Gemini-6 crew (left) welcomed the Gemini-7 crew back to the Kennedy Space Center. Left to right, are astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr., Gemini-6 command pilot; Thomas P. Stafford, Gemini-6 pilot; Frank Borman, Gemini-7 command pilot; James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini-7 pilot; and Donald K. Slayton (partially hidden behind Lovell), assistant director for Flight Crew Operations, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  5. The effects of spacecraft environments on some hydrolytic enzyme patterns in bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, J. M.; Foster, B. G.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the production and characteristics of proteolytic enzymes are studied for a number of bacterial species isolated from crew members and spacecraft. Enzymatic make-up and cultural characteristics of bacteria isolated from spacecraft crew members are determined. The organism Aeromonas proteolytica and the proteolytic enzymes which it produces are used as models for future spacecraft experiments.

  6. 19 CFR 4.7b - Electronic passenger and crew arrival manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic passenger and crew arrival manifests. 4... Electronic passenger and crew arrival manifests. (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply for... hire. Crew member. “Crew member” means a person serving on board a vessel in good faith in any capacity...

  7. 46 CFR 35.05-1 - Officers and crews of tankships-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Officers and crews of tankships-T/ALL. 35.05-1 Section... Crews § 35.05-1 Officers and crews of tankships—T/ALL. No tankship of the United States shall be navigated unless she shall have in her service and on board such complement of officers and crew,...

  8. Development of an integrated, zero-G pneumatic transporter/rotating-paddle incinerator/catalytic afterburner subsystem for processing human waste on board spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. F.; Labak, L. J.; Honegger, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A baseline laboratory prototype of an integrated, six man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes onboard spacecraft was investigated, and included the development of an operational specification for the baseline subsystem, followed by design and fabrication. The program was concluded by performing a series of six tests over a period of two weeks to evaluate the performance of the subsystem. The results of the tests were satisfactory, however, several changes in the design of the subsystem are required before completely satisfactory performance can be achieved.

  9. The Asteroid Belt Cycler (ABC) Concept: A Comprehensive Asteroid Belt Sample Return Campaign Enabled by Crewed Presence in Cislunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, M.; Graham, L.; John, K.; Hamilton, J.; McCubbin, F.; Niles, P.; Stansbery, E.; Welzenbach, L.

    2017-02-01

    ABC samples all asteroid classes in the asteroid belt with re-usable robotic sample return spacecraft, bringing samples to a crewed platform in cislunar space. The crew refit the SR spacecraft and carry samples to Earth inside the crewed vehicle.

  10. Microbiological Contamination of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Bruce, R. J.; Groves, T. O.; Novikova, N. D.; Viktorov, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Phase1 Program resulted in seven US astronauts residing aboard the Russian Space Station Mir between March 1995 and May 1998. Collaboration between U.S. and Russian scientists consisted of collection and analyses of samples from the crewmembers and the Mir and Shuttle environments before, during, and after missions that lasted from 75 to 209 days in duration. The effects of long-duration space flight on the microbial characteristics of closed life support systems and the interactions of microbes with the spacecraft environment and crewmembers were investigated. Air samples were collected using a Russian or U.S.-supplied sampler (SAS, RCS, or Burkard,) while surface samples were collected using contact slides (Hycon) or swabs. Mir recycled condensate and stored potable water sources were analyzed using the U.S.-supplied Water Experiment Kit. In-flight analysis consisted of enumeration of levels of bacteria and fungi. Amounts of microorganisms seen in the air and on surfaces were mostly within acceptability lin1its; observed temporal fluctuations in levels of microbes probably reflect changes in environmental conditions (e.g., humidity). All Mir galley hot water samples were within the standards set for Mir and the ISS. Microbial isolates were returned to Earth for identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. Crew samples (nose, throat, skin, urine, and feces) were analyzed using methods approved for the medical evaluations of Shuttle flight crews. No significant changes in crew microbiota were found during space flight or upon return relative to preflight results. Dissemination of microbes between the crew and environment was demonstrated by D A fingerprinting. Some biodegradation of spacecraft materials was observed. Accumulation of condensate allowed for the recovery of a wide range of bacteria and fungi as well as some protozoa and dust mites.

  11. Microbiological Contamination of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Bruce, R. J.; Groves, T. O.; Novikova, N. D.; Viktorov, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Phase1 Program resulted in seven US astronauts residing aboard the Russian Space Station Mir between March 1995 and May 1998. Collaboration between U.S. and Russian scientists consisted of collection and analyses of samples from the crewmembers and the Mir and Shuttle environments before, during, and after missions that lasted from 75 to 209 days in duration. The effects of long-duration space flight on the microbial characteristics of closed life support systems and the interactions of microbes with the spacecraft environment and crewmembers were investigated. Air samples were collected using a Russian or U.S.-supplied sampler (SAS, RCS, or Burkard,) while surface samples were collected using contact slides (Hycon) or swabs. Mir recycled condensate and stored potable water sources were analyzed using the U.S.-supplied Water Experiment Kit. In-flight analysis consisted of enumeration of levels of bacteria and fungi. Amounts of microorganisms seen in the air and on surfaces were mostly within acceptability lin1its; observed temporal fluctuations in levels of microbes probably reflect changes in environmental conditions (e.g., humidity). All Mir galley hot water samples were within the standards set for Mir and the ISS. Microbial isolates were returned to Earth for identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. Crew samples (nose, throat, skin, urine, and feces) were analyzed using methods approved for the medical evaluations of Shuttle flight crews. No significant changes in crew microbiota were found during space flight or upon return relative to preflight results. Dissemination of microbes between the crew and environment was demonstrated by D A fingerprinting. Some biodegradation of spacecraft materials was observed. Accumulation of condensate allowed for the recovery of a wide range of bacteria and fungi as well as some protozoa and dust mites.

  12. Official photo of the 41-D crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-03-23

    S84-30259 (April 1984) --- NASA's Discovery will carry these six STS51-D crew members into space on an early summer mission. Astronaut Henry W. Hartsfield Jr. (second right, front row) is crew commander; and Michael L. Coats, right, is pilot. Astronauts Richard M. (Mike) Mullane, left; Steven A. Hawley (second left) and Judith A. Resnik are mission specialists. Charles D. Walker (back row) is payload specialist. Both the early ocean-going Discovery and the debuting spacecraft are depicted in the backdrop. The conspicuous payload in the cargo bay of the spacecraft is that of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST-1). Photo credit: NASA

  13. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042668 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  14. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042674 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  15. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042675 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  16. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042680 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  17. STS-69 crew outside Endeavour during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 crew members wear broad smiles as they pose for a group photograph outside the crew hatch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The crew is participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for the launch targetd for Aug. 5. From left, are Mission Commander David M. Walker; Mission Specialists Michael L. Gernhardt and James H. Newman; Payload Commander James S. Voss and Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell. Primary objectives of the mission are the deployment, retrieval and operation of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) satellite on its second flight and the SPARTAN-201 spacecraft which is making its third flight.

  18. A NASA Perspective on Maintenance Activities and Maintenance Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth Tim

    2007-01-01

    Proactive consideration of ground crew factors enhances the designs of space vehicles and vehicle safety by: (1) Reducing the risk of undetected ground crew errors and collateral damage that compromise vehicle reliability and flight safety (2) Ensuring compatibility of specific vehicle to ground system interfaces (3) Optimizing ground systems. During ground processing and launch operations, public safety, flight crew safety, ground crew safety, and the safety of high-value spacecraft are inter-related. For extended Exploration missions, surface crews perform functions that merge traditional flight and ground operations.

  19. STS-58 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-58 crew insignia depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia with a Spacelab module in its payload bay in orbit around Earth. The Spacelab and the lettering 'Spacelab Life Sciences II' highlight its primary mission. An Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) support pallet is shown in the aft payload bay, stressing the length of the mission. The hexagonal shape of the patch depicts the carbon ring. Encircling the inner border of the patch is the double helix of DNA. Its yellow background represents the sun. Both medical and veterinary caducei are shown to represent the STS-58 life sciences experiments. The position of the spacecraft in orbit about Earth with the United States in the background symbolizes the ongoing support of the American people for scientific research.

  20. STS-58 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-58 crew insignia depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia with a Spacelab module in its payload bay in orbit around Earth. The Spacelab and the lettering 'Spacelab Life Sciences II' highlight its primary mission. An Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) support pallet is shown in the aft payload bay, stressing the length of the mission. The hexagonal shape of the patch depicts the carbon ring. Encircling the inner border of the patch is the double helix of DNA. Its yellow background represents the sun. Both medical and veterinary caducei are shown to represent the STS-58 life sciences experiments. The position of the spacecraft in orbit about Earth with the United States in the background symbolizes the ongoing support of the American people for scientific research.

  1. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 49 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-07

    Long exposure Earth observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 49 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Stars are visible in the background. Docked Soyuz spacecraft is also visible.

  2. Condensation on crew compartment aft flight deck window W10

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-03-30

    STS003-24-211 (22-30 March 1982) --- Crew compartment aft flight deck viewing window W10 fogged with condensation. The condensation is a result of the spacecraft's position in relation to the sun. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Behind their Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Kopra of NASA (left), Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Tim Peake of the European Space Agency (right) pose for pictures Dec. 9 after a traditional tree-planting ceremony. The trio will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Victor Zelentsov.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    Behind their Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Kopra of NASA (left), Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Tim Peake of the European Space Agency (right) pose for pictures Dec. 9 after a traditional tree-planting ceremony. The trio will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  4. At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Kopra of NASA took a turn on a tilt table to test his vestibular system Dec. 9 as part of his pre-launch training. Kopra, Tim Peake of the European Space Agency and Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Victor Zelentsov.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Kopra of NASA took a turn on a tilt table to test his vestibular system Dec. 9 as part of his pre-launch training. Kopra, Tim Peake of the European Space Agency and Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  5. Outside their Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Kate Rubins of NASA (left), Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos (center) and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (right) answer reporters��� questions June 26 as they continue preparations for launch on July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Alexander Vysotsky.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-26

    Outside their Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Kate Rubins of NASA (left), Anatoly Ivanishin of Roscosmos (center) and Takuya Onishi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (right) answer reporters’ questions June 26 as they continue preparations for launch on July 7, Baikonur time, on the Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft for a planned four-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Alexander Vysotsky

  6. Microbial contamination of spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L

    2001-06-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human space flight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) space flight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of space flight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft. Equally important is a better understanding of the immune response and of human-microorganism-environment interactions during long-term space habitation.

  7. The monitoring of gaseous contaminants in spacecraft cabin atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Tan, G B; Savage, C J; Bittner, H

    1997-02-01

    The accumulation of toxic or otherwise harmful trace gases in a spacecraft cabin is a very serious concern in terms of the health and safety of the crew. Although methods exist for controlling the evolution of such contaminants, techniques for monitoring the success of these methods, on board and in near- real-time, are still under development. One such technique, based on the use of FTIR interferometry, is being developed in Europe. A prototype instrument has been assembled, making extensive use of 'off-the-shelf' hardware and software, and tested for its ability to detect and quantify--within a maximum period of 1 minute and in the presence of water vapour and carbon dioxide 21 of the most frequently detected contaminants on past Shuttle and Spacelab flights. Results have confirmed that such contaminants can be detected and measured with an acceptable degree of precision.

  8. Spacecraft 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Workshop was to focus on the key technology area for 21st century spacecraft and the programs needed to facilitate technology development and validation. Topics addressed include: spacecraft systems; system development; structures and materials; thermal control; electrical power; telemetry, tracking, and control; data management; propulsion; and attitude control.

  9. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Carl Walz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Carl Walz is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Walz ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  10. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Yury I. Onufrienko

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Commander Yury Onufrienko is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Onufrienko ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  11. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Dan Bursch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Dan Bursch is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Bursch ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  12. Commerical Crew Astronauts Evaluate Crew Dragon Controls

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-10

    Astronaut Bob Behnken, work in a mock-up of the SpaceX Crew Dragon flight deck at the company's Hawthorne, California, headquarters as development of the crew systems continues for eventual missions to the International Space Station.

  13. ARM Spacecraft Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-20

    This graphic depicts the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle conducting a flyby of its target asteroid. During these flybys, the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) would come within 0.6 miles (1 kilometer), generating imagery with resolution of up to 0.4 of an inch (1 centimeter) per pixel. The robotic segment of ARM will demonstrate advanced, high-power, high-throughput solar electric propulsion; advanced autonomous precision proximity operations at a low-gravity planetary body; and controlled touchdown and liftoff with a multi-ton mass. The crew segment of the mission will include spacewalk activities for sample selection, extraction, containment and return; and mission operations of integrated robotic and crewed vehicle stack -- all key components of future in-space operations for human missions to the Mars system. After collecting a multi-ton boulder from the asteroid, the robotic spacecraft will redirect the boulder to a crew-accessible orbit around the moon, where NASA plans to conduct a series of proving ground missions in the 2020s that will help validate capabilities needed for NASA's Journey to Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21062

  14. Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-13

    Members of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board examine pieces of Columbia debris in the RLV Hangar. The debris was shipped from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the RLV.

  15. Apollo XII Crew - Preflight News Conference - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-10-11

    S69-54412 (11 Oct. 1969) --- The members of the Apollo 12 prime crew discuss their scheduled lunar landing mission at a preflight press conference which was held on Oct. 11, 1969, in the Manned Spacecraft Center auditorium. Left to right, are astronauts Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot; Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot; and Charles Conrad Jr., commander.

  16. Earth observation taken by Expedition 49 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-24

    ISS049e009356 (09/24/2016) --- Earth observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 49 crew aboard the International Space Station. Framed by the docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft is Western Europe. The bright, dense lights in the East are the Netherlands, Belgium. The dark strip is the Alps

  17. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  18. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  19. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the outcome of the NESC assessment. NASA/TM-2013-217380, "Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events." supercedes this document.

  20. Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization - A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Cruz, Patricia; Buttner, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft (SWAB) will use advanced molecular techniques to comprehensively evaluate microbes on board the space station, including pathogens (organisms that may cause disease). It also will track changes in the microbial community as spacecraft visit the station and new station modules are added. This study will allow an assessment of the risk of microbes to the crew and the spacecraft. Research Summary: Previous microbial analysis of spacecraft only identify microorganisms that will grow in culture, omitting greater than 90% of all microorganisms including pathogens such as Legionella (the bacterium which causes Legionnaires' disease) and Cryptosporidium (a parasite common in contaminated water) The incidence of potent allergens, such as dust mites, has never been systematically studied in spacecraft environments and microbial toxins have not been previously monitored. This study will use modern molecular techniques to identify microorganisms and allergens. Direct sampling of the ISS allows identification of the microbial communities present, and determination of whether these change or mutate over time. SWAB complements the nominal ISS environmental monitoring by providing a comparison of analyses from current media-based and advanced molecular-based technologies.

  1. Safety aspects of spacecraft commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N.

    1994-01-01

    The commanding of spacecraft is a potentially hazardous activity for the safety of the spacecraft. Present day control systems contain safety features in their commanding subsystem and in addition, strict procedures are also followed by operations staff. However, problems have occurred on a number of missions as a result of erroneous commanding leading in some cases to spacecraft contingencies and even to near loss of the spacecraft. The problems of checking commands in advance are increased by the tendency in modern spacecraft to use blocked/time-tagged commands and the increased usage of on-board computers, for which commands changing on-board software tables can radically change spacecraft or subsystem behavior. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study aims to improve the approach to safety of spacecraft commanding. It will show how ensuring 'safe' commanding can be carried out more efficiently, and with greater reliability, with the help of knowledge based systems and/or fast simulators. The whole concept will be developed based on the Object-Oriented approach.

  2. Development of Skylab experiment T-013 crew/vehicle disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, B. A.; Woolley, C. T.; Kurzhals, P. R.; Reynolds, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    A Skylab experiment to determine the characteristics and effects of crew-motion disturbances was developed. The experiment will correlate data from histories of specified astronaut body motions, the disturbance forces and torques produced by these motions, and the resultant spacecraft control system response to the disturbances. Primary application of crew-motion disturbance data will be to the sizing and design of future manned spacecraft control and stabilization systems. The development of the crew/vehicle disturbances experiment is described, and a mathematical model of human body motion which may be used for analysis of a variety of man-motion activities is derived.

  3. Systems Modeling for Crew Core Body Temperature Prediction Postlanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia; Ochoa, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure. Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included.

  4. Systems Modeling for Crew Core Body Temperature Prediction Postlanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia; Ochoa, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure. Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included.

  5. OFFICIAL STS-2 CREW STATION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-04-07

    S81-29900 (May 1981) --- This is the official insignia for STS-2 the United States second space shuttle orbital flight test mission. Crewmen are astronauts Joe H. Engle, commander, and Richard H. Truly, pilot. Their spacecraft, orbiter 102 Columbia, is depicted along with the crew members surnames, and the merged eagle and American flag. The number two is significant, as it applies to the number of crew members as well as the second flight for the Columbia and the second in a series of space shuttle missions. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Administrator Bolden Talks to Station Crew on 10th Anniversary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden talks with the Expedition 25 crew on board the International Space Station on November 2, marking the tenth anniversary of continuous human presence on the orbitin...

  7. STS-114: Discovery Crew Arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    George Diller of NASA Public Affairs narrates the STS-114 Crew arrival at Kennedy Space Center aboard a Gulf Stream aircraft. They were greeted by Center Director Jim Kennedy. Commander Eileen Collins introduced each of her crew members and gave a brief description of their roles in the mission. Mission Specialist 3, Andrew Thomas will be the lead crew member on the inspection on flight day 2; he is the intravehicular (IV) crew member that will help and guide Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi and Stephen Robinson during their spacewalks. Pilot James Kelly will be operating the shuttle systems in flying the Shuttle; he will be flying the space station robotic arm during the second extravehicular activity and he will be assisting Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence during the other two extravehicular activities; he will be assisting on the rendezvous on flight day three, and landing of the shuttle. Commander Collins also mentioned Pilot Kelly's recent promotion to Colonel by the United States Air Force. Mission Specialist 1, Souichi Noguchi from JAXA (The Japanese Space Agency) will be flying on the flight deck for ascent; he will be doing three spacewalks on day 5, 7, and 9; He will be the photo/TV lead for the different types of cameras on board to document the flight and to send back the information to the ground for both technical and public affairs reasons. Mission Specialist 5, Charles Camada will be doing the inspection on flight day 2 with Mission Specialist Thomas and Pilot Kelly; he will be transferring the logistics off the shuttle and onto the space station and from the space station back to the shuttle; He will help set up eleven lap tops on board. Mission Specialist 4, Wendy Lawrence will lead the transfer of logistics to the space station; she is the space station arm operator during extravehicular activities 1 and 3; she will be carrying the 6,000 pounds of external storage platform from the shuttle payload bay over to the space station; she is also

  8. Advanced Technologies for Future Spacecraft Cockpits and Space-based Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Galan, Carlos; Uckun, Serdar; Gregory, William; Williams, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a new era of Space Exploration, aimed at sending crewed spacecraft beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), in medium and long duration missions to the Lunar surface, Mars and beyond. The challenges of such missions are significant and will require new technologies and paradigms in vehicle design and mission operations. Current roles and responsibilities of spacecraft systems, crew and the flight control team, for example, may not be sustainable when real-time support is not assured due to distance-induced communication lags, radio blackouts, equipment failures, or other unexpected factors. Therefore, technologies and applications that enable greater Systems and Mission Management capabilities on-board the space-based system will be necessary to reduce the dependency on real-time critical Earth-based support. The focus of this paper is in such technologies that will be required to bring advance Systems and Mission Management capabilities to space-based environments where the crew will be required to manage both the systems performance and mission execution without dependence on the ground. We refer to this concept as autonomy. Environments that require high levels of autonomy include the cockpits of future spacecraft such as the Mars Exploration Vehicle, and space-based control centers such as a Lunar Base Command and Control Center. Furthermore, this paper will evaluate the requirements, available technology, and roadmap to enable full operational implementation of onboard System Health Management, Mission Planning/re-planning, Autonomous Task/Command Execution, and Human Computer Interface applications. The technology topics covered by the paper include enabling technology to perform Intelligent Caution and Warning, where the systems provides directly actionable data for human understanding and response to failures, task automation applications that automate nominal and Off-nominal task execution based

  9. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 135.99 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less...

  10. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 135.99 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less...

  11. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 135.99 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less...

  12. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or the Aircraft...

  13. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or the Aircraft...

  14. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  15. Boeing Unveils New Suit for Commercial Crew Astronauts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-23

    Boeing unveiled its spacesuit design Wednesday as the company continues to move toward flight tests and crew rotation missions of its Starliner spacecraft and launch systems that will fly astronauts to the International Space Station. Astronauts heading into orbit for the station aboard the Starliner will wear Boeing’s new spacesuits. The suits are custom-designed to fit each astronaut, lighter and more comfortable than earlier versions and meet NASA requirements for safety and functionality. NASA's commercial crew astronauts Eric Boe and Suni Williams tried on the suits at Boeing’s Commercial Crew and Cargo Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Boe, Williams, Bob Behnken, and Doug Hurley were selected by NASA in July 2015 to train for commercial crew test flights aboard the Starliner and SpaceX’s Crew Dragon spacecraft. The flight assignments have not been set, so all four of the astronauts are rehearsingheavily for flights aboard both vehicles.

  16. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  17. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  18. 49 CFR 1242.56 - Engine crews and train crews (accounts XX-51-56 and XX-51-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine crews and train crews (accounts XX-51-56 and XX-51-57). 1242.56 Section 1242.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS...

  19. STS-93: Crew Visit and Departure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of the STS-93 crewmembers shows Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman, and Michel Tognini observing and speaking with the engineers about some installations. Footage also shows the crew boarding the T-38 jet and departing from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF).

  20. STS-93: Crew Visit and Departure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of the STS-93 crewmembers shows Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman, and Michel Tognini observing and speaking with the engineers about some installations. Footage also shows the crew boarding the T-38 jet and departing from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF).

  1. Biological component of life support systems for a crew in long-duration space expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Podolsky, Igor G.

    Creation of effective life support systems (LSSs) is one of the main tasks of medico-biological support of long-duration space flight. Principles of development of such an LSS will be defined on the basis of number of parameters, including mass-overall and energetic limitations of interplanetary spacecraft, duration of expedition and crew size. It is obvious that including biological subsystems in LSS of long-duration interplanetary space flights will help to form a full-fledged environment for humans in the spacecraft. It would be an appropriate solution for long-term biological needs of humans and important for elimination of possible negative consequences of their long stay under artificial (abiogenous) environment. Experiments with higher plants, conducted on board "MIR" orbital complex and Russian segment of ISS, showed that plant organisms are capable of long-duration normal growth, full development and reproduction without deviations under real space flight environment. These results allow us to assume that greenhouses are potential candidates to be a biological subsystem to be included in the LSS for interplanetary space flight. Inclusion of greenhouse equipment in the spacecrafts will require a number of corrective actions in functional schemes of the existing LSS, i.e. it will lead to redistribution of material streams inside an LSS and increase in functional load of authorized systems. Furthermore, involvement of greenhouse in an LSS of an interplanetary spacecraft requires a number of technical tasks to be cleared. In the present review, we discuss the constructive, technological and mass-transfer characteristics of greenhouse as a component part of the LSS for crews of long-term interplanetary missions, in particular, Mars expedition.

  2. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  3. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  4. Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Research Lab (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify the pressure relief device bellow's integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electrical power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on it seven year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four year mission at Saturn.

  5. Human Spacecraft Structures Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhakta, Kush

    2017-01-01

    DSG will be placed in halo orbit around themoon- Platform for international/commercialpartners to explore lunar surface- Testbed for technologies needed toexplore Mars• Habitat module used to house up to 4crew members aboard the DSG- Launched on EM-3- Placed inside SLS fairing Habitat Module - Task Habitat Finite Element Model Re-modeled entire structure in NX2) Used Beam and Shell elements torepresent the pressure vessel structure3) Created a point cloud of centers of massfor mass components- Can now inspect local moments andinertias for thrust ring application8/ Habitat Structure – Docking Analysis Problem: Artificial Gravity may be necessary forastronaut health in deep spaceGoal: develop concepts that show how artificialgravity might be incorporated into a spacecraft inthe near term Orion Window Radiant Heat Testing.

  6. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  7. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  8. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  9. POST-FLIGHT (CREW) - STS-8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-09-05

    S83-39696 (5 Sept 1983) --- The five member astronaut crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger for STS-8 responds to a comment made by President Ronald Reagan during a post flight telephone conversation with the chief executive. The five astronauts earlier today landed the reusable spacecraft at Edwards Air Force Base in California and were flown to JSC via NASA aircraft. Richard H. Truly, center, is crew commander. Pilot for the six day flight was Daniel C. Brandenstein, second left. The mission specialist were Guion S. Bluford, left: Dr. William S. Thornton, second right, and Dale A. Gardner, right. Photo credit: NASA

  10. POST-FLIGHT (CREW) - STS-8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-09-05

    S83-39693 (5 Sept 1983) --- The five member astronaut crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger for STS-8 responds to a comment made by President Ronald Reagan during a post flight telephone conversation with the chief executive. The five astronauts earlier today landed the reusable spacecraft at Edwards Air Force Base in California and were flown to JSC via NASA aircraft. Richard H. Truly, center, is crew commander. Pilot for the six day flight was Daniel C. Brandenstein, second left. The mission specialist were Guion S. Bluford, left: Dr. William S. Thornton, second right, and Dale A. Gardner, right.

  11. STS-69 Crew Insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-05-01

    STS069-S-001 (May 1995) --- Designed by the crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned spacewalk supporting space station assembly. The two stylized space shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized space shuttles symbolize a NASA first - the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make space shuttle missions possible. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  12. STS-58 Crew Insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-05-01

    STS058-S-001 (May 1993) --- Designed by members of the flight crew, the STS-58 insignia depicts the space shuttle Columbia with a Spacelab module in its payload bay in orbit around Earth. The Spacelab and the lettering "Spacelab Life Sciences II" highlight the primary mission of the second space shuttle flight dedicated to life sciences research. An Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) support pallet is shown in the aft payload bay, stressing the scheduled two-week duration of the longest space shuttle mission to date. The hexagonal shape of the patch depicts the carbon ring, a molecule common to all living organisms. Encircling the inner border of the patch is the double helix of DNA, representing the genetic basis of life. Its yellow background represents the sun, energy source for all life on Earth. Both medical and veterinary caducei are shown to represent the STS-58 life sciences experiments. The position of the spacecraft in orbit about Earth with the United States in the background symbolizes the ongoing support of the American people for scientific research intended to benefit all mankind. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  13. STS-62 crew patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-01

    STS062-S-001 (October 1993) --- The crew patch depicts the world's first reusable spacecraft on its sixteenth flight. The space shuttle Columbia is in its entry-interface attitude as it prepares to return to Earth. The primary mission objectives of STS-62 include the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) and the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST-2) payloads. These payloads represent a multifaceted array of space science and engineering experiments. The varied hues of the rainbow on the horizon connote the varied, but complementary, nature of all the payloads united on this mission. The upward-pointing vector shape of the patch is symbolic of America's reach for excellence in its in its unswerving pursuit to explore the frontiers of space. The brilliant sunrise just beyond Columbia suggests the promise that research in space holds for the hopes and dreams of future generations. The STS-62 insignia was designed by Mark Pestana. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Expedition 33 Crew Waves Farewell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-23

    Expedition 33/34 crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, bottom, Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS, top, wave farewell before boarding their Soyuz rocket just a few hours before their launch to the International Space Station on Tuesday, October 23, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of a Soyuz rocket later in the afternoon will send Ford, Novitskiy and Tarelkin on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  16. Spacecraft architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefeld, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Three requirements for a spacecraft interior are considered. Adequate motor activity in the anatomical-physiological sense results from attention to the anthropometric characteristics of humans. Analysis of work requirements is a prerequisite for the planning of adequate performance space. The requirements for cognitive activity are also elucidated. The importance of a well-designed interior during a long space flight is discussed.

  17. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  18. The X-38 Spacecraft Fault-Tolerant Avionics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouba,Coy; Buscher, Deborah; Busa, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    In 1995 NASA began an experimental program to develop a reusable crew return vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station. The purpose of the CRV was threefold: (i) to bring home an injured or ill crewmember; (ii) to bring home the entire crew if the Shuttle fleet was grounded; and (iii) to evacuate the crew in the case of an imminent Station threat (i.e., fire, decompression, etc). Built at the Johnson Space Center, were two approach and landing prototypes and one spacecraft demonstrator (called V201). A series of increasingly complex ground subsystem tests were completed, and eight successful high-altitude drop tests were achieved to prove the design concept. In this program, an unprecedented amount of commercial-off-the-shelf technology was utilized in this first crewed spacecraft NASA has built since the Shuttle program. Unfortunately, in 2002 the program was canceled due to changing Agency priorities. The vehicle was 80% complete and the program was shut down in such a manner as to preserve design, development, test and engineering data. This paper describes the X-38 V201 fault-tolerant avionics system. Based on Draper Laboratory's Byzantine-resilient fault-tolerant parallel processing system and their "network element" hardware, each flight computer exchanges information on a strict timescale to process input data, compare results, and issue voted vehicle output commands. Major accomplishments achieved in this development include: (i) a space qualified two-fault tolerant design using mostly COTS (hardware and operating system); (ii) a single event upset tolerant network element board, (iii) on-the-fly recovery of a failed processor; (iv) use of synched cache; (v) realignment of memory to bring back a failed channel; (vi) flight code automatically generated from the master measurement list; and (vii) built in-house by a team of civil servants and support contractors. This paper will present an overview of the avionics system and the hardware

  19. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

  20. Quarantined Apollo 11 Crew Debriefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The three are seen here at the MSC, still inside the MQF, undergoing their first debriefing on Sunday, August 3, 1969. Behind the glass are (L-R): Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins, and Neil Armstrong.

  1. Commerical Crew Astronauts Evaluate Crew Dragon Controls

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-10

    Astronauts Eric Boe, right, and Bob Behnken work in a mock-up of the SpaceX Crew Dragon flight deck at the company's Hawthorne, California, headquarters as development of the crew systems continues for eventual missions to the International Space Station.

  2. Commerical Crew Astronauts Evaluate Crew Dragon Controls

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-10

    Astronauts Bob Behnken, left, and Eric Boe work in a mock-up of the SpaceX Crew Dragon flight deck at the company's Hawthorne, California, headquarters as development of the crew systems continues for eventual missions to the International Space Station.

  3. Fault tolerant control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard

    Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying space missions demand the development of reliable control systems to ensure rapid, accurate, and effective response to various attitude and formation reconfiguration commands. Keeping in mind the complexities involved in the technology development to enable spacecraft formation flying, this thesis presents the development and validation of a fault tolerant control algorithm that augments the AOCS on-board a spacecraft to ensure that these challenging formation flying missions will fly successfully. Taking inspiration from the existing theory of nonlinear control, a fault-tolerant control system for the RyePicoSat missions is designed to cope with actuator faults whilst maintaining the desirable degree of overall stability and performance. Autonomous fault tolerant adaptive control scheme for spacecraft equipped with redundant actuators and robust control of spacecraft in underactuated configuration, represent the two central themes of this thesis. The developed algorithms are validated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. A reaction wheel testbed is used to validate the proposed fault tolerant attitude control scheme. A spacecraft formation flying experimental testbed is used to verify the performance of the proposed robust control scheme for underactuated spacecraft configurations. The proposed underactuated formation flying concept leads to more than 60% savings in fuel consumption when compared to a fully actuated spacecraft formation configuration. We also developed a novel attitude control methodology that requires only a single thruster to stabilize three axis attitude and angular velocity components of a spacecraft. Numerical simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experimental results along with rigorous analytical stability analysis shows that the proposed methodology will greatly enhance the reliability of the spacecraft, while allowing for potentially significant overall mission cost reduction.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut John Herrington (right) holds part of a flag presented by dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Junior-Senior High School, Fort Hall, Idaho, commemorating the orbiter Columbia and her crew. The dancers performed a healing ceremony during the memorial service held at the Space Memorial Mirror for the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut John Herrington (right) holds part of a flag presented by dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Junior-Senior High School, Fort Hall, Idaho, commemorating the orbiter Columbia and her crew. The dancers performed a healing ceremony during the memorial service held at the Space Memorial Mirror for the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A student from Shoshone-Bannock Junior-Senior High School, Fort Hall, Idaho, holds part of a flag presented by dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Native American community, Fort Hall, Idaho, commemorating the orbiter Columbia and her crew. The dancers performed a healing ceremony during the memorial service held at the Space Memorial Mirror for the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A student from Shoshone-Bannock Junior-Senior High School, Fort Hall, Idaho, holds part of a flag presented by dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Native American community, Fort Hall, Idaho, commemorating the orbiter Columbia and her crew. The dancers performed a healing ceremony during the memorial service held at the Space Memorial Mirror for the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Some of the dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Junior-Senior High School, Fort Hall, Idaho, hold a flag commemorating the orbiter Columbia and her crew. The dancers performed a healing ceremony during the memorial service held at the Space Memorial Mirror for the crew of Columbia. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Some of the dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Junior-Senior High School, Fort Hall, Idaho, hold a flag commemorating the orbiter Columbia and her crew. The dancers performed a healing ceremony during the memorial service held at the Space Memorial Mirror for the crew of Columbia. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

  7. The Human as a System - Monitoring Spacecraft Net Habitable Volume throughout the Design Lifecycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Richard; Kallay, Anna; Twyford, Evan; Maida, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft design has historically allocated specific volume and mass "not to exceed" requirements upon individual systems and their accompanying hardware (e.g., life support, avionics) early in their conceptual design in an effort to align the spacecraft with propulsion capabilities. If the spacecraft is too heavy or too wide for the launch stack - it does not get off the ground. This approach has predictably ended with the crew being allocated whatever open, pressurized volume remains. With the recent inauguration of a new human-rated spacecraft - NASA human factors personnel have found themselves in the unique position to redefine the human as a system from the very foundation of design. They seek to develop and monitor a "not to fall below" requirement for crew net habitable volume (NHV) - balanced against the "not to exceed" system volume requirements, with the spacecraft fitting the crew versus the crew having to fit inside the spacecraft.

  8. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  9. 46 CFR 35.05-1 - Officers and crews of tankships-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Officers and crews of tankships-T/ALL. 35.05-1 Section... Crews § 35.05-1 Officers and crews of tankships—T/ALL. No tankship of the United States shall be navigated unless she shall have in her service and on board such complement of officers and crew, including...

  10. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Randy; Frank, Jeremy; Garner, Larry; Haddock, Angie; Stetson, Howard; Wang, Lui

    2015-01-01

    The Autonomous Mission Operations project is investigating crew autonomy capabilities and tools for deep space missions. Team members at Ames Research Center, Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are using their experience with ISS Payload operations and TIMELINER to: move earth based command and control assets to on-board for crew access; safely merge core and payload command procedures; give the crew single action intelligent operations; and investigate crew interface requirements.

  11. Engineering Management Board Tour VAB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-22

    Members of NASA’s Engineering Management Board pause for a group photo during a tour of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platforms in High Bay 3, including the one on which the board members are standing, were designed to surround and provide access to NASA’s Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft. The Engineering Management Board toured integral areas of Kennedy to help the agencywide group reach its goal of unifying engineering work across NASA.

  12. Engineering Management Board Tour VAB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-22

    Members of NASA’s Engineering Management Board tour of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platforms in High Bay 3, including the one on which the board members are standing, were designed to surround and provide access to NASA’s Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft. The Engineering Management Board toured integral areas of Kennedy to help the agencywide group reach its goal of unifying engineering work across NASA.

  13. Engineering Management Board Tour VAB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-22

    Members of NASA’s Engineering Management Board visit the Vehicle Assembly Building’s High Bay 3 at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platforms in High Bay 3, including the one on which the board members are standing, were designed to surround and provide access to NASA’s Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft. The Engineering Management Board toured integral areas of Kennedy to help the agencywide group reach its goal of unifying engineering work across NASA.

  14. Two ASTP prime crews atop mock-ups at JSC to symbolize historic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The two prime crews of the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) sit atop ASTP mock-ups at JSC to symbolize their historic docking in Earth orbit mission schedules for summer of 1975. They are, left to right, Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American Crew; Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer of the Soviet crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet crew. The three Americans are seated on a mock-up of a Docking Module, which is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft. The two Soviets are atop a mock-up of a Soyuz spacecraft orbital module. Leonov and Kubasov were among a group of cosmonauts and engineers who visited JSC for three weeks of joint crew training.

  15. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Frank Culbertson, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Commander Frank Culbertson is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Culbertson gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  16. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Vladimir Dezhurov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Pilot Vladimir Dezhurov is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Dezhurov gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  17. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Mikhail Turin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Flight Engineer Mikhail Turin is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Turin gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  18. Asteroid Crewed Segment Mission Lean Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gard, Joe; McDonald, Mark; Jermstad, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of human spaceflight missions presents numerous challenges to designers that must be addressed to produce a feasible concept. The specific challenges of designing an exploration mission utilizing the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts beyond earth orbit to explore an asteroid stored in a distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be addressed. Mission designers must carefully balance competing constraints including cost, schedule, risk, and numerous spacecraft performance metrics including launch mass, nominal landed mass, abort landed mass, mission duration, consumable limits and many others. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will be described along with results from the concurrent mission design trades that led to its formulation. While the trades presented are specific to this mission, the integrated process is applicable to any potential future mission. The following trades were critical in the mission formulation and will be described in detail: 1) crew size, 2) mission duration, 3) trajectory design, 4) docking vs grapple, 5) extravehicular activity tasks, 6) launch mass and integrated vehicle performance, 7) contingency performance, 8) crew consumables including food, clothing, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and 9) mission risk. The additional Orion functionality required to perform the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission and how it is incorporated while minimizing cost, schedule and mass impacts will be identified. Existing investments in the NASA technology portfolio were leveraged to provide the added functionality that will be beneficial to future exploration missions. Mission kits are utilized to augment Orion with the necessary functionality without introducing costly new requirements to the mature Orion spacecraft design effort. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission provides an exciting early mission for the Orion and SLS while providing a stepping stone to even more ambitious missions in the future.

  19. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  20. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft, carrying the Orion crew module structural test article (STA), arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The STA will be offloaded and transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  1. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    After arriving at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency's Super Guppy aircraft was opened and the container holding the Orion crew module structural test article (STA) was offloaded. The test article will be transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  2. Earth Observations taken by STS-127 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-30

    S127-E-012776 (30 July 2009) --- Backdropped by Earth?s horizon and the blackness of space, a Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) is photographed after its release from Space Shuttle Endeavour?s payload bay by STS-127 crew members. DRAGONSat will look at independent rendezvous of spacecraft in orbit using Global Positioning Satellite data. The two satellites were designed and built by students at the University of Texas, Austin, and Texas A&M University, College Station.

  3. Earth Observations taken by STS-127 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-30

    S127-E-012774 (30 July 2009) --- Backdropped by Earth?s horizon and the blackness of space, a Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) is photographed after its release from Space Shuttle Endeavour?s payload bay by STS-127 crew members. DRAGONSat will look at independent rendezvous of spacecraft in orbit using Global Positioning Satellite data. The two satellites were designed and built by students at the University of Texas, Austin, and Texas A&M University, College Station.

  4. RECOVERY (PRIME CREW STEP OUT) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-5 - FROGMEN - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-26

    S65-51653 (29 Aug. 1965) --- Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. and Charles Conrad Jr. exit their spacecraft after splashdown of the Gemini-5 spacecraft. They are photographed boarding a life raft with the help of Navy divers.

  5. Liquid transfer demonstration on board Apollo 14 during transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalla, K. L.; Otto, E. W.; Symons, E. P.; Petrash, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The transfer of liquid from one container to another in a weightless environment was demonstrated by the crew of Apollo 14. A scale-model liquid-transfer system was used on board the spacecraft during the transearth coast period. The liquid transfer unit consisted of a surface tension baffled tank system containing two baffle designs. Liquid was transferred between tanks with a hand pump operated by the astronaut. The results showed that liquid was efficiently transferred to and from either baffled tank to within two percent of the design value residual liquid without reaching gas ingestion. The liquid-vapor interface in the receiver tank was positioned successfully with the gas located at the vent.

  6. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  7. Spacecraft reliability/maintainability optimization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharmahd, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a procedure to develop a methodology to optimize man-serviced systems for reliability and maintainability. The spacecraft systems are analyzed using failure modes and effects analysis and maintenance analysis, component mean-time-between failure, duty cycle, type of redundancy, and cost information to develop parametric data on various time intervals. Included are crew time-to-repair, cost, weight, and volume effects of increasing subsystem reliability above the baseline. Results are presented for space systems using the existing data from a research and applications module. These results show the minimum cost of sustaining mission operations.

  8. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  9. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  10. Media Event at CCP White Room/Crew Access Arm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-21

    NASA, Boeing and United Launch Alliance officials discuss the Crew Access Arm under construction at a yard near NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm and white room are being built to bridge the space between the Crew Access Tower and the hatch to Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands atop a ULA Atlas V rocket at Space Launch Complex 41 before flight. Partnering with NASA's Commercial Crew Program, Boeing is one of two companies building a new, privately owned and operated space system to carry astronauts to the International Space Station.

  11. Media Event at CCP White Room/Crew Access Arm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-21

    Steve Hirst, Launch Operations Group for United Launch Alliance, speaks to news media about the Crew Access Arm under construction at a yard near NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm and white room are being built to bridge the space between the Crew Access Tower and the hatch to Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands atop a ULA Atlas V rocket at Space Launch Complex 41 before flight. Partnering with NASA's Commercial Crew Program, Boeing is one of two companies building a new, privately owned and operated space system to carry astronauts to the International Space Station.

  12. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, members of the STS-103 crew check out new Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) for the Hubble Space Telescope. The payload hardware is in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. From left are Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). Other members of the crew are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with the MLI. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  13. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, a member of the STS-103 crew checks out rib clamp to be used on the Shield Shell Replacement Fabric (SSRF) task on repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. The seven-member crew, taking part in a Crew Equipment Interface Test, are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  14. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the STS-103 crew look over equipment to be used during their mission. The seven-member crew, taking part in a Crew Equipment Interface Test, are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  15. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith (right) and other members of the crew look over new Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) intended for the Hubble Space Telescope. The seven-member crew, taking part in a Crew Equipment Interface Test, are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with the MLI. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  16. Media Event at CCP White Room/Crew Access Arm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-21

    NASA, Boeing and United Launch Alliance officials discuss the Crew Access Arm under construction at a yard near NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The arm and white room are being built to bridge the space between the Crew Access Tower and the hatch to Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft as it stands atop a ULA Atlas V rocket at Space Launch Complex 41 before flight. Partnering with NASA's Commercial Crew Program, Boeing is one of two companies building a new, privately owned and operated space system to carry astronauts to the International Space Station. The speakers are, from left, Lisa Loucks, Launch Site Integration lead for Boeing; Steve Hirst, Launch Operations Group for ULA; Chris Ferguson, former astronaut and deputy program manager of Boeing's Crew and Mission Operations, Gary Wentz, vice president of Human Launch Services for ULA, and Mike Ravenscroft, Launch Site Integration manager for NASA's Commercial Crew Program.

  17. Art Concept - Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Crews

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-05-13

    S75-25941 (April 1975) --- An Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) symbolic painting by artist Bert Winthrop of Rockwell International Space Division, Downey, California. The artwork is composed of the ASTP mission insignia, the docked Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft, and portraits of the five ASTP prime crewmen, all superimposed against Earth's sphere in the center of the picture. The launches of both the American ASTP space vehicle (on left) and the Soviet ASTP space vehicle are depicted in the lower right corner. The five crewmen are, clockwise from the ASTP emblem, astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American crew; astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American crew; cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet crew; and cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet crew. The joint U.S.-USSR ASTP docking mission in Earth orbit is scheduled for July 1975.

  18. Universal Controller for Spacecraft Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levanas, Greg; McCarthy, Thomas; Hunter, Don; Buchanan, Christine; Johnson, Michael; Cozy, Raymond; Morgan, Albert; Tran, Hung

    2006-01-01

    An electronic control unit has been fabricated and tested that can be replicated as a universal interface between the electronic infrastructure of a spacecraft and a brushless-motor (or other electromechanical actuator) driven mechanism that performs a specific mechanical function within the overall spacecraft system. The unit includes interfaces to a variety of spacecraft sensors, power outputs, and has selectable actuator control parameters making the assembly a mechanism controller. Several control topologies are selectable and reconfigurable at any time. This allows the same actuator to perform different functions during the mission life of the spacecraft. The unit includes complementary metal oxide/semiconductor electronic components on a circuit board of a type called rigid flex (signifying flexible printed wiring along with a rigid substrate). The rigid flex board is folded to make the unit fit into a housing on the back of a motor. The assembly has redundant critical interfaces, allowing the controller to perform time-critical operations when no human interface with the hardware is possible. The controller is designed to function over a wide temperature range without the need for thermal control, including withstanding significant thermal cycling, making it usable in nearly all environments that spacecraft or landers will endure. A prototype has withstood 1,500 thermal cycles between 120 and +85 C without significant deterioration of its packaging or electronic function. Because there is no need for thermal control and the unit is addressed through a serial bus interface, the cabling and other system hardware are substantially reduced in quantity and complexity, with corresponding reductions in overall spacecraft mass and cost.

  19. Crew safety. [in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slayton, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    Crew safety in the manned spaceflight is usually associated with a small group for safety and quality assurance. Crew safety is actually an integral part of all program phases from conception through final implementation. Factors associated with improving safety at each phase of development are discussed. Topics discussed include design, manufacture, hardware/software checkout, management reviews, training and simulation, and data retrieval and analysis. Crew safety is best accomplished by flying a successful mission.

  20. STS-109 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-109 (Commander Scott Altman, Pilot Duane Carey, Payload Commander John Grunsfeld, and Mission Specialists Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, and Michael Massimino) during various parts of their training. Scenes show the crew's photo session, Post Landing Egress practice, training in Dome Simulator, Extravehicular Activity Training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), and using the Virtual Reality Laboratory Robotic Arm. The crew is also seen tasting food as they choose their menus for on-orbit meals.

  1. STS-109 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-109 (Commander Scott Altman, Pilot Duane Carey, Payload Commander John Grunsfeld, and Mission Specialists Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, and Michael Massimino) during various parts of their training. Scenes show the crew's photo session, Post Landing Egress practice, training in Dome Simulator, Extravehicular Activity Training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), and using the Virtual Reality Laboratory Robotic Arm. The crew is also seen tasting food as they choose their menus for on-orbit meals.

  2. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  3. Apollo 13 Crew on Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Commander Philip Eldredge Jerauld (at microphone), ship's chaplain for U.S.S. Iwo Jima, offers a prayer of thanks for the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew members soon after they arrived aboard the recovery ship. Standing in the center of the picture, from the left, are astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., Commander; Fred W. Haise Jr., Lunar Module Pilot; and John L. Swigert Jr., Command Module Pilot. The Apollo 13 Command Module 'Odyssey' splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m. (CST), April 17, 1970, to conclude safely a perilous space flight. The three astronauts were picked up by helicopter and flown to the U.S.S. Iwo Jima. Standing at left is Captain Leland E. Kirkemo, Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Iwo Jima. Standing behind the chaplain, almost obscured, is Rear Admiral Donald C. Davis, Commanding Officer of Task Force 130, the Pacific Recovery Force for the Manned Spacecraft Missions.

  4. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called 'Mission to Planet Earth'), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 am local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES, MISR, and MODIS are proved by the US; MOPITT by Canada; and ASTER by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale.

  5. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  6. Microbial Contamination in the Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human spaceflight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) spaceflight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of spaceflight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft.

  7. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  8. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (front view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  9. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  10. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (front view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  11. Crew Training STS-110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The crewmembers are shown being suited for the STS-110 flight. The STS-110 crews are shown in training for four EVA's on the International Space Station. The crewmembers consist of: Michael J. Bloomfield, mission commander; Stephen N. Frick, pilot; and mission specialists: Ellen Ochoa, Lee M.E. Morin, Rex J. Walheim, Steven L. Smith, and Jerry Ross. Crew ascent middeck operations and Orbiter Skills Training in a fixed Based Simulator are the training areas shown. The STS-110 crew and Expedition four are seen during training at the Johnson Space Center Space Station Training Facility (SSTF). A photo session of the crew is also presented.

  12. STS-96 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The training for the crew members of the STS-96 Discovery Shuttle is presented. Crew members are Kent Rominger, Commander; Rick Husband, Pilot; Mission Specialists, Tamara Jernigan, Ellen Ochoa, and Daniel Barry; Julie Payette, Mission Specialist (CSA); and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, Mission Specialist (RSA). Scenes show the crew sitting and talking about the Electrical Power System; actively taking part in virtual training in the EVA Training VR (Virtual Reality) Lab; using the Orbit Space Vision Training System; being dropped in water as a part of the Bail-Out Training Program; and taking part in the crew photo session.

  13. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Water Landing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.

    2007-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) water splashdowns were simulated in order to find maximum acceleration loads on the astronauts and spacecraft under various landing conditions. The acceleration loads were used in a Dynamic Risk Index (DRI) program to find the potential risk for injury posed on the astronauts for a range of landing conditions. The DRI results showed that greater risks for injury occurred for two landing conditions; when the vertical velocity was large and the contact angle between the spacecraft and the water impact surface was zero, and when the spacecraft was in a toe down configuration and both the vertical and horizontal landing velocities were large. Rollover was also predicted to occur for cases where there is high horizontal velocity and low contact angles in a toe up configuration, and cases where there was a high horizontal velocity with high contact angles in a toe down configuration.

  14. Life Support and Habitation Systems: Crew Support and Protection for Human Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s proposed Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) Program. LSHS will develop and mature technologies to sustain life on long duration human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that are reliable, have minimal logistics supply and increase self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is paramount, including focus on key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodation that recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and which have increased reliability and capability. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. Beyond LEO, return to Earth will be constrained. The potability of recycled water and purity of regenerated air must be measured and certified aboard the spacecraft. Missions must be able to recover from fire events through early detection, use of non-toxic suppression agents, and operation of recovery systems that protect on-board Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware. Without the protection of the Earth s geomagnetic field, missions beyond LEO must have improved radiation shielding and dosimetry, as well as warning systems to protect the crew against solar particle events. This paper will describe plans for the new LSHS Foundational Domain and mission factors that will shape its technology development portfolio.

  15. Wireless Crew Communication Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Ronald D.; Romero, Andy; Juge, David

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing discussions with crew currently onboard the ISS as well as the crew debriefs from completed ISS missions indicate that issues associated with the lack of wireless crew communication results in increased crew task completion times and lower productivity, creates cable management issues, and increases crew frustration.

  16. STS-48 official crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-27

    STS048-S-001 (July 1991) --- Designed by the astronaut crew members, the patch represents the space shuttle orbiter Discovery in orbit about Earth after deploying the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) depicted in block letter style. The stars are those in the northern hemisphere as seen in the fall and winter when UARS will begin its study of Earth's atmosphere. The color bands on Earth's horizon, extending up to the UARS spacecraft, depict the study of Earth's atmosphere. The triangular shape represents the relationship among the three atmospheric processes that determine upper atmospheric structure and behavior: chemistry, dynamics and energy. In the words of the crew members, "This continuous process brings life to our planet and makes our planet unique in the solar system." The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Crew - First Manned Apollo Mission - Water Egress Procedures Practice - Ellington AFB (EAFB), TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-01

    S66-51583 (June 1966)--- Prime crew members announced by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the first manned Apollo 1 space flight practice water egress procedures in a swimming pool at Ellington Air Force Base (EAFB), Houston, Texas. Astronaut Edward H. White II rides life raft in the foreground. Astronaut Roger B. Chaffee sits in hatch of the boilerplate model of the spacecraft. Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, third member of the crew, waits inside the spacecraft.

  18. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  19. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  20. STS-47 Crew Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri answer questions from the press about the upcoming Endeavour mission and the crew's personal views of the mission.

  1. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  2. Apollo 8 prime crew inside centrifuge gondola in bldg 29 during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 8 prime crew inside the centrifuge gondola in bldg 29 during centrifuge training in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Flight Acceleration Facility (view with crew lying on back). Left to right, are Astronauts Frank Borman, commander; James A. Lovell Jr., command module pilot; and William A. Anders, lunar module pilot.

  3. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  4. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called "Mission to Planet Earth"), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 AM local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) are provided by the United States; MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) by Canada; and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer) by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale. This interactive CD introduces Terra's overall objectives and its instruments, the new technologies developed for Terra, the launch of Terra, and its flight dynamics.

  5. Dragon Spacecraft on Approach to the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-20

    ISS039-E-013566 (20 April 2014) --- This is one of an extensive series of still photos documenting the April 20 arrival and ultimate capture and berthing of the SpaceX Dragon at the International Space Station, as photographed by the Expedition 39 crew members onboard the orbital outpost. In this photo, the two orbiting spacecraft were above a point in Yemen. Part of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea can be seen at left. The Dragon spacecraft was captured by the space station and successfully berthed using the Canadian-built space station remote manipulator system or Canadarm2.

  6. Dragon Spacecraft on Approach to the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-20

    ISS039-E-013567 (20 April 2014) --- This is one of an extensive series of still photos documenting the April 20 arrival and ultimate capture and berthing of the SpaceX Dragon at the International Space Station, as photographed by the Expedition 39 crew members onboard the orbital outpost. In this photo, the two orbiting spacecraft were above a point in Yemen. Part of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, can be seen at left. The Dragon spacecraft was captured by the space station and successfully berthed using the Canadian-built space station remote manipulator system or Canadarm2.

  7. Dragon Spacecraft on Approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-20

    ISS039-E-013405 (20 April 2014) --- This is one of an extensive series of still photos documenting the April 20 arrival and ultimate capture and berthing of the SpaceX Dragon at the International Space Station, as photographed by the Expedition 39 crew members onboard the orbital outpost. The two orbiting spacecraft were above a point in the Gulf of Aden near the Red Sea, off the coast of Yemen. The Dragon spacecraft was captured by the space station and successfully berthed using the Canadian-built space station remote manipulator system or Canadarm2.

  8. Dragon Spacecraft on Approach to the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-20

    ISS039-E-013552 (20 April 2014) --- This is one of an extensive series of still photos documenting the April 20 arrival and ultimate capture and berthing of the SpaceX Dragon at the International Space Station, as photographed by the Expedition 39 crew members onboard the orbital outpost. In this photo, the two orbiting spacecraft were above a point in Yemen. The Dragon spacecraft was captured by the space station and successfully berthed using the Canadian-built space station remote manipulator system or Canadarm2.

  9. Dragon Spacecraft on Approach to the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-20

    ISS039-E-013569 (20 April 2014) --- This is one of an extensive series of still photos documenting the April 20 arrival and ultimate capture and berthing of the SpaceX Dragon at the International Space Station, as photographed by the Expedition 39 crew members onboard the orbital outpost. In this photo, the two orbiting spacecraft were above a point in Yemen. Part of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, can be seen at left. The Dragon spacecraft was captured by the space station and successfully berthed using the Canadian-built space station remote manipulator system or Canadarm2.

  10. Dragon Spacecraft on Approach to the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-20

    ISS039-E-013570 (20 April 2014) --- This is one of an extensive series of still photos documenting the April 20 arrival and ultimate capture and berthing of the SpaceX Dragon at the International Space Station, as photographed by the Expedition 39 crew members onboard the orbital outpost. In this photo, the two orbiting spacecraft were above a point in Yemen. Part of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, can be seen at left. The Dragon spacecraft was captured by the space station and successfully berthed using the Canadian-built space station remote manipulator system or Canadarm2.

  11. STS-95 crew approach van for ride to the launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    After leaving the Operations and Checkout Building, the STS-95 crew wave at well-wishers as they approach the Astrovan they will board for their trip to Launch Pad 39B. Leading the group is Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (far right); Other crew members are (left to right) Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski , Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain (hidden), with the European Space Agency (ESA), Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  12. Spacecraft Observes Another Spacecraft at the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-13

    This is the first footage of one orbiting robotic spacecraft taken by another orbiting robotic spacecraft at Earth moon. Flow, one of two satellites making up NASA GRAIL mission, captured this video of NASA LRO as it flew by.

  13. Apollo 8 prime crew stand beside gondola for centrifuge training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 8 prime crew stands beside the gondola in bldg 29 after suiting up for centrifuge training in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Flight Acceleration Facility. Left to right, are Astronauts William A. Anders, lunar module pilot; James A. Lovell Jr.,command module pilot; and Frank Borman, commander.

  14. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 39 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-10

    Earth observation taken by the Expedition 39 crew aboard the ISS. A portion of the docked Soyuz TMA-11M spacecraft is in view. Image was released by astronaut on Instagram and downlinked in folder: Personal photos and the Maldive islands.

  15. Press room of the Crew reception Area, Lunar Receivng Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Room 190 of the Support and Administrative Facilities, Crew Reception Area (CRA), Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Bldg 37, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. The room is a debriefing room which facilitates indirect contact with the astronauts and CRA medical staff during quarantine periods. Also called the press room.

  16. Apollo 8 Prime Crew - Gondola for Centrifuge Training - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-11-01

    S68-53187 (1 Nov. 1968) --- The prime crew of the Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission stands beside the gondola in Building 29 after suiting up for centrifuge training in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Flight Acceleration Facility (FAF). Left to right, are astronauts William A. Anders, lunar module pilot; James A. Lovell Jr., command module pilot; and Frank Borman, commander.

  17. Recovery- Cooper smiles at recovery crew on Kearsarge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    S63-07852 (16 May 1963)--- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) mission, has a smile for the recovery crew of the USS Kearsarge, after he is onboard from a successful 22-orbit mission of Earth in his spacecraft "Faith 7". Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Armstrong - scooping sample - CREW TRAINING - APOLLO XI - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-04-18

    S69-31048 (18 April 1969) --- Suited astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in Building 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he practices scooping up a lunar sample.

  19. Earth observation taken by the Expedition 35 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-18

    ISS035-E-023422 (18 April 2013) --- One of the Expedition 35 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this night image of Tripoli, Libya on April 18, 2013. The spacecraft was orbiting approximately 215 miles above a point centered at 32.3 degrees north latitude and 11.8 degrees east longitude.

  20. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  1. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  2. Orion Spacecraft Takes Shape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Technicians move the two halves of the Orion crew exploration vehicle's crew module into place to fuse them together at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, La. The Lockheed Martin Orio...

  3. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. Part 1; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the appendices to the NESC assessment report. NASA/TM-2013-217380, Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events supersedes this document.

  4. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  5. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  6. The synergy of spacecraft electric propulsion and power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Curran, Francis M.; Bankston, C. Perry; Brophy, John R.; Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1997-01-01

    The combination of spacecraft electrical power and on-board propulsion can consume as much as three-fourths of the mass of a spacecraft depending upon the mission. With the current emphasis on reducing costs (including launch vehicle costs) and on reducing the mass of future spacecraft it is apparent that the use of advanced spacecraft electrical power and on-board propulsion technologies must be employed. Some of the NASA-sponsored and other-sponsored technologies are examined showing how existing advanced power and propulsion technologies can be used to improve the performance of spacecraft. The synergistic effect of applying both advanced electrical power and advanced on-board propulsion technologies is specifically discussed.

  7. Crew Transportation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  8. STS-111 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on June 6, 2002, these four astronauts comprised the prime crew for NASA's STS-111 mission. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cockrell (front right) was mission commander, and astronaut Paul S. Lockhart (front left) was pilot. Astronauts Philippe Perrin (rear left), representing the French Space Agency, and Franklin R. Chang-Diaz were mission specialists assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) work on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to the delivery and installation of the Mobile Base System (MBS), this crew dropped off the Expedition Five crew members at the orbital outpost, and brought back the Expedition Four trio at mission's end.

  9. STS-63 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the crew patch depicts the Orbiter maneuving to rendezvous with Russia's Space Station Mir. The name is printed in Cyrillic on the side of the station. Visible in the Orbiter's payload bay are the commercial space laboratory Spacehab and the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) satellite which are major payloads on the flight. The six points on the rising sun and the three stars are symbolic of the mission's Space Transportation System (STS) numerical designation. Flags of the United States and Russia at the bottom of the patch symbolize the cooperative operations of this mission. The crew will be flying aboard the space shuttle Discovery.

  10. STS-121 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-121 crew portrait. From the left are mission specialists Stephanie D. Wilson, and Michael E. Fossum, Commander Steven W. Lindsey, mission specialist Piers J. Sellers, pilot Mark E. Kelly; European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut and mission specialist Thomas Reiter of Germany; and mission specialist Lisa M. Nowak. The crew members are attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suit. The crew, first ever to launch on Independence Day, tested new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as delivered supplies and made repairs to the space station.

  11. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (left) and Pilot Scott J. Kelly look at a replacement computer for the Hubble Space Telescope. The payload hardware is in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. Other members of the crew are Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with the new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  12. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, members of the STS-103 crew look at some of the equipment to be used during their mission. The seven-member crew are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  13. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, some of the STS-103 crew look over lubrication devices to be used during their mission. The seven-member crew are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  14. STS-103 crew take part in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, members of the STS-103 crew get instructions on use of rib clamps for the Shield Shell Replacement Fabric (SSRF) task on repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. The seven-member crew are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail on the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  15. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  16. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Yuri Malenchenko

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He begins by telling why he wanted to become a cosmonaut. Malenchenko expresses his reaction about the news of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, and how this mission will be different from other missions. He also expresses the challenges that face Malenchenko and Ed Lu such as the crew reduction from three to two, less supplies and no space shuttle flights. Malenchenko says that he will have to work on a compressed schedule, which will make the mission even more challenging. A description of the handover of Expedition Six is given. Malenchenko and Ed Lu will be cramped in a confined space on the Soyuz Spacecraft for two days before docking, and he talks about this experience. Lastly, Malenchenko gives his thoughts on how it will be to work with Ed Lu in space, and tells of Lu's trustworthiness and reliability as a fellow crew member.

  17. The Original Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The original Gemini 9 prime crew, astronauts Elliot M. See Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles A. Bassett II, pilot, in space suits with their helmets on the table in front of them. On February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T-38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building in which the Gemini spacecraft were being manufactured. They were on final approach to Lambert-Saint Louis Municipal Airport when bad weather conditions hampered pilot See's ability to make a good visual contact with the runway. Noticing the building at the last second as he came out of the low cloud cover, See went to full afterburner and attempted to nose-up the aircraft in an attempt to miss the building. He clipped it and his plane crashed.

  18. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Yuri Malenchenko

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He begins by telling why he wanted to become a cosmonaut. Malenchenko expresses his reaction about the news of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, and how this mission will be different from other missions. He also expresses the challenges that face Malenchenko and Ed Lu such as the crew reduction from three to two, less supplies and no space shuttle flights. Malenchenko says that he will have to work on a compressed schedule, which will make the mission even more challenging. A description of the handover of Expedition Six is given. Malenchenko and Ed Lu will be cramped in a confined space on the Soyuz Spacecraft for two days before docking, and he talks about this experience. Lastly, Malenchenko gives his thoughts on how it will be to work with Ed Lu in space, and tells of Lu's trustworthiness and reliability as a fellow crew member.

  19. Crew around hatch leading into the Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-28

    ISS014-E-05015 (28 Sept. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter, Expedition 14 flight engineer, photographed near a docking port in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station. A probe-and-cone docking mechanism is visible in the port.

  20. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  1. STS-87 Crew Breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-87 flight crew enjoys the traditional pre-liftoff breakfast in the crew quarters of the Operations and Checkout Building. They are, from left, Mission Specialist Winston Scott; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Commander Kevin Kregel; Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Pilot Steven Lindsey. After a weather briefing, the flight crew will be fitted with their launch and entry suits and depart for Launch Pad 39B. Once there, they will take their positions in the crew cabin of the Space Shuttle Columbia to await liftoff during a two-and-a-half-hour window that will open at 2:46 p.m. EDT, Nov. 19.

  2. Intelligent spacecraft module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  3. STS-102 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-102, Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot James M. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Andrew S. W. Thomas and Paul Richards, during various parts of their training. Scenes include: (1) neutral buoyancy lab training; (2) undocking/fly-around training in the GNS (Navigation Simulator); (3) crew equipment interface test; (4) Remote Manipulator System (RMS) training in the GNS; and (5) docking training in the GNS.

  4. STS-53 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The STS-53 crew portrait included astronauts (front left to right): Guion S. Bluford, and James S. Voss, mission specialists. On the back row, left to right, are David M. Walker, commander; Robert D. Cabana, Pilot; and Michael R. (Rick) Clifford, mission specialist. The crew launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on December 2, 1992 at 8:24:00 am (EST). This mission marked the final classified shuttle flight for the Department of Defense (DOD).

  5. Evaluation of Cabin Crew Technical Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa G.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Jordan, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Accident and incident reports have indicated that flight attendants have numerous opportunities to provide the flight-deck crew with operational information that may prevent or essen the severity of a potential problem. Additionally, as carrier fleets transition from three person to two person flight-deck crews, the reliance upon the cabin crew for the transfer of this information may increase further. Recent research (Chute & Wiener, 1996) indicates that light attendants do not feel confident in their ability to describe mechanical parts or malfunctions of the aircraft, and the lack of flight attendant technical training has been referenced in a number of recent reports (National Transportation Safety Board, 1992; Transportation Safety Board of Canada, 1995; Chute & Wiener, 1996). The present study explored both flight attendant technical knowledge and flight attendant and dot expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge. To assess the technical knowledge if cabin crewmembers, 177 current flight attendants from two U.S. carriers voluntarily :ompleted a 13-item technical quiz. To investigate expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge, 181 pilots and a second sample of 96 flight attendants, from the same two airlines, completed surveys designed to capture each group's expectations of operational knowledge required of flight attendants. Analyses revealed several discrepancies between the present level of flight attendants.

  6. Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

    2005-01-01

    NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (<3.0 kg) free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft in an effort to enhance safety and reduce risk in future human and exploration missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro

  7. Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

    2005-01-01

    NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (<3.0 kg) free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft in an effort to enhance safety and reduce risk in future human and exploration missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro

  8. Expedition 5 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEXAS -- EXPEDITION FIVE CREW INSIGNIA (ISS05-S-001) -- The International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Five patch depicts the Station in its completed configuration and represents the vision of mankind's first step as a permanent human presence in space. The United States and Russian flags are joined together in a Roman numeral V to represent both the nationalities of the crew and the fifth crew to live aboard the ISS. Crew members' names are shown in the border of this patch. This increment encompasses a new phase in growth for the Station, with three Shuttle crews delivering critical components and building blocks to the ISS. To signify the participation of each crew member, the Shuttle is docked to the Station beneath a constellation of 17 stars symbolizing all those visiting and living aboard Station during this increment. The NASA insignia design for Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced.

  9. A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

  10. Spacecraft For Transport Between The Earth And The Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes development of family of spacecraft for transport between Earth and Moon. Development program oriented toward evolutionary improvements of equipment with minimal redesign of hardware. Intention to develop lineage of spacecraft, designs evolved to adapt to changing requirements and fabricated on long-lived production lines. Conceptual future enhancements include different propulsion systems, transfer habitats, crew cabs, and aerobrakes for reentry to atmoshphere of Earth.

  11. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  12. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  13. Cabin crew stress factors examined.

    PubMed

    Barayan, O S

    1991-05-01

    The impact of reduced cockpit crew on the cabin crew in commercial airlines is examined. One hundred cabin crew members participated in a study to determine what stressors are present in contemporary transport aircraft, the extent of differences in rating context-related and task-related stressors, and the effect of peak versus normal periods of duty time on stress factors. Results indicate that under peak period conditions, context-related factors are more stressful than task-related factors. Recommendations to alleviate cabin crew stress factors include training to maximize crew knowledge and abilities, elevate cabin crew to the same status as cockpit crew, improve the cabin crew certification program, and expose cabin crew to cockpit crew procedures to foster better communication and enhance safety.

  14. JOSE, Jupiter orbiting spacecraft: A systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A brief summary of the mechanical properties of Jupiter is presented along with an organizational outline of the entire JOSE program. Other aspects of the program described include: spacecraft design, mission trajectories, altitude control, propulsion subsystem, on-board power supply, spacecraft structures and environmental design considerations, and telemetry.

  15. Embedded Thermal Control for Spacecraft Subsystems Miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.

  16. STS-61A OFFICIAL CREW PORTRAIT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-23

    S85-40783 (27 Sept. 1985) --- This international crew expected to fly aboard the space shuttle Challenger when it launches next month represents the largest number (eight) of persons to occupy an orbiting spacecraft at the same time. Posing with the mission insignia are (front row, left to right) Reinhard Furrer, German payload specialist; Bonnie J. Dunbar, mission specialist; James F. Buchli, mission specialist; and Henry W. Hartsfield Jr., commander; and (back row, left to right) Steven R. Nagel, pilot; Guion S. Bluford, mission specialist; Ernst Messerschmid, German payload specialist; and Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Unbagging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the cover has been removed from the container holding the Orion crew module structural test article (STA). The STA arrived aboard NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida. The test article was moved inside the facility's high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  18. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Unbagging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the protective covering was removed from the Orion crew module structural test article (STA). It remains secured on the bottom of its transport container. The STA arrived aboard NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida. The test article was moved inside the facility's high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  19. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    After arriving at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency's Super Guppy aircraft was opened and the container holding the Orion crew module structural test article (STA) was offloaded. A crane is used to lower the container for placement on a transporter. The test article will be moved to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  20. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft, carrying the Orion crew module structural test article, arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The unique aircraft has been opened and the container holding the STA is being offloaded. The test article will be transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  1. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    After arriving at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency's Super Guppy aircraft was opened and the container holding the Orion crew module structural test article (STA) was offloaded. A crane was used to lower the container onto a transporter. The test article will be moved to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  2. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    After arriving at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency's Super Guppy aircraft has been opened and the container holding the Orion crew module structural test article (STA) is being offloaded. The test article will be transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  3. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft, carrying the Orion crew module structural test article, arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The unique aircraft has been opened to reveal the container holding the STA. The test article will be transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  4. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Unbagging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians with Lockheed Martin look over the Orion crew module structural test article (STA) secured on the bottom of its transport container. The STA arrived aboard NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida. The test article was moved inside the facility's high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  5. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft, carrying the Orion crew module structural test article (STA), arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The unique aircraft is being opened to offload the STA. The test article will be transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  6. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    After arriving at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency's Super Guppy aircraft was opened and the container holding the Orion crew module structural test article (STA) was offloaded. A crane has lifted the container for placement on a transporter. The test article will be moved to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  7. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    After arriving at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency's Super Guppy aircraft has been opened and the container holding the Orion crew module structural test article (STA) is being offloaded. The test article will be transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018. Photo credit: NASA/Ben Smegelsky

  8. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft, carrying the Orion crew module structural test article (STA), arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The front of the unique aircraft is being opened to offload the STA. The test article will be transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  9. Orion Crew Module Structural Test Article Unbagging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians remove the protective covering from the Orion crew module structural test article (STA). The STA arrived aboard NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility operated by Space Florida. The test article was moved inside the facility's high bay for further testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  10. Apollo 13 crew recovery after splashdown

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    S70-35651 (17 April 1970) --- Astronaut John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot, is lifted aboard a helicopter in a "Billy Pugh" net while astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander, awaits his turn. Astronaut Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot, is already aboard the helicopter. In the life raft with Lovell, and in the water are several U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers, who assisted in the recovery operations. The crew was taken to the USS Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship, several minutes after the Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m. (CST), April 17, 1970.

  11. [Preliminary ergonomic assessment of the work sites and living conditions for the crew on board the new t/h Ignacy Daszyński series of merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Weclawik, Z

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the new merchant ship series B545-OT, built at the Szczecin shipyard. The preliminary appraisal of this vessel was made during the trial trip in November 1987. The experimented ship is a universal and very modern cargo boat, type B545-OT, which meets the requirements of the international conventions with respect to the prevention of sea pollution by ships. As regards its construction and equipment, the vessel complies with all conditions and international conventions on safety, as well as on health and environment protection. A control and actuation system centralized in the engine-room assures the functioning without a direct supervision. The automatic functioning of mechanisms is followed-up by means of a computed alarm system. The living-rooms, the recreation spaces, the cabins, which secure to the crew comfortable conditions on the ship, are built in a modern style. Less successfully was solved the placement of the kitchen, the dining-room and the larder on the upper deck, near the entrance to the engine-room, entailing thus the danger of steam penetration from the latter. The conditioned air assures in the cabins and living-rooms a temperature of +20 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40-60 per cent. The designers and builders have not used all the possibilities of lowering the intensity of noise.

  12. Coordination strategies of crew management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Sharon; Cano, Yvonne; Bryant, Don

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory study that describes and contrasts two three-person flight crews performing in a B-727 simulator is presented. This study specifically attempts to delineate crew communication patterns accounting for measured differences in performance across routine and nonroutine flight patterns. The communication patterns in the two crews evaluated indicated different modes of coordination, i.e., standardization in the less effective crew and planning/mutual adjustment in the more effective crew.

  13. EMI from Spacecraft Docking Systems Spacecraft Charging - Plasma Contact Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgard, John D.; Scully, Robert; Musselman, Randall

    2012-01-01

    The plasma contact potential of a visiting vehicle (VV), such as the Orion Service Module (SM), is determined while docking at the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Due to spacecraft charging effects on-orbit, the potential difference between the CEV and the VV can be large at docking, and an electrostatic discharge (ESD) could occur at capture, which could degrade, disrupt, damage, or destroy sensitive electronic equipment on the CEV and/or VV. Analytical and numerical models of the CEV are simulated to predict the worst-case potential difference between the CEV and the VV when the CEV is unbiased (solar panels unlit: eclipsed in the dark and inactive) or biased (solar panels sunlit: in the light and active).

  14. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  15. Engineering Management Board Tour VAB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-22

    The view members of NASA’s Engineering Management Board had in looking up the Vehicle Assembly Building’s High Bay 3 at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platforms in High Bay 3, including the one on which the board members are standing, were designed to surround and provide access to NASA’s Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft. The Engineering Management Board toured integral areas of Kennedy to help the agencywide group reach its goal of unifying engineering work across NASA.

  16. Crew of the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime crew for the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress procedures with full scale boilerplate model of their spacecraft. In the water at right is Astronaut Edward H. White (foreground) and Astronaut Roger B. Chaffee. In raft near the spacecraft is Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom. NASA swimmers are in the water to assist in the practice session that took place at Ellington AFB, near the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston.

  17. STS-97 Crew Interview: Marc Garneau, MS2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-97 Mission Specialist Marc Garneau is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, its payload, the rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS), and what it will be like to work knowing there is already a crew on board the ISS.

  18. Expedition 5 Crew Interviews: Peggy Whitson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 5 Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson is seen during a prelaunch interview. She gives details on the mission's goals and significance, her role in the mission, what her responsibilities will be, what the crew activities will be like (docking and undocking of two Progress unpiloted supply vehicles, normal space station maintenance tasks, conducting science experiments, installing the CETA (Crew and Equipment Translation) cart, and supporting the installation of the International Truss Structure S1 segment), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments she will be conducting on board, and what the S1 truss will mean to the International Space Station (ISS). Whitson ends with her thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the ISS.

  19. Dynamical microaccelerometric measurements on board space shuttle^1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehnal, L.; Peřestý, R.; Pospíšilová, L.; Kohlhase, A.

    2000-07-01

    The performances of the microaccelerometer MACEK have been checked on board of Space Shuttle STS-79 (September 1996). The results show many big as well as tiny accelerations caused by the internal Space Shuttle motions and even by the external forces of natural origin. The data were collected every 2 s for the time interval of 8 days and 8 h. The thermal dependence of the data is clearly detected and after its removal the measurements during the crew "sleeping" periods has been analysed in detail. Despite the very noisy spacecraft environment the drag effects can correspond to the theoretically predicted values. Further development of the accelerometric measurements is aimed to the realization of the project "MIMOSA" which is being prepared for launch at the beginning of 2000. This project consists of a small satellite boarding the accelerometer as the only instrument. The scientific tasks to be solved by the data comprise the atmospheric density distribution and variation, the terrestrial albedo distribution as well as the infrared radiation distribution. The version of the "MACEK" accelerometer now in preparation is sensitive to 10 -10 ms -2.

  20. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    As the protection of crew health is a primary focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) is vigilant in setting potable water limits for spaceflight that are health protective. Additional it is important that exposure limits not be set so stringently that water purification systems are unnecessarily over designed. With these considerations in mind, NASA has partnered with the National Research Council on Toxicology (NRCCOT) to develop spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for application in spaceflight systems. Based on documented guidance (NRC, 2000) NASA has established 28 SWEGs for chemical components that are particularly relevant to water systems on the International Space Station, the Shuttle and looking forward to Constellation.

  1. Crew-Aided Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.

    2015-01-01

    A sextant provides manual capability to perform star/planet-limb sightings and offers a cheap, simple, robust backup navigation source for exploration missions independent from the ground. Sextant sightings from spacecraft were first exercised in Gemini and flew as the lost-communication backup for all Apollo missions. This study characterized error sources of navigation-grade sextants for feasibility of taking star and planetary limb sightings from inside a spacecraft. A series of similar studies was performed in the early/mid-1960s in preparation for Apollo missions. This study modernized and updated those findings in addition to showing feasibility using Linear Covariance analysis techniques. The human eyeball is a remarkable piece of optical equipment and provides many advantages over camera-based systems, including dynamic range and detail resolution. This technique utilizes those advantages and provides important autonomy to the crew in the event of lost communication with the ground. It can also provide confidence and verification of low-TRL automated onboard systems. The technique is extremely flexible and is not dependent on any particular vehicle type. The investigation involved procuring navigation-grade sextants and characterizing their performance under a variety of conditions encountered in exploration missions. The JSC optical sensor lab and Orion mockup were the primary testing locations. For the accuracy assessment, a group of test subjects took sextant readings on calibrated targets while instrument/operator precision was measured. The study demonstrated repeatability of star/planet-limb sightings with bias and standard deviation around 10 arcseconds, then used high-fidelity simulations to verify those accuracy levels met the needs for targeting mid-course maneuvers in preparation for Earth reen.

  2. STS-102 Crew Patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-24

    STS102-S-001 (January 2001) --- The central image on the STS-102 crew patch depicts the International Space Station (ISS) in the build configuration that it will have at the time of the arrival and docking of Discovery during the STS-102 mission, the first crew exchange flight to the space station. The station is shown along the direction of the flight as will be seen by the shuttle crew during their final approach and docking, the so-called V-bar approach. The names of the shuttle crew members are depicted in gold around the top of the patch, and surnames of the Expedition crew members being exchanged are shown in the lower banner. The three ribbons swirling up to and around the station signify the rotation of these ISS crew members. The number two is for the Expedition Two crew who fly up to the station, and the number one is for the Expedition One crew who then return down to Earth. In conjunction with the face of the Lab module of the station, these Expedition numbers create the shuttle mission number 102. Shown mated below the ISS is the Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, that will fly for the first time on this flight, and which will be attached to the station by the shuttle crew during the docked phase of the mission. The flags of the countries that are the major contributors to this effort, the United States, Russia, and Italy are also shown in the lower part of the patch. The build-sequence number of this flight in the overall station assembly sequence, 5A.1, is captured by the constellations in the background. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  3. NASA astronauts and industry experts check out the crew accommod

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    HAWTHORNE, Calif. -- NASA astronauts and industry experts check out the crew accommodations in the Dragon spacecraft under development by Space Exploration Technologies SpaceX of Hawthorne, Calif., for the agency's Commercial Crew Program. On top, from left, are NASA Crew Survival Engineering Team Lead Dustin Gohmert, NASA astronauts Tony Antonelli and Lee Archambault, and SpaceX Mission Operations Engineer Laura Crabtree. On bottom, from left, are SpaceX Thermal Engineer Brenda Hernandez and NASA astronauts Rex Walheim and Tim Kopra. In 2011, NASA selected SpaceX during Commercial Crew Development Round 2 CCDev2) activities to mature the design and development of a crew transportation system with the overall goal of accelerating a United States-led capability to the International Space Station. The goal of CCP is to drive down the cost of space travel as well as open up space to more people than ever before by balancing industry’s own innovative capabilities with NASA's 50 years of human spaceflight experience. Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under CCDev2, including Alliant Techsystems Inc. ATK, The Boeing Co., Excalibur Almaz Inc., Blue Origin, Sierra Nevada, and United Launch Alliance ULA. For more information, visit www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew. Image credit: Space Exploration Technologies

  4. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  5. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  6. 41G crew activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    41G-101-039 (5-13 Oct 1984) --- Two members of a record seven-person crew are pictured during Intravehicular Activity (IVA) aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger. Hold picture with open hand at right center edge. Astronaut David C. Leestma, mission specialist, is at right observing a test by payload specialist Marc Garneau, representing the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. Garneau spent much of his on-duty time conducting a series of experiments for the NRC. The crew consisted of astronauts Robert L. Crippen, commander; Jon A. McBride, pilot; mission specialist's Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride, and David D. Leestma; Canadian astronaut Marc Garneau, and Paul D. Scully-Power, payload specialist's. EDITOR'S NOTE: The STS-41G mission had the first American female EVA (Sullivan); first seven-person crew; first orbital fuel transfer; and the first Canadian (Garneau).

  7. Solid state microdosimeter for radiation monitoring in spacecraft and avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.R.; McNulty, P.J.; Beauvais, W.J.; Reed, R.A. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Stassinopoulos, E.G. )

    1994-12-01

    An instrument is described which is designed to characterize the complex radiation environments inside spacecraft and airplanes in terms of the risk of SEEs in the present and planned microelectronic systems and in terms of the risk to flight crews and passengers.

  8. Docking Mechanism on the Unpiloted Russian Progress Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-19

    ISS030-E-238803 (19 April 2012) --- A close-up view of the docking mechanism of the unpiloted ISS Russian Progress 46 spacecraft is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member as Progress departs from the International Space Station.

  9. Astronaut Frank Borman looks over the Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot of the Gemini 7 prime crew, looks over the Gemini 7 spacecraft during weight and balance tests. The tests are conducted in the Pyrotechnic Installation Building, Merritt Island, Kennedy Space Center as part of preflight preparation.

  10. Fire Safety in the Low-Gravity Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Research in microgravity (low-gravity) combustion promises innovations and improvements in fire prevention and response for human-crew spacecraft. Findings indicate that material flammability and fire spread in microgravity are significantly affected by atmospheric flow rate, oxygen concentration, and diluent composition. This information can lead to modifications and correlations to standard material-assessment tests for prediction of fire resistance in space. Research on smoke-particle changes in microgravity promises future improvements and increased sensitivity of smoke detectors in spacecraft. Research on fire suppression by extinguishing agents and venting can yield new information on effective control of the rare, but serious fire events in spacecraft.

  11. Expeditio 28 Crew Portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-24

    ISS028-E-009726 (24 June 2011) --- Expedition 28 crew members pose for an in-flight crew portrait in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. Pictured on the front row are Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko (center), commander; along with NASA astronaut Ron Garan (left) and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, both flight engineers. Pictured from the left (back row) are Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, NASA astronaut Mike Fossum and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, all flight engineers. Fresh fruit floats freely in the foreground.

  12. STS-110 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the official STS-110 crew portrait. In front, from the left, are astronauts Stephen N. Frick, pilot; Ellen Ochoa, flight engineer; and Michael J. Bloomfield, mission commander; In the back, from left, are astronauts Steven L. Smith, Rex J. Walheim, Jerry L. Ross and Lee M.E. Morin, all mission specialists. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission crew prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The mission served as the 8th ISS assembly flight.

  13. STS-118 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-118 crew portrait. Pictured from the left are astronauts Richard A. 'Rick' Mastracchio, mission specialist; Barbara R. Morgan, mission specialist; Charles O. Hobaugh, pilot; Scott J. Kelly, commander; Tracy E. Caldwell, Canadian Space Agency's Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, and Alvin Drew Jr., all mission specialists. The crew members are attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits. The main objective of the STS-118 mission was to install the fifth Starboard (S5) truss segment on the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  15. Passive Thrust Oscillation Mitigation for the CEV Crew Pallet System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, Matthew; Powell, Cory; Pellicciotti, Joseph; Buehrle, Ralph; Johnson, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was intended to be the next-generation human spacecraft for the Constellation Program. The CEV Isolator Strut mechanism was designed to mitigate loads imparted to the CEV crew caused by the Thrust Oscillation (TO) phenomenon of the proposed Ares I Launch Vehicle (LV). The Isolator Strut was also designed to be compatible with Launch Abort (LA) contingencies and landing scenarios. Prototype struts were designed, built, and tested in component, sub-system, and system-level testing. The design of the strut, the results of the tests, and the conclusions and lessons learned from the program will be explored in this paper.

  16. STS-95 crew participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members get a briefing on equipment inside the SPACEHAB module from Chris Jaskolka of Boeing, second from left. Listening intently are crew members, from left, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, representing the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  17. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  18. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) into a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  19. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) is in a clean room with protective walls secured around it. The adapter will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  20. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) toward a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  1. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a Lockheed Martin technician secures a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  2. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) is being moved to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  3. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a protective cover is installed around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  4. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  5. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians are preparing the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for the move into a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  6. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  7. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians begin to move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  8. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  9. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  10. NASA astronaut Rex Walheim checks out the Dragon spacecraft und

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    HAWTHORNE, Calif. -- NASA astronaut Rex Walheim checks out the Dragon spacecraft under development by Space Exploration Technologies SpaceX of Hawthorne, Calif., for the agency's Commercial Crew Program. In 2011, NASA selected SpaceX during Commercial Crew Development Round 2 CCDev2) activities to mature the design and development of a crew transportation system with the overall goal of accelerating a United States-led capability to the International Space Station. The goal of CCP is to drive down the cost of space travel as well as open up space to more people than ever before by balancing industry’s own innovative capabilities with NASA's 50 years of human spaceflight experience. Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under CCDev2, including Alliant Techsystems Inc. ATK, The Boeing Co., Excalibur Almaz Inc., Blue Origin, Sierra Nevada, and United Launch Alliance ULA. For more information, visit www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew. Image credit: Space Exploration Technologies

  11. Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel; Perry, Jay L.

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is the central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality. The air-quality data obtained from the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA-Mir programs provides a wealth of information regarding the maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard long-lived space habitats. A comparison of the composition of the trace chemical contaminant load is presented. Correlations between ground-based and in-flight operations that influence cabin atmospheric quality are identified and discussed, and observations on cabin atmospheric quality during the NASA-Mir expeditions and the International Space Station are explored.

  12. Behind the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Peake of the European Space Agency (center) plants a tree at a site bearing his name Dec. 9 in a traditional pre-launch ceremony. Looking on are his crewmates, Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, left, and Tim Kopra of NASA (right). The trio will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Victor Zelentsov.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    Behind the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Peake of the European Space Agency (center) plants a tree at a site bearing his name Dec. 9 in a traditional pre-launch ceremony. Looking on are his crewmates, Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, left, and Tim Kopra of NASA (right). The trio will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  13. Behind the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Kopra of NASA (left) plants a tree at a site bearing his name Dec. 9 in a traditional pre-launch ceremony. Looking on are his crewmates, Tim Peake of the European Space Agency (center) and Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, right). The trio will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Victor Zelentsov.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    Behind the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Kopra of NASA (left) plants a tree at a site bearing his name Dec. 9 in a traditional pre-launch ceremony. Looking on are his crewmates, Tim Peake of the European Space Agency (center) and Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, right). The trio will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  14. 3850:..At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 44 prime crewmember Kjell Lindgren of NASA (right) plants a tree in his name in a traditional pre-launch ceremony July 15. Assisting are crewmates Kimiya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (left) and Oleg Kononenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center), Yui, Kononenko and Lindgren will launch July 23, Kazakh time on the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome for a five-month mission on the International Space Station...Credit: Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-15

    3850: At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 44 prime crewmember Kjell Lindgren of NASA (right) plants a tree in his name in a traditional pre-launch ceremony July 15. Assisting are crewmates Kimiya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (left) and Oleg Kononenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center), Yui, Kononenko and Lindgren will launch July 23, Kazakh time on the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome for a five-month mission on the International Space Station. Credit: Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center

  15. At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Peake of the European Space Agency took a turn in a spinning chair to test his vestibular system Dec. 9 as part of his pre-launch training. Peake, Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Tim Kopra of NASA will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station...NASA/Victor Zelentsov.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 46-47 crewmember Tim Peake of the European Space Agency took a turn in a spinning chair to test his vestibular system Dec. 9 as part of his pre-launch training. Peake, Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Tim Kopra of NASA will launch Dec. 15 on their Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft for a six-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  16. 3918:..At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 44 crewmembers Kjell Lindgren of NASA (left), Oleg Kononenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (center) and Kimiya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (right) rehearse rendezvous and docking techniques on a laptop computer as their trainers look on July 15. Yui, Kononenko and Lindgren will launch July 23, Kazakh time on the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome for a five-month mission on the International Space Station..

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-15

    3918: At the Cosmonaut Hotel crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 44 crewmembers Kjell Lindgren of NASA (left), Oleg Kononenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (center) and Kimiya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (right) rehearse rendezvous and docking techniques on a laptop computer as their trainers look on July 15. Yui, Kononenko and Lindgren will launch July 23, Kazakh time on the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome for a five-month mission on the International Space Station.

  17. John Glenn and rest of STS-95 crew exit Crew Transport Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Following touchdown at 12:04 p.m. EST at the Shuttle Landing Facility, the mission STS-95 crew leave the Crew Transport Vehicle. Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (center), a senator from Ohio, shakes hands with NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin. At left is Center Director Roy Bridges. Other crew members shown are Pilot Steven W. Lindsey (far left) and, behind Glenn, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski and Stephen K. Robinson, and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Ph.D., M.D., with the National Space Development Agency of Japan. Not seen are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The STS-95 crew completed a successful mission, landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST, after 9 days in space, traveling 3.6 million miles. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  18. John Glenn and rest of STS-95 crew exit Crew Transport Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Following touchdown at 12:04 p.m. EST at the Shuttle Landing Facility, the mission STS-95 crew leave the Crew Transport Vehicle. Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (center), a senator from Ohio, shakes hands with NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin. At left is Center Director Roy Bridges. Other crew members shown are Pilot Steven W. Lindsey (far left) and, behind Glenn, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski and Stephen K. Robinson, and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Ph.D., M.D., with the National Space Development Agency of Japan. Not seen are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The STS-95 crew completed a successful mission, landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST, after 9 days in space, traveling 3.6 million miles. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  19. Spacecraft propulsion: new methods.

    PubMed

    Alfvén, H

    1972-04-14

    Cosmic plasmas contain energy which may be tapped and used for spacecraft propulsion. The energy needed for launching a spacecraft could be supplied to it from the ground through a plasma channel in the atmosphere.

  20. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  1. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  2. CG4G8784 --- (6 May 2015) --- At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 44/45 backup Flight Engineer Timothy Peake of the European Space Agency answers questions from reporters in front of a Soyuz spacecraft simulator May 6 as part of his final qualification exams for flight. He along with Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Timothy Kopra of NASA (not pictured) are the backups to the prime crew --- Kjell Lindgren of NASA, Oleg Kononenko of Roscosmos and Kimya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency --- who are in the final stages of training for launch May 27, Kazakh time, in the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft to begin a five and a half month mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Seth Marcantel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-06

    CG4G8784 --- (6 May 2015) --- At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 44/45 backup Flight Engineer Timothy Peake of the European Space Agency answers questions from reporters in front of a Soyuz spacecraft simulator May 6 as part of his final qualification exams for flight. He along with Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Timothy Kopra of NASA (not pictured) are the backups to the prime crew --- Kjell Lindgren of NASA, Oleg Kononenko of Roscosmos and Kimya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency --- who are in the final stages of training for launch May 27, Kazakh time, in the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft to begin a five and a half month mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Seth Marcantel

  3. CG4G8796_1 --- (6 May 2015) --- At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 44/45 backup crewmembers Timothy Peake of the European Space Agency (left), Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Timothy Kopra of NASA (right) answer questions from reporters in front of a Soyuz spacecraft simulator May 6 as part of their final qualification exams for flight. They are the backups to the prime crew --- Kjell Lindgren of NASA, Oleg Kononenko of Roscosmos and Kimya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency --- who are in the final stages of training for launch May 27, Kazakh time, in the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft to begin a five and a half month mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Seth Marcantel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-06

    CG4G8796_1 --- (6 May 2015) --- At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 44/45 backup crewmembers Timothy Peake of the European Space Agency (left), Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Timothy Kopra of NASA (right) answer questions from reporters in front of a Soyuz spacecraft simulator May 6 as part of their final qualification exams for flight. They are the backups to the prime crew --- Kjell Lindgren of NASA, Oleg Kononenko of Roscosmos and Kimya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency --- who are in the final stages of training for launch May 27, Kazakh time, in the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft to begin a five and a half month mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Seth Marcantel

  4. CG4G8787 --- (6 May 2015) --- At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 44/45 backup crewmembers Timothy Peake of the European Space Agency (left), Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Timothy Kopra of NASA (right) answer questions from reporters in front of a Soyuz spacecraft simulator May 6 as part of their final qualification exams for flight. They are the backups to the prime crew --- Kjell Lindgren of NASA, Oleg Kononenko of Roscosmos and Kimya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency --- who are in the final stages of training for launch May 27, Kazakh time, in the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft to begin a five and a half month mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Seth Marcantel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-06

    CG4G8787 --- (6 May 2015) --- At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 44/45 backup crewmembers Timothy Peake of the European Space Agency (left), Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Timothy Kopra of NASA (right) answer questions from reporters in front of a Soyuz spacecraft simulator May 6 as part of their final qualification exams for flight. They are the backups to the prime crew --- Kjell Lindgren of NASA, Oleg Kononenko of Roscosmos and Kimya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency --- who are in the final stages of training for launch May 27, Kazakh time, in the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft to begin a five and a half month mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Seth Marcantel

  5. Portrait - Gemini 11 - Prime Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-58504 (4 Nov. 1965) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., (right) prime crew command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot, for the Gemini-Titan XI (GT-11) Earth-orbital mission. Photo credit: NASA

  6. STS-93 crew takes part in a Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 3, during the Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (left) and Mission Commander Eileen M. Collins (right) check equipment that will fly on mission STS-93. The STS-93 mission will deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) which comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the telescope, and the science instrument module (SIM). AXAF will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X- ray images of a variety of high-energy objects to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe. Collins is the first woman to serve as a shuttle mission commander. The other STS-93 crew members are Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley and Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France. Targeted date for the launch of STS-93 is March 18, 1999.

  7. Cristoforetti in Crew quarters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-06

    iss042e023422 (12/6/14) --- Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA) on 6 December 2014 is seen inside of a sleeping bag in her personal crew quarters on the International Space Station. Astronauts will strap the bag to the wall to prevent from free floating and potentially bumping into equipment while sleeping.

  8. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  9. STS-81 crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-15

    STS081-S-001 (June 1996) --- The STS-81 crew patch for the fifth Shuttle-Mir docking mission, is shaped to represent the Roman numeral V. The space shuttle Atlantis, OV-104, is launching toward a rendezvous with Russia?s Mir Space Station, silhouetted in the background. Atlantis and the STS-81 crew will spend several days docked to Mir during which time astronaut Jerry M. Linenger (NASA-Mir 4) will replace astronaut John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir 3) as the United States crew member onboard Mir. Scientific experiments and logistics will also be transferred between Atlantis and Mir. The United States and Russian flags are depicted along with the names of the shuttle crew members: Michael A. Baker, commander; Brent W. Jett, pilot; Peter J. K.(Jeff) Wisoff, mission specialist 1; John W. Grunsfeld, mission specialist 2; Marsha S. Ivins, mission specialist 3; Linenger; mission specialist 4; and Blaha, mission specialist 5. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Crew Selection and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This research addressed a number of issues relevant to the performance of teams in demanding environments. Initial work, conducted in the aviation analog environment, focused on developing new measures of performance related attitudes and behaviors. The attitude measures were used to assess acceptance of concepts related to effective teamwork and personal capabilities under stress. The behavioral measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of flight crews operating in commercial aviation. Assessment of team issues in aviation led further to the evaluation and development of training to enhance team performance. Much of the work addressed evaluation of the effectiveness of such training, which has become known as Crew Resource Management (CRM). A second line of investigation was into personality characteristics that predict performance in challenging environments such as aviation and space. A third line of investigation of team performance grew out of the study of flight crews in different organizations. This led to the development of a theoretical model of crew performance that included not only individual attributes such as personality and ability, but also organizational and national culture. A final line of investigation involved beginning to assess whether the methodologies and measures developed for the aviation analog could be applied to another domain -- the performance of medical teams working in the operating room.

  11. STS-71 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 crew patch design depicts the orbiter Atlantis in the process of the first international docking mission with the Russian Space Station Mir. The names of the 10 astronauts and cosmonauts who will fly aboard the orbiter are shown along the outer

  12. Crew Module Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation presents an overview of the Crew Module development for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The presentation describes the integration activity from the initial delivery of the primary structure through the installation of vehicle subsystems, then to flight test. A brief overview of flight test results is given.

  13. STS-119 crew visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-05

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (r to l) presents a commemorative photo of a space shuttle main engine test firing to STS-119 Mission Commander Lee Archambault, Pilot Tony Antonelli and Mission Specialists Steve Swanson and Richard Arnold during the crew's May 5 visit to the facility.

  14. Crew Training- Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-02-24

    S69-19858 (December 1968) --- Two members of the Apollo 9 prime crew participate in simulation training in the Apollo Lunar Module Mission Simulator (LMMS) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). On the left is astronaut James A. McDivitt, commander; and on the right is astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot.

  15. STS-61 Crew Insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-01

    STS061-S-001 (1 Oct. 1993) --- Designed by the crew members, the STS-61 crew insignia depicts the astronaut symbol superimposed against the sky with the Earth underneath. Also seen are two circles representing the optical configuration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Light is focused by reflections from a large primary mirror and a smaller secondary mirror. The light is analyzed by various instruments and, according to the crew members, "brings to us on Earth knowledge about planets, stars, galaxies and other celestial objects, allowing us to better understand the complex physical processes at work in the universe." The space shuttle Endeavour is also represented as the fundamental tool that allows the crew to perform the first servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope so its scientific deep space mission may be extended for several years to come. The overall design of the emblem, with lines converging to a high point, is also a symbolic representation of the large-scale Earth-based effort -- which involves space agencies, industry and the universities -- to reach goals of knowledge and perfection. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  17. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of the aerospace environment with spacecraft surfaces and onboard, high voltage spacecraft systems operating over a wide range of altitudes from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit is considered. Emphasis is placed on control of spacecraft electric potential. Electron and ion beams, plasma neutralizers material selection, and magnetic shielding are among the topics discussed.

  18. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  19. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  20. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  1. On-Board Training for US Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Benjamin; Meacham, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew follows a training rotation schedule that puts them in the United States about every three months for a three-month training window. While in the US, the crew receives training on both ISS systems and payloads. Crew time is limited, and system training takes priority over payload training. For most flights, there is sufficient time to train all systems and payloads. As more payloads are flown, training time becomes a more precious resource. Less training time requires payload developers (PDs) to develop alternatives to traditional ground training. To ensure their payloads have sufficient training to achieve their scientific goals, some PDs have developed on-board trainers (OBTs). These OBTs are used to train the crew when no or limited ground time is available. These lessons are also available on-orbit to refresh the crew about their ground training, if it was available. There are many types of OBT media, such as on-board computer based training (OCBT), video/photo lessons, or hardware simulators. The On-Board Training Working Group (OBTWG) and Courseware Development Working Group (CDWG) are responsible for developing the requirements for the different types of media.

  2. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  3. Docking structure for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A docking structure for a pair of spacecraft is described comprising a conical receptacle on the docking end of a first spacecraft that receives a mating conical projection on the docking end of the second spacecraft. The conical receptacle of the first spacecraft constitutes an exterior portion of a sealed gas-tight compartment. Pressurization of the sealed compartment causes the conical receptacle to extend toward the incoming conical projection of the second spacecraft. When the mating conical portions are latched together, the docking energy is absorbed by the compressed gas in the sealed compartment. Rebound forces are countered by a plurality of actuator cylinders supporting the conical receptacle.

  4. Building the future of WaferSat spacecraft for relativistic spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Rupert, Nic; Stanton, Eric; Mehta, Amal; Knowles, Patrick; Hughes, Gary B.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there has been a dramatic change in the way space missions are viewed. Large spacecraft with massive propellant-filled launch stages have dominated the space industry since the 1960's, but low-mass CubeSats and low-cost rockets have enabled a new approach to space exploration. In recent work, we have built upon the idea of extremely low mass (sub 1 kg), propellant-less spacecraft that are accelerated by photon propulsion from dedicated directed-energy facilities. Advanced photonics on a chip with hybridized electronics can be used to implement a laser-based communication system on board a sub 1U spacecraft that we call a WaferSat. WaferSat spacecraft are equipped with reflective sails suitable for propulsion by directed-energy beams. This low-mass spacecraft design does not require onboard propellant, creating significant new opportunities for deep space exploration at a very low cost. In this paper, we describe the design of a prototype WaferSat spacecraft, constructed on a printed circuit board. The prototype is envisioned as a step toward a design that could be launched on an early mission into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as a key milestone in the roadmap to interstellar flight. In addition to laser communication, the WaferSat prototype includes subsystems for power source, attitude control, digital image acquisition, and inter-system communications.

  5. Crew decision making under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  6. Magellan spacecraft and memory state tracking: Lessons learned, future thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, Allen W.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous studies have been dedicated to improving the two main elements of Spacecraft Mission Operations: Command and Telemetry. As a result, not much attention has been given to other tasks that can become tedious, repetitive, and error prone. One such task is Spacecraft and Memory State Tracking, the process by which the status of critical spacecraft components, parameters, and the contents of on-board memory are managed on the ground to maintain knowledge of spacecraft and memory states for future testing, anomaly investigation, and on-board memory reconstruction. The task of Spacecraft and Memory State Tracking has traditionally been a manual task allocated to Mission Operations Procedures. During nominal Mission Operations this job is tedious and error prone. Because the task is not complex and can be accomplished manually, the worth of a sophisticated software tool is often questioned. However, in the event of an anomaly which alters spacecraft components autonomously or a memory anomaly such as a corrupt memory or flight software error, an accurate ground image that can be reconstructed quickly is a priceless commodity. This study explores the process of Spacecraft and Memory State Tracking used by the Magellan Spacecraft Team highlighting its strengths as well as identifying lessons learned during the primary and extended missions, two memory anomalies, and other hardships encountered due to incomplete knowledge of spacecraft states. Ideas for future state tracking tools that require minimal user interaction and are integrated into the Ground Data System will also be discussed.

  7. STS-111 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The STS-111 Crew is in training for space flight. The crew consists of Commander Ken Cockrell, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Franklin Chang-Diaz and Philippe Perrin. The crew training begins with Post Insertion Operations with the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). Franklin Chang-Diaz, Philippe Perrin and Paul Lockhart are shown in training for airlock and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) activities. Bailout in Crew Compartment Training (CCT) with Expedition Five is also shown. The crew also gets experience with photography, television, and habitation equipment.

  8. STS-112 Crew Interviews - Wolf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf is seen during this preflight interview, where he first answers questions on his career path and role models. Other questions cover mission goals, ISS (International Space Station) Expedition 5 spacecrew, crew training, the S1 Truss and its radiators, the MBS (Mobile Base Structure), his experience onboard Mir, and his EVAs (extravehicular activities) on the coming mission. The EVAs are the subject of several questions. Wolf discusses his crew members, and elsewhere discusses Pilot Pamela Melroy's role as an IV crew member during EVAs. In addition, Wolf answers questions on transfer operations, the SHIMMER experiment, and his thoughts on multinational crews and crew bonding.

  9. STS-112 Crew Interviews - Wolf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf is seen during this preflight interview, where he first answers questions on his career path and role models. Other questions cover mission goals, ISS (International Space Station) Expedition 5 spacecrew, crew training, the S1 Truss and its radiators, the MBS (Mobile Base Structure), his experience onboard Mir, and his EVAs (extravehicular activities) on the coming mission. The EVAs are the subject of several questions. Wolf discusses his crew members, and elsewhere discusses Pilot Pamela Melroy's role as an IV crew member during EVAs. In addition, Wolf answers questions on transfer operations, the SHIMMER experiment, and his thoughts on multinational crews and crew bonding.

  10. Circuit Boards on Rover 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    April 15, 2003Prelaunch at Kennedy Space Center

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, technicians remove one of the circuit boards on the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2). To gain access to the spacecraft, its lander petals were reopened and its solar panels deployed. A concern arose during prelaunch testing regarding how the spacecraft interprets signals sent from its main computer to peripherals in the cruise stage, lander and small deep space transponder. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers set to launch in June 2003. The problem will be fixed on both rovers.

  11. APOLLO XII CREW - WELCOME - USS HORNET - REAR ADMIRAL DONALD DAVID

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-24

    S69-22876 (24 Nov. 1969) --- Rear Admiral Donald C. David, Commander, Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Pacific, welcomes the crew of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission aboard the USS Hornet, prime recovery vessel for the mission. A color guard was also on hand for the welcoming ceremonies. Inside the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) are (left to right) astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot; and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  12. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-27

    ISS013-E-69718 (27 August 2006) --- This vertical view of Hurricane Ernesto was taken by the crew of the International Space Station on Sunday, Aug. 27, 2006, from an altitude of about 215 miles. At that time, Ernesto was approaching Cuba and was expected to eventually make landfall on the coast of southern Florida. Part of a Russian spacecraft, docked to the orbital outpost, is visible in upper left corner.

  13. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 39 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-26

    ISS039-E-016292 (26 April 2014) --- A wish-bone shaped display of Aurora Australis over the Indian Ocean serves as a very colorful backdrop for the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft which is docked to the International Space Station, 226 miles above Earth. Earth's horizon divides the scene horizontally between the blackness of space and the dark portion of the planet. The photograph was taken by one of the Expedition 39 crew members aboard the orbital outpost.

  14. Apollo 9 backup crew participate in water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The backup crew of the Apollo 9 (Spacecraft 104/Lunar Module 3/Saturn 504) space mission stands on the deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever prior to participating in water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Left to right, are Astronauts Charels Conrad Jr. (holding hatch), RIchard F. Gordon Jr., and Alan L. Bean. They are standing by the Apollo command module trainer which was used in the exercise.

  15. APOLLO CREW (NAA) - ASTRONAUT EDWARD H. WHITE - TRAINING

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-24

    The members of the prime crew of the first manned Apollo space flight Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) inspect spacecraft equipment during a tour of North American Aviation's (NAA) Downey facility. In the foreground, left to right, are astronauts Roger B. Chaffee, Virgil I. Grissom, and Edward H. White, II. NAA engineers and technicians are in the background. NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC., DOWNEY, CA B&W

  16. Take Boards!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloh, Ian A.; McInvale, Howard D.; Gussenhoven, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The practice of students going to the boards to work problems has been a tradition in undergraduate education for over two hundred years. A study was conducted to determine what instructional techniques enabled students to better learn fundamental concepts in mathematics. This study identifies board work as a highly effective instructional…

  17. Projects Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Members of the Projects Board and associated committees of the American Society for Engineering Education are listed along with the by-laws of the board. Active projects described include a study of engineering technological education, faculty interchange with black engineering colleges, and the visiting engineer program. (TS)

  18. DMSP Spacecraft Charging in Auroral Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew; Minow, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft are a series of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites whose mission is to observe the space environment using the precipitating energetic particle spectrometer (SSJ/4-5). DMSP satellites fly in a geosynchronous orbit at approx.840 km altitude which passes through Earth s ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of partially ionized gas (plasma) formed by the photoionization of neutral atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere of Earth. For satellites in LEO, such as DMSP, the plasma density is usually high and the main contributors to the currents to the spacecraft are the precipitating auroral electrons and ions from the magnetosphere as well as the cold plasma that constitutes the ionosphere. It is important to understand how the ionosphere and auroral electrons can accumulate surface charges on satellites because spacecraft charging has been the cause of a number of significant anomalies for on-board instrumentation on high altitude spacecraft. These range from limiting the sensitivity of measurements to instrument malfunction depending on the magnitude of the potential difference over the spacecraft surface. Interactive Data Language (IDL) software was developed to process SSJ/4-5 electron and ion data and to create a spectrogram of the particles number and energy fluxes. The purpose of this study is to identify DMSP spacecraft charging events and to present a preliminary statistical analysis. Nomenclature

  19. STS-120 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These seven astronauts took a break from training to pose for the STS-120 crew portrait. Pictured from the left are astronauts Scott E. Parazynski, Douglas H. Wheelock, Stephanie D. Wilson, all mission specialists; George D. Zamka, pilot; Pamela A. Melroy, commander; Daniel M. Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer; and Paolo A. Nespoli, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew members were attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits. Tani joined Expedition 16 as flight engineer after launching to the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled to return home on mission STS-122. STS-120 launched October 23, 2007 with the main objectives of installing the U.S. Node 2, Harmony, and the relocation and deployment of the P6 truss to its permanent location.

  20. STS-67 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Observation and remote exploration of the Universe in the ultraviolet wavelengths of light are the focus of the STS-67/ASTRO-2 mission, as depicted in the crew patch designed by the crew members. The insignia shows the ASTRO-2 telescopes in the Space Shuttle Endeavour's payload bay, orbiting high above Earth's atmosphere. The three sets of rays, diverging from the telescope on the patch atop the Instrument Pointing System (IPS), correspond to the three ASTRO-2 telescopes - the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE). The telescopes are coaligned to simultaneously view the same astronomical object, as shown by the convergence of rays on the NASA symbol. This symbol also represents the excellence of the union of the NASA teams and the universality's in the exploration of the universe through astronomy. The celestial targets of ASTRO-2 include the observation of planets, stars and gala

  1. Skylab 4 - Television (Crew)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-28

    S73-38962 (28 Dec. 1973) --- The three members of the Skylab 4 crew confer via television communication with Dr. Lubos Kohoutek, discoverer of the Comet Kohoutek. This picture of the three astronauts was reproduced from a TV transmission made by a TV camera aboard the space station in Earth orbit. They are, left to right, Gerald P. Carr, commander; Edward G. Gibson, science pilot; and William R. Pogue, pilot. They are seated in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop. Professor Kohoutek, who is employed at the Hamburg Observatory in West Germany, was visiting the Johnson Space Center in Houston when he conferred with the Skylab 4 crewmen. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Expedition One crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-29

    ISS001-S-001 (October 2000) --- The first International Space Station (ISS) crew patch is a simplified graphic of the station complex when fully completed. The station is seen with solar arrays turned forward. The last names of the Expedition One crew, Soyuz pilot Yuri Gidzenko, flight engineer Sergei Krikalev, and expedition commander William (Bill) Shepherd, appear under the station symbol. The insignia design for ISS flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and cosmonauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator and NASA's international partners may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  3. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  4. Crew Skills and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

    1998-01-01

    One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

  5. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  6. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  7. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, left with flowers, Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, center with flowers, and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy are greeted at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin are returning from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. STS-112 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEXAS -- (STS112-S-002) These five astronauts and cosmonaut take a break from training to pose for the STS-112 crew portrait. Astronauts Pamela A. Melroy and Jeffrey S. Ashby, pilot and commander respectively, are in the cen ter of the photo. The mission specialists are from left to right, astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, David A. Wolf and Piers J. Sellers, and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, who represents Rosaviakosmos.

  9. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Women in ceremonial Kazakh dress prepare to welcome home Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Tarelkin, Ford, and Novitskiy, returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, left, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, center, and Commander Kevin Ford of NASA sit together at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin are returning from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. STS-126 crew visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-01-13

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands with astronauts Christopher Ferguson (right) and Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper in front of the A-2 Test Stand during the space shuttle crew members' visit to NASA's rocket engine testing facility Jan. 13. During their visit, Ferguson and Stefanyshyn-Piper reported on the STS-126 space shuttle delivery and servicing mission to the International Space Station. Ferguson served as commander of the mission. Stefanyshyn-Piper served as a mission specialist.

  12. STS-120 Crew Return

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-08

    JSC2007-E-098010 (8 Nov. 2007) --- "Look, I'm seeing double," European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli appears to be saying as he points toward a life size photo cutout (out of frame) of astronaut Clay Anderson, seated to his right, during the Discovery crew's Nov. 8 welcome home ceremony at Houston's Ellington Field. The two mission specialists were joined by their five STS-120 crewmates on the stage of Ellington's hangars.

  13. 41G crew activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    41G-102-003 (5-13 Oct 1984) ---- Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan, 41-G mission specialist, floats into a middeck scene to join a more stationary pair of crewmembers---Astronauts Robert L. Crippen, crew commander; and Jon A. McBride, pilot. The protruding article near the stowage lockers is a Krimsky rule, part of the near vision acuity experiment in which recent NASA space travelers have participated.

  14. STS-126 crew visit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands with astronauts Christopher Ferguson (right) and Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper in front of the A-2 Test Stand during the space shuttle crew members' visit to NASA's rocket engine testing facility Jan. 13. During their visit, Ferguson and Stefanyshyn-Piper reported on the STS-126 space shuttle delivery and servicing mission to the International Space Station. Ferguson served as commander of the mission. Stefanyshyn-Piper served as a mission specialist.

  15. STS-99 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-99 crew members designed the flight insignia for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In the patch, the clear portion of Earth illustrates the radar beams penetrating its cloudy atmosphere and the unique understanding of the home planet that is provided by space travel. The grid on Earth reflects the mapping character of the SRTM mission. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting Earth in a star spangled universe. The rainbow along Earth's horizon resembles an orbital sunrise. The crew deems the bright colors of the rainbow as symbolic of the bright future ahead because of human beings' venturing into space. The crew of six launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on February 11, 2000 and completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  16. Expedition 4 crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    ISS004-S-001 (August 2001) --- The International Space Station (ISS) Expedition 4 crew patch has an overall diamond shape, showing the “diamond in the rough” configuration of the Station during expedition 4. The red hexagonal shape with stylized American and Russian flags represents the cross-sectional view of the S0 truss segment, which the crew will attach to the U.S. Lab Destiny. The persistent Sun shining on the Earth and Station represents the constant challenges that the crew and ground support team will face every day while operating the International Space Station, while shedding new light through daily research. The green portion of the Earth represents the fourth color in the visible spectrum and the black void of space represents humankind’s constant quest to explore the unknown. The NASA insignia design for Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced.

  17. STS-71 crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-01

    STS071-S-001 (April 1995) --- The STS-71 crew patch design depicts the orbiter Atlantis in the process of the first international docking mission of the space shuttle Atlantis with the Russian Mir Space Station. The names of the 10 astronauts and cosmonauts who will fly aboard the orbiter as shown along the outer border of the patch. The rising sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era of cooperation between the two countries. The vehicles Atlantis and Mir are shown in separate circles converging at the center of the emblem symbolizing the merger of the space programs of the two space faring nations. The flags of the United States and Russia emphasize the equal partnership of the mission. The joint program symbol at the lower center of the patch acknowledges the extensive contributions made by the Mission Control Centers (MCC) of both countries. The crew insignia was designed by aviation and space artist, Bob McCall, who also designed the crew patch for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) in 1975, the first international space docking mission. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Two members of the STS-7 crew go over procedures in operating the RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Two members of the STS-7 crew go over procedures in operating the remote manipulator system (RMS) in the JSC manipulator development facility (MDF). Dr. Sally K. Ride is one of the flight's mission specialists. Frederick H. Hauck is pilot for the crew. The station pictured is located on the aft flight deck of the actual spacecraft and the windows allow direct view of the long cargo bay. The MDF is locate in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  19. Two members of the STS-7 crew go over procedures in operating the RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Two members of the STS-7 crew go over procedures in operating the remote manipulator system (RMS) in the JSC manipulator development facility (MDF). Dr. Sally K. Ride is one of the flight's mission specialists. Frederick H. Hauck is pilot for the crew. The station pictured is located on the aft flight deck of the actual spacecraft and the windows allow direct view of the long cargo bay. The MDF is locate in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  20. Orion Spacecraft MMOD Protection Design and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohl, W.; Miller, J.; Deighton, K.; Yasensky, J.; Foreman C.; Christiansen, Eric; Hyde, J.; Nahra, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will replace the Space Shuttle Orbiter for American and international partner access to the International Space Station by 2015 and, afterwards, for access to the moon for initial sorties and later for extended outpost visits as part of the Constellation Exploration Initiative. This work describes some of the efforts being undertaken to ensure that the Constellation Program, Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle design will meet or exceed the stringent micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) requirements set out by NASA when exposed to the environments encountered with these missions. This paper will provide a brief overview of the approaches being used to provide MMOD protection to the Orion vehicle and to assess the spacecraft for compliance to the Constellation Program s MMOD requirements.