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Sample records for body fat distribution

  1. Whole body fat: content and distribution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Fitzpatrick, J A; Malik, S J; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Bell, J D

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and its co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases, have become one of the biggest health issues of present times. The impact of obesity goes well beyond the individual and is so far-reaching that, if it continues unabated, it will cause havoc with the economies of most countries. In order to be able to fully understand the relationship between increased adiposity (obesity) and its co-morbidity, it has been necessary to develop proper methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution, including ectopic fat depots. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as the gold-standard for accomplishing this task. Here, we will review the use of different MRI techniques currently being used to determine body fat content and distribution. We also discuss the pros and cons of MRS to determine ectopic fat depots in liver, muscle, pancreas and heart and compare these to emerging MRI techniques currently being put forward to create ectopic fat maps. Finally, we will discuss how MRI/MRS techniques are helping in changing the perception of what is healthy and what is normal and desirable body-fat content and distribution.

  2. Body fat distribution in Parkinson's disease: An MRI-based body fat quantification study.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Denise; Müller, Hans-Peter; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc; Kassubek, Jan

    2016-12-01

    There is some evidence that Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients have lower body weight and lower fat mass when compared to healthy subjects and that lower body weight and fat mass influence disease risk and progression. It remains unclear, however, if weight loss of fat mass loss occurs only in a subgroup of patients and whether fat distribution is altered during PD. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate adipose tissue content and distribution in PD patients. The body fat composition of PD patients (N = 54) was compared with age matched healthy controls (N = 55) using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method. A longitudinal MRI scan was acquired in 25 PD patients after a mean follow up period of 12 months. The volume of total body fat as well as of visceral fat showed no difference between PD patients and healthy controls at baseline or at follow up. However, PD patients displayed decreased subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01) and a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio as compared to controls (p = 0.004). After follow up, 16 PD patients did not lose weight, while 9 PD patients lost between 0.5 and 10 kg. Fat distribution is altered in PD patients, with an increased ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Pulit, Sara L.; Karaderi, Tugce

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment. PMID:28073971

  4. Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Pulit, Sara L; Karaderi, Tugce; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2017-02-28

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment.

  5. Anorexia nervosa and body fat distribution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-09-23

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry-Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738).

  6. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  7. Body Fat, Body Fat Distribution, Lean Body Mass and Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter. A Danish Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Lars; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Pedersen, Asger; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is recognized that higher height and weight are associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) but it is unclear whether risk of AF is related to body fat, body fat location, or lean body mass. Design and Methods We studied the Danish population-based prospective cohort Diet, Cancer and Health conducted among 55 273 men and women 50-64 years of age at recruitment. We investigated the associations between bioelectrical impedance derived measures of body composition and combinations of anthropometric measures of body fat distribution and risk of an incident record of AF in the Danish Registry of Patients. Results During follow-up (median 13.5 years) AF developed in 1 669 men and 912 women. Higher body fat at any measured location was associated with higher risk of AF. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 1 sex-specific standard deviation (SD) increment in body fat mass was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.33). Higher lean body mass was also associated with a higher risk of AF. The adjusted HR for 1 sex-specific SD increment was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.35-1.45). Conclusion Higher body fat and higher lean body mass were both associated with higher risk of AF. PMID:24436019

  8. The relationship of body fatness and body fat distribution with microvascular recruitment: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Wijnstok, Nienke; Hoekstra, Trynke; Eringa, Etto; Smulders, Yvo; Twisk, Jos; Serne, Erik

    2012-04-01

    Microvascular function has been proposed to link body fatness to CVD and DM2. Current knowledge of these relationships is mainly based on studies in selected populations of extreme phenotypes. Whether these findings can be translated to the general population remains to be investigated. To assess the relationship of body fatness and body fat distribution with microvascular function in a healthy population-based cohort. Body fatness parameters were obtained by anthropometry and whole-body dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 2000 and 2006. Microvascular recruitment (i.e., absolute increase in perfused capillaries after arterial occlusion, using nailfold capillaroscopy) was measured in 2006. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of (changes in) body fatness and body fat distribution with microvascular recruitment. RESULTS Data were available for 259 participants (116 men). Capillary density was higher in women than in men (difference 7.3/ mm(2); p < 0.05). In the total population, the relationship between total body fatness and microvascular recruitment was positive (β = 0.43; p = 0.002), whereas a central pattern of fat distribution (trunk-over-total fatness) showed a negative relationship (β = -26.2; p = 0.032) with microvascular recruitment. However, no association remained apparent after adjustment for gender. In addition, there was no relationship between 6-year changes in body fatness or fat distribution and microvascular recruitment. Women show higher capillary recruitment values than men. This study does not support a linear relationship between microvascular function and body fatness or body fat distribution within a population-based normal range. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Body fat distribution, in particular visceral fat, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women.

    PubMed

    Elffers, Theodora W; de Mutsert, Renée; Lamb, Hildo J; de Roos, Albert; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Rosendaal, Frits R; Jukema, J Wouter; Trompet, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Body fat distribution is, next to overall obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic outcomes in the general population. In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Since it is unclear whether body fat distribution is also important in men and women with obesity we investigated the associations between measures of body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors in men and women with obesity. In this cross-sectional analysis of obese men and women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) included in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study, waist:hip ratio(WHR), waist circumference, and MRI-based abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (aSAT) and VAT were determined. Associations between measures of body fat distribution and presence of ≥1 risk factor, such as hypertension or hypertriglyceridemia, were examined using logistic regression analyses; stratified by sex and adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and depending on the association additionally for total body fat or VAT. We included 2,983 obese individuals (57% women) with a mean age of 56 and standard deviation (SD) of 6 and mean BMI of 34.0 kg/m2 (4.0), after exclusion of individuals with missing values of cardiometabolic risk factors (n = 33). 241 individuals were obese without other cardiometabolic risk factors. In obese women, all measures of body fat distribution except aSAT (OR per SD:0.76, 95%CI: 0.53, 1.10) were associated with having ≥1 cardiometabolic risk factor, of which VAT most strongly associated (5.77; 3.02, 11.01). In obese men, associations of body fat distribution and the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors were attenuated. (e.g. VAT:1.42; 0.84, 2.41). In obese women, but less so in men, measures of body fat distribution, of which VAT most strongly, are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.

  10. The effect of body fat percentage and body fat distribution on skin surface temperature with infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (TMi), maximum (TMa), and mean temperatures (TMe) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson's correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which TMe values were compared with Student's t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as TMa and TMe of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), TMe of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), TMa of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and TMi and TMe of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease TMe, especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R(2) =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Splanchnic insulin metabolism in obesity. Influence of body fat distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, A N; Mueller, R A; Smith, G A; Struve, M F; Kissebah, A H

    1986-01-01

    The effects of obesity and body fat distribution on splanchnic insulin metabolism and the relationship to peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed in 6 nonobese and 16 obese premenopausal women. When compared with the nonobese women, obese women had significantly greater prehepatic production and portal vein levels of insulin both basally and following glucose stimulation. This increase correlated with the degree of adiposity but not with waist-to-hip girth ratio (WHR). WHR, however, correlated inversely with the hepatic extraction fraction and directly with the posthepatic delivery of insulin. The latter correlated with the degree of peripheral insulinemia. The decline in hepatic insulin extraction with increasing WHR also correlated with the accompanying diminution in peripheral insulin sensitivity. Increasing adiposity is thus associated with insulin hypersecretion. The pronounced hyperinsulinemia of upper body fat localization, however, is due to an additional defect in hepatic insulin extraction. This defect is closely allied with the decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:3537010

  12. High- and low-throughput scoring of fat mass and body fat distribution in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wählby, Carolina; Lee-Conery, Annie; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Kamentsky, Lee; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Sokolnicki, Katherine L.; Veneskey, Matthew; Michaels, Kerry; Carpenter, Anne E.; O’Rourke, Eyleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Fat accumulation is a complex phenotype affected by factors such as neuroendocrine signaling, feeding, activity, and reproductive output. Accordingly, the most informative screens for genes and compounds affecting fat accumulation would be those carried out in whole living animals. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established and effective model organism, especially for biological processes that involve organ systems and multicellular interactions, such as metabolism. Every cell in the transparent body of C. elegans is visible under a light microscope. Consequently, an accessible and reliable method to visualize worm lipid-droplet fat depots would make C. elegans the only metazoan in which genes affecting not only fat mass but also body fat distribution could be assessed at a genome-wide scale. Here we present a radical improvement in oil red O worm staining together with high-throughput image-based phenotyping. The three-step sample preparation method is robust, formaldehyde-free, and inexpensive, and requires only 15 minutes of hands-on time to process a 96-well plate. Together with our free and user-friendly automated image analysis package, this method enables C. elegans sample preparation and phenotype scoring at a scale that is compatible with genome-wide screens. Thus we present a feasible approach to small-scale phenotyping and large-scale screening for genetic and/or chemical perturbations that lead to alterations in fat quantity and distribution in whole animals. PMID:24784529

  13. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness.

    PubMed

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-08-13

    fat distribution and metabolic traits were explained by a mediating effect of total fat mass. The association of the examined FTO SNP to general fatness throughout the range of fatness was confirmed, and this association explains the relation between the SNP and body fat distribution and decreased insulin sensitivity and HDL-cholesterol. The SNP was not significantly associated with other metabolic traits suggesting that they are not derived from the general accumulation of body fat.

  14. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    PubMed

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  15. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects central adiposity, and renal hemodynamics in 315 healthy persons with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.9 kg/m2 and a mean 125I-iothalamate GFR of 109 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In multivariate analyses, WHR was associated with lower GFR, lower effective renal plasma flow, and higher filtration fraction, even after adjustment for sex, age, mean arterial pressure, and BMI. Multivariate models produced similar results regardless of whether the hemodynamic measures were indexed to body surface area. Thus, these results suggest that central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is associated with an unfavorable pattern of renal hemodynamic measures that could underlie the increased renal risk reported in observational studies. PMID:23578944

  16. Body mass index and distribution of body fat can influence sensory detection and pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tashani, O A; Astita, R; Sharp, D; Johnson, M I

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body fat percentage and its distribution on sensory detection and pain sensitivity responses to experimentally induced noxious stimuli in otherwise pain-free individuals. Seventy-two participants were divided into three equal groups according to their body mass index (BMI: normal, overweight and obese). Percentage body fat was estimated using a four-site skinfold method. Measurements of cold pressor pain threshold, tolerance and intensity; contact thermal sensory detection and heat pain threshold and tolerance (TSA-II - NeuroSensory Analyzer, Medoc); and blunt pressure pain threshold (algometer, Somedic SenseLab AB) were taken at the waist and thenar eminence. Mean ± SD pressure pain threshold of the obese group (620.72 ± 423.81 kPa) was significantly lower than normal (1154.70 ± 847.18 kPa) and overweight (1285.14 ± 998.89 kPa) groups. Repeated measures ANOVA found significant effects for site for cold detection threshold (F1,68  = 8.3, p = 0.005) and warm detection threshold (F1,68  = 38.69, p = 0.001) with waist having lower sensory detection thresholds than thenar eminence. For heat pain threshold, there were significant effects for site (F1,68  = 4.868, p = 0.031) which was lower for waist compared with thenar eminence (mean difference = 0.89 °C). Obese individuals were more sensitive than non-obese individuals to pressure pain but not to thermal pain. Body sites may vary in their response to different types and intensities of stimuli. The inconsistency of findings within and between research studies should catalyse further research in this field. This study provided evidence that body mass index and distribution of body fat can influence sensory detection and pain sensitivity. Obese individuals were more sensitive than normal range body mass index individuals to pressure pain but not to thermal pain. Pain response varied according to subcutaneous body fat at different body

  17. Unacylated ghrelin is associated with changes in body composition and body fat distribution during long-term exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, Henna; Rajala, Ulla; Koivisto, Vesa-Matti; Jokelainen, Jari; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Laakso, Markku

    2011-08-01

    Ghrelin, a gut-brain peptide involved in energy homeostasis, circulates predominantly (>90%) in unacylated form. Previous studies, however, have focused on total and acylated ghrelin, and the role of unacylated ghrelin (UAG) is not well understood. Particularly, the association of UAG with weight loss and changes in body composition in adults remains unclear. We hypothesized that exercise-associated increase in UAG level is associated with weight loss, favorable changes in body composition, and body fat distribution. A prospective study of 552 young men (mean age 19.3 and range 19-28 years) undergoing military service with structured 6-month exercise training program. Exercise performance, body composition, and biochemical measurements were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Association between changes in UAG levels and body composition and body fat distribution were evaluated. An increase in UAG level during the exercise intervention was associated with reduced weight, fat mass (FM), fat percentage (fat %), and waist circumference, but not with fat-free mass. Inverse associations of changes in UAG level with changes in waist circumference and fat % were independent of weight at baseline, and changes in weight and exercise performance. Associations of changes in UAG level with waist circumference were significantly stronger than with fat % after the adjustment for confounding variables. UAG is associated with changes in body weight and body composition during an intensive long-term exercise intervention in young men. The association of UAG levels with changes in central obesity was stronger than with total FM.

  18. Impact of variation near MC4R on whole-body fat distribution, liver fat, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Axel; Thamer, Claus; Heni, Martin; Tschritter, Otto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald; Fritsche, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    Polymorphisms near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene locus are associated with body weight. Recent studies have shown that they influence insulin sensitivity and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that the candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17782313 near MC4R additionally influences body fat distribution and its change during lifestyle intervention. To test this, 343 German subjects were genotyped for SNP rs17782313. Body composition was assessed using magnetic resonance technique. Subjects were characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A subgroup of 242 subjects participated in a 9-month lifestyle intervention. In the overall cohort, the C allele was associated with a higher BMI (P=0.0013), but had no impact on glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity (all P>or=0.10). There was an effect of the SNP on total body fat (P=0.022) and nonvisceral fat (P=0.017), but not on liver fat and visceral fat (all P>or=0.33). In the subgroup undergoing lifestyle intervention, SNP rs17782313 had no impact on changes in body weight or fat distribution. Despite an association with BMI and nonvisceral adipose tissue, the SNP rs17782313 did not influence visceral adipose tissue. Thus, this candidate SNP for human obesity may preferentially affect the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, the variation near MC4R has no effect on success of weight loss during lifestyle intervention.

  19. Impact of body mass index on the predictive ability of body fat distribution for type 2 diabetes risk in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, C-H; Kim, H-K; Kim, E-H; Bae, S-J; Park, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    The optimal anthropometric measure of obesity or body fat distribution that best predicts the risk of Type 2 diabetes in Asians is unclear. Moreover, it has not been determined whether BMI modifies the effect of body fat distribution on diabetes risk in Asians. We analysed the anthropometric and laboratory data of 7658 non-diabetic Korean adults (5061 men and 2597 women, aged 20-79 years) who underwent routine medical check-ups at 5-year intervals. BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and bioelectrical impedance (to calculate fat mass and per cent body fat) were measured at baseline. Of the 7658 participants, 278 subjects (3.6%) developed diabetes over 5 years. Each of the anthropometric measures of general obesity (BMI, fat mass, per cent body fat) and central body fat distribution (waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio) was a good predictor of Type 2 diabetes. However, when the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were compared, BMI (0.697; 95% CI, 0.669-0.725), waist circumference (0.709, 0.682-0.736) and waist-to-height ratio (0.718, 0.692-0.743) were better predictors of diabetes risk than fat mass (0.672, 0.643-0.700) or per cent body fat (0.657, 0.628-0.686). In the low- (< 23 kg/m(2)) and mid- (23-27 kg/m(2)) BMI groups, the addition of waist-to-height ratio or waist circumference to BMI could improve the prediction of diabetes risk. BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were good predictors of Type 2 diabetes risk in Koreans. In non-obese or less obese subjects, measures of central body fat distribution can help improve the prediction of Type 2 diabetes risk when added to measures of general obesity. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  20. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  1. Nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescentes with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Cunha, Ana Lúcia Pereira da; Costa, Ana Carolina da; Costa, Roseli de Souza Santos da; Lacerda, Speranza Vieira

    2015-11-01

    assessing the nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Fifty-six (56) 8-18 year old patients were assessed for fat distribution by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, for nutritional status by height/age, and for body mass index to age and dietary intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Approximately 50% of the sample showed adequate nutritional status. Most of it showed inadequate caloric and lipid intake. BMI/age was the nutritional indicator that best showed the increased percentage of trunk fat, android/gynecoidratio and trunk fat/total fat ratio. Patients with Pancreatic Insufficiency and eutrophic individuals showed higher median android/gynecoidratio. Increased abdominal adiposity was evidenced by DXA. The BMI did not identify decreased lean body mass. However, when body mass was high, it was significant for abdominal adiposity. The anthropometric assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis should be associated with body composition and body fat distribution to obtain an earlier malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk factor diagnosis.

  2. Impact of obesity and body fat distribution on survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaujoux, Sébastien; Torres, Javiera; Olson, Sara; Winston, Corrine; Gonen, Mithat; Brennan, Murray F; Klimstra, David S; D'Angelica, Michael; DeMatteo, Ronald; Fong, Yuman; House, Michael; Jarnagin, William; Kurtz, Robert C; Allen, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk, but clinical relevance of obesity and/or body fat distribution on tumor characteristics and cancer-related outcome remain controversial. We sought to assess the influence of obesity and body fat distribution on pathologic characteristics and survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Demographic and biometric data were collected on 328 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In a subset of patients, pancreatic fatty infiltration and fibrosis were assessed pathologically, and visceral fat area (VFA) was evaluated. Influence of BMI and body fat distribution on tumor characteristics and survival were evaluated. A significant positive correlation between BMI and VFA was observed, with a wide range of VFA value within each BMI class. According to BMI or VFA distribution, there were no significant differences in patient characteristics, intraoperative or perioperative outcome, or pathologic characteristics, with the exception of significantly higher blood loss in patients with an increased body weight or VFA. Unadjusted overall and disease-free survival between BMI class and VFA quartile were not significantly different. In this study, obesity and body fat distribution were not correlated with specific tumor characteristics or cancer-related outcome.

  3. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  4. Dietary fat composition, total body fat and regional body fat distribution in two Caucasian populations of middle-aged and older adult women.

    PubMed

    Muka, Taulant; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richar L; Erler, Nicole S; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891). At baseline, diet (i.e. PUFAs and SFAs) was measured by validated food frequency questionnaires. TF was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in both studies and android abdominal fat (AF), gynoid fat (GF) and the android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in the RS but not the CAIFOS. Chronic disease was defined as the presence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. No association was found between dietary n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio or SFA/PUFAs ratio with TF in both cohorts. In the RS, a high n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio was associated with a higher AF (3rd vs. 2nd tertile (reference): β: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.24) but not with the A/G ratio. A low SFA/PUFA ratio was associated with a lower AF (1st vs. 2nd tertile (reference): β: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.06) but not with the A/G ratio. Presence of chronic disease was found to be a significant effect modifier in both cohorts with regard to n-3/n-6 PUFAs and TF (P < 0.05). In participants without chronic disease, a higher n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio was associated with a higher TF in the RS cohort (3rd vs. 2nd tertile (reference): β: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.12, 1.76), but this was not replicated in CAIFOS. These findings do not support the hypothesis that dietary fat composition is consistently associated with TF and body fat distribution in women. Future studies should clarify

  5. Body fat distribution and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent Iranian girls.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Naghmeh Zahra; Shahar, Suzana; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Parizadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi

    2012-06-01

    The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls. A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regional fat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total and regional body fat percent (P<0.001). After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat mass especially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure. Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Improvements in body fat distribution and circulating adiponectin by alternate-day fasting versus calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Allister, Candice A; Roohk, Donald J; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2010-03-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) and alternate-day fasting (ADF) beneficially affect several aspects of adipose tissue physiology, but direct comparisons between regimens have yet to be performed. The present study evaluated the effects of ADF versus CR on body fat distribution and circulating adiponectin levels and examined the kinetic mechanisms that underlie changes in fat distribution. Thirty female C57BL/6J mice were randomized to one of five groups for 4 weeks: (a) CR-25% (25% energy restriction daily), (b) ADF-75% (75% restriction on fast day), (c) ADF-85% (85% restriction on fast day), (d) ADF-100% (100% restriction on fast day) and (e) control (ad libitum fed). Body weights of the CR mice were lower than that of the ADF and control groups posttreatment. After 4 weeks of diet, the proportion of visceral fat decreased (P<.001) and the proportion of subcutaneous fat increased (P<.001) similarly in ADF and CR animals. Adiponectin increased (P<.05) by 62-86% in the ADF groups and by 69% in the CR group. Triglyceride (TG) synthesis and de novo lipogenesis were augmented (P<.05) in the subcutaneous fat pad of ADF and CR animals, relative to control. No differences in net lipolysis were observed, resulting in greater TG accumulation in the subcutaneous fat pad, with a shift in the ratio of TG between depots. These findings indicate that ADF (both modified and true) produces similar beneficial modulations in body fat distribution and adiponectin levels as daily CR. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AHSG gene variation is not associated with regional body fat distribution--a magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Müssig, K; Staiger, H; Machicao, F; Machann, J; Hennige, A M; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2009-09-01

    Obesity-resistance in AHSG-knockout mice indicate an important role of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG) in the development of obesity. We studied whether genetic variation within AHSG affects whole-body adiposity and regional fat distribution in humans. We genotyped 321 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2248690, rs4831, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs1071592. Body fat distribution and ectopic hepatic and intramyocellular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance techniques. AHSG levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. The five chosen SNPs covered 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency >/=0.05) within AHSG (r (2)>/=0.8). All SNPs were significantly associated with AHSG levels (p<0.0001), except for rs4831 (p=0.9) after adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). AHSG levels were associated with liver fat content (p=0.0160) and BMI (p=0.0247) after adjustment for gender and age. While rs2248690 was nominally associated with BMI in the dominant model (p=0.0432), none of the SNPs was associated with regional fat distribution. Common genetic variation within AHSG does not appear to influence regional body fat distribution, but may affect whole-body adiposity in humans.

  8. Intra-adipose sex steroid metabolism and body fat distribution in idiopathic human obesity.

    PubMed

    Wake, Deborah J; Strand, Magnus; Rask, Eva; Westerbacka, Jukka; Livingstone, Dawn E W; Soderberg, Stefan; Andrew, Ruth; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Olsson, Tommy; Walker, Brian R

    2007-03-01

    Causes of visceral fat accumulation include glucocorticoid excess or decreased oestrogen/androgen ratio either in plasma or within adipose tissue. In obese subjects, the intra-adipose cortisol-generating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) is increased, but information on sex steroid signalling is sparse. We aimed to test associations between body fat or fat distribution and mRNA transcript levels for androgen and oestrogen receptors and for enzymes metabolizing sex steroids in adipose tissue. A cross-sectional study. Forty-five healthy men and women with body mass index (BMI) 21-36 kg/m(2). In subcutaneous adipose biopsies we measured mRNAs for enzymes metabolizing local oestrogens (aromatase) and androgens [5alpha-reductase type 1; AKR1C2 (3alpha-HSD3); AKR1C3 (17beta-HSD5, 3alpha-HSD2)] and for sex steroid receptors [oestrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and androgen receptor (AR)]. We related these to body fat mass and distribution. Generalized obesity (BMI) was associated with increased aromatase mRNA (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). Central obesity (waist : hip ratio) was associated with mRNA for AKR1C2 (r = 0.28, P < 0.05) and AKR1C3 (r = 0.38, P < 0.01) but not aromatase (r = 0.06). 5alpha-Reductase type 1, ER and AR mRNA levels did not predict fat amount or its distribution. These data on transcript levels suggest that, in idiopathic obesity, increased intra-adipose oestrogen generation by aromatase predicts peripheral fat distribution, while androgen metabolism by AKR1C isoforms predicts central fat distribution, supporting the hypothesis that intra-adipose sex steroid metabolism is a determinant of gynoid vs. android patterns of body fat.

  9. Body mass index and body fat distribution in newly-arrived Vietnamese refugees in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, M; Brock, K; Nguyen, D; Tran-Dinh, H

    1996-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI), body fat distribution and some behavioural variables were examined in an ethnic Vietnamese population newly arrived in Australia. The age range was 23 to 74 years for males (n = 246, mean = 38.8) and 24 to 66 for females (n = 165, mean = 36.4). Mean BMI was 20.62 +/- 2.65 (male) and 21.25 +/- 3.16 (female). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.844 (males) v 0.802 (females), p < 0.0001: waist was 73.7 cm (males) v 71.7 cm (females), (p = 0.007). Male smoking was 69%, female, 1%; the BMI of male non-smokers was higher than that of smokers 21.22 v 20.35 (p = 0.0017). Exercise patterns, diet or alcohol intake did not appear to affect BMI. The mean BMI of this refugee Vietnamese population is low by comparison with the Australian population. Vietnamese females although of lower mean BMI, have higher WHR than Australian females.

  10. A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Beason, Tracey S; Hunleth, Jean M; Colditz, Graham A

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review investigating body fat distribution in older adults and its association with morbidity and mortality. Our search yielded 2702 citations. Following three levels of screening, 25 studies were selected to evaluate the association between body fat distribution and comorbidity, and 17 studies were used in the mortality analysis. Most of the selected studies in our analyses used anthropometric measures, e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio; relatively few studies used direct measures, such as body fat/lean mass, and percentage body fat. Studies reported inconsistent findings regarding the strongest predictor(s) of morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of studies suggested that BMI per se was not the most appropriate predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly because of its inability to discern or detect age-related body fat redistribution. In addition, studies using BMI found that the optimal BMI range for the lowest mortality in the elderly was overweight (25 kg/m(2)≤BMI<30 kg/m(2)) or mildly obese (30 kg/m(2)≤BMI<35 kg/m(2)). Our findings suggest that the current clinical guidelines, recommending that overweight and obesity are major risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality are not applicable to this population. Therefore, the central message of this review is to advise the government to establish new guidelines specifically for this population, using a combination of body fat distribution measurements, and to certify that these guidelines will not be applied to inappropriate populations.

  11. A Systematic Review of Body Fat Distribution and Mortality in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Beason, Tracey S.; Hunleth, Jean M.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review investigating body fat distribution in older adults and its association with morbidity and mortality. Our search yielded 2,702 citations. Following three levels of screening, 25 studies were selected to evaluate the association between body fat distribution and comorbidity, and 17 studies were used in the mortality analysis. Most of the selected studies in our analyses used anthropometric measures, e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio; relatively few studies used direct measures, such as body fat/lean mass, and percentage body fat. Studies reported inconsistent findings regarding the strongest predictor(s) of morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of studies suggested that BMI per se was not the most appropriate predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly because of its inability to discern or detect age-related body fat redistribution. In addition, studies using BMI found that the optimal BMI range for the lowest mortality in the elderly was overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2) or mildly obese (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 35 kg/m2). Our findings suggest that the current clinical guidelines, recommending that overweight and obesity are major risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality are not applicable to this population. Therefore, the central message of this review is to admonish the government to establish new guidelines specifically for this population, using a combination of body fat distribution measurements, and to certify that these guidelines will not be applied to inappropriate populations. PMID:22595204

  12. Body size, body composition and fat distribution: comparative analysis of European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine C; Freitas, Ismael; Plank, Lindsay D

    2009-08-01

    Although there is evidence that Asian Indians, Polynesians and Europeans differ in their body fat (BF)-BMI relationships, detailed comparative analysis of their underlying body composition and build characteristics is lacking. We investigated differences in the relationships between body fatness and BMI, fat distribution, muscularity, bone mineral mass, leg length and age-related changes in body composition between these ethnic groups. Cross-sectional analysis of 933 European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adult volunteers was performed for total and percentage of BF, abdominal fat, thigh fat, appendicular muscle mass, bone mineral content and leg length measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Asian Indian men and women (BMI of 24 and 26 kg/m2, respectively) had the same percentage of BF as Europeans with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or Pacific men and women with BMI of 34 and 35 kg/m2, respectively. Asian Indians had more fat, both total and in the abdominal region, with less lean mass, skeletal muscle and bone mineral than all other ethnic groups. Leg length was relatively longer in Pacific men and Asian and Pacific women than in other ethnic groups. In Asian Indians, abdominal fat increased with increasing age, while the percentage of BF showed little change. In the other ethnic groups, both abdominal and total BF increased with age. In conclusion, ethnic differences in fat distribution, muscularity, bone mass and leg length may contribute to ethnic-specific relationships between body fatness and BMI. The use of universal BMI cut-off points may not be appropriate for the comparison of obesity prevalence between ethnic groups.

  13. The Role of Body Fat and Fat Distribution in Hypertension Risk in Urban Black South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Nigel J.; Jaff, Nicole G.; Kengne, Andre P.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries are disproportionately affected by hypertension, with Black women being at greater risk, possibly due to differences in body fat distribution. The objectives of this study were: (1) To examine how different measures of body composition are associated with blood pressure (BP) and incident hypertension; (2) to determine the association between baseline or change in body composition, and hypertension; and (3) to determine which body composition measure best predicts hypertension in Black South African women. The sample comprised 478 non-hypertensive women, aged 29–53 years. Body fat and BP were assessed at baseline and 8.3 years later. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (n = 273) and anthropometry. Hypertension was diagnosed based on a systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mmHg, or medication use at follow-up. All body composition measures increased (p<0.0001) between baseline and follow-up. SBP and DBP increased by ≥20%, resulting in a 57.1% cumulative incidence of hypertension. Both DXA- and anthropometric-derived measures of body composition were significantly associated with BP, explaining 3–5% of the variance. Baseline BP was the most important predictor of hypertension (adjusted OR: 98–123%). Measures of central adiposity were associated with greater odds (50–65%) of hypertension than total adiposity (44–45%). Only change in anthropometric-derived central fat mass predicted hypertension (adjusted OR: 32–40%). This study highlights that body composition is not a major determinant of hypertension in the sample of black African women. DXA measures of body composition do not add to hypertension prediction beyond anthropometry, which is especially relevant for African populations globally, taking into account the severely resource limited setting found in these communities. PMID:27171011

  14. [Influence of body fat and its distribution on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Bunout, D; Rueda, E; Aicardi, V; Hidalgo, C; Kauffmann, R

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and body fat distribution with known cardiovascular risk factors. Seven hundred eighty two healthy individuals, 634 men and 148 female age 44 +/- 10 years were studied. Multiple stepwise regression models were performed in which cardiovascular risk factors (total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) were considered as the dependent variable and age, sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), subscapular/tricipital skinfold ratio (STR) and percentage of total body fat (%BF), derived from the sum of four skinfolds, as the independent variables. Among anthropometric variables, WC was the principal predictor of total cholesterol and basal blood glucose, WHR was the principal predictor of HDL cholesterol (inverse relationship) and triglycerides; BMI was the principal predictor of systolic and diastolic blood pressure; %BF was the principal predictor of post prandial blood glucose. Performing the same analysis in a subgroup of patients with a BMI between 21 and 24, measures of fat distribution continued to be predictors of cardiovascular risk factors. It is concluded that both total body fat and its distribution are related to cardiovascular risk factors and, in some cases, may have an additive effect and should be measured in preventive medical examinations.

  15. The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat, a metric of body fat distribution, is a unique correlate of cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Kaess, B M; Pedley, A; Massaro, J M; Murabito, J; Hoffmann, U; Fox, C S

    2012-10-01

    The anatomic location of excess body fat has an impact on associated cardiometabolic morbidity, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is more pathogenic than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). However, VAT or SAT alone provides little information regarding the relative distribution of body fat. We hypothesised that the propensity to store energy in VAT relative to SAT depots may be a correlate of cardiometabolic risk, and tested this hypothesis using the VAT/SAT ratio as a metric of fat distribution. We investigated associations of the VAT/SAT ratio with cardiometabolic traits in 3,223 participants (48% women) from the Framingham Heart Study. Fat depots were quantified by multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanning. In women and men, higher VAT/SAT ratio was associated (p < 0.05) with most assessed cardiovascular risk factors reflecting blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Additional adjustment for BMI did not materially change the findings in women, and generally strengthened associations in men. Further adjustment for VAT attenuated some associations in women, but those with lower HDL-cholesterol, higher triacylglycerol (both p < 0.0001) and higher prevalence of hypertension (p = 0.02), diabetes (p = 0.01) and the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.005) remained significant. Similarly, in men, associations with higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03), higher fasting glucose (p = 0.0005), lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triacylglycerol (both p < 0.0001) and higher prevalence of diabetes (p = 0.006) remained significant. VAT/SAT ratio is a correlate of cardiometabolic risk, above and beyond BMI and VAT. The propensity to store fat viscerally versus subcutaneously may be a unique risk factor independent of absolute fat volumes.

  16. The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat, a metric of body fat distribution, is a unique correlate of cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    Kaess, B. M.; Pedley, A.; Massaro, J. M.; Murabito, J.; Hoffmann, U.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The anatomic location of excess body fat has an impact on associated cardiometabolic morbidity, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is more pathogenic than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). However, VAT or SAT alone provides little information regarding the relative distribution of body fat. We hypothesised that the propensity to store energy in VAT relative to SAT depots may be a correlate of cardiometabolic risk, and tested this hypothesis using the VAT/SAT ratio as a metric of fat distribution. Methods We investigated associations of the VAT/SAT ratio with cardiometabolic traits in 3,223 participants (48% women) from the Framingham Heart Study. Fat depots were quantified by multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results In women and men, higher VAT/SAT ratio was associated (p<0.05) with most assessed cardiovascular risk factors reflecting blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Additional adjustment for BMI did not materially change the findings in women, and generally strengthened associations in men. Further adjustment for VAT attenuated some associations in women, but those with lower HDL-cholesterol, higher triacylglycerol (both p<0.0001) and higher prevalence of hypertension (p=0.02), diabetes (p=0.01) and the metabolic syndrome (p=0.005) remained significant. Similarly, in men, associations with higher systolic (p=0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.03), higher fasting glucose (p=0.0005), lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triacylglycerol (both p<0.0001) and higher prevalence of diabetes (p=0.006) remained significant. Conclusions/interpretation VAT/SAT ratio is a correlate of cardiometabolic risk, above and beyond BMI and VAT. The propensity to store fat viscerally versus subcutaneously may be a unique risk factor independent of absolute fat volumes. PMID:22898763

  17. Can alternating lower body negative and positive pressure during exercise alter regional body fat distribution or skin appearance?

    PubMed

    Löberbauer-Purer, Elisabeth; Meyer, Nanna L; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Haudum, Judith; Kässmann, Helmut; Müller, Erich

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity, with and without lower body pressure, leads to increased regional fat loss in the lower extremities of overweight females. Eighty-six obese women with a female phenotype were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (C), diet only (D), diet plus exercise (DE) or diet, exercise and lower body pressure intervention (DEP). The three treatment groups followed the same diet, the two exercise groups (DE and DEP) additionally followed an endurance training program of 30 min of cycling at 50%VO(2)max three times per week with or without lower body pressure. Body composition and fat distribution were assessed by DXA. Body size circumference measurements were recorded as well as subjective ratings of cellulite and skin appearance. As expected, all test groups (D, DE, DEP) showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total body mass and fat mass. DXA revealed significant differences between the experimental groups and C. The DEP group also lost significantly more body mass and fat mass when compared with D, while no significant difference was observed between the other groups. A similar pattern was seen for circumference measurement data. A significant perceived improvement was made by the DEP group when compared with C, D and DE groups for skin condition and also between the DEP versus C and D groups for cellulite. The combination of diet and exercise is successful for weight reduction. The additional application of lower body pressure especially affects skin appearance.

  18. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel obesity risk loci do not determine distribution of body fat depots: a whole-body MRI/MRS study.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Axel; Thamer, Claus; Heni, Martin; Machicao, Fausto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2010-06-01

    A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies has identified six new risk-loci for common obesity. We studied whether these risk loci influence the distribution of body fat depots. We genotyped 1,469 nondiabetic subjects for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TMEM18 rs6548238, KCTD15 rs11084753, GNPDA2 rs10938397, SH2B1 rs7498665, MTCH2 rs10838738, and NEGR1 rs2815752. We assessed BMI, waist circumference, total body fat, and lean body mass (bioimpedance). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for estimation of insulin sensitivity. In 332 subjects, we measured total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), nonvisceral adipose tissue (NVAT), liver fat content, and intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In the dominant inheritance model, the risk alleles of TMEM18 rs6548238 and MTCH2 rs10838738 were nominally associated with higher BMI (P = 0.04, both). The risk allele of TMEM18 rs6548238 was additionally associated with higher waist circumference and total body fat (P body fat distribution (all P > 0.009, dominant inheritance model). Therefore, our results suggest that these new obesity SNPs, despite their influence on BMI, are neither associated with a metabolically unfavorable nor with a favorable body composition.

  20. Subcutaneous adipose cell size and distribution: relationship to insulin resistance and body fat.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C; Coghlan, N; Liu, T C; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, S W

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight to moderately-obese individuals. A total of 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25-38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the modified insulin suppression test. Cell size distributions were obtained with Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Primary endpoints included % small adipose cells and diameter of large adipose cells. Cell-size and metabolic parameters were compared by regression for the whole group, according to insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) subgroups, and by body fat quintile. Both large and small adipose cells were present in nearly equal proportions. Percent small cells was associated with SSPG (r = 0.26, P = 0.003). Compared to BMI-matched IS individuals, IR counterparts demonstrated fewer, but larger large adipose cells, and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with % body fat (r = 0.26, P = 0.014), female sex (r = 0.21, P = 0.036), and SSPG (r = 0.20, P = 0.012). In the highest versus lowest % body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7%, whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose cells is required for expansion of body fat mass beyond BMI of 25 kg/m2 . Insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of small adipose cells and enlargement of large adipose cells. These data support the notion that impaired adipogenesis may underlie insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. Subcutaneous Adipose Cell Size and Distribution: Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C; Coghlan, N; Liu, TC; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, SW

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell-size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight/moderately-obese individuals. 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25–38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose concentrations (SSPG) during the modified insulin suppression test. Cell-size distributions were obtained with Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Primary endpoints included % small adipose cells and diameter of large adipose cells. Cell-size and metabolic parameters were compared by regression for the whole group; according to IR and IS subgroups; and by body fat quintile. Both large and small adipose cells were present in nearly equal proportions. Percent small cells was associated with SSPG (r=0.26, p=0.003). Compared to BMI-matched IS individuals, IR counterparts demonstrated fewer, but larger large adipose cells, and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with %body fat (r=0.26, p=0.014), female sex (r=0.21, p=0.036), and SSPG (r=0.20, p=0.012). In the highest vs lowest % body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7% whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose cells is required for expansion of body fat mass beyond BMI of 25 kg/m2. Insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of small adipose cells and enlargement of large adipose cells. These data support the notion that impaired adipogenesis may underlie insulin resistance. PMID:23666871

  2. The relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and body fat distribution measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Jun; Yang, Hyoung-Mo; Seo, Kyoung-Woo; Choi, So-Yeon; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Yoon, Myeong-Ho; Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Sheen, Seung-Soo; Choi, Byung-Il W; Lim, Hong-Seok

    2016-05-01

    Body fat distribution is closely related to cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between truncal fat distribution and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Total body fat and regional body fat distributions were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 746 Korean patients who underwent coronary angiography. The ratios of truncal fat mass to total body fat mass (FMtrunk/FMtotal), truncal fat mass to fat mass in both legs (FMtrunk/FMleg) and truncal fat mass to fat mass in both arms (FMtrunk/FMarm) were calculated as representative parameters for truncal fat accumulation. The extent of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using the Gensini score. The mean Gensini score of the patients was 21.3 ± 24.4. FMtrunk/FMtotal, FMtrunk/FMleg and FMtrunk/FMarm revealed positive correlations with the Gensini score (r = 0.242, p < 0.001; r = 0.219, p < 0.001; r = 0.133, p < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass did not correlate with the Gensini score. On multiple regression analysis, FMtrunk/FMtotal was associated with the Gensini score independently of age, gender, BMI and major risk factors of coronary heart disease (B = 0.039, p < 0.001). Truncal fat distribution is associated with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and more clinically relevant to that compared with total body fat or BMI in Korean patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relation Between Cigarette Smoking, Body Fat Distribution and Density of Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Cholesterol in Women Linda R. Beson, Major AFIT Student Attending: University of Florida AFIT/CI/CIA-92-085 DTIC Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6583 ELECTE 1...CIGARETTE SMOKING, BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL IN WOMEN By W: , LINDA R. BESON " Di t A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE...12 Cholesterol and Serum Lipoproteins ......... .. 14 Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol . . . 18 High Density Lipoprotein (HDL

  4. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  5. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  6. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    PubMed

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  7. Body fat distribution and C-reactive protein--a principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Lopes, C; Severo, M; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Barros, H

    2011-05-01

    To assess, using principal component analysis, the independent associations of general, central and peripheral subcutaneous fat with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), in men and women from the general population. We studied 833 women and 486 men, randomly selected from the non-institutionalized population of Porto, Portugal, with information on hs-CRP (≤10 mg/l) and anthropometrics (1999-2003). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a skinfold composite index to estimate the proportion of arm subcutaneous fat (PSFA), were ascertained by trained personnel. Beta regression coefficients were obtained from generalized linear models with adjustment for the main confounders. Direct associations were found between BMI, WC, WHR and hs-CRP. PSFA was inversely associated with hs-CRP in women (β=-0.080, p-trend=0.010). Since the anthropometric measures were strongly correlated, we used principal component analysis to identify new independent anthropometric factors. The first one, representing a generalized fat distribution (high BMI and WC), was directly associated with hs-CRP (β=0.226, p-trend<0.001 in women; β=0.138, p-trend=0.002 in men). The second factor, characterized by a high PSFA, showed an inverse association with hs-CRP in women (β=-0.071, p-trend=0.048). The third factor, representing a central pattern of fat distribution (low BMI, but high WC and high WHR), was directly associated with hs-CRP in men (β=0.090, p-trend=0.005). A central pattern of fat distribution is directly associated with hs-CRP levels in men, while a high proportion of peripheral subcutaneous fat seems to be inversely associated with hs-CRP, but only in women. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Body fat distribution: its characteristics and relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in obese Chinese].

    PubMed

    Ran, Xing-wu; Li, Xiao-song; Tong, Nan-wei; Li, Qi-fu; Tang, Bao-de; Li, Xiu-jun

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the distribution of body fat and analyze its characteristics and relationship with metabolic variables in obese Chinese. In this observational, cross sectional study, the total body fat mass was measured using body mass index (BMI), and as an index of intra-abdominal fat accumulation, the ratio of the visceral (VA) to abdominal subcutaneous (SA) adipose area (VSR) was determined using a computed tomography (CT) scans made at the level of L4/L5 in 309 obese human subjects (male 88; female 221). Blood pressure (BP), fasting serum lipids such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and serum uric acid (UA) were also determined. (1) There were no differences between the male and the female subjects in regard to age, BMI, SBP, LDL-c and HDL-c. SA was significantly greater in women, whereas VA and VSR were significantly greater in men; DBP, UA, TC and TG were significantly higher in men than in women. (2) In both men and women, VSR was significantly higher in obese Chinese than in obese European and Americans. Age, TG and LDL-c were higher in subjects with visceral fat obesity (VFO) than in those with subcutaneous fat obesity (SFO). In males, TC,UA were significantly higher in VFO than in SFO. (3) 57 paired cases of male and female subjects matched for VSR were studied, and significant higher levels of serum UA and TG were noted in the male than in the female subjects. (4) After being adjusted for age and BMI, the analyses of partial correlation showed that in both men and women, VSR was positively correlated with TG and LDL-c, and SA was negatively correlated with LDL-c. In men, VA was positively correlated with SBP, and SA was negatively correlated with TG. In women, VA was positively correlated with TG, LDL-c; SA was negatively with LDL-c, but it was positively correlated with HDL-c and UA. (5) Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that SA, VA, VSR were independent predictor

  9. Body fat distribution and other cardiac risk factors among circumpolar Inuit and nGanasan.

    PubMed

    Rode, A; Shephard, R J

    1995-07-01

    Secular trends in skinfold thicknesses and body fat distribution were examined in the adult Inuit of Igloolik, N.W.T. through surveys conducted in 1969/70, 1979/80 and 1989/93. Findings were compared with the nGanasan population of Volochanka (Taimir peninsula, Siberia), who were examined in 1992/3. The skinfold readings of the Inuit have increased over the two decades of observation. Currently, the young male Inuit and nGanasan remain relatively thin, but older Inuit men and the women of both populations are now quite obese relative to subjects from Southern Canada. The male Inuit have also developed a centripetal, coronary-prone pattern of fat distribution, with subscapular/triceps skinfold ratios that now exceed averages for southern Canada. The majority of both Inuit and nGanasan are current smokers and many fail to meet minimal standards of aerobic performance. Plasma cholesterol levels are still not very high, but a substantial proportion of the nGanasan are affected by hypertension; their source of animal protein is reindeer meat rather than the marine mammals eaten in Igloolik. Alcohol consumption is also higher in Volochanka than in Igloolik. Action is needed to control smoking, reduce body fat content and increase physical activity if circumpolar populations are not to experience an epidemic of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Genetic variants determining body fat distribution and sex hormone-binding globulin among Chinese female young adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Juan; Li, Lijuan; Hong, Jie; Qi, Lu; Cui, Bin; Gu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yifei; Miao, Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2014-11-01

    Measures of body fat distribution (i.e. waist : hip ratio [WHR]) are major risk factors for diabetes, independent of overall adiposity. The genetic variants related to body fat distribution show sexual dimorphism and particularly affect females. Substantial literature supports a role for sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the genetic risk score of body fat distribution with SHBG levels and insulin resistance in young (14-30 years) Chinese females. In all, 675 young Chinese females were evaluated in the present study. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated on the basis of 12 established variants associated with body fat distribution. The main outcome variable was serum SHBG levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The GRS of body fat distribution was significantly associated with decreasing serum SHBG levels (P = 0.018), independent of body mass index and WHR. In addition, the GRS and SHBG showed additive effects on HOMA-IR (P = 0.004). The GRS of body fat distribution reflects serum SHBG levels, and the GRS and SHBG jointly influence the risk of insulin resistance. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. [Migration from a rural zone to an urban one is associated with android distribution of body fat in obese women].

    PubMed

    González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P

    2001-01-01

    Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.

  12. Relationship between vitamin D and body fat distribution evaluated by DXA in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Paola; Verrusio, Walter; Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Summa, Maria Luna; Gueli, Nicolò; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Albanese, Carlina V

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) serum concentrations and body fat distribution in a sample of postmenopausal women. We enrolled sixty-two postmenopausal women; 25(OH)D serum concentrations, serum intact parathyroid hormone, blood analyses, and anthropometric measurements were carried out. Body fat composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculation. Low levels of vitamin D (<30 ng/mL) were found in 77.4% of the population studied. There was a correlation (P < 0.0001) between 25(OH)D and waist circumference (r = -0.543), android fat to gynoid fat (A/G) ratio (r = -0.554), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.498), and HOMA-IR (r = -0.520). A/G fat ratio (B = -34.90; 95% confidence interval [-55.30, -14.1]; P = 0.019), HOMA-IR (B = -3.17; 95% confidence interval [-5.99, -0.351]; P = 0.028), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (B = 0.361; 95% confidence interval [0.033, 0.698]; P = 0.032), were found to be independent predictors of lower 25(OH)D by multilogistic regression analysis. Except for waist circumference, both these results were maintained when correlations were adjusted for age, onset of menopause, serum intact parathyroid hormone, and medications, and when body mass index was added as covariate. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common conditions. A/G ratio appeared to be associated with 25(OH)D concentrations and it is well-known that the android disposition of body fat is more closely associated with the onset of metabolic syndrome. Longitudinal studies are needed to better characterize the direction and the causal links of this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  14. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo In; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Shin, Jang Yel; Chung, Choon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult populations. Methods A total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010). Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001). Conclusion The relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:28029016

  15. Current and adolescent body fatness and fat distribution: relationships with carotid intima-media thickness and large artery stiffness at the age of 36 years.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabel; Twisk, Jos W R; van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G; Seidell, Jacob C; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2004-01-01

    Body fat and its distribution are determinants of cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanisms of these adverse effects are poorly understood. We therefore investigated (1) the cross-sectional relationship between estimates of body fatness and its distribution on the one hand and carotid atherosclerosis and stiffness of the carotid, femoral and brachial arteries and the carotido-femoral segment on the other (336 subjects, 175 women); (2) the relationship between estimates of body fatness and its distribution during adolescence (13-16 years) and the same arterial properties at age 36- prospective analyses (subpopulation of 159 subjects, 84 girls). Cross-sectional and prospective analyses within an ongoing observational longitudinal study: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Body fatness and its distribution were assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); arterial properties were assessed non-invasively by ultrasound imaging. Total adiposity and, in men, truncal subcutaneous fat accumulation during adolescence, were positively and independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness at age 36, a pre-clinical indicator of atherosclerosis. Adolescent truncal subcutaneous fat accumulation but not total adiposity was associated with increased arterial stiffness at age 36. At age 36, both abdominal and truncal subcutaneous fat were independently associated with arterial stiffness, while the associations between total adiposity and arterial stiffness appeared to be mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors. Body fatness and body fat distribution are associated with large artery structural and functional properties at age 36 and the roots of these associations may already be present in adolescence.

  16. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA), in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female), aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p<0.001) and female (r=0.87, p <001), while the lowest were in the waist/thigh also for both: male group (r=0.58, p<0.001) and female group (r=0.03, p=0.86). The other indices also showed significant positive correlation with DEXA. Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS. PMID:23031203

  17. Cross-trait familial resemblance for resting blood pressure and body composition and fat distribution: The HERITAGE family study.

    PubMed

    An, Ping; Rice, Treva; Gagnon, Jacques; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-trait familial resemblance between resting blood pressure (BP) and body composition and fat distribution was examined in 98 Caucasian families participating in the HERITAGE Family Study by using a multivariate familial correlation model assessing both intraindividual and interindividual cross-trait correlations. The 520 family members were sedentary at baseline examination, and both resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP were cross-analyzed with each of the following 10 indications of body composition and fat distribution: percent body fat (%BF), abdominal visceral fat (AVF), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), sum of eight skinfolds (SF), total abdominal fat (TAF), ratio of trunk-to-extremity skinfolds (TER), waist circumference (WAIST), ratio of waist-to-hip circumferences (WHR). Five of the variables were also corrected for fat mass (AVFf, TAFf, TERf, WAISTf, WHRf) to index these measures independent of total degree of adiposity. In general, the results suggested strictly intraindividual cross-trait resemblance, with occasional spouse cross-trait resemblance, but few or no sibling or parent-offspring cross-trait correlations. This pattern is largely consistent with nongenetic specific environmental determinants for the BP-body composition and fat distribution covariation, with possibly some common environmental influence between spouses and negligible genetic effects. The only findings suggesting any familial cross-trait resemblance were significant sibling correlations for DBP-FFM and DBP-WHR, although the parent-offspring correlation was not significant. These findings suggest that the observed BP-body composition and fat distribution cross-trait correlations in these sedentary families are probably not due to multifactorial effects such as polygenic and/or common familial environmental effects. Whether or not other factors such as nonadditive effects are involved warrants further investigation using other methods. Am. J

  18. Carotid artery remodelling in relation to body fat distribution, inflammation and sustained weight loss in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kardassis, D; Schönander, M; Sjöström, L; Karason, K

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with carotid artery remodelling, but less is known about how body fat distribution, inflammation and weight loss may affect this relation. Ultrasonography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography were performed to evaluate carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), body composition and fat distribution, respectively. Participants were divided into three matched study groups (n = 44 per group): obese patients with sustained weight loss 10 years after bariatric surgery [surgery group, body mass index (BMI) 31.5 kg m(-2)]; obese patients who maintained stable weight during the same time period (obese group, BMI 42.5 kg m(-2)); and normal weight subjects (lean group, BMI 24.4 kg m(-2)). Patients in the surgery group, compared with those in the obese group, had slightly lower common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (0.75 ± 0.18 vs. 0.78 ± 0.17 mm) and common carotid bulb (CCB) IMT (0.92 ± 0.32 vs. 0.97 ± 0.32 mm); however, these differences were not statistically significant. Lean individuals, compared with those in the surgery group, had significantly lower CCA and CCB IMT values (P < 0.001). In forward stepwise multiple regression analyses including all subjects (n = 132), CCA IMT was predicted mainly by visceral adipose tissue, but was also related to blood pressure and levels of triglycerides and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Carotid lumen diameter was primarily influenced by lean body mass. Visceral adiposity was the main determinant of premature carotid artery atherosclerosis, possibly through elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and inflammation. Lean body mass predicted carotid artery lumen diameter. Obese patients with long-term sustained weight loss did not have thinner carotid artery walls compared with their weight-stable obese counterparts. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Strom, Sara S.; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Sun, Yan V.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W. Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Britton, Angela F.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V.; Becker, Diane M.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Evans, Michele K.; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M.; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce

  20. Body mass index and body fat distribution as renal risk factors: a focus on the role of renal haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J; Toering, Tsjitske J; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-11-01

    Weight excess and/or central body fat distribution are associated with increased long-term renal risk, not only in subjects with renal disease or renal transplant recipients, but also in the general population. As the prevalence of weight excess is rising worldwide, this may become a main renal risk factor on a population basis, even more so because the risk extends to the overweight range. Understanding the mechanisms of this detrimental effect of weight excess on the kidneys is needed in order to design preventive treatment strategies. The increased risk associated with weight excess is partly attributed to associated comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes; however, current evidence supports a direct pathogenetic role for renal haemodynamics as well. Weight excess is associated with an altered renal haemodynamic profile, i.e. an increased glomerular filtration rate relative to effective renal plasma flow, resulting in an increased filtration fraction (FF). This renal haemodynamic profile is considered to reflect glomerular hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension, resulting from a dysbalance between afferent and efferent arterial vasomotor balance. This unfavorable renal haemodynamic profile was found to be associated with renal outcome in experimental models and in human renal transplant recipients, and is associated with a blunted sodium excretion, and reversible by weight loss, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade or by dietary sodium restriction. More recent evidence showed that a central body fat distribution is also associated with an increased FF, even independent of overall weight excess. In this review, we provide an overview on current literature on the impact of weight excess and central body fat distribution on the renal haemodynamic profile in humans, and its possible role in progressive renal damage.

  1. Anthropometric and physiologic assessment in sleep apnoea patients regarding body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, J; Charuta, A; Kowalcze, K; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, I

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by repeated episodes of pauses in breathing during sleep due to obstruction of the upper airway that result in transient hypoxaemia, sleep fragmentation and long-term cardiovascular disease. The most common risk factors for OSA include: obesity, age over 50 and neck circumference of more than 41 cm for females and more than 43 cm in males. Sleep apnoea is more common in men than in women. The aim of the conducted research was to evaluate relations between the anthropometric features connected with adipose tissue distribution and the severity of OSA. The study was carried out on 180 patients (144 males and 36 females) diagnosed with OSA syndrome. The standard sleep parameters obtained from night polysomnography as well as skin-fat fold thickness and neck circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 10. It was stated that anthropometric parameters connected with the accu-mulation of adipose tissue in upper body were significantly related to severity of OSA in males (p ≤ 0.05). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly correlated with severity of OSA in females (p ≤ 0.05). In males, there is a connection between the severity of OSA, BMI and a higher accumulation of adipose tissue in upper part of the body measured by neck circumference and shoulder thickness of skin-fat folds, whereas in females only by BMI.

  2. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Minchin, James E. N.; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J.; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  3. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-07

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans.

  4. Body fat distribution predicts cardiac risk factors in older female coronary patients.

    PubMed

    Ross, S J; Poehlman, E T; Johnson, R K; Ades, P A

    1997-01-01

    After myocardial infarction, women have higher rates of recurrent coronary events than men. This is caused, at least in part, by a higher prevalence of obesity-related coronary risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We studied the relationship between measures of body fat distribution, body composition, aerobic fitness, and dietary intake and several coronary risk factors including lipids, glucose, and insulin levels. The study population included 20 women > 60 years of age with recently diagnosed coronary heart disease and a comparison group of 50 healthy women with low-risk coronary risk profiles. Dependent variables included lipid subfractions (fasting, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol), glucose levels, and serum insulin levels. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was the best predictor of serum triglyceride levels (r = .65, P = .002), HDL cholesterol level (r = .46, P = .05), and fasting serum insulin levels (r = .76, P < .001) whereas peak oxygen consumption (Peak VO2) was the best predictor of LDL cholesterol (r = .73, P < .001). In a combined population of the 20 coronary patients and 50 healthy age-matched controls, WHR remained the best predictor of serum triglyceride levels (r = .57, P < .001) and insulin levels (r = .63, P < .001) and Peak V02 was the best predictor of HDL (r = .40, P < .001) and LDL cholesterol (r = .57, P = .004). Body fat distribution and peak aerobic fitness, both modifiable factors, are significant predictors of risk factors for second coronary events in older female coronary patients.

  5. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female.

  6. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  7. The role of body mass index, insulin, and adiponectin in the relation between fat distribution and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Zillikens, M Carola; Uitterlinden, André G; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Berends, Anne L; Henneman, Peter; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Pols, Huibert A P; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    Despite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, insulin, and adiponectin in these relations. Using a cross-sectional investigation of 2631 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, we studied associations between BMD (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA]) at the hip, lumbar spine, total body (BMD and BMC), and fat distribution by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), and DXA-based trunk-to-leg fat ratio and android-to-gynoid fat ratio. Analyses were stratified by gender and median age (48.0 years in women and 49.2 years in men) and were performed with and without adjustment for BMI, fasting insulin, and adiponectin. Using linear regression (adjusting for age, height, smoking, and use of alcohol), most relationships between fat distribution and BMD and BMC were positive, except for WTR. After BMI adjustment, most correlations were negative except for trunk-to-leg fat ratio in both genders. No consistent influence of age or menopausal status was found. Insulin and adiponectin levels did not explain either positive or negative associations. In conclusion, positive associations between android fat distribution and BMD/BMC are explained by higher BMI but not by higher insulin and/or lower adiponectin levels. Inverse associations after adjustment for BMI suggest that android fat deposition as measured by the WHR, WTR, and DXA-based android-to-gynoid fat ratio is not beneficial and possibly even deleterious for bone.

  8. The alpha 2-adrenergic receptor gene and body fat content and distribution: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed Central

    Garenc, Christophe; Pérusse, Louis; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Gagnon, Jacques; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Rao, D. C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among adrenergic receptor subtypes that regulate lipid mobilization, the alpha2-adrenergic receptor is involved in the inhibition of fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue. A C-1291G polymorphism is located in the alpha2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2A) but no association with body fat accumulation has been reported yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FAT), percentage body fat (%FAT), trunk-to-extremity skinfold ratio (TER), sum of eight skinfolds (SF8), and abdominal subcutaneous (ASF), visceral (AVF), and total (ATF) fat areas assessed by CT scan have been measured in adult sedentary white (n = 503) and black (n = 276) subjects participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. Association between the C-1291G polymorphism and each phenotype was tested separately in men and women of each race using ANCOVA with the effects of age as covariate in addition to the effects of BMI for TER and of FAT for AVF, ASF, and ATF. RESULTS: The allele frequencies of the ADRA2A C-1291G polymorphism differed between races. No association was observed in white subjects, except for a moderate effect of the polymorphism accounting for less than 1% of the variance in AVF and ATF in women. In black subjects, however, the G-1291 allele was found to be associated with an increase of TER in men (3.8% of variance accounted for by the polymorphism), while in black women it was associated with a decrease in TER (2.9%) and in AVF (2.5%). CONCLUSION: These results suggest a role for the ADRA2A gene in determining the propensity to store fat in the abdominal area, independently of total body fatness. PMID:12080184

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in relation to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-06-01

    To relate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and HPA feedback functioning to body fat distribution in normal weight to obese subjects. 91 men and 103 women [age 18-45 years, BMI 19-35 kg/m(2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) 0.6-1.1]. Anthropometry, body composition using hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution method, cortisol variability by measuring 5-h cortisol concentrations, HPA axis feedback functioning using a dexamethasone suppression test, and HPA axis functioning under a challenged condition consisting of a standardized high-intensity test with ingestion of 4 mg dexamethasone. In men, an inverse relationship was observed between 5-h cortisol exposure (nmol/ml) and fat mass index (FMI) (kg/m(2)) (r = -0.55, P < 0.001). In women, relationships were observed between 5-h cortisol exposure (nmol/ml.min) and WHR (r = -0.49, P < 0.001), maximal workload (r = 0.32, P < 0.001) as well as oral contraceptive use (r = 0.38, P < 0.001). Similarly, in men, an inverse relationship was observed between negative feedback expressed as baseline concentrations minus post dexamethasone cortisol concentrations (nmol/ml) and FMI (r = -0.53, P < 0.001). In women, relationships were observed between negative feedback expressed as baseline concentrations minus post dexamethasone cortisol concentrations (nmol/ml) and WHR (r = -0.43, P < 0.001), maximal workload (r = 0.30, P < 0.001) as well as oral contraceptive use (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) in women. Moreover, an inverse relationship was observed between HPA axis functioning in a challenged condition expressed as percentage increase of cortisol concentrations after standardized high-intensity test with ingestion of 4 mg dexamethasone (%) and waist circumference (r = -0.21, P < 0.10) in men and WHR (r = -0.21, P < 0.05) in women. In men, strong positive relationships were observed between FMI and waist circumference (r = 0.85, P < 0.001), as well as waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). Disturbance of HPA axis

  10. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  11. Body fat distribution and its association with hypertension in a sample of Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Arellano, Luz Elena; Benito-Damián, Fabián; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris Paola; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2011-10-01

    The association between elevated blood pressure and childhood overweight and obesity has been documented in several studies. However, the linkage of blood pressure with body fat distribution in children is not well established. We investigated the relationship between both central and subcutaneous adiposity with BP in the 95th percentile or higher in Mexican children. Our study, using a sample of children from the State of Guerrero, Mexico was comprised of 252 children, 124 girls and 128 boys, with an age range of 6 to 13 years. Resting blood pressure was measured in duplicate with an aneroid sphygmomanometer. Hypertension was classified as systolic or diastolic BP in the 95th percentile or higher. Additional measures included weight, height, body mass index, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. The prevalence of obesity (26.5%) was higher than overweight (15.8%), but the prevalence of hypertension was moderate (4.7%). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated strongly with age, weight, height, and all measurements of central and subcutaneous adiposity. Interestingly, after being adjusted by age, sex, and body mass index, the BP in the 95th percentile or higher was associated with suprailiac skinfold, third tertile (OR = 11.83, P = 0.023); triceps skinfold, third tertile (OR = 6.02; P = 0.034); and biceps skinfold, third tertile (OR = 4.71; P = 0.038). Our data indicate that the prevalence of hypertension in children is moderate. In addition, the skinfold thickness was a better predictor of hypertension than central adiposity in the sample of children studied.

  12. Body fat distribution is more predictive of all-cause mortality than overall adiposity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Woo; Son, Jee Young; Kim, Jeong Min; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Han, Jin Suk; Heo, Nam Ju

    2017-07-03

    The relationship between directly measured body fat and all-cause mortality has been rarely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive significance of computed tomography (CT)-measured body fat, including both visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA), for mortality. The study included 36 656 participants who underwent abdominal CT as part of a health check-up at a single university-affiliated healthcare center in 2007 to 2015. Of those, 32 593 participants with data regarding vital status as of May 2016 were included in the final analysis. The main factors evaluated were VFA, SFA and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat area ratio (VSR), and the primary outcome was all-cause mortality. There were 253 deaths during a mean follow-up of 5.7 years. Increased SFA was associated with decreased all-cause mortality, whereas an increased VFA and VSR were related to increased all-cause mortality. Compared with the predictive power of body mass index (BMI), SFA and VSR showed a larger area under the curve than did BMI. In Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis, increased SFA and VSR were associated with decreased and increased hazard of all-cause death, respectively. However, in multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, only VSR was independently associated with all-cause mortality. Moreover, this relationship was paralleled by the harmful impact of increased VSR on metabolic profiles. Increased VSR was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. This suggests that the location of fat deposits may be more important than the actual amount of body fat. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth and body fat distribution at school-age. The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns, and body fat and insulin levels at school-age. Methods In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, we assessed maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onwards. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Results Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Conclusions Our results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. PMID:27015969

  14. Association of the FTO and ADRB2 genes with body composition and fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Rauhio, Anne; Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Nikkari, Seppo T; Kannus, Pekka; Sievänen, Harri; Kunnas, Tarja

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the polymorphisms of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO, rs9939609:T>A) and the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2, rs1042714:Gln>Glu) are associated with weight loss in dieting obese premenopausal women and the association of these SNPs with body weight, body composition and distribution of fat mass. 75 obese (BMI>30) premenopausal women participated in the intervention including a 3-month weight reduction period and a subsequent 9-month weight maintenance period. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. Body composition and fat mass distribution were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, the AA homozygotes of the FTO gene were 10.1 kg heavier (p=0.031), they had higher BMI (p=0.038), and greater waist and greater hip circumference (p=0.08 and p=0.067, respectively) compared to the TT homozygotes. Gln/Gln carriers of the ADRB2 gene had smaller gynoid fat-% compared with both the Gln/Glu and Glu/Glu carriers (p=0.050 and p=0.009, respectively). The Gln homozygotes had also smaller total body fat-% and higher total body lean mass-% than that of the Glu homozygotes (p=0.018 and p=0.019, respectively). FTO genotype was associated with body weight in general, whereas ADRB2 genotype was associated with fat distribution. However, all women in the study group lost weight similarly independently of their genotypes. Neither the FTO nor ADRB2 genotype had statistically significant effect on weight reduction or weight maintenance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern on Body Fat Distribution: Results of the PREDIMED-Canarias Intervention Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Díaz-Benítez, Elena María; Ruano-Rodríguez, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Míguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2016-08-01

    To assess the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MeDiet) on anthropometric and body composition parameters in one of the centers of the PREDIMED randomized dietary trial. 351 Canarian free-living subjects aged 55 to 80 years, with type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 3 different dietary interventions: MeDiet + extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MeDiet + nuts (walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts), or a control low-fat diet. Total energy intake was ad libitum. Measures included changes in anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]), body fat distribution, energy, and nutrient intake after 1 year. Body composition (percentage of total body fat [%TBF], total fat mass [TFM], free fat mass [FFM], percentage of truncal fat [%TrF], truncal fat mass [TrFM]) and total body water (TBW) were estimated by octapolar electrical impedance analysis. Paired t tests were conducted to assess within-group changes. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to assess the effect of the dietary intervention on the percentage change in anthropometric variables, body composition, and dietary intake profile. All pairwise comparisons that were statistically significant in ANOVA were subsequently adjusted using the Benjamini-Hochberg test, which penalizes for multiple comparisons. After 1 year of intervention, significant within-group reductions in all anthropometric variables were observed for the MeDiet + EVOO and the control group. The MeDiet + nuts group exhibited a significant reduction in WC and TBW. The control group showed a significant increase in %TBF and a reduction in TBW. The control group showed a significant increase in the percentage of total body fat and a reduction in TBW. However, we did not find any between-group significant difference in anthropometric or body composition changes. Mediterranean diets enriched with EVOO or specific mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts

  16. Circulating Persistent Organic Pollutants and Body Fat Distribution, Evidence from NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Methods This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. Results Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs with ≥6 chlorines were more inversely correlated with trunk FM% than leg FM%. Age-stratified analysis showed stronger inverse correlations between POPs and trunk FM% mainly in participants <40 years, whereas stronger positive correlations between POPs and trunk FM% were observed in older participants. Conclusions Stronger associations between POPs and trunk fat as compared to leg fat, possibly indicated a more important role of trunk fat in the pharmacokinetics of POPs, or a stronger effect of POPs, as endocrine disruptors, on trunk fat metabolism. PMID:26237202

  17. Topographical Body Fat Distribution Links to Amino Acid and Lipid Metabolism in Healthy Non-Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J.; Montoliu, Ivan; Collino, Sebastiano; Scherer, Max; Guy, Philippe; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Thorimbert, Anita; Moco, Sofia; Rothney, Megan P.; Ergun, David L.; Beaumont, Maurice; Ginty, Fiona; Qanadli, Salah D.; Favre, Lucie; Giusti, Vittorio; Rezzi, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25–45 y, BMI: 28–40 kg/m2) under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics. PMID:24039943

  18. The effects of body fat distribution on pulmonary function tests in the overweight and obese.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Emel; Cömlekçi, Abdurrahman; Akkoçlu, Atila; Ceylan, Cengiz; Itil, Oya; Ergör, Gül; Yeşil, Sena

    2009-01-01

    To determine the predominant pulmonary function abnormality in overweight and moderately obese subjects and to evaluate the correlation between the severity of lung function impairment and the degree of obesity. Fifty-three volunteers underwent physical examination, skin fold measurements, and standardized pulmonary function tests. Thirty-one women and 22 men with a mean age of 40.2 (18-66) years were studied. The reduction in functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were the most common abnormalities in overweight and obese subjects. The reduction in static lung volume was correlated with the degree of obesity in women and men. Stepwise multiple regression coefficients were obtained separately for women and men. Subscapular skinfold was the best predictor in women for FRC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI were found the best for ERV. WHR was found predictive for forced vital capacity, total lung capacity, and FRC in men. The lung volumes are substantially affected in our overweight and obese subjects. This influence is focused on different parameters of respiratory functions in men and women in relation to body fat distribution.

  19. The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Tull, Eugene S; Fraser, Henry S; Mutunhu, Nyasha R; Sobers, Natasha; Niles, Elisa

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of internalized racism (INR) and hostility to body fat distribution and insulin resistance in black adolescent children age 14-16 years on the Caribbean island of Barbados. Questionnaire data on psychosocial variables and anthropometric measurements, together with a fasting blood sample, were obtained from 53 low-birthweight and 119 normal-birthweight adolescents. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Spearman correlation analyses showed that both INR (r = 0.244) and hostility (r = 0.204) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with waist circumference in girls but not boys. Among girls, age- and birthweight-adjusted mean levels of BMI and waist circumference were greater for those with high levels of INR and hostility compared to those with low levels of both variables. In multiple logistic regression analyses, a high INR remained independently associated [odds ratio = 3.30 (95% CI = 1.30-8.36); p = 0.012] with having an elevated HOMA value in models that included age, income, birthweight, hostility, physical activity and family history of diabetes. The results of the current study show that the positive relationship between INR and metabolic health risk seen in African-Caribbean adults also exists in African Caribbean adolescent youth independent of birthweight.

  20. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  2. Body fat distribution and organ weights of 14 common strains and a 22-strain consomic panel of rats

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R.; Duke, Fujiko F.; Ellis, Hillary K.; Rosazza, Matthew R.; Lawler, Maureen P.; Alarcon, Laura K.; Tordoff, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the adiposity of a range of rat strains including a panel of consomics to estimate the heritability of fatness as measured by necropsy. To that end, we assessed the body fat distribution and organ weights of groups of adult male rats from 3 outbred strains, 11 inbred strains and 22 consomic strains. We measured the weights of the gonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, femoral, subscapular and pericardial white fat depots, the subscapular brown fat depot, the kidneys, liver, heart, spleen, adrenals and brain. Strains were compared by the measured weight of each of these adipose depots and organs, and also for these weights adjusted statistically for body size. All individual adipose depot and organ weights were highly heritable, in most cases h2>0.50. The fourteen inbred and outbred rat strains were not very different in body length but there was a threefold difference in body weight, and up to a twenty-fold difference in the weight of some adipose depots. Comparison of the FHH-Chr nBN consomic strains with the FHH host strain revealed 98 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body composition and organ weight, with the introgressed chromosome reducing weight or adiposity in most cases. These results can be used to guide the choice of appropriate rat strains for future studies of the genetic architecture of obesity and body size. PMID:21504752

  3. Body size, body composition, and fat distribution: a comparison of young New Zealand men of European, Pacific Island, and Asian Indian ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Plank, Lindsay; Chandu, Vishnu; Laulu, Manaia; Simmons, David; Swinburn, Boyd; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2004-12-17

    To investigate body size and body fat relationships and fat distribution in young healthy men drawn from New Zealand European, Pacific Island, and Asian Indian populations. A total of 114 healthy men (64 European, 31 Pacific Island, 19 Asian Indian) aged 17-30 years underwent measurements of height, weight, and body composition by total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body mass index (BMI) was then calculated. Percent body fat (%BF), fat-free mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, abdominal fat, thigh fat, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) were obtained from the DXA scans. For the same BMI, %BF for Pacific Island men was 4% points lower and for Asian Indian men was 7-8% points higher compared to Europeans. Compared to European men for the same %BF, BMI was 2-3 units higher for Pacific Island, and 3-6 units lower for Asian Indian. The ratio of abdominal fat to thigh fat, adjusted for height, weight, and %BF, was significantly higher for Asian Indian men than European (p=0.022) and Pacific Island (p=0.002) men. ASMM, adjusted for height and weight, was highest in Pacific Island and lowest in Asian Indian men. The relationship between %BF and BMI is different for European, Pacific Island, and Asian Indian men which may, at least in part, be due to differences in muscularity. Asian Indians have more abdominal fat deposition than their European and Pacific Island counterparts. Use of universal BMI cut-off points are not appropriate for comparison of obesity prevalence between these ethnic groups.

  4. Body fat distribution in men and women of the Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey of the United States: associations with behavioural variables.

    PubMed

    Georges, E; Mueller, W H; Wear, M L

    1993-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a biological risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. There are known genetic factors influencing body fat distribution, but variation in this characteristic is also attributable to human behavioural and socioeconomic variables such as social class. Björntorp has proposed that these associations may be due to a series of physiological responses to psychosocial stress, most prominently chronic stimulation of the adrenal-cortical system. This system is known to affect body fat distribution. Elsewhere we have shown that general socioeconomic status is related to body fat distribution in men and women of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) of the United States. In this paper we explore the relationship with those behavioural variables available from the HHANES which could hypothetically serve as indicators of psychosocial stress: smoking, drinking and depression. For both sexes in all Hispanic ethnic groups except Puerto Rican men, as socioeconomic status declined, subcutaneous fat became more centrally distributed. This relationship continued to be significant after controlling for the behavioural variables. A positive relationship was also found between smoking and central body fat distribution which was independent of socioeconomic status. This relationship was statistically significant for all subsamples except Cuban-American women. No consistent relationships were found between body fat distribution, drinking and depression. The data support the hypothesis that body fat distribution may be linked to the social stress of low socioeconomic status, independent of the behavioural factors tested.

  5. Socioeconomic and lifestyle determinants of body fat distribution in young working males from Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of explanation of the central adiposity variation, presented by waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and the sum of the three trunk skinfold thicknesses (subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac) (TTS) through the socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle. The material included cross-sectional population-based research of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. Objective anthropometric measurements, the results of motor fitness tests, and social and lifestyle data from a questionnaire were analyzed. The independent variables were: age, SES (the birthplace, place of residence until the age of 14, social class, educational level, and the type of work done), and lifestyle elements (smoking habits, dietary habits, family obesity resemblance, sport activity in the past, leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and the level of motor fitness). Three separate full models were created using stepwise straightforward regression with WC, WHR, and TTS as dependent variables. The highest autonomous influence on WC was ascribed to age, level of motor fitness, and family obesity resemblance. Variation in WHR was explained by age, level of motor fitness, upper-middle class, LTPA, and village as the birthplace. Level of motor fitness, place of residence until the age of 14 (city), age, smoking fewer than 20 cigarettes a day, and family obesity resemblance had greatest influence on TTS. The findings indicated the importance, besides age, of lifestyle elements connected with motor fitness and LTPA in determining body fat distribution in young working males. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Estimation of fish intake in Asian and white female adolescents, and association with 2-year changes in body fatness and body fat distribution: the female adolescent maturation study.

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Watters, Corilee A; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    Fish is an important source of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in the diets of female adolescents, which may affect adipose tissue deposition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fish intake in Asian and white female adolescents, and to determine whether fish intake was associated with changes in body fatness and body fat distribution in this population. A cross-sectional analysis of fish intake using 3-day food records (n=200), and a prospective analysis of baseline fish intake on anthropometric measurements 2 years later was conducted (n=103). Participants included female adolescents (aged 9 to 14 years) who were recruited from the Kaiser Permanente Oahu membership database in 2000-2001 as part of the Female Adolescent Maturation study (N=349). Fish intake and the proportion of participants eating 8 oz fish per week was compared between Asian, white, and mixed Asian/white ethnic groups using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and χ(2) test, respectively. The effect of fish intake on anthropometric measurements was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and linear regression analyses, adjusting for demographic, pubertal, anthropometric, activity, and dietary parameters. Asians consumed more fish (0.85 oz/wk [range=0.00 to 4.74 oz/wk]) than whites (0.00 oz/wk [0.00 to 0.40 oz/wk]; P=0.0001), and were more likely to eat 8 oz fish per week (13 of 68 vs 2 of 51, respectively; P=0.014). Greater fish intake corresponded to smaller changes in waist circumference when controlling for age, ethnicity, puberty, activity, energy intake, and baseline waist circumference (P=0.026), but not after adjusting for parental and additional dietary parameters (P>0.10). Most female adolescents did not consume the recommended amount of fish, a problem that was more common in whites than Asians. The protective effect of fish intake on abdominal obesity warrants further study. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A.; Bates, G. Wright; Gower, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. Methods In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40%energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Results Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (p<0.05 for difference between diets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (−7.1%, −4.6%, and −11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (p<0.05) during the SMT. Conclusions In women with PCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. PMID:25125349

  8. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sérgio Veloso Brant; Tavares, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1st week) and end (18th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm2, while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area.

  9. Association of body fat distribution with proinflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Puchau, Blanca; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) measurements have proved useful in recent studies to discern peripheral biomarkers for common complex diseases and for understanding host responses to drugs and nutrition in personalized medicine. Despite the initial promising data from PBMC, there is little information, however, on inflammatory and immune gene regulation in the context of body fat distribution and metabolic features in healthy adults. We investigated the putative association of body fat distribution and related-metabolic features with mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in PBMC. This study enrolled 136 healthy subjects (85 females/51 males; age: 21.5 +/- 2.5 years). Anthropometrical, clinical, metabolic, and proinflammatory variables were assessed with validated tools. Interestingly, in normal-weight subjects with lower truncal fat (TF) values, mRNA levels of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, and TNF-alpha in PBMC were lower (p < 0.05), compared to normal-weight individuals with higher TF (>58.5/50.2% for men/women, respectively) and overweight/obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2)]. After regression analyses were performed, individuals with the highest tertiles of TF and waist circumference displayed higher mRNA gene expressions as well as circulating proinflammatory (C-reactive protein and IL6) and metabolic (blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and LDL-c:HDL-c ratio) variables values (p < 0.05), independent from gender. Our findings collectively suggest that the mRNA expression of certain proinflammatory markers in PBMC is associated with body fat distribution in healthy adult subjects, which in turn, was also related to metabolic features and plasma proinflammatory markers concentrations.

  10. Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Pukajło, Katarzyna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipo-myokine, cleaved and secreted from the protein FNDC5 in response to physical activity, has been postulated to induce the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and to mediate the beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of factors leading to impaired energy homeostasis, affects a significant proportion of subjects suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Ir plasma concentrations and metabolic disturbances. The study group consisted of 179 PCOS patients and a population of 122 healthy controls (both groups aged 25-35 years). A subset of 90 subjects with MS was isolated. A positive association between Ir plasma level and MS in the whole group and in controls was found. In subjects with high adipose body content (>40%), Ir was higher than in lean persons (<30%). Our results showed a significant positive association between Ir concentration and android type of adipose tissue in the whole study group and in the control group. Understanding the role of Ir in increased energy expenditure may lead to the development of new therapeutics for obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  11. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (<45 points per 1000 kcal; n = 40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P < 0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P < 0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  13. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the FADS1 Gene is Associated with Plasma Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles and Might Explain Gender Difference in Body Fat Distribution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huilan; Zhang, Lichao; Zhu, Chaonan; Yang, Fei; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Shankuan; Ma, Xiaoguang

    2017-03-31

    Genotyping of the rs174547 polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase 1 gene (FADS1) shows that it is associated with the FA composition of plasma phospholipids and lipid metabolic indices among several ethnic groups. However, this association requires further confirmation in the Chinese population, and little is known about the effect of polymorphisms in fatty acid-related genes on body fat distribution. Anthropometric measurements of 951 Chinese adults aged 18-79 were obtained and body fat distribution was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The FA composition of plasma phospholipids was measured by gas chromatography. Multiple linear regression assessed whether the rs174547 genotype was associated with FA composition, body fat distribution, and metabolic traits in additive, dominant, and recessive models. The rs174547 C minor allele was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic acid, lower arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as lower delta-6-desaturase and delta-5-desaturase activity. Female C allele carriers had lower android fat percentages and lower levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, while male C allele carriers had lower gynoid fat percentages and higher triglyceride after adjusting for age, income, BMI, behavioral risk factors, and regional fat percentages. An association of FADS1 rs174547 with the FA composition of plasma phospholipids was identified among this Chinese adult population. The association with body fat distribution and lipid metabolic indices differed between men and women, which might explain sexual differences in body fat distribution and lipid metabolism.

  14. Gender differences in muscle sympathetic nerve activity: effect of body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Jones, P P; Snitker, S; Skinner, J S; Ravussin, E

    1996-02-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) has been correlated with percent body fat (%BF) in males. Because MSNA is typically lower and %BF higher in females, we tested whether this relationship could be generalized to females. Because abdominal-visceral body fat in men may be responsible for elevated sympathetic activity, we hypothesized that an estimate [waist-to-thigh ratio (W/T)] would correlate positively with MSNA in both genders and account for higher MSNA in males. Microneurography, hydrodensitometry, and W/T measures were obtained in 14 males and 14 females with a large range of %BF and W/T. Regression analyses revealed positive correlations between MSNA and %BF in males (r = 0.55, P = 0.04) and in females (r = 0.63, P = 0.02), with no difference in the slopes of the regression lines but a higher intercept in males (P < 0.01). When genders were pooled, MSNA and W/T were correlated (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001); this positive correlation was also found in males (r = 0.57, P = 0.04) but not as strongly in females (r = 0.49, P = 0.07). Forward stepwise multiple-regression analysis using %BF, W/T, gender, and age indicated that W/T was the primary factor related to MSNA (R2 = 0.46); the other factors were not independent predictors. It is concluded that %BF is related to MSNA in both males and females but that the regression line is shifted downward in females because of lower levels of MSNA. W/T is a better correlate of MSNA than %BF and partially explains the higher MSNA in males. These findings may be relevant to the cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk associated with abdominal obesity.

  15. Can body fat distribution, adiponectin levels and inflammation explain differences in insulin resistance between ethnic Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians?

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Salim, A; Lee, J; Tai, E S; van Dam, R M

    2012-08-01

    Diabetes in Asia constitutes approximately half of the global burden. Although insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes differ substantially between ethnic groups within Asia, the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We evaluated to what extent body fatness, adiponectin levels and inflammation mediate the relationship between ethnicity and insulin resistance in an Asian setting. Cross-sectional population-based study. In total, 4136 adult Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians residing in Singapore. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and systemic inflammation by C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were analyzed using path analysis. HOMA-IR was highest in Asian Indians, intermediate in Malays and lowest in Chinese (P<0.001). The difference in HOMA-IR between Malays and Chinese disappeared after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). For the comparison of Asian Indians with Chinese, the association between ethnicity and HOMA-IR was mediated by BMI (men: 32.9%; women: 48.5%), BMI-adjusted waist circumference (men: 6.1%; women: 3.5%), and CRP (men: 5.1%; women: 5.6%), and unidentified factors (men: 47.2%; women: 26.5%). Part of the mediating effects of body fatness was indirect through effects of body fatness on CRP and adiponectin concentrations. Mediators of ethnic differences in insulin resistance differed markedly depending on the ethnic groups compared. General adiposity explained the difference in insulin resistance between Chinese and Malays, whereas abdominal fat distribution, inflammation and unexplained factors contributed to excess insulin resistance in Asian Indians as compared with Chinese and Malays. These findings suggest that interventions targeting excess weight gain can reduce ethnic disparities in insulin resistance among Asian Indians, Chinese and Malays.

  16. Effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in drug-naive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Wen; Yang, Huijie; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Cuiliu; Tong, Guoyu; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Bin; Weng, Jianping; Zhu, Dalong

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in T2DM. Thirty-three drug-naive T2DM patients (age 52.7 ± 1.7 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.2 %, body mass index 24.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized into exenatide, insulin, or pioglitazone for 6 months. Intrahepatic fat (IHF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and adiponectin were assayed by ELISA. HbA1c declined significantly in all three groups. Body weight, waist, and serum triglycerides decreased with exenatide. After interventions, IHF significantly reduced with three treatments (exenatide Δ = -68 %, insulin Δ = -58 %, pioglitazone Δ = -49 %). Exenatide reduced VF (Δ = -36 %) and SF (Δ = -13 %), and pioglitazone decreased VF (Δ = -30 %) with no impact on SF, whereas insulin had no impact on VF or SF. Levels of TNFα (exenatide/insulin/pioglitazone) decreased, and levels of adiponectin (exenatide/pioglitazone) increased. Analysis showed that ΔIHF correlated with ΔHbA1c and Δweight. Besides, ΔIHF correlated with Δtriglycerides and ΔTNFα, but the correlations fell short of significance after BMI adjustment. By linear regression analysis, ΔHbA1c alone explained 41.5 % of the variance of ΔIHF, and ΔHbA1c + Δweight explained 57.6 % of the variance. Liver fat content can be significantly reduced irrespective of using exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone. Early glycaemic control plays an important role in slowing progression of fatty liver in T2DM.

  17. Polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene are associated with body fat distribution and risk of abdominal obesity in Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Mansego, Maria L; de Marco, Griselda; Martinez, Fernando; Alonso, Mónica P; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Real, Jose T; Ascaso, Juan F; Redon, Josep; Martin Escudero, Juan C; Soriguer, Federico; Chaves, Felipe J

    2012-02-01

    Increased accumulation of fat results from an imbalance between energy expenditure and intake, being modulated by different environmental and genetic factors. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial carrier proteins able to spend energy generating heat. Therefore, variations in these genes are good candidates as potential modulators of body fat accumulation. Our aim was to investigate the possible association of genetic variations of the gene codifying the UCP2 protein with obesity and fat distribution. We performed a cross-sectional study in 2367 individuals from two population-based studies from different regions of Spain. The Hortega Study included 1436 individuals (693 women) 21-85 years old, and the Pizarra Study included 931 individuals (584 women) 18-65 years old. We evaluated three polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene. The TT genotype of the rs660339 polymorphism and the AA genotype of the rs659366 polymorphism of the UCP2 gene were significantly associated with higher waist circumference in the Hortega Study. Furthermore, subjects carrying both genotypes (TT+AA) also showed higher central adiposity compared with other genotypes. This association was also present in the Pizarra Study. Moreover, in the pooled population, we found a stronger association with waist circumference. Even, we found association with BMI. Furthermore, rs659366 polymorphism was associated with the risk of abdominal obesity (P= 0·04: OR = 1·3; CI = 1·01-1·67). Polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene (rs660339 and rs659366) were associated with central obesity. This study shows association between the UCP2 gene and the susceptibility to obesity and body fat distribution in a south European population. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  18. Muscle adiposity and body fat distribution in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: varying relationships according to diabetes type.

    PubMed

    Dubé, M C; Joanisse, D R; Prud'homme, D; Lemieux, S; Bouchard, C; Pérusse, L; Lavoie, C; Weisnagel, S J

    2006-12-01

    To compare the relationships between markers of total and regional adiposity with muscle fat infiltration in type 1 diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects and their respective nondiabetic controls, and to document these relationships in type 1 diabetic subjects. Cross-sectional study. In total, 86 healthy, with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or control subjects. Each diabetic group was matched for age, sex and body mass index with its respective nondiabetic control group. Measures of body composition (hydrodensitometry), fat distribution (waist circumference, abdominal and mid-thigh computed tomography scans) and blood lipid profiles were assessed. Low attenuation mid-thigh muscle surface correlated similarly with markers of adiposity and body composition in all groups, regardless of diabetes status, except for visceral adipose tissue and waist circumference. Indeed, relationships between visceral adiposity and muscle adiposity were significantly stronger in type 2 vs type 1 diabetic subjects (P<0.05 for comparison of slopes). In addition, in well-controlled type 1 diabetic subjects (mean HbA(1c) of 6.8%), daily insulin requirements tended to correlate with low attenuation mid-thigh muscle surface, a specific component of fat-rich muscle (r=0.36, P=0.08), but not with glycemic control (HbA(1c)). This study suggests that the relationship of central adiposity and muscle adiposity is modulated by diabetes status and is stronger in the insulin resistant diabetes type (type 2 diabetes). In well-controlled nonobese type 1 diabetic subjects, the relationship between muscle fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity was also maintained.

  19. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. LRP5 regulates human body fat distribution by modulating adipose progenitor biology in a dose- and depot-specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Loh, Nellie Y; Neville, Matt J; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A; Fielding, Barbara A; Duncan, Emma L; McCarthy, Mark I; Tobias, Jonathan H; Gregson, Celia L; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-02-03

    Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. LRP5 Regulates Human Body Fat Distribution by Modulating Adipose Progenitor Biology in a Dose- and Depot-Specific Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Nellie Y.; Neville, Matt J.; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A.; Fielding, Barbara A.; Duncan, Emma L.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Gregson, Celia L.; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:25651180

  2. Higher serum concentrations of betaine rather than choline is associated with better profiles of DXA-derived body fat and fat distribution in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-M; Liu, Y; Liu, Y-H; Wang, X; Guan, K; Zhu, H-L

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies have suggested that betaine, but not choline, may improve body composition, but little evidence is available in humans. We examined the association of serum concentrations of choline and betaine with body composition and fat distribution in adults. This community-based study recruited 1996 adults (women/men: 1380/616) aged 40-75 years in urban Guangzhou, China. General information and anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum choline and betaine levels were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry between July 2008 and June 2010. After 3.2 years, 1623 of the 1996 participants were measured for fat mass (FM and %FM) over the total body (TB), trunk, limbs, android (A) and gynoid (G) regions. The %FM ratios of the A/G regions and the trunk and limbs were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate analyses showed that higher serum betaine levels were significantly associated with lower values of adiposity indices (all P-trends<0.05), except in the case of the %FM at the gynoid area. After adjusting for potential covariates, similar associations were observed. The mean percentage differences between quartiles 4 and 1 of the serum betaine levels were -4.9% (weight), -4.7% (body mass index, BMI), -2.5% (waist circumference), -7.9% (TB FM) and -3.4% (TB %FM). The mean differences in the FM and %FM were much more pronounced at the trunk (-10.0 and -4.5%) or android areas (-10.7 and -4.7%) than those at the limbs (-0.8 and -2.3%) or gynoid areas (-0.6 and -1.4%). Such favorable associations were stronger in men than in women. No significant associations between serum choline and the adiposity indices were observed, except in the cases of body weight and BMI. Greater circulating betaine, but not choline, was dose-dependently associated with better body composition and fat distribution due to a lower FM in the trunk regions in this population.

  3. Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Serra, Monica C; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Addison, Odessa R; Miller, Ann J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT). Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32). The interventions led to ∼8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (↑11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (↓5%; p < 0.05). Both NGT and IGT groups reduced visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat areas and abdominal and gluteal FCWs, which related to improvements in homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.34-0.42) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.34-0.35), respectively (p < 0.05). The decline in FCW was 2× greater in women with IGT following WL (p < 0.05). The ratios of abdominal-to-gluteal FCW did not change following either intervention. The mechanisms by which WL with and without exercise impact regional fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMI<25 kg m(-2) (β=0.358, 95% CI 0.138-0.579, P=0.001), but not in women with BMI25 kg m(-2). We conclude that the changes in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  5. Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Cleve; Tull, Eugene S.; Chambers, Earle C.; Taylor, Jerome

    2002-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance in a population of Afro-Caribbean women aged 18 to 55. Also of interest was whether this relationship would be differentially influenced by the type of body fat distribution or confounded by the level of hostility. A total of 244 women were selected from a systematic sample of households on the island of Dominica, West Indies. Demographic data together with information on internalized racism were collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric information and fasting blood glucose were also measured. Women with high levels of internalized racism exhibited an increased risk of elevated fasting glucose compared to those with low levels of internalized racism (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-5.5). There was no difference in mean body mass index (BMI) by level of internalized racism. However those with high internalized racism had a significantly larger waist circumference after adjusting for age, education, hostility, and elevated fasting glucose status. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, hostility, and either weight or BMI, internalized racism remained independently associated with elevated fasting glucose. However, once waist circumference was included in the model, the relationship of internalized racism to elevated fasting glucose was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates a significant relationship between internalized racism and abnormal levels of fasting glucose which may be mediated through abdominal fat. The exact nature of the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance may be an important area of future study. PMID:11918383

  6. Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Butler, Cleve; Tull, Eugene S; Chambers, Earle C; Taylor, Jerome

    2002-03-01

    The current study examined the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance in a population of Afro-Caribbean women aged 18 to 55. Also of interest was whether this relationship would be differentially influenced by the type of body fat distribution or confounded by the level of hostility. A total of 244 women were selected from a systematic sample of households on the island of Dominica, West Indies. Demographic data together with information on internalized racism were collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric information and fasting blood glucose were also measured. Women with high levels of internalized racism exhibited an increased risk of elevated fasting glucose compared to those with low levels of internalized racism (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-5.5). There was no difference in mean body mass index (BMI) by level of internalized racism. However those with high internalized racism had a significantly larger waist circumference after adjusting for age, education, hostility, and elevated fasting glucose status. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, hostility, and either weight or BMI, internalized racism remained independently associated with elevated fasting glucose. However, once waist circumference was included in the model, the relationship of internalized racism to elevated fasting glucose was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates a significant relationship between internalized racism and abnormal levels of fasting glucose which may be mediated through abdominal fat. The exact nature of the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance may be an important area of future study.

  7. Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 μg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. The relationship of body mass and fat distribution with incident hypertension: observations from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Alvin; Neeland, Ian J; Berry, Jarett D; Ayers, Colby R; Rohatgi, Anand; Das, Sandeep R; Khera, Amit; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Turer, Aslan T

    2014-09-09

    Obesity has been linked to the development of hypertension, but whether total adiposity or site-specific fat accumulation underpins this relationship is unclear. This study sought to determine the relationship between adipose tissue distribution and incident hypertension. Normotensive participants enrolled in the Dallas Heart Study were followed for a median of 7 years for the development of hypertension (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or initiation of blood pressure medications). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging and proton-spectroscopic imaging, and lower body fat (LBF) was imaged by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable relative risk regression was performed to test the association between individual fat depots and incident hypertension, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, smoking, SBP, and body mass index (BMI). Among 903 participants (median age, 40 years; 57% women; 60% nonwhite; median BMI 27.5 kg/m(2)), 230 (25%) developed incident hypertension. In multivariable analyses, higher BMI was significantly associated with incident hypertension (relative risk: 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.36, per 1-SD increase). However, when VAT, SAT, and LBF were added to the model, only VAT remained independently associated with incident hypertension (relative risk: 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.39, per 1-SD increase). Increased visceral adiposity, but not total or subcutaneous adiposity, was robustly associated with incident hypertension. Additional studies will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind this association. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; P<0.03 for each). The relations with FM, FM%, TF%, VAT and DSAT were significantly modified by sex (P for interaction=0.02, 0.005 and <0.001, 0.002, 0.03, respectively) with greater reductions associated with increase of adiponectin in men than in women. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  10. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p < 0.00001) and BMI (r = 0.668; p < 0.00001). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was seen in 2119 (46.1%) and 536 (13.8%), respectively, according to World Health Organization definition and 64.0% and 31.1%, respectively, as per Indian guidelines. Percent total body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  11. The relationship of body fat distribution to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a Navajo community.

    PubMed

    Hall, Teri R; Hickey, Martin E; Young, Terry B

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and body fat distribution (BFD) as measured by waist/hip circumference (WHR) was investigated in a Navajo community. A sample of 136 females and 89 males, 20 years and older, was recruited using a cluster-sampling design. Fifty percent of the females and 30.3% of the males are overweight [body mass index (BMI) equivalent of >120% ideal body weight]. Prevalence of NIDDM is 14% in females and 10.1% in males. The sample is characterized by central BFD (mean WHR=0.897±0.075, females and mean WHR=0.963±0.071, males). WHR is significantly related to age and BMI in males (P < 0.05), but not in females. Adjusted odds ratios for risk of NIDDM prevalence with increasing WHR category were estimated from a multiple logistic regression model which controlled for age and BMI. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) is 2.19 (1.14, 4.19) for risk of NIDDM prevalence for a female in the middle BFD category compared to a female in the low BFD category. Risk increases to 3.63 (95% CI=1.25, 10.52) for a female in the highest BFD category. Although there is an increased risk of NIDDM prevalence with central BFD for males, it is not statistically significant. Preferential energy storage in abdominal fat depots may be a phenotypic expression of the "Thrifty Genotype," which places American Indians at greater risk for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 1991 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Estimating Negative Effect of Abdominal Obesity on Mildly Decreased Kidney Function Using a Novel Index of Body-Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Conventional obesity-related indicators, included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and conicity index (C-index), have some limitations. We examined the usefulness of trunk/body fat mass ratio (T/Br) to predict negative effect of abnormal fat distribution on excretory kidney function. We analyzed anthropometric, biochemical and densitometric data from a nation-wide, population-based, case-control study (the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [KNHANES] IV and V). A total of 11,319 participants were divided into 2 groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) as follows: Group I (n = 7,980), eGFR ≥ 90 and ≤ 120; and group II (n = 3,339), eGFR ≥ 60 and < 90. Linear regression analysis revealed that T/Br was closely related to eGFR (β = −0.3173, P < 0.001), and the correlation remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, WC, C-index, systolic blood pressure (BP), hemoglobin, and smoking amount (β = −0.0987, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that T/Br (odds ratio [OR] = 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.039–1.054) was significantly associated with early decline of kidney function, and adjustment for age, gender, BMI, C-index, systolic BP, hemoglobin, serum glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and smoking amount did not reduce the association (OR = 1.020; 95% CI = 1.007–1.033). T/Br is useful in estimating the negative impact of abdominal obesity on the kidney function. PMID:28244287

  13. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 Pro12Ala polymorphism on body fat distribution in female Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kil Soo; Choi, Sun Mi; Shin, Seung Uoo; Yang, Hyun Sung; Yoon, Yoosik

    2004-12-01

    The effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) Pro12Ala (P12A) polymorphism on body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes are well documented; however, until now, only a few studies have evaluated the effects of this polymorphism on body fat distribution. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of this polymorphism on computed tomography (CT)-measured body fat distribution and other obesity-related parameters in Korean female subjects. The frequencies of PPAR gamma 2 genotypes were: PP type, 93.0%; PA type, 6.8%; and AA type, 0.2%. The frequency of the A allele was 0.035. Body weight (P = .012), BMI (P = .012), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (P = .001) were significantly higher in subjects with PA/AA compared with subjects with PP. When body composition was analyzed by bioimpedance analysis, lean body mass and body water content were similar between the 2 groups. However, body fat mass (P = .003) and body fat percent (P = .025) were significantly higher in subjects with PA/AA compared with subjects with PP. Among overweight subjects with BMI of greater than 25, PA/AA was associated with significantly higher abdominal subcutaneous fat (P = .000), abdominal visceral fat (P = .031), and subcutaneous upper and lower thigh adipose tissue (P = .010 and .013). However, among lean subjects with BMI of less than 25, no significant differences associated with PPAR gamma 2 genotype were found, suggesting that the fat-accumulating effects of the PA/AA genotype were evident only among overweight subjects, but not among lean subjects. When serum lipid profiles, glucose, and liver function indicators were compared among overweight subjects, no significant difference associated with PPAR gamma 2 genotype was found. Changes in body weight, BMI, WHR, and body fat mass were measured among overweight subjects who finished a 1-month weight lose program of a hypocaloric diet and exercise; no significant differences associated with PPAR gamma 2

  14. Changes in Body Fat Distribution on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Black South Africans Starting First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Zulfa; Levitt, Naomi; Lesosky, Maia; Maartens, Gary; Dave, Joel

    2016-10-01

    Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART. Body fat distribution was assessed using anthropometric measurements and DEXA scans at baseline and then at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after commencing ART. DEXA was also used to estimate abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Women gained more overall weight and more regional fat in all areas analyzed on DEXA scans. Women, not men, experienced a significant increasing trend in trunk fat and a significant decreasing trend in limb fat, when expressed as a percentage of total body fat. In men, the risk of developing lipoatrophy was more than two times greater than that of women, after adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, and ART regimen. Lipohypertrophy occurred similarly in men and women. VAT and SAT increased significantly in men and women, with women gaining considerably more than men. These findings are of great concern as an increased waist circumference is associated with increased mortality in HIV-infected populations. Further investigation is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the sex differences in changes in body fat distribution and its effects on cardiovascular risk.

  15. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  16. Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independently of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert A; Fall, Tove; Pasko, Dorota; Barker, Adam; Sharp, Stephen J; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrannini, Ele; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Lotta, Luca A; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Schulze, Matthias B; Siddiq, Afshan; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; McCarthy, Mark I; Semple, Robert K; Riboli, Elio; Walker, Mark; Ingelsson, Erik; Frayling, Tim M; Savage, David B

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterise their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals.We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp- and OGTT-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion, and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs-per-allele [95%CI]:−0.03[−0.04,−0.01];p=0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (−0.01[−0.01,−0.0;p=0.02) and gluteofemoral fat-mass (−0.03[−0.05,−0.02;p=1.4×10−6), and with higher ALT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.002) and gamma-GT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (pinteraction=0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI- or waist-strata(pinteraction>0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size. PMID:24947364

  17. Determinants of change in body weight and body fat distribution over 5.5 years in a sample of free-living black South African women

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Sarah; Dickie, Kasha; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Goedecke, Julia H; Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To identify socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of weight gain in a sample of premenopasual black South African (SA) women. Methods Changes in body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerised tomography), socio-economic status (SES) and behavioural/lifestyle factors were measured in 64 black SA women at baseline (27 ± 8 years) and after 5.5 years. Results A lower body mass index (BMI) and nulliparity, together with access to sanitation, were significant determinants of weight gain and change in body fat distribution over 5.5 years. In addition, younger women increased their body weight more than their older counterparts, but this association was not independent of other determinants. Conclusion Further research is required to examine the effect of changing SES, as well as the full impact of childbearing on weight gain over time in younger women with lower BMIs. This information will suggest areas for possible intervention to prevent long-term weight gain in these women. PMID:27224680

  18. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  19. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  20. Is epidural lipomatosis associated with abnormality of body fat distribution? A case report.

    PubMed

    Maillot, François; Mulleman, Denis; Mammou, Saloua; Goupille, Philippe; Valat, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    To report a case of epidural lipomatosis in a patient with abnormal adipose tissue distribution, glucose intolerance and mixed hyperlipidemia. A 63-year-old male patient presented with low back pain radiating to the left calf on standing and walking (walking distance <100 m). He weighed 97.5 kg, was 1.73 m tall (BMI 32.6 kg/m2) and had a waist circumference of 113 cm. He had a glucose intolerance after a 75-g glucose oral load test. CT-Myelography revealed voluminous epidural lipomatosis around L4-L5 and L5-S1. Low calorie diet and reduction in alcohol intake achieved a weight loss of 17.5 kg in 7 months (80 kg, BMI 25.8 kg/m2, waist circumference 94 cm) and dramatic improvement in low back pain, walking distance (>500 m) and reduction of lipomatosis on CT-scan. Our case suggests a relationship between central obesity phenotype and epidural lipomatosis. Specific insulin resistance treatment might be proposed for these patients if this hypothesis is confirmed in further studies.

  1. Associations of serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein with body composition and fat distribution in nondiabetic Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yaping; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Hu, Xiang; Pan, Xiaoping; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated evidence of a positive relationship between serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and obesity. However, associations of A-FABP with body composition and ectopic fat accumulation remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of body composition, visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on serum A-FABP levels in a cohort of Chinese women without diabetes mellitus. A total of 2108 women without diabetes (760 premenopausal and 1348 postmenopausal women; age, 20-78 y) selected from the Shanghai Obesity Study were enrolled. VFA and SFA were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A high VFA was defined as ≥ 80 cm(2). A high SFA was defined as that above the 75th percentile cutoff point of the menopause-specific population, respectively. Serum A-FABP levels were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women (P < .001). Both premenopausal and postmenopausal women with an isolated high VFA had higher A-FABP levels than did those with an isolated high SFA (P = .017 and .002, respectively). In both body mass index (BMI) groups (< 25 and ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), women with a high VFA had higher serum A-FABP levels regardless of their menopausal status. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that A-FABP was independently associated with fat mass (Standardized β = 0.417 and 0.252 for premenopausal and postmenopausal status, respectively, both P < .001). Moreover, VFA was identified as an independent risk factor for A-FABP in postmenopausal women (Standardized β = 0.114, P = .001). Application of the same regression analyses model to the two BMI groups produced similar results in both BMI categories. Serum A-FABP levels were associated with fat mass, and were also influenced by VFA after menopause in Chinese women without diabetes mellitus.

  2. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  3. Body fat distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: outcomes from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Associations between abnormal body fat distribution and clinical variables are poorly understood in pediatric HIV disease. Our objective was to compare total body fat and its distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and to evaluate associations with clin...

  4. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  5. Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert A; Fall, Tove; Pasko, Dorota; Barker, Adam; Sharp, Stephen J; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrannini, Ele; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Lotta, Luca A; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Schulze, Matthias B; Siddiq, Afshan; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke Mw; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; McCarthy, Mark I; Semple, Robert K; Riboli, Elio; Walker, Mark; Ingelsson, Erik; Frayling, Tim M; Savage, David B; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterize their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp- and oral glucose tolerance test-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs per allele [95% CI], -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01]; P = 0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (-0.01 [-0.01, -0.0]; P = 0.02) and gluteofemoral fat mass (-0.03 [-0.05, -0.02; P = 1.4 × 10(-6)) and with higher alanine transaminase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.002) and γ-glutamyl transferase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (Pinteraction = 0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI or waist strata (Pinteraction > 0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. OBESITY, BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION, AND RISK OF BREAST CANCER SUBTYPES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN PARTICIPATING IN THE AMBER CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Troester, Melissa A.; Bethea, Traci N.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Park, Song-Yi; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose African American (AA) women are more likely than white women to be obese and to be diagnosed with ER- and triple negative (TN) breast cancer, but few studies have evaluated the impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer subtypes in AA women. We evaluated these associations in the AMBER Consortium by pooling data from four large studies. Methods Cases were categorized according to hormone receptor status as ER+, ER-, and TN (ER-, PR-, and HER2-) based on pathology data. A total of 2,104 ER+ cases, 1,070 ER- cases (including 491 TN cases), and 12,060 controls were included. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression, taking into account breast cancer risk factors. Results In postmenopausal women, higher recent (most proximal value to diagnosis/index date) BMI was associated with increased risk of ER+ cancer (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02–1.67 for BMI≥35 vs <25 kg/m2) and with decreased risk of TN tumors (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39–0.93 for BMI≥35 vs. <25). High young adult BMI was associated with decreased premenopausal ER+ cancer and all subtypes of postmenopausal cancer, and high recent waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with increased risk of pre-menopausal ER+ tumors (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01–1.80) and all tumor subtypes combined in postmenopausal women (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.02–1.56). Conclusions The impact of general and central obesity varies by menopausal status and hormone receptor subtype in AA women. Our findings imply different mechanisms for associations of adiposity with TN and ER+ breast cancers. PMID:25809092

  7. Obesity, body fat distribution, and risk of breast cancer subtypes in African American women participating in the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Troester, Melissa A; Bethea, Traci N; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Haiman, Christopher A; Park, Song-Yi; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    African American (AA) women are more likely than white women to be obese and to be diagnosed with ER- and triple-negative (TN) breast cancer, but few studies have evaluated the impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer subtypes in AA women. We evaluated these associations in the AMBER Consortium by pooling data from four large studies. Cases were categorized according to hormone receptor status as ER+, ER-, and TN (ER-, PR-, and HER2-) based on pathology data. A total of 2104 ER+ cases, 1070 ER- cases (including 491 TN cases), and 12,060 controls were included. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression, taking into account breast cancer risk factors. In postmenopausal women, higher recent (most proximal value to diagnosis/index date) BMI was associated with increased risk of ER+ cancer (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.02-1.67 for BMI ≥ 35 vs. <25 kg/m(2)) and with decreased risk of TN tumors (OR 0.60; 95 % CI 0.39-0.93 for BMI ≥ 35 vs. <25). High young adult BMI was associated with decreased premenopausal ER+ cancer and all subtypes of postmenopausal cancer, and high recent waist-to-hip ratio with increased risk of premenopausal ER+ tumors (OR 1.35; 95 % CI 1.01-1.80) and all tumor subtypes combined in postmenopausal women (OR 1.26; 95 % CI 1.02-1.56). The impact of general and central obesity varies by menopausal status and hormone receptor subtype in AA women. Our findings imply different mechanisms for associations of adiposity with TN and ER+ breast cancers.

  8. Sex differences in insulin action and body fat distribution in overweight and obese middle-aged and older men and women.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Cynthia M; Goldberg, Andrew P; Nicklas, Barbara J; Sorkin, John D; Ryan, Alice S

    2008-08-01

    Controversy exists as to whether there are differences in insulin action between older men and women, and what factors contribute to these differences. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in regional fat distribution contribute to a disparity in insulin sensitivity in older men vs. older women. Healthy, older (50-71 years), sedentary men (n = 28) and women (n = 29) were recruited to participate in the study. Body fat, fat-free mass (FFM), and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue areas were measured by DXA and computed tomography (CT). For measurements of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M), insulin was infused at a constant rate of 240 pmol.m(-2).min(-1), and M was calculated between the 90th and 120th min of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The men weighed 16% more and had 16% higher waist and 4% lower hip circumferences than women (p < 0.05 for all). Total fat mass and SAT were 21% and 33% lower and FFM was 49% higher in men than in women, whereas waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and VAT:SAT ratio were 21% and 56% higher in men than in women (p < 0.05 for all). Although insulin concentrations during the glucose clamp were higher in men, M was 47% lower in men vs. women (21.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 46.7 +/- 3.1 micromol.L(-1).kg FFM(-1).min(-1), p < 0.05). The sex-related differences in M persisted after controlling for insulin concentrations during the glucose clamp, for waist, WHR, and VAT:SAT. Older men are more insulin resistant than women, despite lower body fat and subcutaneous abdominal fat. This difference in insulin sensitivity is not explained by abdominal fat distribution, therefore other metabolic factors contribute to the sex differences in insulin sensitivity.

  9. A review of obesity and body fat distribution and its relationship to cardio-metabolic risk in men and women of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Lear, Scott A; Lesser, Iris A

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is increasing in people of Chinese background whether in China or in other countries. The purpose of this review is to discuss the associations of obesity in men and women of Chinese background with cardio-metabolic risk with specific attention to body fat distribution. Evidence suggests that current BMI and WC targets may actually underestimate the cardio-metabolic risk in Chinese compared to European populations from which they were derived. Through a number of investigations, we and others have identified that Chinese men and women tend to have higher cardio-metabolic risk factors at a given body size than people of European background (from which guidelines are generally derived). Our additional investigations have indicated that Chinese men and women have greater amounts of VAT, but similar amounts of DSAT at a given body fat than Europeans and it may be the higher VAT in Chinese people that is, in part, responsible for the greater cardio-metabolic risk in the Chinese. Further investigation of this topic should prove fruitful in shedding light onto the determinants of body fat accumulation and distribution that may help to inform obesity prevention and treatment strategies.

  10. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    PubMed

    Tinggaard, J; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C; Husby, S; Christiansen, L; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T K; Grandjean, P; Main, K M; Andersen, H R

    2016-07-01

    Many modern pesticides have endocrine disrupting abilities and early-life exposure may affect growth and disease risk later in life. Previously, we reported associations between prenatal pesticide exposure and higher childhood body fat content measured by anthropometry. The associations were affected by child PON1 Q192R genotype. We aimed to study whether prenatal pesticide exposure was still associated with body fat content and distribution in the children at puberty and the potential impact of both maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype. In this prospective cohort study of 247 children born by occupationally exposed or unexposed women (greenhouse workers and controls) two follow-up examinations (age 10-15 and 11-16 years) including simple anthropometry, skinfold measurements, pubertal staging and blood sampling were performed. Total and regional fat% was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat percentage (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p < 0.05). Stratified by sex, the associations were significant in girls (total fat: β = 0.7 SDS, android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p < 0.05), but not in boys. Carrying the R-allele (child or mother, separately, or both) augmented the differences between exposed and unexposed children (total fat: β = 1.0 SDS, β = 0.8 SDS, p < 0.05, respectively, and β = 1.2 SDS, p < 0.01). No exposure-related differences were found if either the child or mother had the QQ wild-type. At age 11-16, exposed children tended to have a higher total fat% estimated by skinfolds than unexposed children (p = 0.06). No significant associations between prenatal exposure and body mass index or waist circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android

  11. Effects of intensive insulin therapy alone and in combination with pioglitazone on body weight, composition, distribution and liver fat content in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shah, P K; Mudaliar, S; Chang, A R; Aroda, V; Andre, M; Burke, P; Henry, R R

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of intensive insulin therapy alone and with added pioglitazone on body weight, fat distribution, lean body mass (LBM) and liver fat in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty-five insulin-treated, obese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to addition of pioglitazone 45 mg (n = 12) or placebo (n = 13) and treated intensively for 12-16 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry/abdominal computed tomography scans were performed before/after treatment. LBM, visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) and liver/spleen (L/S) attenuation ratios were measured pre-/posttreatment (a ratio <1 represents fatty liver). Intensive insulin alone and insulin + pioglitazone significantly improved glycaemic control (7.8 ± 0.3 to 7.2 ± 0.3% and 7.6 ± 0.3 to 7.1 ± 0.4%, respectively). Body weight gain was greater with insulin + pioglitazone (4.9 ± 4.5 kg) versus insulin therapy alone (1.7 ± 0.7 kg). SAT increased significantly with pioglitazone + insulin therapy (393.9 ± 48.5 to 443.2 ± 56.7 cm(2) , p < 0.01) compared to a non-significant increase with insulin therapy alone (412.9 ± 42.5 to 420.8 ± 43.8 cm(2) ). VAT decreased non-significantly in both groups (240.3 ± 41.7 to 223.8 ± 38.1 cm(2) with insulin + pioglitazone and 266.6 ± 27.4 to 250.5 ± 22.2 cm(2) with insulin therapy). LBM increased significantly by 1.92 ± 0.74 kg with insulin + pioglitazone treatment. The L/S attenuation ratio in the placebo + insulin group decreased from 1.08 ± 0.1 to 1.04 ± 0.1 (p = ns) and increased from 1.00 ± 0.1 to 1.08 ± 0.05 (p = 0.06) in the pioglitazone + insulin group. Intensification of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients causes modest weight gain and no change in body fat distribution, LBM or liver fat. In contrast, the addition of pioglitazone, at equivalent glycaemia, increases weight gain, fat mass and SAT; increases LBM and tends to decrease liver fat. These changes in fat distribution may contribute to the beneficial effects of

  12. Associations of obesity and body fat distribution with incident atrial fibrillation in the biracial health aging and body composition cohort of older adults.

    PubMed

    Aronis, Konstantinos N; Wang, Na; Phillips, Caroline L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Marcus, Gregory M; Newman, Anne B; Rodondi, Nicolas; Satterfield, Suzanne; Harris, Tamara B; Magnani, Jared W

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), yet adiposity measures other than body mass index (BMI) have had limited assessment in relation to AF risk. We examined the associations of adiposity measures with AF in a biracial cohort of older adults. Given established racial differences in obesity and AF, we assessed for differences by black and white race in relating adiposity and AF. We analyzed data from 2,717 participants of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Adiposity measures were BMI, abdominal circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat area, and total and percent fat mass. We determined the associations between the adiposity measures and 10-year incidence of AF using Cox proportional hazards models and assessed for their racial differences in these estimates. In multivariable-adjusted models, 1-SD increases in BMI, abdominal circumference, and total fat mass were associated with a 13% to 16% increased AF risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28; HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.28; and HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.002-1.27). Subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were not significantly associated with incident AF. We did not identify racial differences in the associations between the adiposity measures and AF. Body mass index, abdominal circumference, and total fat mass are associated with risk of AF for 10years among white and black older adults. Obesity is one of a limited number of modifiable risk factors for AF; future studies are essential to evaluate how obesity reduction can modify the incidence of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men and women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Starling, Raymond D; Liu, Xiaolan; Sullivan, Dennis H; Trappe, Todd A; Fluckey, James D; Evans, William J

    2004-01-26

    The efficacy of ad libitum low-fat diets in reducing body weight and fat in overweight and obese adults remains controversial. We examined the effect of a 12-week low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet alone (HI-CHO) and in combination with aerobic exercise training (HI-CHO + EX) on body weight and composition in 34 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (20 women and 14 men; mean +/- SEM age, 66 +/- 1 years). Participants were randomly assigned to a control diet (41% fat, 14% protein, 45% carbohydrates, and 7 g of fiber per 1000 kcal), a HI-CHO diet (18% fat, 19% protein, 63% carbohydrates, and 26 g of fiber per 1000 kcal), or a HI-CHO diet plus endurance exercise 4 d/wk, 45 min/d, at 80% peak oxygen consumption (HI-CHO + EX). Participants were provided 150% of estimated energy needs and were instructed to consume food ad libitum. Total food intake, body composition, resting metabolic rate, and substrate oxidation were measured. There was no significant difference in total food intake among the 3 groups and no change in energy intake over time. The HI-CHO + EX and HI-CHO groups lost more body weight (-4.8 +/- 0.9 kg [P=.003] and -3.2 +/- 1.2 kg [P=.02]) and a higher percentage of body fat (-3.5% +/- 0.7% [P=.01] and -2.2% +/- 1.2% [P=.049]) than controls (-0.1 +/- 0.6 kg and 0.2% +/- 0.6%). In addition, thigh fat area decreased in the HI-CHO (P=.003) and HI-CHO + EX (P<.001) groups compared with controls. High carbohydrate intake and weight loss did not result in a decreased resting metabolic rate or reduced fat oxidation. A high-carbohydrate diet consumed ad libitum, with no attempt at energy restriction or change in energy intake, results in losses of body weight and body fat in older men and women.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of copy number variations reveals that aging processes influence body fat distribution in Korea Associated Resource (KARE) cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Young; Shin, Dong Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Seo, Kang-Seok; Kim, Heebal

    2012-11-01

    Many anthropometric measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and subcutaneous fat thickness, are used as indicators of nutritional status, fertility and predictors of future health outcomes. While BMI is currently the best available estimate of body adiposity, WHR and skinfold thickness at various sites (biceps, triceps, suprailiac, and subscapular) are used as indices of body fat distribution. Copy number variation (CNV) is an attractive emerging approach to the study of associations with various diseases. In this study, we investigated the dosage effect of genes in the CNV genome widely associated with fat distribution phenotypes in large cohorts. We used the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP Array 5.0 data of 8,842 healthy unrelated adults in KARE cohorts and identified CNVs associated with BMI and fat distribution-related traits including WHR and subcutaneous skinfold thickness at suprailiac (SUP) and subscapular (SUB) sites. CNV segmentation of each chromosome was performed using Golden Helix SVS 7.0, and single regression analysis was used to identify CNVs associated with each phenotype. We found one CNV for BMI, 287 for WHR, 2,157 for SUP, and 2,102 for SUB at the 5% significance level after Holm-Bonferroni correction. Genes included in the CNV were used for the analysis of functional annotations using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID v6.7b) tool. Functional gene classification analysis identified five significant gene clusters (metallothionein, ATP-binding proteins, ribosomal proteins, kinesin family members, and zinc finger proteins) for SUP, three (keratin-associated proteins, zinc finger proteins, keratins) for SUB, and one (protamines) for WHR. BMI was excluded from this analysis because the entire structure of no gene was identified in the CNV. Based on the analysis of genes enriched in the clusters, the fat distribution traits of KARE cohorts were related to the fat redistribution

  15. A Physical Model for Estimating Body Fat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    yields an estimate of the total body fat. The formulas used are listed in Table 1. N! Certain factors in the formulas deserve comment. Since a skinfold ...was measured as two thicknesses of skin, the measured skinfold was divided by 2. Because approximately half the body fat is located internally or within...therefore should underestimate the total body fat. However, the tendency to include some nonfat tissues in the skinfold thicknesses should overestimate

  16. Disentangling the effects of migration, selection and acculturation on weight and body fat distribution: results from a natural experiment involving Vietnamese Americans, returnees, and never-leavers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongyun; VanLandingham, Mark J

    2012-10-01

    We distinguish between selection and true migration effects on weight and body fat for Vietnamese immigrants; and examine the role of acculturation on these outcomes. Data (n = 703) were collected among three population-based samples of working-age Vietnamese immigrants, repatriated emigrants and never-migrated Vietnamese nationals. This allows for a decomposition exercise to separate the effects of migration effects from selection effects on body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Immigrants are more likely to be overweight and to have high WHR, relative to both never-leavers and returnees, a pattern reflecting the importance of migration over selection. Among immigrants, coming to the US at a younger age is associated with higher BMI and WHR levels. And longer length of residence in the US is related to higher BMI. While higher Vietnamese language proficiency is related to a lower BMI level, being bilingual (proficient in both English and Vietnamese) is associated with lower risks for being overweight. The distinct pattern of results suggests that more problematic weight status and fat distribution among Vietnamese immigrants relative to Vietnamese nationals are not artifacts of the types of persons choosing to emigrate, but rather are due to acculturation to American diet and lifestyles. While efforts to promote and maintain traditional patterns of diet and lifestyle are likely to help Vietnamese and other immigrants avoid the perils of American patterns, facilitating a bi-cultural orientation is perhaps the most realistic approach for preserving protective features of the culture of origin with regard to body weight and fat distribution.

  17. Disentangling the Effects of Migration, Selection and Acculturation on Weight and Body Fat Distribution: Results from a Natural Experiment involving Vietnamese Americans, Returnees, and Never-leavers

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hongyun; VanLandingham, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We distinguish between selection and true migration effects on weight and body fat for Vietnamese immigrants; and examine the role of acculturation on these outcomes. Methods Data (n=703) were collected among three population-based samples of working-age Vietnamese immigrants, repatriated emigrants and never-migrated Vietnamese nationals. This allows for a decomposition exercise to separate the effects of migration effects from selection effects on body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Results Immigrants are more likely to be overweight and to have high WHR, relative to both never-leavers and returnees, a pattern reflecting the importance of migration over selection. Among immigrants, coming to the US at a younger age is associated with higher BMI and WHR levels. And longer length of residence in the US is related to higher BMI. While higher Vietnamese language proficiency is related to a lower BMI level, being bilingual (proficient in both English and Vietnamese) is associated with lower risks for being overweight. Conclusions The distinct pattern of results suggests that more problematic weight status and fat distribution among Vietnamese immigrants relative to Vietnamese nationals are not artifacts of the types of persons choosing to emigrate, but rather are due to acculturation to American diet and lifestyles. While efforts to promote and maintain traditional patterns of diet and lifestyle are likely to help Vietnamese and other immigrants avoid the perils of American patterns, facilitating a bi-cultural orientation is perhaps the most realistic approach for preserving protective features of the culture of origin with regard to body weight and fat distribution. PMID:22427069

  18. Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R; Smeets, Astrid; Lejeune, Manuela P; Wouters-Adriaens, Mirjam P E; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-01-01

    It is hypothesized that low dietary fat oxidation makes subjects prone to weight gain. The aim of the study was to determine dietary fat oxidation in normal, overweight, and obese subjects. The subjects were 38 women and 18 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 30+/-12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25+/-4 (range: 18-39). Dietary fat oxidation was measured with deuterated palmitic acid, given simultaneously with breakfast, while the subjects were fed under controlled conditions in a respiration chamber. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. Dietary fat oxidation, measured over 12 h after breakfast, ranged from 4% to 28% with a mean (+/-SD) of 16+/-6%. Dietary fat oxidation was negatively related to percentage body fat, and lean subjects had the highest and obese subjects the lowest values (r=-0.65, P<0.001). The observed reduction in dietary fat oxidation in subjects with a higher percentage body fat may play a role in human obesity.

  19. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  20. Gender differences in GH response to GHRH+ARG in lipodystrophic patients with HIV: a key role for body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Ansaloni, Anna; Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Gender influence on GH secretion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is poorly known. To determine the effect of gender, we compared GH response to GH-releasing hormone plus arginine (GHRH+Arg), and body composition in 103 men and 97 women with HIV and lipodystrophy. The main outcomes were IGF1, basal GH, GH peak and area under the curve (AUC) after GHRH+Arg, body composition, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Men had lower GH peak and AUC than women (P<0.001). Of the study population, 21% of women and 37% of men had biochemical GH deficiency (GHD; GH peak <7.5 μg/l). VAT-to-SAT ratio was higher in men than in women with GHD (P<0.05). Unlike women, VAT, SAT, and trunk fat were greater in men with GHD than in men without GHD. IGF1 was significantly lower in women with GHD than in women without GHD, but not in men. At univariate analysis, BMI, trunk fat mass, VAT, and total adipose tissue were associated with GH peak and AUC in both sexes (P<0.05). BMI was the most significant predictive factor of GH peak, and AUC at multiregression analysis. Overall, abdominal fat had a less pronounced effect on GH in females than in males. These data demonstrate that GH response to GHRH+Arg is significantly lower in HIV-infected males than females, resulting in a higher percentage of GHD in men. Adipose tissue distribution more than fat mass per se seems to account for GH gender differences and for the alteration of GH-IGF1 status in these patients.

  1. Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Tull, Eugene S; Thurland, Anne; LaPorte, Ronald E; Chambers, Earle C

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

  2. Changes in whole-body fat distribution, intrahepatic lipids, and insulin resistance of obese adolescents during a low-level lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Springer, Fabian; Ballweg, Verena; Schweizer, Roland; Schick, Fritz; Ranke, Michael B; Binder, Gerhard; Ehehalt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adipose tissue (AT) distribution, intrahepatic lipids (IHL), and insulin resistance (IR) among a group of obese adolescents undergoing a 7-months low-level lifestyle intervention. Thirty-nine obese Caucasian adolescents (mean age 13.9 years, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDSLMS) 2.14) were included. AT and IHL were determined by T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and single-voxel MR spectroscopy; IR was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). The lifestyle intervention led to a reduction of both BMI-SDSLMS (boys 2.27 to 2.17; girls 2.00 to 1.82) and HOMA-IR (boys 6.1 to 4.4 (p = 0.008); girls 6.2 to 4.7 (p = 0.030)). IHL dropped in both genders (boys 7.5 to 4.3 %; girls 4.6 to 3.4 %) positively correlating with HOMA-IR (boys r = 0.52; girls r = 0.68), while in contrast visceral AT did not change significantly. Although the lifestyle intervention only slightly reduced BMI-SDSLMS, insulin sensitivity improved in both genders and came along with a marked reduction of IHL. This suggests that IHL might play the dominant role regarding insulin resistance in the youth, especially if compared to other AT compartments such as visceral AT. • MR imaging/spectroscopy can be used to evaluate body fat distribution and intrahepatic lipids in the youth. • The strength of associations between body fat compartments and insulin resistance is under scientific debate. • The study emphasizes that even a low-level lifestyle intervention has a beneficial effect. • The study suggests that intrahepatic lipids are an important factor in the development of insulin resistance.

  3. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  4. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  5. Body fat distribution by anthropometric and MRI-based techniques in relation to insulin secretion and action in men with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Katergari, S A; Milousis, A; Mantatzis, M; Gioka, T; Tripsianis, G; Passadakis, P; Prassopoulos, P; Papachristou, D N

    2014-06-01

    Differences in fat accumulation and distribution might be responsible for the greater insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes. The study aims at examining the relationship between fat accumulation and distribution, and insulin secretion and action, by multilevel methodological approach. Thirty-three diabetic men (D), and 28 sex, age and BMI-matched controls (C) were studied for glucose and insulin during OGTT, insulin resistance and sensitivity, employing HOMA and Matsuda index respectively, and, fat accumulation and distribution by anthropometrics, Bioimpendance Analysis (BIA), and multiple slices MRI of abdomen and hip. D exhibited higher HOMA compared to C (P<0.001), and lower Matsuda index (P=0.062). No differences in fat distribution by anthropometric or MRI measurements were observed; however, fat accumulation by BIA was higher in D (P=0.035). HOMA correlated to basal, AUC, and peak insulin in both groups (all P<0.001); with weight (r=0.415, P=0.031), hip circumference (HC) (r=0.482, P=0.011), %fat (r=0.400, P<0.05) in C; and with weight, BMI, total and %fat, and waist and HC when all subjects were considered as a group. Matsuda inversely correlated with basal, AUC, and peak insulin (all P<0.001), and HC (r=-0.406, P=0.032) in C. HOMA strongest correlated with L3-L4 subcutaneous (r=0.551, P=0.003) in C, and with L3-L4 visceral (r=0.456, P=0.022) in D. The greater IR in diabetic patients may not be interpreted by differences in fat distribution. IR correlates with different fat compartments in healthy and diabetic subjects of comparable fat distribution, suggesting differences in fat function.

  6. Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    A268 695 DTIC ELECTE AUG 3 0 1993 dI I Public . MILITARY MEDICINE, 158, 1:026, 1993 A Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements LT...are required to meet percent Introduction body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF...or 31-35.9% body fat (%BF), and with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Val- obese as 26 or 36%BF or greater for men and women, respec

  7. Body fat distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: outcomes from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Denise L; Patel, Kunjal; Siberry, George K; Van Dyke, Russell B; DiMeglio, Linda A; Geffner, Mitchell E; Chen, Janet S; McFarland, Elizabeth J; Borkowsky, William; Silio, Margarita; Fielding, Roger A; Siminski, Suzanne; Miller, Tracie L

    2011-01-01

    Background: Associations between abnormal body fat distribution and clinical variables are poorly understood in pediatric HIV disease. Objective: Our objective was to compare total body fat and its distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and to evaluate associations with clinical variables. Design: In a cross-sectional analysis, children aged 7–16 y in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study underwent regionalized measurements of body fat via anthropometric methods and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate body fat by HIV, with adjustment for age, Tanner stage, race, sex, and correlates of body fat in HIV-infected children. Percentage total body fat was compared with NHANES data. Results: Males accounted for 47% of the 369 HIV-infected and 51% of the 176 HEU children. Compared with HEU children, HIV-infected children were older, were more frequently non-Hispanic black, more frequently had Tanner stage ≥3, and had lower mean height (−0.32 compared with 0.29), weight (0.13 compared with 0.70), and BMI (0.33 compared with 0.63) z scores. On average, HIV-infected children had a 5% lower percentage total body fat (TotF), a 2.8% lower percentage extremity fat (EF), a 1.4% higher percentage trunk fat (TF), and a 10% higher trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR) than did the HEU children and a lower TotF compared with NHANES data. Stavudine use was associated with lower EF and higher TF and TEFR. Non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor use was associated with higher TotF and EF and lower TEFR. Conclusion: Although BMI and total body fat were significantly lower in the HIV-infected children than in the HEU children, body fat distribution in the HIV-infected children followed a pattern associated with cardiovascular disease risk and possibly related to specific antiretroviral drugs. PMID:22049166

  8. Body dissatisfaction, body fat and physical activity in British children.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan M; Jones, Marc V

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship among body dissatisfaction, body fat and physical activity in British children from different ethnic groups. Two hundred and seventy-six 11-14 year-old males and females (12.5 +0.8 years) took part in the study. Body dissatisfaction was assessed using a figure rating scale; percent body fat was determined by skinfold measures, and physical activity was assessed using a self-report measure. Significant, positive relationships were evident between body dissatisfaction and body fat for the whole sample (r = -0.65, p < 0.01). Similar relationships were evident between body dissatisfaction and body fat when split by gender and ethnicity (both p < 0.01). No significant relationships were evident between body dissatisfaction and physical activity (all p > 0.05). ANCOVA controlling for body fat and physical activity revealed that as the covariate of physical activity increased, so did body dissatisfaction (F(1,269) = 13.36, p < 0.01). A significant interaction between fat and ethnicity was also evident (F2,269 = 4.49, p < 0.05). Girls had lower levels of physical activity (F(1,270) = 6.00, p < 0.01); greater body dissatisfaction (F(1,269) = 9.34, p <0.01), and greater fatness (F(1,275) = 37.51, p < 0.01) than boys. The majority of children in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies and girls were more dissatisfied than boys. The main novel finding of this study was that the association between body dissatisfaction and body fatness differed across ethnic groups, with this association being greatest in Asian children (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi in origin) in comparison to black and white children.

  9. Somatic Maintenance Resources in the Honeybee Worker Fat Body Are Distributed to Withstand the Most Life-Threatening Challenges at Each Life Stage

    PubMed Central

    Seehuus, Siri-Christine; Taylor, Simon; Petersen, Kjell; Aamodt, Randi M.

    2013-01-01

    In a global transcriptome analysis of three natural and three manipulated honeybee worker phenotypes at different ages, we have investigated the distribution of investment in somatic maintenance of the fat body. Gene expression is modulated so that the bees are able to resist the most life-threatening challenges at the actual life stage. Different modes of maintenance and repair are regulated, apparently to meet the environmental challenges most detrimental to survival and reproductive potential for the hive. We observed a broad down-regulation of genomic and cellular maintenance in the short-lived foragers and nurse bees compared to the long-lived winter bees. Our results show that survival and reproduction of the entire hive is given priority over the individual bees, hence supporting the idea of the honeybee society as a superorganism. Our results also fit the disposable soma theory of aging. PMID:23940531

  10. The role of IGF-1 and the distribution of body fat in decreasing the number of prostate rebiopsies.

    PubMed

    Morán, E; Martínez, M; Budía, A; Broseta, E; Cámara, R; Boronat, F

    2017-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of IGF-1 and internal organ fat measured by bioelectrical impedance audiometry to avoid rebiopsies in patients with persistently high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. A prospective study was conducted with 92 patients who underwent prostate rebiopsy due to high PSA levels with negative results in the rectal examination and a lack of preneoplastic lesions. The patients previously had their IGF-1 levels measured and had undergone an impedance audiometry test using the abdominal Fat Analyser AB-140 TANITA system. We calculated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the PSA levels, %PSA, internal organ fat and IGF-1 and PSA density. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. These patients had significantly higher PSA, PSAd and IGF-1 values and a tendency towards higher internal organ fat levels and lower %PSA readings (p=.001, p=.003, p=.001, p=.24 and P=0.28, respectively). The ROC curve showed an area under the curve for IGF-1 and PSA of .82 and .81, respectively. Using the cutoff points for 95% sensitivity and using the 3 criteria as an indication of rebiopsy, 74% of the biopsies would have been spared, leaving undiagnosed only 1 patient with clinically significant cancer -Gleason score>7 (4+3)-. The positive and negative predictive values for the set of variables were higher than for each one separately (PPV: 66/NPV: 63). The cost of both determinations was 82 euros. Our results suggest that measuring IGF-1 could significantly decrease the number of unnecessary rebiopsies in an inexpensive and safe manner. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Plaster body wrap: effects on abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Santos Moreira, Juliana; Melo, Ana Sofia Carneiro Pinto de; Noites, Andreia; Couto, Miriam Faria; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Adubeiro, Nuno Carvalho Freire de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal fat is associated with metabolic disorders, leading to cardiovascular risk factors and numerous diseases. This study aimed to analyze the effect of plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise on abdominal fat. Nineteen female volunteers were randomly divided into intervention group (IG; n = 10) performing aerobic exercise with plaster body wrap, and control group (CG; n = 9) performing only exercise. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured using ultrasound; subcutaneous fat was also estimated on analysis of skinfolds and abdominal perimeters. At the end of the 10-sessions protocol, the IG demonstrated a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous fat at the left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) level and in iliac crest perimeter measurements. A large intervention effect size strength (0.80) was found in subcutaneous fat below the navel and a moderate effect size strength on the vertical abdominal skinfold (0.62) and the perimeter of the most prominent abdominal point (0.57). Comparing the initial and final data of each group, the IG showed a significant decrease in numerous variables including visceral and subcutaneous fat above and below the navel measured by ultrasound (p ≤ 0.05). Plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise seems to be effective for abdominal fat reduction.

  12. Waist-to-Hip Ratio is Related to Body Fat Content and Distribution Regardless of the Waist Circumference Measurement Protocol in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Nuno M; Santa-Clara, Helena; Melo, Xavier; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Silva-Nunes, José; Sardinha, Luís B

    2016-08-01

    Central accumulation and distribution of body fat (BF) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), commonly elevated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, has been endorsed as a risk related marker of central BF content and distribution, but no standardized waist circumference measurement protocol (WCmp) has been proposed. We aimed to investigate whether using different WCmp affects the strength of association between WHR and BF content and distribution in NAFLD patients. BF was assessed with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 28 NAFLD patients (19 males, 51 ± 13 years, and 9 females, 47 ± 13 years). Waist circumference (WC) was measured using four different WCmp (WC1: minimal waist; WC2: iliac crest; WC3: mid-distance between iliac crest and lowest rib; WC4: at the umbilicus) and WHR was calculated accordingly (WHR1, WHR2, WHR3 and WHR4, respectively). High WHR was found in up to 84.6% of subjects, depending on the WHR considered. With the exception of WHR1, all WHR correlated well with abdominal BF (r = .47 for WHR1; r = .59 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .58 for WHR4) and BF distribution (r = .45 for WHR1; r = .56 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .51 for WHR4), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). WHR2 and WHR3 diagnosed exactly the same prevalence of high WHR (76.9%). The present study confirms the strong relation between WHR and central BF, regardless of WCmp used, in NAFLD patients. WHR2 and WHR3 seemed preferable for use in clinical practice, interchangeably, for the diagnosis of high WHR in NAFLD patients.

  13. Mannitol lowers fat digestibility and body fat accumulation in both normal and cecectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ayae; Nishioka, Sachiko; Islam, Shahidul M; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2009-06-01

    Mannitol is a six-carbon sugar alcohol that is widely distributed in plants. Sugar alcohols are widely used in various food products because of their numerous beneficial health effects. The present study investigated the effects of mannitol consumption on digestion, large gut fermentation and nutrient metabolism in normal and cecectomized male Wistar rats. After 28 d of feeding with three kinds of diet containing 0, 4 or 8% mannitol, mannitol consumption dose-dependently lowered the digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein, the ratio of body fat accumulation to energy absorbed and the hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in normal rats. After 24 d of feeding with three kinds of diet comprising a control diet, a 5% mannitol-containing diet and a 5% fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-containing diet, mannitol lowered the digestibility of fat and the ratio of body fat accumulation to energy consumed and absorbed in cecectomized rats. On the other hand, FOS consumption had no effect on the accumulation of body fat, but lowered the digestibility of fat. FOS consumption greatly improved the accumulation of body ash in cecectomized rats. These results suggest that mannitol has a lowering effect on body fat accumulation, and further indicate that the cecum is not essential for the appearance of effects of mannitol on digestion, absorption and metabolism.

  14. Relationship of sex hormone binding globulin to overall adiposity and body fat distribution in a biethnic population.

    PubMed

    Haffner, S M; Katz, M S; Stern, M P; Dunn, J F

    1989-01-01

    Previous data have indicated that decreased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is associated with increased overall and upper body adiposity and higher levels of glucose, insulin and triglyceride (TG) and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Since Mexican Americans have greater overall and upper body adiposity, higher rates of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, higher TG and lower HDL levels than non-Hispanic whites, we postulated that they would also have lower levels of SHBG. We measured total testosterone and total estradiol using a commercial radioimmunoassy and SHBG using a dextran-coated charcoal technique in premenopausal women (61 Mexican American and 39 non-Hispanic white) as part of the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. There were no significant ethnic differences in total testosterone or total estradiol. SHBG, however, was lower in Mexican American (0.285 micrograms/dl) than in non-Hispanic white women (0.429 micrograms/dl) (P = 0.009). After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), ratio of waist-to-hip circumference (WHR) and ratio of subscapular-to-triceps skinfolds (centrality index), SHBG remained lower in Mexican Americans (0.307 micrograms/dl) than in non-Hispanic whites (0.396 micrograms/dl), although this difference was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.083). BMI, WHR and centrality index were all negatively associated with SHBG (P less than 0.01). The lower levels of SHBG in premenopausal Mexican American women compared to non-Hispanic white women may reflect greater in-vivo androgenicity and may be related to a variety of metabolic abnormalities seen in this ethnic group.

  15. The effect of metformin on the metabolic abnormalities associated with upper-body fat distribution. BIGPRO Study Group.

    PubMed

    Fontbonne, A; Charles, M A; Juhan-Vague, I; Bard, J M; André, P; Isnard, F; Cohen, J M; Grandmottet, P; Vague, P; Safar, M E; Eschwège, E

    1996-09-01

    The constellation of anomalies associated with insulin resistance is a plausible additional cause of ischemic cardiovascular disease and of NIDDM. To test this hypothesis in a primary prevention trial, the effects of metformin as a potential candidate for intervention in the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) were evaluated in 324 middle-aged subjects with upper-body obesity. Trial patients were selected on the basis of a high waist-to-hip ratio. They were randomly allocated to receive either metformin or placebo, following a double-blind procedure. After 1 year of treatment, the main clinical and biological parameters of the IRS were assessed and their evolution compared between treatment groups. Compared with placebo, metformin induced a significant weight loss, a better maintenance of fasting blood glucose, total and LDL cholesterol levels, and a greater decrease of fasting plasma insulin concentration. Moreover, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen, a marker of fibrinolytic impairment, showed a significant decrease under metformin. By contrast, metformin treatment had no significant effect on blood pressure or serum triglyceride and HDL cholesterol concentrations. The main side effect of metformin was diarrhea. The BIGuanides and Prevention of Risks in Obesity (BIGPRO1) results suggest that metformin would be a suitable candidate for long-term intervention for the prevention of diabetes but that its use in a trial of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires either a reevaluation of its properties toward the most potentially atherogenic anomalies of the IRS or a better definition of the target population.

  16. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in Brazilian children, regardless of body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Milagres, Luana Cupertino; Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Filgueiras, Mariana de Santis; Albuquerque, Fernanda Martins de; Castro, Ana Paula Pereira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2017-08-22

    To assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors, controlled by adiposity, in a representative sample of prepubescent children. Cross-sectional population-based study. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure were performed. Laboratory analyses were performed to determine the levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyitamin D; 25(OH)D), glucose, insulin, serum lipids and intact parathyroid hormone. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24 h recalls. Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2015. Representative sample of 378 children aged 8 and 9 years from urban schools. Inadequate serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were diagnosed in more than half of the children and none of them met the recommended vitamin D intake. After adjusting for confounding factors in the multiple regression analysis, lower prevalence of insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolaemia was found in children with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l (prevalence ratio=0·25; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·85) and ≥50 nmol/l (prevalence ratio=0·61; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·99), respectively. However, after adjusting for different indicators of adiposity, insulin resistance remained independently associated and the association with hypertriacylglycerolaemia was lost after adjusting for central adiposity. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was associated with the number of cardiometabolic alterations in children. The study results showed that prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was high among the children and insulin resistance was the main cardiometabolic alteration associated with this condition, even in a tropical climate country such as Brazil.

  17. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

  18. Breastfeeding, early nutrition, and adult body fat.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Rolland-Cachera, Marie-Françoise

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all P > .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = -28.25% SF; 95% CI, -50.28% to -6.21%; P = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = -28.27% SF; 95% CI, -50.64% to -5.90%; P = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging Body Fat: Techniques and Cardiometabolic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y. E; Eitzman, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic and is associated with multiple comorbidities. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and adverse health outcomes remain poorly understood. This may be due to several factors including the crude measures used to estimate adiposity, the striking heterogeneity between adipose tissue depots, and the influence of fat accumulation in multiple organs. In order to advance our understanding of fat stores and associated co-morbidities in humans, it will be necessary to image adiposity throughout the body and ultimately also assess its functionality. Large clinical studies are demonstrating the prognostic importance of adipose tissue imaging. Newer techniques capable of imaging fat metabolism and other functions of adipose tissue may provide additional prognostic utility and may be useful in guiding therapeutic interventions. PMID:25147343

  20. Examination of central body fat deposition as a risk factor for loss-of-control eating.

    PubMed

    Berner, Laura A; Arigo, Danielle; Mayer, Laurel Es; Sarwer, David B; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI), higher waist-to-hip ratio, and body dissatisfaction have been investigated as risk factors for the development of bulimic symptoms. Central fat deposition may be particularly relevant to eating disorders. To our knowledge, the longitudinal relations between fat distribution, body dissatisfaction, and loss-of-control (LOC) eating development and maintenance have not been studied. We examined body fat distribution, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms, as a unique correlate and predictor of body dissatisfaction and LOC eating cross-sectionally and over a 2-y follow-up. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 294 adult women at risk of weight gain at baseline, 6 mo, and 24 mo. We assessed LOC eating, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms at baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo by using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales Body Areas Satisfaction subscale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Independent of BMI, baseline total percentage body fat, percentage trunk fat, and percentage abdominal fat were related to greater body dissatisfaction. Total percentage body fat and trunk fat tended to be associated with greater body dissatisfaction at all subsequent time points. Women with a greater percentage trunk fat, specifically abdominal fat, were at highest risk of developing LOC eating. In the full sample, women with higher baseline percentage trunk and abdominal fat showed increases in LOC eating episode frequency over time, whereas LOC eating frequency remained stable among women with smaller percentages of fat in trunk and abdominal regions. These findings lend further support to the premise that increased central body fat deposition is associated with body image dissatisfaction and suggest that it may represent a risk and maintenance factor for LOC eating. This trial was

  1. GENESIS OF MITOCHONDRIA IN INSECT FAT BODY

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electron microscopy and stereological methods have been used to study the time course and mechanism of mitochondrial genesis in the adult fat body of Calpodes ethlius, (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Most of the larval mitochondria are destroyed during a phase of autolysis shortly before pupation, so that pupal and early adult fat body cells have few mitochondria. The number of mitochondria per cell increases rapidly at the end of the 1st day after the adult emerges. Characteristic partitioned mitochondria appear during the period when the number is rapidly increasing. This evidence, coupled with the results of morphometric analyses of mitochondrial diameter, volume, and surface area, confirms the view that the genesis of adult mitochondria involves the growth and division of mitochondria surviving from the larva. PMID:19866737

  2. Fat Body Organ Culture System in Aedes Aegypti, a Vector of Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hae-Na; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Carpenter, Victoria K; Vulcan, Julia; Bailey, C Donovan; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Li, Yiyi; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-08-19

    The insect fat body plays a central role in insect metabolism and nutrient storage, mirroring functions of the liver and fat tissue in vertebrates. Insect fat body tissue is usually distributed throughout the insect body. However, it is often concentrated in the abdomen and attached to the abdominal body wall. The mosquito fat body is the sole source of yolk proteins, which are critical for egg production. Therefore, the in vitro culture of mosquito fat body tissues represents an important system for the study of mosquito physiology, metabolism, and, ultimately, egg production. The fat body culture process begins with the preparation of solutions and reagents, including amino acid stock solutions, Aedes physiological saline salt stock solution (APS), calcium stock solution, and fat body culture medium. The process continues with fat body dissection, followed by an experimental treatment. After treatment, a variety of different analyses can be performed, including RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), qPCR, Western blots, proteomics, and metabolomics. In our example experiment, we demonstrate the protocol through the excision and culture of fat bodies from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. RNA from fat bodies cultured under a physiological condition known to upregulate yolk proteins versus the control were subject to RNA-Seq analysis to demonstrate the potential utility of this procedure for investigations of gene expression.

  3. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  4. Lipid levels and changes in body fat distribution in treatment-naive, HIV-1-Infected adults treated with rilpivirine or Efavirenz for 96 weeks in the ECHO and THRIVE trials.

    PubMed

    Tebas, Pablo; Sension, Michael; Arribas, José; Duiculescu, Dan; Florence, Eric; Hung, Chien-Ching; Wilkin, Timothy; Vanveggel, Simon; Stevens, Marita; Deckx, Henri

    2014-08-01

    Pooled ECHO/THRIVE lipid and body fat data are presented from the ECHO (Efficacy Comparison in Treatment-Naïve, HIV-Infected Subjects of TMC278 and Efavirenz) and THRIVE (TMC278 Against HIV, in a Once-Daily Regimen Versus Efavirenz) trials. We assessed the 96-week effects on lipids, adverse events (AEs), and body fat distribution (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) of rilpivirine (RPV) and EFV plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs) in treatment-naive adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Rilpivirine produced minimal changes in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Compared with RPV, EFV significantly (P < .001) increased lipid levels. Decreases in the TC/HDL-C ratio were similar with RPV and EFV. Background N[t]RTI affected RPV-induced lipid changes; all levels increased with zidovudine/lamivudine (3TC) and abacavir/3TC (except triglycerides, which were unchanged). With emtricitabine/tenofovir, levels of HDL-C were increased, TC and LDL-C were unchanged, and triglycerides were decreased. With EFV, lipid levels increased in each N[t]RTI subgroup (except triglycerides were unchanged with abacavir/3TC). Fewer (P < .001) RPV-treated patients than EFV-treated patients had TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels above National Cholesterol Education Program cutoffs. More RPV- than EFV-treated patients had HDL-C values below these cutoffs (P = .02). Dyslipidemia AEs were less common with RPV than with EFV. Similar proportions of patients had a ≥10% decrease in limb fat (16% with RPV and 17% with EFV). Limb fat was significantly (P < .001) increased to a similar extent (by 12% with RPV and 11% with EFV). At week 96, patients receiving zidovudine/3TC had lost limb fat, and those receiving emtricitabine/tenofovir had gained it. Over the course of 96 weeks, RPV-based therapy was associated with lower increases in lipid

  5. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  6. Effects of dapagliflozin on body weight, total fat mass, and regional adipose tissue distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on metformin.

    PubMed

    Bolinder, Jan; Ljunggren, Östen; Kullberg, Joel; Johansson, Lars; Wilding, John; Langkilde, Anna Maria; Sugg, Jennifer; Parikh, Shamik

    2012-03-01

    Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and weight loss is a consistent associated finding. Our objectives were to confirm weight loss with dapagliflozin and establish through body composition measurements whether weight loss is accounted for by changes in fat or fluid components. This was a 24-wk, international, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with ongoing 78-wk site- and patient-blinded extension period at 40 sites in five countries. Included were 182 patients with T2DM (mean values: women 63.3 and men 58.6 yr of age; hemoglobin A1c 7.17%, body mass index 31.9 kg/m2, and body weight 91.5 kg) inadequately controlled on metformin. Dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo was added to open-label metformin for 24 wk. Primary endpoint was total body weight (TBW) change from baseline at wk 24. Key secondary endpoints were waist circumference and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total-body fat mass (FM) changes from baseline at wk 24, and patient proportion achieving body weight reduction of at least 5% at wk 24. In a subset of patients, magnetic resonance assessment of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sc adipose tissue (SAT) volume and hepatic lipid content were also evaluated. At wk 24, placebo-corrected changes with dapagliflozin were as follows: TBW, -2.08 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.84 to -1.31; P<0.0001]; waist circumference, -1.52 cm (95% CI=-2.74 to -0.31; P=0.0143); FM, -1.48 kg (95% CI=-2.22 to -0.74; P=0.0001); proportion of patients achieving weight reduction of at least 5%, +26.2% (95% CI=15.5 to 36.7; P<0.0001); VAT, -258.4 cm3 (95% CI=-448.1 to -68.6; nominal P=0.0084); SAT, -184.9 cm3 (95% CI=-359.7 to -10.1; nominal P=0.0385). In the dapagliflozin vs. placebo groups, respectively, serious adverse events were reported in 6.6 vs. 1.1%; events suggestive of

  7. Android fat distribution as predictor of severity in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mery, Carlos M; Rubio, Valeria; Duarte-Rojo, Andrés; Suazo-Barahona, Jorge; Peláez-Luna, Mario; Milke, Pilar; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is considered an independent risk factor for the development of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this study was to define the type of fat distribution related to severity in AP. Eighty-eight patients with first-time AP underwent measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness on admission. Severity was defined according to Atlanta criteria. AP was severe in 27 (31%) patients. There was a tendency for obese patients to develop severe AP (p = 0.11). Android fat distribution by waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference above ideal cut-off value (ROC curves analysis) were significantly associated with severity (RR: 5.54, 95% CI 1.39-22.04, and RR: 4.36, 95% CI 1.40-13.57, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounders, both measurements remained predictors of severity in the logistic regression model (OR: 9.23, 95% CI 1.67-51.07, and OR: 13.41, 95% CI 2.43-73.97, respectively). Body fat percentage was not associated with incidence of severity. Patients with android fat distribution and higher waist circumference are at greater risk for developing severe AP. Findings could be related to the amount of abdominal fat but also to an overactive systemic inflammatory response that tend to be upregulated in android fat distribution. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  8. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD.

  9. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions.

  10. Food prices and body fatness among youths.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This is the first study to consider clinically measured levels of body composition rather than BMI to investigate the effects of food prices on obesity outcomes among youths classified by gender and race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that increases in the real price per calorie of food for home consumption and the real price of fast-food restaurant food lead to improvements in obesity outcomes among youths. We also find that a rise in the real price of fruits and vegetables leads to increased obesity. Finally, our results indicate that measures of PBF derived from BIA and DXA are no less sensitive and in some cases more sensitive to the prices just mentioned than BMI, and serve an important role in demonstrating that rising food prices (except fruit and vegetable prices) are indeed associated with reductions in obesity rather than with reductions in body size proportions alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Body composition and time course changes in regional distribution of fat and lean tissue in unselected cancer patients on palliative care--correlations with food intake, metabolism, exercise capacity, and hormones.

    PubMed

    Fouladiun, Marita; Körner, Ulla; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Daneryd, Peter; Hyltander, Anders; Lundholm, Kent G

    2005-05-15

    Several investigations that yielded different results in terms of net changes in body composition of weight-losing cancer patients have been reported that employed a variety of methods based on fundamentally different technology. Most of those reports were cross-sectional, whereas to the authors' knowledge there is sparse information available on longitudinal follow-up measurements in relation to other independent methods for the assessment of metabolism and performance. For the current report, the authors evaluated time course changes in body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) with measurements of whole body and regional distribution of fat and lean tissue in relation to food and dietary intake, host metabolism (indirect calorimetry), maximum exercise capacity (walking test), and circulating hormones in cancer patients who were receiving palliative care during 4-62 months of follow-up. The entire cohort comprised 311 patients, ages 68 years +/- 3 years who were diagnosed with solid gastrointestinal tumors (84 colorectal tumors, 74 pancreatic tumors, 73 upper gastrointestinal tumors, 51 liver-biliary tumors, 3 breast tumors, 5 melanomas, and 21 other tumor types). Decreased body weight was explained by loss of body fat, preferentially from the trunk, followed by leg tissue and arm tissue, respectively. Lean tissue (fat-free mass) was lost from arm tissue, whereas trunk and leg tissue compartments increased, all concomitant with declines in serum albumin, increased systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate), increased serum insulin, and elevated daily caloric intake; whereas serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), resting energy expenditure, and maximum exercise capacity remained unchanged in the same patients. Serum albumin levels (P < 0.001), whole body fat (P < 0.02), and caloric intake (P < 0.001) predicted survival, whereas lean tissue mass did not. Daily intake of fat and carbohydrate was more important for

  12. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  13. The Relationship between Farming Activities, Physical Fitness and Body Fat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Military training, *Military personnel, *Research management, *Physical fitness, *Measurement, National Guard, Statistical analysis, Mean, Fat cells, Human body , Questionnaires, Field tests, Test methods, Variables, Scoring

  14. The beneficial effects of body fat and adipose tissue in humans.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    1997-09-01

    Body fat and adipose tissue are considered to have beneficial effects when they promote or protect the present and future function. These effects do not occur at absolute amounts or percentages of the body weight but rather they are context specific. Body fat stores are the major energy stores of the body and are important determinants of survival in starvation or undernutrition. Reproduction features highly as a biological function. Humans are alone in having major sex-specific fat stores and patterns of fat distribution and these have been linked with the onset and maintenance of menstruation, with mate selection and sexual signalling, and with favourable pregnancy and lactation outcomes. To survive and reproduce good physical and psychological health are advantageous attributes. Work metabolism, bone health and, possibly immune function and energy balance itself, are related in functionally beneficial ways to fat content and distribution.

  15. Relationships between plasma adiponectin and body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and plasma lipoproteins in Alaskan Yup'ik Eskimos: the Center for Alaska Native Health Research study.

    PubMed

    Goropashnaya, Anna V; Herron, Johanna; Sexton, Mary; Havel, Peter J; Stanhope, Kimber L; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Mohatt, Gerald V; Boyer, Bert B

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipose tissue, has antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and insulin-sensitizing actions. We examined the relationship between plasma adiponectin and adiposity, insulin resistance, plasma lipids, glucose, leptin, and anthropometric measurements in 316 adult men and 353 adult women Yup'ik Eskimos in Southwest Alaska. Adiponectin concentration was negatively associated with body mass index, percentage of body fat, sum of skin folds, waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), fasting insulin, and leptin in both men and women, and also with glucose in women. Adiponectin concentration correlated positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and also with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. Insulin-sensitive individuals (HOMA-IR <3.52, n = 442) had higher plasma adiponectin concentrations than more insulin-resistant individuals (HOMA-IR >or=3.52, n = 224): 11.02 +/- 0.27 microg/mL vs 8.26 +/- 0.32 microg/mL, P < .001. Adiponectin concentrations did not differ between groups of participants with low and high level of risk for developing coronary heart disease. No difference in plasma adiponectin levels was found among Yup'ik Eskimos and whites matched for sex, age, and body mass index. In conclusion, circulating adiponectin concentrations were most strongly associated with sum of skin folds in Yup'ik men and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, sum of skin folds, waist circumference, and insulin and triglycerides concentrations in Yup'ik women.

  16. [The association between body mass index, waist circumference with body fat percent, and abdominal fat rate in overweight and obese pupils].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-jing; Wang, Hai-jun; Liu, Jia-shuai; Ma, Jun

    2013-07-01

    To study the association between body mass index(BMI), waist circumference (WC) with body fat percent, and abdominal fat rate in overweight and obese pupils. Using convenience sampling, two primary schools of Dongcheng district in Beijing were selected in May 2010. A total of 162 overweight and obese pupils graded from 2 to 5 who met the criteria of overweight and obese were recruited based on the physical exam record of the school medical department in April. Their physical measurements were taken to measure body fat percent (PBF), abdominal fat rate and visceral fat level and BMI was calculated.Independent-sample t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied to analyze the gender differences. Correlation analysis was used to explore the association between the indexes of fat distribution (PBF, abdominal fat rate and visceral fat level) and BMI and WC.Univariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the variance of three indexes of fat distribution explained by the independent variables. The PBF of overweight and obese pupils was (43.62 ± 2.98) %, the abdominal fat rate of them was (28.06 ± 6.02)%, the visceral fat level of them was 7.51 ± 3.43, BMI was (23.41 ± 2.83) kg/m(2). WC, PBF and abdominal fat rate were (78.57 ± 7.76) cm, (42.36 ± 2.56) % and (26.47 ± 5.39) % in boys and (73.34 ± 7.22) cm, (45.88 ± 2.26) %, (30.92 ± 6.07) % in girls. The difference in gender was significant (t values were -4.218, 8.751, 4.811, respectively, all P values <0.01). The visceral fat level of boys and girls were 8.86 ± 3.42 and 5.09 ± 1.70, with significant difference (Z = -7.08, P < 0.01). The correlation between PBF and BMI and the variance of PBF explained by BMI (r = 0.563, R(2) = 31.7%) were stronger than them with WC (r = 0.402, R(2) = 16.1%) (P < 0.01). The correlation between visceral fat levels and WC and the variance of visceral fat level explained by WC (r = 0.723, R(2) = 57.3%) were higher than them with BMI (r = 0.621, R(2) = 41.7%) (P < 0

  17. Fat body of the frog Rana esculenta: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Zancanaro, C; Merigo, F; Digito, M; Pelosi, G

    1996-03-01

    In the frog, the fat body is the largest body lipid deposit and is associated with the gonad. The aim of the present work was to investigate the fine structure of the fat body at different periods of the annual cycle and during prolonged starvation. Results indicate that fat body cells of Rana esculenta caught in autumn and after winter hibernation resemble mammalian adipocytes of white adipose tissue and contain markers of adipose tissue, such as S-100 protein and lipoproteinlipase. However, unlike mammalian adipocytes, fat body adipocytes consistently show small lipid droplets associated with their single, large lipid deposits, a lack of a definite external lamina, and the presence of cellular prolongations and spicula at their surfaces. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy in association with lanthanum tracer experiments suggest that in fat body adipocytes a vesicular-tubular system connects the cytoplasm and the interstitial space. In June (i.e., during the reproductive period), fat body adipocytes appear to have lost much of their lipid deposit and adjacent adipocytes show interdigitation of their plasma membranes and prominent Golgi complexes. In starved frogs, fat body cells can be almost devoid of lipid and in regression to a near-mesenchymal state. Nevertheless, these fat bodies still contain lipoproteinlipase activity (approximately 45% of that found in lipid-filled ones), indicating persistent adipose differentiation of the cells therein. Results presented here show that the R. esculenta fat body is an adipose organ undergoing reversible extreme changes in adipocyte fat content, which are associated with definite ultrastructural features. The fat body represents a suitable model for studying adipose tissue under different and extreme physiological conditions.

  18. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  19. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  20. Effects of total fat intake on body weight.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bunn, Diane; Brown, Tracey; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Skeaff, C Murray

    2015-08-07

    In order to prevent overweight and obesity in the general population we need to understand the relationship between the proportion of energy from fat and resulting weight and body fatness in the general population. To assess the effects of proportion of energy intake from fat on measures of weight and body fatness (including obesity, waist circumference and body mass index) in people not aiming to lose weight, using all appropriate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies in adults, children and young people We searched CENTRAL to March 2014 and MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to November 2014. We did not limit the search by language. We also checked the references of relevant reviews. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised intervention trial, 2) included children (aged ≥ 24 months), young people or adults, 3) randomised to a lower fat versus usual or moderate fat diet, without the intention to reduce weight in any participants, 4) not multifactorial and 5) assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We also included cohort studies in children, young people and adults that assessed the proportion of energy from fat at baseline and assessed the relationship with body weight or fatness after at least one year. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion or referral to a third party. We extracted data on the population, intervention, control and outcome measures in duplicate. We extracted measures of weight and body fatness independently in duplicate at all available time points. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity and funnel plot analyses. We included 32 RCTs (approximately 54,000 participants) and 30 sets of analyses of 25 cohorts. There is consistent evidence from RCTs in adults of a small weight-reducing effect of eating a smaller proportion of energy from fat; this was seen in almost all included studies and was highly resistant to

  1. Total body fat and central fat mass independently predict insulin resistance but not hyperandrogenemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Flavia; Di Sarra, Daniela; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Bonin, Cecilia; Moretta, Rosa; Bonora, Enzo; Zanolin, Elisabetta; Moghetti, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a common feature of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to assess the role of body fat on insulin resistance and androgen excess in these subjects. One hundred sixteen consecutive Caucasian women with PCOS, diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria, underwent accurate assessment of clinical, anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic features. In particular, total fat mass and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, serum-free T by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and equilibrium dialysis and insulin sensitivity by the glucose clamp technique. Total fat mass and truncal fat were significantly higher in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive PCOS subjects (+89% and +127%, respectively, both P < .001), and both tended to be higher in hyperandrogenemic than in normoandrogenemic women (+22% and +28%, respectively, P = .087 and P = .090). All parameters of adiposity correlated inversely with insulin sensitivity (P < .001) and directly with serum-free T (P ≤ .001). A statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between insulin sensitivity and serum-free T concentrations (r = -0.527, P < .001). In a multiple regression analysis, either total fat mass or truncal fat, in addition to serum-free T and age, were independent predictors of insulin sensitivity. However, insulin sensitivity, but not total fat mass or truncal fat, was an independent predictor of free T concentrations. These data suggest that body fat contributes to determining insulin resistance in PCOS women. However, the association between body fat and hyperandrogenism seems to be to a large extent explained by insulin resistance.

  2. Comparative investigation of body composition in male dogs using CT and body fat analysis software.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Kusumi, Akiko; Kitagawa, Masato; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2014-03-01

    In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax.

  3. Comparative Investigation of Body Composition in Male Dogs Using CT and Body Fat Analysis Software

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KUSUMI, Akiko; KITAGAWA, Masato; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax. PMID:24212506

  4. Relationship Between Body Fatness and Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Larry D.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between physical performance tests and body fatness in young children, and the extent to which differences in performance between the sexes could be explained by differences in body fatness. Measurements of age, height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, and performance scores on the vertical jump, standing…

  5. [Effect of different dietary fat intake on blood lipids, body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yantong; Zhuo, Qin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Chun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different dietary fat intake on body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats. Forty male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Rats in low fat, normal fat, medium fat and high fat group were fed equal energy diets of low fat diet (5% energy from fat), normal diet (15% energy from fat), medium fat diet (25% energy from fat) and high fat diet (40% energy from fat) respectively. Blood glucose and lipids were analyzed at 0, 5 and 10 weeks. The level of serum adiponectin and leptin was tested at 0 and 10 weeks. At the end of 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, the perirenal and periepididymis fat were separated and weighed. The mRNA of adiponectin and leptin in fat tissues were determined by realtime PCR. After the 5 and 10 weeks, the levels of serum triglyceride of rats in medium fat group and high fat group were lower than those in low fat group and normal fat group. At the end of 10 weeks, the expression of adiponectin mRNA in fat tissues in medium fat group was lower than those in low fat group. There were no significant differences among four groups in body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin, and the expression of leptin mRNA in fat tissues. In energy balance status, different dietary fat intake had no effects on body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin in rats.

  6. Relationship between obesity and foot pain and its association with fat mass, fat distribution, and muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Wluka, Anita E; Berry, Patricia; Menz, Hylton B; Strauss, Boyd J; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Proietto, Joseph; Dixon, John B; Jones, Graeme; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2012-02-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity, body composition, and foot pain as assessed by the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI). Subjects 25-62 years of age (n = 136) were recruited as part of a study examining the relationship between obesity and musculoskeletal health. Foot pain was defined as current foot pain and pain in the last month, and an MFPDI score of ≥1. Body composition (tissue mass and fat distribution) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry. The body mass index (BMI) in this population was normally distributed around a mean of 32.1 kg/m(2). The prevalence of foot pain was 55.1%. There was a positive association between BMI and foot pain (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-1.17). Foot pain was also positively associated with fat mass (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.09) and fat mass index (FMI; OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.28) when adjusted for age, sex, and skeletal muscle mass and age, sex, and fat-free mass index (FFMI), respectively. When examining fat distribution, positive associations were observed for android/total body fat ratio (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.11-1.83) and android/gynoid fat ratio (OR 35.15, 95% CI 2.60-475.47), although gynoid/total body fat ratio was inversely related to foot pain (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Skeletal muscle mass and FFMI were not associated with foot pain when adjusted for fat mass or FMI, respectively. Increasing BMI, specifically android fat mass, is strongly associated with foot pain and disability. This may imply both biomechanical and metabolic mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Derivation of Anthropometry Based Body Fat Equations for the Army’s Weight Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Histogram comparing male group means of % -* body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 "Figure Sb. Histogram comparing female...group means of % body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 .pi •’. iv 0O 9 LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO. Table 1. Age and ethnic distributions...index ( BMI ) (also referred to as quetelet index) (weight/height 2 ) or Ponderal Index (weight 1/ 3 /height). The correlation between BMI and % body fat

  8. Significant decrease of subcutaneous body fat during tube-weaning from enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Kaimbacher, Petra S; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite; Zwi Scheer, Peter J; Cvirn, Gerhard; Schrabmair, Walter; Greilberger, Joachin; Schnedl, Wolfang J; Tafeit, Erwin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate anthropometry and subcutaneous body fat on long-term enterally-fed children during tube weaning through a prospective cohort study with a pre-post-test design. The LIPOMETER, an optical device, was used to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers (in mm). The specification of 15 evenly-distributed body sites allows for a precise measurement of subcutaneous body fat distribution, known as subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Anthropometry and SAT-Top were determined in long-term enterally fed children in the pre- and post-tube weaning phase of a 3-week tube weaning program. The results of the SAT-Top measurements are presented on three levels: 15 body sites, four body regions and SAT-total. The sample size consisted of 30 long-term tube-fed children (13 girls and 17 boys). Both sexes demonstrated a clear decrease of anthropometry and subcutaneous body fat during tube weaning. Girls lost -26.1 mm, -30.7%, (P=0.002) of their initial fat mass and boys -12.5 mm, -18.4%, (P<0.001). In general, girls had thicker SAT layers in all SAT-Top measurements and a higher reduction of subcutaneous body fat during the intervention. At the end of the tube weaning program girls and boys demonstrated similar results of subcutaneous body fat on the three observed levels: 15 body sites, four body regions and SAT-total. Upon discharge, total subcutaneous body fat of girls and boys was 58.9 mm and 55.5 mm, respectively. This study presents a basic documentation of changes in anthropometry and subcutaneous body fat during tube weaning and could potentially be used to help create guidelines for safe tube weaning.

  9. Genetics of fat intake in the determination of body mass.

    PubMed

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Mlodzik, Monika A

    2017-03-15

    Body mass and fat intake are multifactorial traits that have genetic and environmental components. The gene with the greatest effect on body mass is FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated), but several studies have shown that the effect of FTO (and of other genes) on body mass can be modified by the intake of nutrients. The so-called gene-environment interactions may also be important for the effectiveness of weight-loss strategies. Food choices, and thus fat intake, depend to some extent on individual preferences. The most important biological component of food preference is taste, and the role of fat sensitivity in fat intake has recently been pointed out. Relatively few studies have analysed the genetic components of fat intake or fatty acid sensitivity in terms of their relation to obesity. It has been proposed that decreased oral fatty acid sensitivity leads to increased fat intake and thus increased body mass. One of the genes that affect fatty acid sensitivity is CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36). However, little is known so far about the genetic component of fat sensing. We performed a literature review to identify the state of knowledge regarding the genetics of fat intake and its relation to body-mass determination, and to identify the priorities for further investigations.

  10. [Characteristics and distribution of normal human epidural fat].

    PubMed

    Reina, M A; Pulido, P; Castedo, J; Villanueva, M C; López, A; Sola, R G

    2006-01-01

    Epidural fat provides sufficient cushion for the pulsatile movements of the dural sac, protects nerve structures, facilitates the movement of the dural sac over the periosteum of the spinal column during flexion and extension, and forms a pharmacologic reservoir of lipophilic substances. We review epidural fat and related structures, including their development during the fetal period when the epidural space is filled by undifferentiated loose, areolar mesenchymal tissue that surrounds the dural sac. In the adult, epidural fat has a continuous distribution and follows a certain metameric pattern. It is located mainly on the dorsal side of the epidural space, where it is organized in triangular capsules joined to the midline of the ligamentum flavum by a vascular pedicle. We consider the distribution of epidural fat in the axial and sagittal planes; its presence in the anterior, lateral and posterior epidural space; its presence in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal column; and its characteristics and variations according to differing body habits and sex. Finally, we speculate on the possible anesthetic implications of epidural fat in terms of the pharmacokinetics of drugs injected into the epidural space and the tasks of locating the epidural space and inserting an epidural catheter during anesthetic procedures.

  11. The Interplay Between Fat Mass and Fat Distribution as Determinants of the Metabolic Syndrome Is Sex-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Lind, Lars; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lampa, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Fat mass and fat distribution are major determinants of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the interplay between them has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, fat mass and fat distribution are generally different in men than in women. We aimed to determine whether the interplay between fat mass and fat distribution regarding MetS and its components is sex-dependent using data from the large-scale population-based sample EpiHealth. Occurrence of MetS and its components was determined together with fat mass by bioimpedance in 19,094 participants in the EpiHealth sample [mean age 61 years (SD 8.5), 56% females]. MetS was defined by the NCEP/ATPIII-criteria. MetS prevalence was 23.0%. Fat mass (percent of body weight) was more strongly related to MetS (and the number of MetS components) in men than in women (P < 0.0001 for interaction term) and in those with a high compared with those with a low waist/hip ratio (WHR). This modulating effect of WHR on the fat mass versus MetS-relationship was more pronounced in women than in men (P < 0.0001 for interaction term). When analyzing the MetS components one by one, fat mass was more closely related to all the individual MetS criteria in men than in women, except for the glucose criteria. Fat mass is more closely related to prevalent MetS in men than in women, but the modulating effect of an abdominal type of fat distribution on the fat mass versus MetS-relationship is stronger in women.

  12. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone.

  13. Weight loss, body fat mass, and leptin in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Toss, Göran; Granérus, Ann-Kathrine

    2009-04-30

    Weight loss is a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the causative mechanisms behind this weight loss are unclear. We compared 26 PD patients with sex and age matched healthy controls. Examinations were repeated at baseline, after one and after two years. Body fat mass was measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Seventy three per cent of the PD patients lost body weight. Loss of body fat mass constituted a considerable part of the loss of body weight. In the patients who lost weight, serum leptin levels were lower than in those who did not lose weight. The relationship between low body fat mass and low leptin levels seems to be relevant, at least for female PD patients. It is reasonable to believe that low leptin levels in these patients could be secondary to the decreased body fat mass. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  15. New anthropometric indices or old ones: Which is the better predictor of body fat?

    PubMed

    Ehrampoush, Elham; Arasteh, Peyman; Homayounfar, Reza; Cheraghpour, Makan; Alipour, Meysam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Davoodi, Sayed Hosein; Askari, Alireza; Razaz, Jalaledin Mirzay

    The percent and distribution of body fat are important factors in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Our aim was to investigate common anthropometric indices in their relationship with body fat content. In a cross-sectional study 1360 healthy individuals (580 men and 780 women) in a cluster sampling, from Ahvaz, Iran, body fat content (using bioelectrical impedance) and anthropometric measurements [weight, waist circumference, a body shape index, abdominal volume index, body adiposity index, conicity, body mass index, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio] was obtained. The ROC curve analysis was used to compare each index with body fat percent. Significant difference was found between men and women in all anthropometric parameters (p < 0.001). Women displayed higher percentages in the overweight and obese categories (33.6% vs. 32.9% and 26.4% vs. 22.1%, respectively). In both men and women, the strongest correlations were seen between body fat percent and BMI, AVI and WHtR (r>7.9 and p<0.001). BMI, WHtR and AVI in men and BAI, BMI and WHtR in women showed the most accuracy for estimating body fat percent, respectively. All anthropometric parameters could predict body fat percent with relatively good power, however BMI, WHtR and AVI are more powerful predictors. Based on our findings, we suggest using the AVI and WHtR instead of other indexes, as they are better able to assess the accumulation of fat in the abdominal area and are able to more accurately assess body fat percent, which are indicators of chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Correlation Between Body Fat, Visceral Fat, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yun-Huei; Wong, Te-Chih; Hsu, Ying-Ying; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Yang, Shwu Huey

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the correlation between body fat, visceral fat, and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this cross-sectional study, participants were required to be 20 years or older, and free of liver disease (comprising either the hepatitis C virus antibody or hepatitis B surface antigen), cirrhosis, and malignant or biliary diseases. A total of 2759 participants were collected for this study. Demographic and biochemical data were collected by chart review. For estimating body fat and visceral fat, anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analyses were conducted, whereas fatty livers were diagnosed through an abdominal ultrasound. The waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), body fat, visceral fat, and metabolic syndrome (MS) were associated with NAFLD. A larger WC, higher BMI, higher levels of body and visceral fat, and the MS significantly correlated with the presence of a fatty liver. Additionally, the receiver operating characteristic suggested that the visceral fat cutoff point was 70.5 cm(2) (Youden's index = 0.4352). Visceral fat is a strong predictor of NAFLD.

  17. Assessment of body fat based on potential function clustering segmentation of computed tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixin; Lin, Min; Wan, Baikun; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Yizhong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of body fat and its distribution testing is proposed based on CT image processing. As it is more sensitive to slight differences in attenuation than standard radiography, CT depicts the soft tissues with better clarity. And body fat has a distinct grayness range compared with its neighboring tissues in a CT image. An effective multi-thresholds image segmentation method based on potential function clustering is used to deal with multiple peaks in the grayness histogram of a CT image. The CT images of abdomens of 14 volunteers with different fatness are processed with the proposed method. Not only can the result of total fat area be got, but also the differentiation of subcutaneous fat from intra-abdominal fat has been identified. The results show the adaptability and stability of the proposed method, which will be a useful tool for diagnosing obesity.

  18. Fat talk and its relationship with body image disturbance.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jacqueline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Although past studies have highlighted fat talk as relevant to body image disturbance, the majority of these have only investigated the link between fat talk and body esteem, to the exclusion of other body image constructs. One hundred and ninety-nine women completed an online survey measuring levels of appearance-based comparisons, body surveillance, thin ideal internalization, body esteem, and fat talk (FT-body concerns and FT-body comparisons). Results showed that fat talk made a significant contribution in explaining additional variance in body esteem above the other three body image factors, with FT-body concerns in particular making the highest unique contribution. Hierarchical regression analyses suggest that fat talk should be viewed as an independent psychosocial predictor of body esteem in both theoretical and therapeutic contexts. Future research should explore these relationships from a longitudinal perspective, and also clarify the nuances in the relationships by investigating the nature of women's everyday body image experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Anneke M J; Saris, Wim H M; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Hul, Gabby B; Martinez, J Alfredo; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Stich, Vladimir; Astrup, Arne; Arner, Peter; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Blaak, Ellen E

    2008-12-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are atherogenic. However, factors that determine RLP-C are not fully understood. This study evaluates which factors affect RLP-C in the fasting and postprandial state, using multiple regression analyses in a large cohort of lean and obese participants. All participants (n = 740) underwent a test meal challenge containing 95 energy % (en%) fat (energy content 50% of predicted daily resting metabolic rate). Fasting and postprandial concentrations of circulating metabolites were measured over a 3-h period. Obese participants (n = 613) also participated in a 10-wk weight loss program (-2510 kJ/d), being randomized to either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (20-25 vs. 40-45en% fat). Postprandial RLP-C was associated with fasting RLP-C, waist:hip ratio (WHR), HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance) (P < 0.001), and age, independently of BMI and gender [adjusted R(2) (adj. R(2)) = 0.70). These factors were also related to fasting RLP-C (P < 0.010), along with gender and physical activity (adj. R(2) = 0.23). The dietary intervention resulted in significantly lower fasting RLP-C concentrations, independently mediated by weight loss, improvements in HOMA(IR), and the fat content of the prescribed diet. However, after inclusion of plasma triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and FFA concentrations in the models, HOMA(IR) and WHR no longer significantly predicted fasting RLP-C, although WHR remained a predictor of postprandial RLP-C (P = 0.002). Plasma TG was strongly associated with both fasting and postprandial RLP-C (P < 0.001). In conclusion, plasma RLP-C concentrations are mainly associated with plasma TG concentrations. Interestingly, the high-fat diet was more effective at decreasing fasting RLP-C concentrations in obese participants than the low-fat diet.

  20. NONSULFATED SULFAKININ CHANGES METABOLIC PARAMETERS OF INSECT FAT BODY MITOCHONDRIA.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effect of neuropeptide, the nonsulfated sulfakinin (SK) Zopat-SK-1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the Zophobas atratus larval fat body. Mitochondria were isolated from beetle fat bodies 2 and 24 h after hormone injection. The administration of 20 pmol of Zopat-SK-1 to feeding larvae led to decreased mitochondrial oxidative activities in larval fat body. Diminished activities of citrate synthase and the cytochrome pathway, that is, nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating respiration during succinate oxidation, were observed. However, the effect of Zopat-SK-1 was more pronounced in fat body of insects after 24 h since hormone application. In hormone-treated larval fat bodies, mitochondrial respiration was decreased at the level of respiratory chain and the TCA cycle as well as at the level of mitochondrial biogenesis, as indicated by decreased activities of mitochondrial marker enzymes in fat body homogenates. The inhibition of succinate oxidation may indicate the role of Zopat-SK-1 in the regulation of mitochondrial complex II activity. Moreover, decreased respiratory chain activity was accompanied by the reduced activity of mitochondrial energy-dissipating pathway, uncoupling protein 4. The observed decrease in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism may reflect the Zopat-SK-1-induced reduction in the metabolic rate of larval fat body linked to actual energetic demands of animal. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  2. Pulse pressure amplification in relation to body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Krauze, Tomasz; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Marciniak, Ryszard; Wysocki, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Arterial pressure transfer to the periphery is accompanied by pulse pressure amplification (PPA). Pulse pressure is influence by body fat. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate any possible inter-relation between body fatness and PPA in healthy subjects. METHODS Haemodynamic and wave reflection indices were estimated by pulse wave analysis. Body fat was measured by bio-impedance. RESULTS A total of 367 healthy volunteers (136 men and 231 women) was studied. Pulse pressure amplification correlated significantly with percentage of body fat (r = −0.53, P < 0.0001), age (r = −0.62, P < 0.0001), height (r = 0.43, P < 0.0001), heart rate (r = 0.28, P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure (r = −0.29, P < 0.0001). The association of PPA with body fat was also significant in a multiple linear regression model. Age was an independent predictor of PPA and analysis of study subjects subdivided into two groups, those <50 years and those >50 years showed that body fatness correlated inversely and significantly with PPA in individuals both younger and older than 50 years (r = −0.44, P < 0.0001, r = −0.37, P < 0.0001 respectively). Augmentation pressure was also associated significantly with percentage of body fat in both subgroups (r = 0.48, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 respectively). CONCLUSIONS This study performed on healthy subjects showed that pulse pressure amplification is related to body fatness over a wide age range. Percentage body fat is significantly associated with augmentation pressure, a component of central pulse pressure. PMID:22008022

  3. Fat body remodeling and homeostasis control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huimei; Yang, Xiaohang; Xi, Yongmei

    2016-12-15

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of the Drosophila fat body and its functions in energy storage, immune response and nutrient sensing. The fat body interplays with other tissues to respond to the physiological needs of the body's growth and coordinates various metabolic processes at different developmental stages and under different environmental conditions. The identification of various conserved genetic functions and signaling pathways relating to the Drosophila fat body may provide clues to lipometabolic disease and other aspects of tissue remodeling in humans. Here, we discuss recent insights into how regulation of fat body remodeling contributes to hemostasis with a special focus on how signaling networks and internal physiological states shape different aspects of the lipid metabolism in Drosophila. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Pulse pressure amplification in relation to body fatness.

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Krauze, Tomasz; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Marciniak, Ryszard; Wysocki, Henryk

    2012-04-01

    Aortic-brachial pulse pressure amplification (PPA) is a measure of arterial elasticity and it is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The PPA is mainly determined by age, height, central and peripheral pressure waveforms characteristics, including measures of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. In this study, however, we demonstrate that PPA is also significantly associated with indirect indices of body fatness. As the body fatness is treatable, our findings might be used as a reference for future studies on the effects of body fat reduction on PPA and the PPA-related cardiovascular risk. AIMS Arterial pressure transfer to the periphery is accompanied by pulse pressure amplification (PPA). Pulse pressure is influence by body fat. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate any possible inter-relation between body fatness and PPA in healthy subjects. Haemodynamic and wave reflection indices were estimated by pulse wave analysis. Body fat was measured by bio-impedance. A total of 367 healthy volunteers (136 men and 231 women) was studied. Pulse pressure amplification correlated significantly with percentage of body fat (r=-0.53, P < 0.0001), age (r=-0.62, P < 0.0001), height (r= 0.43, P < 0.0001), heart rate (r= 0.28, P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure (r=-0.29, P < 0.0001). The association of PPA with body fat was also significant in a multiple linear regression model. Age was an independent predictor of PPA and analysis of study subjects subdivided into two groups, those <50 years and those >50 years showed that body fatness correlated inversely and significantly with PPA in individuals both younger and older than 50 years (r=-0.44, P < 0.0001, r=-0.37, P < 0.0001 respectively). Augmentation pressure was also associated significantly with percentage of body fat in both subgroups (r= 0.48, P < 0.0001 and r= 0.49, P < 0.0001 respectively). This study performed on healthy subjects showed that pulse pressure amplification is related to body fatness

  5. A transcriptome analysis of the Aedes aegypti vitellogenic fat body

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Fabiana M.; Calvo, Eric; Merino, Emilio F.; Durham, Alan M.; James, Anthony A.; de Bianchi, Antonio G.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Capurro, Margareth L.

    2006-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is an important dengue vector in tropical and subtropical zones throughout the world. A transcriptome of Ae. aegypti vitellogenic fat bodies is described here. The fat body is a dynamic tissue that participates in multiple biochemical functions of intermediate metabolism. A total of 589 randomly selected cDNAs were assembled into 262 clusters based on their primary sequence similarities. The putative translated proteins were classified into categories based on their function in accordance with significant similarity using the BlastX at NCBI FTP site and Pfam (Bateman et al. 2000) and SMART (Schultz et al. 2000) databases. The characterization of transcripts expressed in the fat body of Ae. aegypti at 24 hours post blood meal provides a basic tool for understanding the processes occurring in this organ and could identify putative new genes whose promoters can be used to specifically express transgenes in the fat bodies of Ae. aegypti. PMID:19537968

  6. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  7. Verification regarding changing construction in accumulation of fat for BMI based on change with age estimated from body composition balance.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Tanaka, Nozomi; Mishima, Takaaki

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, a regression analysis of BMI and body fat percentage in each school year was performed with cross-sectional data in school-aged children. The qualitative changes in physique during the school-age years were examined by showing the changes in the level of body fat accu- mulation with age. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7 to 14 years who participated in regular sports activities. Height, weight and body fat percentage were measured. Fat free mass was calculated by subtracting fat mass from body weight. BMI was calculated as body weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m). Regression analysis was conducted for fat percentage against BMI in boys and girls of all school years, and the level of body fat accumulation was considered, the distributions of the frequency of age change were examined. As a result, in the frequency distribution charts there was a shift from excessive fat to low fat from age 7 to 14 years. A χ2 test was then performed for these frequency distribution charts, and the results showed a significant difference in the frequency distribution in each year (P < 0.01). This trend was clearly in boys, and meaning was found in clarifying the changes with age in the body composition balance in boys and girls.

  8. Fat distribution and major depressive disorder in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Coryell, William H; Butcher, Brandon D; Burns, Trudy L; Dindo, Lilian N; Schlechte, Janet A; Calarge, Chadi A

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to indicate bidirectional relationships between obesity and depressive disorders and the importance of fat distribution to this relationship. This analysis used a well-characterized sample of individuals in late adolescence to determine the association between depressive illness and fat distribution. Medically healthy 15- to 20-year-olds, one-half of whom had recently begun treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation that resulted in diagnostic classification and weekly psychiatric disorder ratings over the prior 4 months using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. A whole-body scan, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, allowed estimations of total body less head (TBLH), total mass, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass. Assessments occurred between September 2010 and April 2014. Multivariable linear regression analyses, adjusted for relevant covariates, examined the association between DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD) and VAT, the primary outcome of interest. These procedures also determined whether significant associations were confined to overweight/obese participants. The analysis included data from 200 participants (71% female; mean age = 19.0 ± 1.6 years), of whom 128 had current MDD. The presence of MDD was associated with increased fat mass among overweight/obese participants (Cohen d = 0.79, P < .02), but not normal weight participants. This was true of both visceral and nonvisceral fat mass measures. Accounting for the presence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) did not alter the findings. In adolescents, relationships between central adiposity and MDD may be confined to those who are overweight/obese. Despite the high comorbidity of GAD and depressive disorders, only the latter appeared to be significantly associated with central adiposity. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repeatability for the BIA method was established from duplicate measurements. Body composition was then determined by BIA in 1139 girls and 1243 boys aged 7-16 years, who were randomly sampled in eight local primary and secondary schools to establish reference ranges.
RESULTS—The 95% limits of agreement between BIA and DXA methods were considered acceptable (−3.3 kg to −0.5 kg fat mass and −3.9 to 0.6% body fat). The percentage body fat increased with increasing age. Compared to the 1993 Hong Kong growth survey, these children had higher body mass index. Mean (SD) percentage body fat at 7years of age was 17.2% (4.4%) and 14.0% (3.4%) respectively for boys and girls, which increased to 19.3% (4.8%) and 27.8% (6.3%) at age 16.
CONCLUSION—Leg to leg BIA is a valid alternative method to DXA for the measurement of body fat. Provisional reference ranges for percentage body fat for Hong Kong Chinese children aged 7-16 years are provided.

 PMID:11517118

  10. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  11. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    circumferences, 3D whole body laser scans and DEXA scans were performed on fifty-one men and women age 18-62. Mean percent body fat was not statistically...3D whole body laser scan , and DEXA scan to measure individuals during a one hour measurement session. 1 Report Documentation Page Form...underwent a 6 minute whole body DEXA scan using a GE Lunar Prodigy DEXA scanner running software version 7.53. Percent body fat was calculated from the

  12. Determination of carcass and body fat compositions of grazing crossbred bulls using body measurements.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, H J; Tedeschi, L O; Paulino, M F; Paiva, L M

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze body measurements of 40 crossbred bulls grazing low quality forage with different supplementation strategies, to estimate interrelationships among those measurements and carcass and body compositions, and to develop systems of equations to predict body fat using body and carcass measurements. Eight animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment, and the remaining animals were slaughtered at 90 or 220 d. The biometric measures (BM) were obtained the day before the slaughter and included hook width, pin width, pelvic girdle length, rump depth, rump height, abdomen width, body length, height at withers, rib depth, girth, and body diagonal length. Other measurements included full, shrunk, and empty BW; internal physical and chemical fats; body volume; body area; carcass weight; 9th- to 11th-rib section weight and composition; fat thickness; subcutaneous fat; intermuscular fat; carcass chemical fat; and empty body physical and chemical fats. The relationships between BM and body components were evaluated, and equations to predict body area, body volume, subcutaneous fat, and carcass and body physical and chemical fat were developed. Biological interpretations of the parameter estimates of equations were similar to those found in the literature such as a ratio of 1 kg of subcutaneous fat to 1.6 kg of intermuscular fat and a deposit of 72 to 76% of body fat in the carcass. The first system used to predict carcass and empty body physical and chemical fat was devised using in vivo information, whereas the second system used BW and the 9th- to 11th-rib fat weight. Our results indicated the combination of BW, carcass traits, and BM was precise and accurate in estimating carcass and body fat composition of backgrounding bulls. The second system had better adequacy statistics [r(2) > 0.92, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) > 0.957, and root mean square error (RMSE) < 14.4% of the average observed value] compared

  13. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Mohr, Harald M

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16) the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body) while in the second experiment (n = 16) we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  14. Leptin-induced increase in body fat content of rats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S

    2013-02-01

    We previously reported that peripheral leptin infusions in chronically decrebrate rats, in which the forebrain is neurally isolated from the hindbrain, increased body fat and decreased energy expenditure. Any central leptin response in decerebrate rats would depend upon the hindbrain. Here, we tested whether selective activation of hindbrain leptin receptors increased body fat. Fourth ventricle infusion of 0.6 μg leptin/day for 12 days increased body fat by 13% with no increase in food intake. Third ventricle leptin infusions decreased food intake, body fat, and lean tissue with a maximal response at 0.3 μg leptin/day. To test whether hindbrain receptors opposed activity of hypothalamic receptors, rats received peripheral infusions of 40 μg leptin/day and increasing 4th ventricle doses of the leptin receptor antagonist mutein protein. Mutein (3.0 μg/day) reduced body fat in PBS-infused rats to the same level as leptin-infused rats and reduced lean tissue in all rats. Leptin, but not mutein, inhibited food intake. By contrast, 3.0 μg/day mutein in the 3rd ventricle increased food intake and body fat in both PBS- and leptin-infused rats. In basal conditions, hindbrain leptin receptors may antagonize activity of forebrain receptors to protect lean and fat tissue, but there is no evidence for an anabolic role for hindbrain receptors when leptin is elevated. In a dietary study, rats increased energy intake when offered lard and 30% sucrose solution in addition to chow. Peripheral leptin infusion exaggerated the gain in body fat without altering energy intake confirming the potential for leptin to increase adiposity.

  15. Leptin-induced increase in body fat content of rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that peripheral leptin infusions in chronically decrebrate rats, in which the forebrain is neurally isolated from the hindbrain, increased body fat and decreased energy expenditure. Any central leptin response in decerebrate rats would depend upon the hindbrain. Here, we tested whether selective activation of hindbrain leptin receptors increased body fat. Fourth ventricle infusion of 0.6 μg leptin/day for 12 days increased body fat by 13% with no increase in food intake. Third ventricle leptin infusions decreased food intake, body fat, and lean tissue with a maximal response at 0.3 μg leptin/day. To test whether hindbrain receptors opposed activity of hypothalamic receptors, rats received peripheral infusions of 40 μg leptin/day and increasing 4th ventricle doses of the leptin receptor antagonist mutein protein. Mutein (3.0 μg/day) reduced body fat in PBS-infused rats to the same level as leptin-infused rats and reduced lean tissue in all rats. Leptin, but not mutein, inhibited food intake. By contrast, 3.0 μg/day mutein in the 3rd ventricle increased food intake and body fat in both PBS- and leptin-infused rats. In basal conditions, hindbrain leptin receptors may antagonize activity of forebrain receptors to protect lean and fat tissue, but there is no evidence for an anabolic role for hindbrain receptors when leptin is elevated. In a dietary study, rats increased energy intake when offered lard and 30% sucrose solution in addition to chow. Peripheral leptin infusion exaggerated the gain in body fat without altering energy intake confirming the potential for leptin to increase adiposity. PMID:23211513

  16. Gender differences in fat distribution and inflammatory markers among Arabs.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Knez, Wade L; Knez, Kelly; Al-Noaimi, Asma; Grantham, Justin; Mohamed-Ali, Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies from the Gulf region suggest that compared to men, women have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MeS). To investigate gender differences in body composition, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and aerobic fitness in a cohort of healthy Qatari adults. Participants. Healthy Qatari (n = 58) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Body composition and regional fat distribution were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography. Laboratory assessments included serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile analysis, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Subjects were also evaluated for aerobic fitness. Women had more adipose tissue in the total abdominal (P = 0.04) and abdominal subcutaneous (P = 0.07) regions compared to men. Waist circumference and indices of insulin sensitivity were similar; however, women had a more favourable lipid profile than men. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly higher in women, whereas inflammatory profiles were not different between men and women. Aerobic fitness was lower in women and was associated with abdominal fat accumulation. In premenopausal women, higher levels of adiponectin may support maintenance of insulin sensitivity and normolipidemia despite greater adiposity. However, poor aerobic fitness combined with abdominal fat accumulation may explain their greater future risk of MeS compared with men.

  17. Relationship between Regional Fat Distribution and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Maresca, Luciano; Lanzillo, Chiara; Marinoni, Giorgia Michela; D’Adamo, Monica; Di Roma, Mauro; Preziosi, Paolo; Bellia, Alfonso; Calò, Leonardo; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common genetic heart disease, is characterized by heterogeneous phenotypic expression. Body mass index has been associated with LV mass and heart failure symptoms in HCM. The aim of our study was to investigate whether regional (trunk, appendicular, epicardial) fat distribution and extent could be related to hypertrophy severity and pattern in HCM. Methods Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed in 32 subjects with echocardiography-based diagnosis of HCM (22M/10F, 57.2±12.6 years) characterized by predominant hypertrophy at the interventricular septum (IVS). Regional fat distribution was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Gender differences were detected in maximum IVS thickness (M: 18.3±3.8 mm vs. F: 14.3±4 mm, p = 0.012), right ventricle (RV) systolic function (M: 61.3±6.7%; F: 67.5±6.3%, p = 0.048), indexed RV end-diastolic (M: 64.8±16.3 ml/m2; F: 50.7±15.5 ml/m2, p = 0.04) and end-systolic volumes (M: 24.3±8.3 ml/m2; F: 16.7±7.4 ml/m2, p = 0.04). After adjusting for age and gender, maximum IVS thickness was associated with truncal fat (Tr-FAT) (β = 0.43, p = 0.02), but not with either appendicular or epicardial fat. Epicardial fat resulted independently associated with NT-proBNP levels (β = 0.63, p = 0.04). Late Gadolinium Enhancement-positive subjects displayed greater maximum IVS thickness (p = 0.02), LV mass index (p = 0.015) and NT-proBNP levels (p = 0.04), but no associations with fat amount or distribution were observed. Conclusion Truncal, but not appendicular or epicardial fat amount, seems to be related with maximum IVS thickness, the hallmark feature in our cohort of HCM patients. Further prospective researches are needed to assess a potential causative effect of central adiposity on HCM phenotype. PMID:27388274

  18. Body mass index or body fat! Which is a better obesity scale for Pakistani population?

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Rehman, Rehana; Chaudhry, Bushra

    2014-11-01

    To compare two methods of classifying obesity based on body mass index and body fat percentage. The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to August 2013 at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. Male and female volunteers between the ages 15-65 years were selected using simple random sampling. They were classified into different groups for body mass index and body fat percentage measured through bioelectrical impedance scale. The subjects were sub-grouped into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. SPSS 11 was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the 828 healthy volunteers was 25.67±10.10 years. A total of 552 (66.6%) subjects had a higher body fat percentage and were misclassified by body mass index. Only 276 (33.3%) subjects had body fat percentage values corresponding to the body mass index classification. The difference in terms of categorising obesity was highly significant (p<0.001). Both body mass index and body fat percentage showed positive correlation with age (r=0.144; p=0.001) (r=0.261; p=0.001) and weight (r=0.578; p=0.001) (r=0.444; p=0.001) respectively. Moreover body fat percentage showed a significant positive association with gender (r=0.109; p=0.027) whereas BMI did not. Body fat percentage should be incorporated for a better understanding as well as categorising of obesity.

  19. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  20. Percent body fat, fractures and risk of osteoporosis in women.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, G

    2010-06-01

    Globally, in an aging population, osteoporosis and fractures are emerging as major public health problems; accessible and affordable recognition, prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Percent body fat is known to be associated with bone mineral density and fractures. This paper uses an innovative, virtually cost-free method to estimate percent body fat from age, height and weight, and assesses its validity by examining the association between percent body fat and fractures among women 39 and older. An epidemiologic study. 3940 college alumnae, median age 53.6, participated by responding to a mailed questionnaire covering medical history, behavioral factors, birth date, weight and height. T-tests, chi-square and multivariable logistic regression. Percent body fat estimated from age, weight, height and gender. Associations of fractures with percent body fat are expressed as odds ratios: for osteoporotic (wrist, hip and/or x-ray confirmed vertebral), the adjusted OR = 2.41, 95% CI (1.65, 3.54), P < 0.0001; for wrist fractures, the adjusted OR = 2.56, 95% CI (1.65, 3.96), P < 0.0001; for x-ray confirmed vertebral fractures the adjusted OR = 4.69, 95% CI (2.05, 10.77), P=0.0003).; and for non-osteoporotic, he adjusted OR= 1.00, 95% CI (0.76 1.32), P=0.999. The findings are consistent with methods using DXA and/or other technologies that show percent body fat is associated with fractures of the wrist and vertebrae. Identification of risk factors is necessary for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Estimation of percent body fat from age, height and weight may be a valid, cost-saving, and cost-effective alternative tool for screening and assessing risk of osteoporosis in settings where Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other radiological techniques are too costly or unavailable.

  1. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (p<0.001) on heritability estimates, with UWW giving the highest estimate (69%) and BIA giving the lowest estimate (47%) for fat mass/height2. Expression of body fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental

  2. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  3. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  4. Sex and genetic effects on upper and lower body fat and associations with diabetes in multigenerational families of African heritage.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic-Gacic, Iva; Wang, Xiaojing; Kammerer, Candace M; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wheeler, Victor W; Kuller, Lewis H; Evans, Rhobert W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Very few studies have comprehensively defined the genetic and environmental influences on body fat storage in the arms and legs and their association with diabetes, especially in families of African heritage. We analyzed body fat distribution by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (percentage total fat, percentage trunk fat, percentage arm fat, and percentage leg fat) and fasting serum glucose in 471 individuals (mean age, 43 years) from 8 multigenerational Afro-Caribbean families (mean family size = 51; 3535 relative pairs). Diabetes was inversely associated with percentage leg fat (P = .009) and, to some extent, positively associated with percentage arm fat independent of age, sex, and body size (P = .08), but not with anthropometric or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric measures of total and central adiposity. Furthermore, percentage leg fat was inversely, whereas percentage arm fat was positively, associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and serum glucose (P < .01). Residual heritability (h2r) for arm and leg fat was significant (P < .01) and high: 62% (for percentage arm fat) and 40% (for percentage leg fat). Moreover, sex-specific h2r for leg fat was considerably higher (P = .02) in women than in men (h2r values, 58% vs 17%, respectively). Genetic correlation (rho(G)) between arm and leg fat was -0.61 (P < .01), suggesting that only 37% of the covariation between these 2 adipose tissue depots may be due to shared genetic influences. This study provides new evidence for a strong genetic and sex contribution to upper and lower body fat, with relatively little covariation between these traits due to shared genes. Our findings also suggest that, in this population, leg fat is associated with diabetes independent of overall adiposity.

  5. Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D; Heymsfield, S B; Heo, M; Jebb, S A; Murgatroyd, P R; Sakamoto, Y

    2000-09-01

    Although international interest in classifying subject health status according to adiposity is increasing, no accepted published ranges of percentage body fat currently exist. Empirically identified limits, population percentiles, and z scores have all been suggested as means of setting percentage body fat guidelines, although each has major limitations. The aim of this study was to examine a potential new approach for developing percentage body fat ranges. The approach taken was to link healthy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) guidelines established by the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization with predicted percentage body fat. Body fat was measured in subjects from 3 ethnic groups (white, African American, and Asian) who were screened and evaluated at 3 universities [Cambridge (United Kingdom), Columbia (United States), and Jikei (Japan)] with use of reference body-composition methods [4-compartment model (4C) at 2 laboratories and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at all 3 laboratories]. Percentage body fat prediction equations were developed based on BMI and other independent variables. A convenient sample of 1626 adults with BMIs < or =35 was evaluated. Independent percentage body fat predictor variables in multiple regression models included 1/BMI, sex, age, and ethnic group (R: values from 0.74 to 0.92 and SEEs from 2.8 to 5.4% fat). The prediction formulas were then used to prepare provisional healthy percentage body fat ranges based on published BMI limits for underweight (<18.5), overweight (> or =25), and obesity (> or =30). This proposed approach and initial findings provide the groundwork and stimulus for establishing international healthy body fat ranges.

  6. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  7. Green tea reduces body fat via upregulation of neprilysin.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, M; Tappenbeck, N; Gembardt, F; Rülke, R; Furkert, J; Melzig, M F; Siems, W-E; Brockmann, G A; Walther, T

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of green tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of green tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of green tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg kg(-1) body weight per day) in the drinking water. In 'Berlin fat mice', 51 days of green tea treatment did not only prevent fat accumulation (control: day 0: 30.5% fat, day 51: 33.1%; NS) but also reduced significant body fat (green tea: day 0: 27.8%, day 51: 20.9%, P<0.01) and body weight below the initial levels. Green tea reduced food intake. This was paralleled by a selective increase in peripheral (in kidney 17%, in intestine 92%), but not central NEP expression and activity, leading to downregulation of orexigens (like galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) known to be physiological substrates of NEP. Consequently, in NEP-knockout mice, green tea extract failed to reduce body fat/weight. Our data generate experimental proof for the assumed effects of green tea on body weight and the key role for NEP in such process, and thus open a new avenue for the treatment of obesity.

  8. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  9. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm(3) , P<.001) whereas body fat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Yap, M; van Staveren, W A

    1998-12-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in different ethnic groups and to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Meta analysis of literature data. Populations of American Blacks, Caucasians, Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians, Polynesians and Thais. Mean values of BMI, percent body fat, gender and age were adapted from original papers. The relationship between percent body fat and BMI differs in the ethnic groups studied. For the same level of body fat, age and gender, American Blacks have a 1.3 kg/m2 and Polynesians a 4.5 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to Caucasians. By contrast, in Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians and Thais BMIs are 1.9, 4.6, 3.2 and 2.9 kg/m2 lower compared to Caucasians, respectively. Slight differences in the relationship between percent body fat and BMI of American Caucasians and European Caucasians were also found. The differences found in the body fat/BMI relationship in different ethnic groups could be due to differences in energy balance as well as to differences in body build. The results show that the relationship between percent body fat and BMI is different among different ethnic groups. This should have public health implications for the definitions of BMI cut-off points for obesity, which would need to be population-specific.

  11. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  12. Evaluation of a rotary laser body scanner for body volume and fat assessment.

    PubMed

    Pepper, M Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Yu, Wurong; Stanforth, Philip R; Xu, Bugao

    2010-07-08

    This paper reports the evaluation tests on the reliability and validity of a 3-dimensional (3D) laser body scanner for estimation of body volume and % fat. Repeated measures of body imaging were performed for reproducibility analysis. Validity of the instrument was assessed by comparison of measures of body volume by imaging to hydrodensitometry, and body fat was compared to hydrodensitometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproducibility analysis showed little difference between within-subjects measurements of volume (ICC ≥ 0.99, p < 0.01). Body volume estimations by laser body scanner and hydrodensitometry were strongly related (r = 0.99, p < 0.01), and agreement was high (ICC = 0.99, p < 0.01). Measurements of % body fat also agreed strongly with each other between methods (ICC = 0.86, p < 0.01), and mean % fat estimates by body imaging did not differ from criterion methods (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the 3D laser body scanner is a reliable and valid technique for the estimation of body volume. Furthermore, body imaging is an accurate measure of body fat, as compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. This new instrument is promising as a quick, simple to use, and inexpensive method of body composition analysis.

  13. Evaluation of a rotary laser body scanner for body volume and fat assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, M. Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.; Yu, Wurong; Stanforth, Philip R.; Xu, Bugao

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation tests on the reliability and validity of a 3-dimensional (3D) laser body scanner for estimation of body volume and % fat. Repeated measures of body imaging were performed for reproducibility analysis. Validity of the instrument was assessed by comparison of measures of body volume by imaging to hydrodensitometry, and body fat was compared to hydrodensitometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproducibility analysis showed little difference between within-subjects measurements of volume (ICC ≥ 0.99, p < 0.01). Body volume estimations by laser body scanner and hydrodensitometry were strongly related (r = 0.99, p < 0.01), and agreement was high (ICC = 0.99, p < 0.01). Measurements of % body fat also agreed strongly with each other between methods (ICC = 0.86, p < 0.01), and mean % fat estimates by body imaging did not differ from criterion methods (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the 3D laser body scanner is a reliable and valid technique for the estimation of body volume. Furthermore, body imaging is an accurate measure of body fat, as compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. This new instrument is promising as a quick, simple to use, and inexpensive method of body composition analysis. PMID:21552454

  14. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum CETP concentration is not associated with measures of body fat: The NEO study.

    PubMed

    Blauw, Lisanne L; de Mutsert, Renée; Lamb, Hildo J; de Roos, Albert; Rosendaal, Frits R; Jukema, J Wouter; Wang, Yanan; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue has been postulated to contribute substantially to the serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) pool. However, in a recent large cohort study waist circumference was not associated with plasma CETP. The aim of the present study was to further examine associations of accurate measures of body fat and body fat distribution with serum CETP concentration. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, we examined in 6606 participants (aged 45-65 years) the associations of total body fat, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), abdominal subcutaneous (aSAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2547) and total and trunk fat mass assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 909) with serum CETP concentration. Regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity, sex, dietary intake of fat and cholesterol, physical activity, smoking and menopausal status. Mean (SD) age was 56 (6) years and BMI 26.3 (4.4) kg/m(2), 56% were women. Mean serum CETP concentration was 2.47 μg/mL. The difference in serum CETP was 0.02 μg/mL (95%CI: -0.01, 0.05) per SD total body fat (8.7%), and 0.02 μg/mL (0.00, 0.04) per SD BMI (4.4 kg/m(2)). Similar associations around the null were observed for waist circumference, WHR, aSAT, VAT, total and trunk fat mass. In this population-based study, there was no evidence for clinically relevant associations between several measures of body fat and serum CETP concentration. This finding implies that adipose tissue does not contribute to the CETP pool in serum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the effectiveness of body mass index and body fat percentage in defining body composition.

    PubMed

    Goonasegaran, Arvin Raj; Nabila, Fatin Nabila; Shuhada, Nurul Shuhada

    2012-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has limited diagnostic performance due to its inability to discriminate between fat and lean mass. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of body fat percentage (BFP) against BMI in defining body composition. A cross-sectional study was conducted on students aged 17-30 years in Melaka, Malaysia. Basic anthropometric measurements were acquired using a manual weighing scale, measuring tape and a fixed stadiometer. BFP was calculated using the United States Navy formula. Data was tabulated and analysed using Epi Info and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Kappa values were used. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of the 490 subjects recruited, 43% of males and 24.6% of females were found to be overweight, while 14.3% of males and 7.8% of females were obese, when calculated using BMI. However, 8.9% of males and 22.8% of females were considered obese based on the BFP. BFP plays a more important role in distinguishing between healthy and obese individuals, as it has a greater ability to differentiate between lean mass and fat mass compared to BMI.

  17. Visual Adaptation to Thin and Fat Bodies Transfers across Identity

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K.; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Mohr, Harald M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16) the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant’s own body) while in the second experiment (n = 16) we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape – especially the thin ideal in Western societies – could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders. PMID:22905232

  18. Independent associations of sodium intake with measures of body size and predictive body fatness.

    PubMed

    Yi, Stella S; Firestone, Melanie J; Beasley, Jeannette M

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies highlight a possible relationship between sodium intake and obesity. This investigation explores the cross-sectional relationships between sodium intake and measures of body size and fatness (body mass index [BMI], weight, waist circumference, predictive body fatness). Analyses were performed using data from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-10 with two 24-h dietary recalls and measures of body size and fatness (n = 4,613). Regression analyses assessed the relationships of sodium (1,000 mg/day) with outcomes, adjusting for caloric intake. Analyses are presented overall and by sex; data were weighted to be representative of the non-institutionalized US adult population. Positive associations between sodium intake and measures of body size and predictive body fatness were observed, and the magnitude of association was larger in women than in men. For each 1,000 mg/day higher sodium intake, BMI was 1.03 kg/m(2) higher; weight was 2.75 kg higher; waist circumference was 2.15 cm higher; and predictive body fatness was 1.18% higher after adjustment for energy intake. Longitudinal analyses examining associations between sodium intake and measures of body size and body fatness are needed. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Causal Associations of Adiposity and Body Fat Distribution With Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke Subtypes, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dale, Caroline E; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Palmer, Tom M; White, Jon; Prieto-Merino, David; Zabaneh, Delilah; Engmann, Jorgen E L; Shah, Tina; Wong, Andrew; Warren, Helen R; McLachlan, Stela; Trompet, Stella; Moldovan, Max; Morris, Richard W; Sofat, Reecha; Kumari, Meena; Hyppönen, Elina; Jefferis, Barbara J; Gaunt, Tom R; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Zhou, Ang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Mutsert, Renée de; Noordam, Raymond; Caulfield, Mark J; Jukema, J Wouter; Worrall, Bradford B; Munroe, Patricia B; Menon, Usha; Power, Chris; Kuh, Diana; Lawlor, Debbie A; Humphries, Steve E; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Sattar, Naveed; Kivimaki, Mika; Price, Jacqueline F; Davey Smith, George; Dudbridge, Frank; Hingorani, Aroon D; Holmes, Michael V; Casas, Juan P

    2017-06-13

    The implications of different adiposity measures on cardiovascular disease etiology remain unclear. In this article, we quantify and contrast causal associations of central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index [WHRadjBMI]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) with cardiometabolic disease. Ninety-seven independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms for BMI and 49 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for WHRadjBMI were used to conduct Mendelian randomization analyses in 14 prospective studies supplemented with coronary heart disease (CHD) data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics; combined total 66 842 cases), stroke from METASTROKE (12 389 ischemic stroke cases), type 2 diabetes mellitus from DIAGRAM (Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis; 34 840 cases), and lipids from GLGC (Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; 213 500 participants) consortia. Primary outcomes were CHD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and major stroke subtypes; secondary analyses included 18 cardiometabolic traits. Each one standard deviation (SD) higher WHRadjBMI (1 SD≈0.08 U) associated with a 48% excess risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] for CHD, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.71), similar to findings for BMI (1 SD≈4.6 kg/m(2); OR for CHD, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.22-1.52). Only WHRadjBMI increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70). For type 2 diabetes mellitus, both measures had large effects: OR, 1.82 (95% CI, 1.38-2.42) and OR, 1.98 (95% CI, 1.41-2.78) per 1 SD higher WHRadjBMI and BMI, respectively. Both WHRadjBMI and BMI were associated with higher left ventricular hypertrophy, glycemic traits, interleukin 6, and circulating lipids. WHRadjBMI was also associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (39%; 95% CI, 9%-77% per 1 SD). Both general and central adiposity have causal effects on CHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus

  20. Body Fat Composition Assessment Using Analytic Morphomics Predicts Infectious Complications After Bowel Resection in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Day, Nicholas M.; Bergmans, Carrie L.; Zahn, Katelin M.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Su, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decisions between medical and surgical management of Crohn's disease (CD) incorporate risk assessments for potential complications of each therapy. Analytic morphomics is a novel method of image analysis providing quantifiable measurements of body tissue composition, characterizing body fat more comprehensively than body mass index alone. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative complications in CD, incorporating fat composition analysis using analytic morphomics. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adults undergoing bowel resection for CD between 2004 and 2011 at a single center. Computed tomography obtained within 30 days prior to surgery underwent morphomic analysis for fat characterization. Postoperative infectious complications were defined as the need for a postoperative abdominal drain, intravenous antibiotics, or reoperation within 30 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to generate a prediction model of infectious complications. Results: A total of 269 subjects met selection criteria; 27% incurred postoperative infectious complications. Bivariate analysis showed hemoglobin, albumin, surgical urgency, high-dose prednisone use, and subcutaneous-to-visceral fat volume distribution as predictors of complications. Body mass index, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies, and immunomodulator use were not predictors of complication. Multivariate modeling demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.77 and a negative predictive value of 81.1% with surgical urgency (odds ratio = 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–6.02; P = 0.004), subcutaneous-to-visceral fat distribution (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–3.19; P = 0.006), and hemoglobin (odds ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55–0.85; P = 0.001) as predictors of infectious complication. Conclusions: Fat subtype and distribution are predictive of postoperative infectious complications

  1. Fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in non-obese male black African and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F; Poehlman, E T; Simoneau, J A; Boulay, M R; Thériault, G; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four male black African (25.5 +/- 3.0, mean +/- s.d., years of age) and 24 male Caucasian (21.5 +/- 3.6) subjects, ascertained as sedentary individuals, participated in this study designed to determine whether there were racial differences in fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism while controlling the differences in body fat. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained from the suprailiac region for the determination of basal (BL), epinephrine submaximal 10(-4) M (ESML) and maximal 10(-3) M (EML) stimulated lipolysis, basal (BLG) and maximal insulin 9 microU/ml (ILG) stimulated lipogenesis and heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Body density was determined through underwater weighing procedures and body fat derived with the Siri equation. The following skinfolds were also measured: triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, front thigh and medial calf. Caucasians were matched with the black Africans for age, body weight and body density. Results indicated that when Caucasians and black Africans of similar percentage body fat were compared, no significant differences were observed in the total amount of subcutaneous fat, fat distribution and suprailiac mean fat cell size. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for BL, BLG, and ILG of adipose tissue. However, black Africans had higher (P less than 0.01) epinephrine stimulated lipolytic values (ESML and EML) and LPL activity (P less than 0.01) than the Caucasian subjects. These results suggest that for a comparable level of fatness and similar fat morphology and distribution, there are racial differences in adipose tissue metabolism.

  2. Body mass index: a true indicator of body fat in obese gravidas.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Mark F; Huston-Presley, Larraine; Amini, Saeid B; Catalano, Patrick M

    2007-10-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat in overweight/obese pregnant women (BMI >25) before and during pregnancy. Thirteen overweight women were evaluated longitudinally (prospective cohort study design) before conception, in early gestation (12-22 weeks) and in late gestation (31-36 weeks). BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2, and percent body fat was estimated using hydrodensitometry with correction for residual lung volume. The correlation between BMI and percent body fat before conception was r2 = 0.86 (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the correlation remained strong in early pregnancy, r2 = 0.84 (p = 0.001), but was less strong yet significant, r2 = 0.54 (p = 0.004), in late gestation. In overweight women, the correlation between BMI and percent body fat remained significant during pregnancy. However, the correlation weakened as the pregnancy advanced.

  3. Lipoprotein alterations, abdominal fat distribution and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schreier, L E; Berg, G A; Basilio, F M; Lopez, G I; Etkin, A E; Wikinski, R L

    1999-04-01

    Plasma lipid profile and abdominal obesity have been associated with breast cancer risk, however published results have been inconsistent. To clarify these associations we studied lipid and lipoprotein alterations, obesity degree and body fat distribution, in 30 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without treatment and 30 controls matched by age and menopausal status. Both pre and postmenopausal breast cancer patients presented higher body mass index, waist/hip ratio and insulin levels than their matched controls. An increase in triglycerides and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol, especially in the HDL2 subfraction, were observed in patients with breast cancer. Besides, HDL particle from these patients showed increased apo A1/HDL-cholesterol ratio. These alterations were correlated with waist/hip ratio. The association between lipoprotein alterations and abdominal obesity independent of menopausal status, in untreated newly diagnosed breast cancer patients is reported for the first time in this study.

  4. Determining BMI cut points based on excess percent body fat in US children and adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...

  5. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  6. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  7. A comparison of the effects of swimming and walking on body weight, fat distribution, lipids, glucose, and insulin in older women--the Sedentary Women Exercise Adherence Trial 2.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kay L; Burke, Valerie; Beilin, Lawrence J; Puddey, Ian B

    2010-11-01

    All types of aerobic exercise are assumed to affect cardiovascular risk similarly. There are few studies of swimming, but complex responses to water-based exercise suggest its potential for differential effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of swimming and walking on fitness, body weight, lipids, glucose, and insulin in older women. Sedentary women aged 50 to 70 years (N = 116), randomly assigned to swimming or walking plus usual care or a behavioral intervention, completed 3 sessions per week of moderate-intensity exercise, supervised for 6 months then unsupervised for 6 months. After 6 months, 1.6-km walk time decreased in walkers and swimmers, with greater improvement in walkers (1.0 vs 0.6 minute, P = .001). In swimmers, but not walkers, distance swum in 12 minutes increased (78.1 vs -2.2 m, P = .021). Waist and hip circumferences (80.8 vs 83.1 cm and 101.8 vs 102.4 cm; P = .023 and P = .042, respectively) and insulin area under the curve (oral glucose tolerance test) (5128 vs 5623 μU/[L 120 min], P < .05) were lower with swimming. Lipids did not differ between groups. At 12 months, fitness was maintained. Relative to walking, swimming reduced body weight by (1.1 kg, P = .039) and resulted in lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.3 and 0.2 mmol/L; P = .040 and P = .049, respectively). The magnitude of the difference in the reduction of insulin area under the curve between swimming and walking was greater at 12 months; however, the significance was attenuated (4677 vs 5240 μU/[L 120 min], P = .052). Compared with walking, swimming improved body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin in the short term and, in the longer term, body weight and lipid measures. These findings suggest that the type of exercise can influence health benefits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Eating regulation styles, appearance schemas, and body satisfaction predict changes in body fat for emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K; Ryan, Aubrey E; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time to investigate changes in body composition and associated psychological influences on decision making is during the emerging adulthood period. The first few years of college are a time when adolescents begin to regulate for themselves their own eating behaviors. Previous research shows that freshmen gain weight and increase in percent body fat during their first year of college. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by investigating (1) individual growth in percent body fat over a longer period of time in college than previous available research and (2) important psychological and sex differences in this growth. This study measures percent body fat across the first 3 years of college at 8 time points for 542 undergraduates (351 females, 65 %; 191 males, 35 %). Longitudinal data analysis was conducted to identify changes in percent body fat, psychological predictors of those changes, and how changes differ for males and females. Our study found that significant increases exist in percent body fat during undergraduates' college years and that change differs for males and females. In addition, through the use of nested hierarchical models, eating regulation style (autonomous or controlled regulation), appearance schema (self-evaluative salience or motivational salience), and body satisfaction were identified as influential predictors of change in percent body fat. For example, young females, who do not feel in control of their physical appearance yet spend a great deal of time maintaining their appearance, have the highest initial body fat percentage and the steepest increase in percent body fat

  9. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gurrici, S; Hartriyanti, Y; Hautvast, J G; Deurenberg, P

    1998-11-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in two different ethnic groups (Indonesians and Caucasians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Cross-sectional study. Not specially selected populations living in southern Sumatra (Palembang, Indonesia) and Caucasian Dutch living in Wageningen. Body weight, body height, body fat by deuterium oxide dilution and skinfold thickness. Body fat could be well predicted by body mass index (BMI) and sex in the Indonesians and by BMI, sex and age in the Dutch with a prediction error of 3.6 and 3.3% for the two populations respectively. Although the body mass index in the Indonesian group was about 2 kg/m2 lower compared to the Dutch, the amount of body fat was 3% points higher. Because of small differences between the groups in age, weight and height the differences in body fat were corrected for this (ANOVA). Indonesians having the same weight, height, age and sex have generally 4.8% points more body fat compared to Dutch. Indonesians having the same % BF, age and sex have generally a 2.9 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to the Dutch. The results show that the relationship between % BF and BMI is different between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. If obesity is regarded as an excess of body fat and not as an excess of weight (increased BMI), the cut-off points for obesity in Indonesia based on the BMI should be 27 kg/m2 instead of 30 kg/m2.

  10. In vivo determination of body fat by measuring total body carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kehayias, J.J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; LoMonte, A.F.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    Total body carbon (TBC) is measured in vivo by neutron inelastic scattering. The fast neutrons needed for the irradiation are produced by a miniature deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Body fat and protein are the main contributors to TBC. Bone ash and carbohydrates contribute less than 3%. Fat is calculated from TBC after the subtraction of the carbon contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. The technique was applied to 14 normal volunteers (8 females, 6 males) aged 24-94 y who underwent neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation measurements for body carbon, nitrogen, and calcium. The initial results agree with other techniques. Unlike models that evaluate body fat by subtracting lean body mass from body weight, the TBC technique is not sensitive to assumptions on the composition of lean body; therefore, it is appropriate for studies of adults of any age and health condition.

  11. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  12. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  13. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  14. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  15. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  16. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  17. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  18. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  19. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  20. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men.The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008).Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men.

  1. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men. The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m2). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008). Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  2. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G; Shively, Carol A; Clarkson, Thomas B; Appt, Susan E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Jones, Sara R; Register, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n=42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p<0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way - reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G.; Shively, Carol A.; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Appt, Susan E.; Carr, J.Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Jones, Sara R.; Register, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n = 42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20 mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p < 0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way — reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26939086

  4. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  6. Serum carotenoid interactions in premenopausal women reveal α-carotene is negatively impacted by body fat.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Emily Taylor; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Lai, HuiChuan Jennifer; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-01-01

    health is important. α-Carotene does not have the same distribution in the food supply as β-carotene and therefore is often overlooked in surveys. In part, this is due to the fact that β-carotene provides two molecules of vitamin A, while α-carotene provides one upon central cleavage. This study shows a very clear association between α-carotene and body fatness, which appears to go beyond its fat-soluble nature. Dietary intake data were not able to explain the association. Further work is needed to determine what dietary components infer health benefits.

  7. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls.

    PubMed

    Minatto, Giseli; Sousa, Thiago Ferreira de; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes de; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1,223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the Economic Level (EL) (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by EL, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and EL. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls

    PubMed Central

    Minatto, Giseli; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the economic level (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by economic level, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Conclusions: Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and economic level. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. PMID:27131896

  9. Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain.

    PubMed

    Emery, Charles F; Olson, KayLoni L; Bodine, Andrew; Lee, Victoria; Habash, Diane L

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Quality of dietary intake was rated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Mediation models were conducted with the PROCESS macro in SAS 9.3. Mean BMI was consistent with obesity (30.4 ± 7.8; range: 18.2-53.3), and BP values (73.2 ± 22.1; range: 0-100) and dietary intake quality (59.4 ± 15.5; range: 26.8-88.1) were consistent with population norms. Modeling in PROCESS revealed that Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores mediated the relationship between BMI and BP (bindirect = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). The mediation model remained significant when controlling for biomechanical factors (arthritis/joint pain), medication use, psychological distress, age, and education, and models remained significant using the other 2 body fat measures. Thus, the data indicate that dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain in healthy men and women.

  10. Mineral oil paraffins in human body fat and milk.

    PubMed

    Concin, Nicole; Hofstetter, Gerda; Plattner, Barbara; Tomovski, Caroline; Fiselier, Katell; Gerritzen, Kerstin; Fessler, Siegfried; Windbichler, Gudrun; Zeimet, Alain; Ulmer, Hanno; Siegl, Harald; Rieger, Karl; Concin, Hans; Grob, Koni

    2008-02-01

    Paraffins of mineral oil origin (mineral paraffins) were analyzed in tissue fat collected from 144 volunteers with Caesarean sections as well as in milk fat from days 4 and 20 after birth of the same women living in Austria. In the tissue samples, the composition of the mineral paraffins was largely identical and consisted of an unresolved mixture of iso- and cycloalkanes, in gas chromatographic retention times ranging from n-C(17) to n-C(32) and centered at n-C(23)/C(24). Since the mineral oil products we are exposed to range from much smaller to much higher molecular mass and may contain prominent n-alkanes, the contaminants in the tissue fat must be a residue from selective uptake, elimination by evaporation and metabolic degradation. Concentrations varied between 15 and 360 mg/kg fat, with an average of 60.7 mg/kg and a median of 52.5 mg/kg. Mineral paraffins might be the largest contaminant of our body, widely amounting to 1g per person and reaching 10 g in extreme cases. If food were the main source, exposure data would suggest the mineral paraffins being accumulated over many years or even lifetime. The milk samples of day 4 contained virtually the same mixture of mineral paraffins as the tissue fat at concentrations between 10 and 355 mg/kg (average, 44.6 mg/kg; median, 30 mg/kg). The fats from the day 20 milks contained <5-285 mg/kg mineral paraffins (average, 21.7; median, 10mg/kg), whereby almost all elevated concentrations were linked with a modified composition, suggesting a new source, such as the use of breast salves. The contamination of the milk fat with mineral paraffins seems to decrease more rapidly than for other organic contaminants, and the transfer of mineral paraffins to the baby amounts to only around 1% of that in the body of the mother.

  11. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    PubMed

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, P<0.001); (iii) FFA Ra per kg FM decreased in a curvilinear fashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; P<0.001); (iv) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass (FFM) was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  12. Body fat and fat-free mass inter-relationships: Forbes's theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D

    2007-06-01

    A theoretical equation was developed by Forbes that quantifies the fat-free proportion of a weight change as a function of the initial body fat. However, Forbes's equation was strictly valid only for infinitesimal weight changes. Here, I extended Forbes's equation to account for the magnitude and direction of macroscopic body weight changes. The new equation was also re-expressed in terms of an alternative representation of body composition change defined by an energy partitioning parameter called the P-ratio. The predictions of the resulting equations compared favourably with data from human underfeeding and overfeeding experiments and accounted for previously unexplained trends in the data. The magnitude of the body weight change had a relatively weak effect on the predicted body composition changes and the results were very similar to Forbes's original equation for modest weight changes. However, for large weight changes, such as the massive weight losses found in patients following bariatric surgery, Forbes's original equation consistently underestimated the fat-free mass loss, as expected. The new equation that accounts for the magnitude of the weight loss provides better predictions of body composition changes in such patients.

  13. Association of body fat with inflammation in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Andresa Marques; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently leads to body weight gain, which appears to be a potential cause of the chronic inflammation frequently present in these patients. The consequences of this inflammation are impaired nutritional status, accelerated atherosclerosis, and increased mortality. To assess the association between inflammation and body fat in female patients treated with PD. Nineteen female patients on PD for at least 6 months with no infectious complications or malignant or acute inflammatory diseases. Nutritional status was determined by measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and mid-arm circumferences (MAC), mid-arm muscle area, and tricipital fold (TCF). Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was used to determine body composition. Biochemical evaluation included the determination of serum albumin, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The glucose absorbed from the dialysis solution was quantitated. According to BMI, two patients were classified as malnourished and ten as overweight/obese. Sixteen individuals had high WC measurements and 12 had excess body fat (BF) as measured by BIA. High CRP levels were observed in 12 patients, who had higher WC, MAC, BMI, TCF, and BF measurements compared to non-inflamed patients. Positive associations were detected between CRP and BMI, MAC, WC, and TCF. Associations between BF and CRP suggest that adiposity may be a potent exacerbating factor of inflammation in this population, especially visceral fat. Thus, obesity may be considered to be one more factor responsible for the early atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.

  14. Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of information on body composition and fat patterning in wild nonhuman primates. Dissected adipose tissue from wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) (WTM), feeding on a natural diet, accounted for 2.1% of body weight. This was far less than fatness reported for nonhuman primates raised in captivity or for contemporary humans. In WTM, fatness increased with age and diet richness, but did not differ by sex. In WTM (none of which were obese) intra-abdominal fat filled first, and "excess" fat was stored peripherally in a ratio of about 6:1. Intermuscular fat was minimal (0.1%). The superficial paunch held <15% of subcutaneous fat weight in contrast to its much larger proportions in obese humans and captive monkeys where most added fat accumulates subcutaneously. With increasing total adiposity, accumulating fat shifted in its distribution among eight different main internal and peripheral deposit areas-consistent with maintaining body balance and a low center of gravity. The available data suggest that, in arboreal primates, adaptations for agile locomotion and terminal branch feeding set constraints on the quantity and distribution of fat. The absence of a higher percentage of body fat in females and neonates (as are typical of humans) suggests that arboreal adaptations preclude the development of fat-dependent, large-brained infants and the adipose-rich mothers needed to sustain them. The lifestyle and body composition of wild primates represent a more appropriate model for early human foragers than well-fed captive monkeys do. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Associations between body fat and vitamin K status in older women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fat soluble nutrients are stored in fat tissue. Yet, the association between body fat and vitamin K status is not clear. We examined associations between % body fat (%BF) and 3 circulating measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone (plasma K1), uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA), uncarboxyla...

  16. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yuehjen E.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone's health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP), the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR), artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector regression (SVR) techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models. PMID:24723804

  17. Prediction of Percent Body Fat for U.S. Navy Women from Body Circumferences and Height

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    As can b. seen ’n Table 2, all of the skinfold thicknesses have sdilent weightings on only the fat mass factor (.actor 1). Height and wrist...of 8 skinfold thicknesses and 11 body circumference measures, as well as height and body weight, was made of Z14 female naval personnel. body density...Measurements were taken on the right side of the body with a Harpenden skinfold calipcr (British Indicators Ltd., St. "Aibans. Kerts. UK) and recorded to the

  18. Effects of different meal compositions after exercise on fat and carbohydrate oxidation in women with different levels of body fat.

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Mitchell, Nicole; Hughes, Michael J; Claytor, Randal P; Potteiger, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of consuming a high-carbohydrate meal (HC), high-fat meal (HF), or no meal (CON) following exercise on fat and carbohydrate oxidation (FAT-OX, CHO-OX) in women with differing levels of body fat. Healthy, physically active females were divided into a Lower Fat (<25% fat, n = 10) or Higher Fat (>25% fat, n = 9) group and tested on 4 occasions. During session 1, body composition and maximal oxygen consumption were determined. During 3 treatment sessions, subjects preformed treadmill exercise at 55% of maximal oxygen consumption until 350 kcal were expended. At 10 min postexercise subjects consumed a liquid meal standardized to provide energy equal to 20% of 24-h energy expenditure plus the 350 kcal of exercise. The HC meal comprised 64% carbohydrate, 21.6% fat, and 14.4% protein. The HF meal comprised 24% carbohydrate, 62% fat, and 14% protein. CON consisted of water equal to the meal volume. During exercise and 2 h postexercise, expired gases were collected to determine FAT-OX and CHO-OX. During exercise CHO-OX was a significantly higher for the Lower Fat group and FAT-OX was significantly higher for the Lower Fat group for each of the meal conditions. A significant difference was observed across meals (p < 0.05) for CHO-OX (first hour) and for CHO-OX and FAT-OX (second hour) postexercise. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the Lower Fat and Higher Fat groups for either recovery period. In physically active females, the macronutrient composition of the postexercise meal affects substrate oxidation, but the level of body fat does not.

  19. The relationship between regional abdominal fat distribution and both insulin resistance and subclinical chronic inflammation in non-diabetic adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with a high risk of insulin resistance (IR) and its metabolic complications. It is still debated that distributions of adipose tissue relate to an excess risk of IR and chronic inflammation in different race. This study was designed to examine the relation between insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and central fat distribution in non-diabetic volunteers in Taiwanese. Methods There were 328 volunteers without family history of diabetes mellitus and with normal oral glucose tolerance test enrolled. Total body fat and abdominal fat were measured. Abdominal fat was categorized into intraperitoneal (IP), retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) fat. The IR index was estimated by homeostatic model assessment. Five inflammatory markers: adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosing factor-α (TNF-α), resistin and high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) were measured. Results IR was related to IP fat (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), but not RP fat, SC fat or total body fat. After correcting for age and sex, IP fat was the only significant predictor of IR (r2 = 58%, p = 0.001). Leptin showed the strongest relationship with all fat compartments (IP fat: r = 0.44, p = 0.001; RP fat: r = 0.36, p = 0.005, SC fat: r = 0.54, p < 0.001; total body fat: r = 0.61, p < 0.001). The hs-CRP and adiponectin were closely related both to IP (r = 0.29, p = 0.004; r = -0.20, p = 0.046, respectively) and total body fat (r = 0.29, p = 0.004; r = -0.29, p = 0.005, respectively), but not RP, or SC fat. TNF-α and resistin were not correlated to any fat compartment. After correcting for age and sex, leptin variance was mostly explained by SC fat (41.3%), followed by IP fat (33.6%) and RP fat (25.3%). The hs-CRP and adiponectin variance were mostly explained by IP fat (40% and 49% respectively). Conclusions IP fat is better predictors of IR and subclinical chronic inflammation in Taiwanese adults. A

  20. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  1. Vitamin K-induced effects on body fat and weight: results from a 3-year vitamin K2 intervention study.

    PubMed

    Knapen, M H J; Jardon, K M; Vermeer, C

    2017-09-27

    Vitamin K status has been linked to fat and glucose metabolism by several authors, but whether high vitamin K intake influences body weight or composition has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased vitamin K intake decreases body fat or fat distribution. In a randomized placebo-controlled human intervention trial, 214 postmenopausal women, 55-65 years of age, received either 180 mcg/day of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7, MK-7) or placebo for 3 years. Osteocalcin (OC) carboxylation was used as a marker for vitamin K status, and fat distribution was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry total body scan. In the total cohort, MK-7 supplementation increased circulating carboxylated OC (cOC) but had no effect on body composition. In those with an above-median response in OC carboxylation ('good responders'), MK-7 treatment resulted in a significant increase in total and human molecular weight adiponectin and a decrease in abdominal fat mass and in the estimated visceral adipose tissue area compared with the placebo group and the poor responders. The fact that changes in body composition measures or markers for fat or glucose metabolism were not associated with changes in uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) does not support the assumption that ucOC stimulates fat metabolism in humans. Instead, high vitamin K2 intake may support reducing body weight, abdominal and visceral fat, notably in subjects showing a strong increase in cOC. A causal relation between the changes in cOC and body fat or distribution cannot be concluded from these data.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 27 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.146.

  2. Abdominal fat distribution in pre- and postmenopausal women: The impact of physical activity, age, and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Sames, C; Swisher, L; Swick, A G; Ploutz-Snyder, L L; Steppan, C M; Sagendorf, K S; Feiglin, D; Jaynes, E B; Meyer, R A; Weinstock, R S

    2001-08-01

    Age-related increases in total body fat have been reported, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of menopausal status on abdominal fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, we investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution on blood lipid profiles and leptin concentrations. Twenty-three premenopausal (PRE), 27 postmenopausal (POST), and 28 postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) had measurements of regional abdominal fat, blood lipids, and serum leptin concentrations. The women were matched for body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass. Age and menopausal status were not found to be significant predictors of total abdominal fat, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, while physical activity was a significant predictor (P <.01) for total abdominal fat (R(2) =.16), visceral fat (R(2) =.32) and percent visceral fat (R(2) =.25). There was a trend for a greater visceral fat content in the POST women compared with the PRE women (2,495.0 +/- 228.4 v 1,770.4 +/- 240.8 cm(2), respectively, P =.06). The percent visceral abdominal fat was significantly lower (P <.05) in the premenopausal women than in either postmenopausal group (PRE, 23.2% +/- 1.7%; POST, 28.9% +/- 1.8%; ERT, 28.9% +/- 1.6%). Menopausal status and age did not influence any of the blood lipid values. Abdominal fat distribution was a significant predictor of cholesterol concentrations and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, but only accounted for approximately 15% of the variability in these levels. Total body fat and physical activity accounted for 47% of the variability in leptin concentrations, while abdominal fat distribution, age, and menopausal status were not significant predictors. In conclusion, in early postmenopausal women, the level of physical activity accounts for the variability in abdominal fat distribution observed

  3. Tri-Ponderal Mass Index vs Body Mass Index in Estimating Body Fat During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Courtney M; Su, Haiyan; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Golnabi, Amir H; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity in adolescents worldwide, despite evidence that weight does not scale with height squared in adolescents. To account for this, health care providers diagnose obesity using BMI percentiles for each age (BMI z scores), but this does not ensure that BMI is accurate in adolescents. To compare the accuracy of BMI vs other body fat indices of the form body mass divided by heightn in estimating body fat levels in adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 1999 to 2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed between September 2015 and December 2016. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric data were used to determine changes in body fat levels, body proportions, and the scaling relationships among body mass, height, and percent body fat. To assess the merits of each adiposity index, 3 criteria were used: stability with age, accuracy in estimating percent body fat, and accuracy in classifying adolescents as overweight vs normal weight. Participants included 2285 non-Hispanic white participants aged 8 to 29 years. Percent body fat varied with both age and height during adolescence, invalidating the standard weight-to-height regression as the way of finding the optimal body fat index. Because the correct regression model (percent body fat is proportional to mass divided by heightn) suggested that percent body fat scales to height with an exponent closer to 3, we therefore focused on the tri-ponderal mass index (TMI; mass divided by height cubed) as an alternative to BMI z scores. For ages 8 to 17 years, TMI yielded greater stability with age and estimated percent body fat better than BMI (R2 = 0.64 vs 0.38 in boys and R2 = 0.72 vs 0.66 in girls). Moreover, TMI misclassified adolescents as overweight vs normal weight less often than BMI z scores (TMI, 8.4%; 95% CI, 7.3%-9.5% vs BMI, 19.4%; 95% CI, 17.8%-20.0%; P < .001) and performed equally as well as updated BMI percentiles

  4. Green coffee bean extract improves obesity by decreasing body fat in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bong-Keun; Park, Sung-Bum; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Lee, Hae Jin; Jin, Ying-Yu; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate possible lipid catabolism and body fat regulation effects of 3-caffeoylquinic acid in Green coffee bean extract (GCBE) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Obesity was induced in mice using a HFD for four weeks. Then, mice were fed only HFD or HFD with GCBE at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. Fatty acid synthesis mechanism regulation of body fat was investigated through real-time PCR and Western blot assay. Body fat reduction was measured through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In HFD-induced obese mice, GCBE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, liver weight and white adipose tissue weights with regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis hormones, like adiponectin and leptin. GCBE treatment decreased mRNA expression levels of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism related genes in adipose tissues and the liver, and decreased the corresponding protein expression. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements were used to compare body fat between mice on high-fat and those treated with GCBE. GCBE treated mice had a lower fat mass compared to HFD alone fed mice and relative body weight and fat mass were markedly decreased. GCBE has a potential anti-obesity effect with lowering body fat accumulation by regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins in WAT and liver. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  6. Body Fat Accumulation in Zebrafish Is Induced by a Diet Rich in Fat and Reduced by Supplementation with Green Tea Extract

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets. PMID:25785691

  7. The Effects of Diet Composition on Body Fat and Hepatic Steatosis in an Animal (Peromyscus californicus) Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Caldwell, Stephen; Coyle, Kathryn; Bush, Eugene; Atkinson, Richard; Joers, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine body composition, total fat content, fat distribution, and serum leptin concentration in hyperlipidemic (high responder, HR) and normolipidemic (low responder, LR) California mice (Peromyscus californicus). In our initial experiments, we sought to determine whether differences in regional fat storage were associated with hyperlipidemia in this species. To further characterize the hepatic steatosis in the mice, we performed 2 additional experiments by using a diet containing 45% of energy as fat. The body fat content of mice fed a low fat-diet (12.3% energy as fat) was higher than that of mice fed a moderate-fat diet (25.8% energy as fat). Total body fat did not differ between HR and LR mice. There was no significant difference between intraabdominal, gonadal, or inguinal fat pad weights. Liver weights of HR mice fed the moderate-fat diet were higher than those of LR mice fed the same diet, and the moderate-fat diet was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Mice fed the 45% diet had higher histologic score for steatosis but very little inflammatory response. Chemical analysis indicated increased lipid in the livers of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with those fed the low-fat diet. HR and LR mice had similar serum leptin concentrations. California mice develop NAFL without excess fat accumulation elsewhere. NAFL was influenced by genetic and dietary factors. These mice may be a naturally occuring model of partial lipodystrophy. PMID:21819679

  8. Relationship between Psychosocial Functioning and Body Fat in Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether 132 preschool children who varied in levels of body fat differed on psychosocial functioning. Children did not differ in self-esteem and family functioning as function of body fat. Prospectively, physical self-esteem weakly but significantly correlated with body fat at one and two years; father's perception of family functioning…

  9. Comparison of general obesity and measures of body fat distribution in older adults in relation to cancer risk: meta-analysis of individual participant data of seven prospective cohorts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; Arnold, Melina; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; O'Doherty, Mark George; Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Bamia, Christina; Kampman, Ellen; Leitzmann, Michael; Romieu, Isabelle; Kee, Frank; Tsilidis, Konstantinos; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Benetou, Vassiliki; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Huerta, José María; Brenner, Hermann; Wilsgaard, Tom; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-05-23

    We evaluated the associations of anthropometric indicators of general obesity (body mass index, BMI), an established risk factor of various cancer, and body fat distribution (waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC; and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR), which may better reflect metabolic complications of obesity, with total obesity-related and site-specific (colorectal and postmenopausal breast) cancer incidence. This is a meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies participating in the CHANCES consortium including 18 668 men and 24 751 women with a mean age of 62 and 63 years, respectively. Harmonised individual participant data from all seven cohorts were analysed separately and alternatively for each anthropometric indicator using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. After a median follow-up period of 12 years, 1656 first-incident obesity-related cancers (defined as postmenopausal female breast, colorectum, lower oesophagus, cardia stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, endometrium, ovary, and kidney) had occurred in men and women. In the meta-analysis of all studies, associations between indicators of adiposity, per s.d. increment, and risk for all obesity-related cancers combined yielded the following summary hazard ratios: 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.21) for BMI, 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.23) for WC, 1.09 (95% CI 0.98-1.21) for HC, and 1.15 (95% CI 1.00-1.32) for WHR. Increases in risk for colorectal cancer were 16%, 21%, 15%, and 20%, respectively per s.d. of BMI, WC, HC, and WHR. Effect modification by hormone therapy (HT) use was observed for postmenopausal breast cancer (Pinteraction<0.001), where never HT users showed an ∼20% increased risk per s.d. of BMI, WC, and HC compared to ever users. BMI, WC, HC, and WHR show comparable positive associations with obesity-related cancers combined and with colorectal cancer in older adults. For postmenopausal breast cancer we report evidence for effect modification by HT use.

  10. Trends in body fat, body mass index and physical fitness among male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Pribis, Peter; Burtnack, Carol A; McKenzie, Sonya O; Thayer, Jerome

    2010-10-01

    There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of physical fitness related to BMI and body fat among university students between 1996 and 2008. The results showed a significant decline in the average fitness levels measured as an estimation of VO(2max) for male and female students (p < 0.001 for both sexes). The linear trend for BMI by years was not significant for both sexes (p for males = 0.772, p for females = 0.253). On average, in the last 13 years, % body fat was increasing 0.513%/year for males and 0.654%/year for females. There is a significant indirect correlation between the student's VO(2max) levels and % body fat, r = -0.489; p < 0.001 for males; and r = -0.416, p < 0.001 for females. Approximately 23.9% of the variance in the VO(2max) levels in males and 17.3% in females can be explained by the variance in % body fat. The results support recent findings that physical fitness among college students is declining and body fatness is increasing.

  11. Trends in Body Fat, Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness Among Male and Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Pribis, Peter; Burtnack, Carol A.; McKenzie, Sonya O.; Thayer, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of physical fitness related to BMI and body fat among university students between 1996 and 2008. The results showed a significant decline in the average fitness levels measured as an estimation of VO2max for male and female students (p < 0.001 for both sexes). The linear trend for BMI by years was not significant for both sexes (p for males = 0.772, p for females = 0.253). On average, in the last 13 years, % body fat was increasing 0.513%/year for males and 0.654%/year for females. There is a significant indirect correlation between the student’s VO2max levels and % body fat, r = −0.489; p < 0.001 for males; and r = −0.416, p < 0.001 for females. Approximately 23.9% of the variance in the VO2max levels in males and 17.3% in females can be explained by the variance in % body fat. The results support recent findings that physical fitness among college students is declining and body fatness is increasing. PMID:22253998

  12. Challenging fat talk: An experimental investigation of reactions to body disparaging conversations.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Baumgardner, Megan; Guo, Cai; Simms, Lea; Abromowitz, Emily

    2017-09-05

    Although "fat talk" is associated with increased eating disorder risk, the predictors of fat talk engagement and viable alternatives to these pervasive conversations remain unclear. The current experiment examined responses to fat talk versus feminist-oriented challenging fat talk scenarios. Undergraduate women (N=283) completed baseline questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, fat talk engagement, and positive impression management. One week later, they were randomized to view one of the two scenarios, followed by assessment of mood, fat talk engagement, social acceptability, and social likeability. Results indicated that the challenging fat talk vignette (versus the fat talk vignette) yielded less negative affect and fat talk and was perceived as more socially attractive with a more likeable target character. Baseline body dissatisfaction, baseline fat talk tendencies, and momentary negative affect predicted post-exposure fat talk engagement. Current findings highlight possibilities for implementing feminist language and psychoeducation in fat talk prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Mercuri, M; Anand, S S

    2013-05-27

    South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FF-BIA) against the BOD POD, a method of air-displacement plethysmography, and (2) to determine the correlations of simple anthropometric measures, (that is, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) against the BOD POD measure of body fat. Eighty apparently healthy South Asian men and women were recruited from the community, and measurements of height, weight, WC, HC and body composition using Tanita FF-BIA and BOD POD were taken. The mean±s.d. age of participants was 27.78±10.49 years, 42.5% were women, and the mean BMI was 22.68±3.51 kg m(-2). The mean body fat (%BF) calculated by FF-BIA and BOD POD was 21.94±7.88% and 26.20±8.47%, respectively. The %BF calculated by FF-BIA was highly correlated with the BOD POD (Pearson's r=0.83, P<0.001), however, FF-BIA underestimated %BF by 4.3%. When anthropometric measures were compared with % BF by BOD POD, the BAI showed the strongest correlation (r=0.74) and the WHR showed the weakest (r=0.33). BAI generally underestimated %BF by 2.6% in comparison with %BF by BOD POD. The correlations of BOD POD with other measures of %BF were much stronger in subjects with a BMI >21 kg m(-2) than those with a BMI 21 kg m(-2). The FF-BIA and BAI estimates of %BF are highly correlated with that of BOD POD among people of South Asian origin, although both methods somewhat underestimate % BF. Furthermore, their correlations with % BF from BOD POD are significantly

  14. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, S; Mercuri, M; Anand, S S

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FF-BIA) against the BOD POD, a method of air-displacement plethysmography, and (2) to determine the correlations of simple anthropometric measures, (that is, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) against the BOD POD measure of body fat. Methods: Eighty apparently healthy South Asian men and women were recruited from the community, and measurements of height, weight, WC, HC and body composition using Tanita FF-BIA and BOD POD were taken. Results: The mean±s.d. age of participants was 27.78±10.49 years, 42.5% were women, and the mean BMI was 22.68±3.51 kg m−2. The mean body fat (%BF) calculated by FF-BIA and BOD POD was 21.94±7.88% and 26.20±8.47%, respectively. The %BF calculated by FF-BIA was highly correlated with the BOD POD (Pearson's r=0.83, P<0.001), however, FF-BIA underestimated %BF by 4.3%. When anthropometric measures were compared with % BF by BOD POD, the BAI showed the strongest correlation (r=0.74) and the WHR showed the weakest (r=0.33). BAI generally underestimated %BF by 2.6% in comparison with %BF by BOD POD. The correlations of BOD POD with other measures of %BF were much stronger in subjects with a BMI >21 kg m−2 than those with a BMI ⩽21 kg m−2. Conclusion: The FF-BIA and BAI estimates of %BF are highly correlated with that of BOD POD among people of South Asian origin, although both methods somewhat underestimate % BF. Furthermore, their

  15. Fat distribution and insulin resistance in young adult nonobese Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Magdalene; Li, Rong; Grundy, Scott M; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Although Asian Indian (people of Indian subcontinent descent) men are shown to have higher total and truncal body fat as well as greater insulin resistance compared to white men matched for total body fat and age, data in women are not conclusive. The objective of this study was to compare total and regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity between healthy young premenopausal Asian Indian and white women of similar body mass index (BMI). Twenty Asian Indian women (65% immigrants and 35% first generation living in Dallas) and 31 white women of similar age and BMI [age 24±3 vs. 25±4; BMI 22±4 vs. 23±5; mean±standard deviation (SD) in Asian Indian and white, respectively] without diabetes were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing for percentage of total body fat mass, magnetic resonance imaging of whole abdomen for measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat mass, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study for measurement of insulin sensitivity. There were no differences in waist or hip circumference, total body subcutaneous abdominal or intraperitoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels between Asian Indian women and white women. The peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was found to be almost identical in the two study groups (median value of 6.9 and 6.8 mg/min per kg of body weight, for Asian Indians and whites, respectively). For similar total or regional fat content, the glucose disposal rate was comparable in the two study groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young Asian Indian women do not have excess abdominal or intraperitoneal fat or insulin resistance for similar BMI compared to white women of European descent.

  16. Asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology is associated with a central fat distribution in men and a peripheral fat distribution in women: a cross sectional study of 298 individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adiposity is a modifiable factor that has been implicated in tendinopathy. As tendon pain reduces physical activity levels and can lead to weight gain, associations between tendon pathology and adiposity must be studied in individuals without tendon pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether fat distribution was associated with asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology. Methods The Achilles tendons of 298 individuals were categorised as normal or pathological using diagnostic ultrasound. Fat distribution was determined using anthropometry (waist circumference, waist hip ratio [WHR]) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology was more evident in men (13%) than women (5%) (p = 0.007). Men with tendon pathology were older (50.9 ± 10.4, 36.3 ± 11.3, p < 0.001), had greater WHR (0.926 ± 0.091, 0.875 ± 0.065, p = 0.039), higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio (0.616 ± 0.186, 0.519 ± 0.142, p = 0.014) and higher upper-body/lower body fat mass ratio (2.346 ± 0.630, 2.022 ± 0.467, p = 0.013). Men older than 40 years with a waist circumference >83 cm had the greatest prevalence of tendon pathology (33%). Women with tendon pathology were older (47.4 ± 10.0, 36.0 ± 10.3, p = 0.008), had less total fat (17196 ± 3173 g, 21626 ± 7882 g, p = 0.009), trunk fat (7367 ± 1662 g, 10087 ± 4152 g, p = 0.003) and android fat (1117 ± 324 g, 1616 ± 811 g, p = 0.005). They had lower central/peripheral fat mass ratios (0.711 ± 0.321 g, 0.922 ± 0.194 g, p = 0.004) than women with normal tendons. Women with tendon pathology were more often menopausal (63%, 13%, p = 0.002). Conclusions Men with Achilles tendon pathology were older and had a central fat distribution. Women with tendon pathology were older and had a peripheral fat distribution. An interaction between age and waist circumference was observed among men. PMID:20196870

  17. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Body mass index, muscle and fat in chronic kidney disease: questions about survival.

    PubMed

    Mafra, D; Guebre-Egziabher, F; Fouque, D

    2008-08-01

    The human body can be roughly divided into two major compartments, fat mass and lean body mass. Adipose tissue is now considered to be a highly active tissue and, in addition to storing calories as triglycerides, it also secretes a large variety of compounds, including cytokines, chemokines and hormone-like factors such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin. On the other hand, muscle plays a central role in whole-body protein metabolism by serving as the principal provider for amino acids to maintain protein synthesis in vital tissues and organs and by providing hepatic gluconeogenic precursors. Although not a good indicator of body composition, the Quetelet index, also called body mass index (BMI), is often used for practical reasons. It is well known that high BMI predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. However, observational reports in the dialysis population have suggested that obesity is associated with improved survival, a phenomenon that is not well understood and subject to controversies. This review describes the characteristics of BMI in the general population and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as well as the respective role of muscle, whole body fat and fat distribution towards mortality, with particular emphasis on patients with CKD.

  19. Probiotic supplementation attenuates increases in body mass and fat mass during high-fat diet in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Kristin L; Boutagy, Nabil E; McMillan, Ryan P; Stevens, Joseph R; Frisard, Madlyn I; Kavanaugh, John W; Davy, Brenda M; Davy, Kevin P; Hulver, Matthew W

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of the probiotic, VSL#3, on body and fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle substrate oxidation following 4 weeks of a high-fat diet. Twenty non-obese males (18-30 years) participated in the study. Following a 2-week eucaloric control diet, participants underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry to determine body composition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test to determine insulin sensitivity, and a skeletal muscle biopsy for measurement of in vitro substrate oxidation. Subsequently, participants were randomized to receive either VSL#3 or placebo daily during 4 weeks of consuming a High-fat (55% fat), hypercaloric diet (+1,000 kcal day(-1) ). Participants repeated all measurements following the intervention. Body mass (1.42 ± 0.42 kg vs. 2.30 ± 0.28 kg) and fat mass (0.63 ± 0.09 kg vs. 1.29 ± 0.27 kg) increased less following the High-fat diet in the VSL#3 group compared with placebo. However, there were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity or in vitro skeletal muscle pyruvate and fat oxidation with the High-fat diet or VSL#3. VSL#3 supplementation appears to have provided some protection from body mass gain and fat accumulation in healthy young men consuming a High-fat and high-energy diet. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Body fat differences by self-reported race/ethnicity in healthy term newborns.

    PubMed

    Paley, C; Hull, H; Ji, Y; Toro-Ramos, T; Thornton, J; Bauer, J; Matthews, P; Yu, A; Navder, K; Dorsey, K; Gallagher, D

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic differences in total body fat (fat mass [FM]) have been reported in adults and children, but the timing of when these differences manifest and whether they are present at birth are unknown. This study aimed to assess whether ethnic differences in body fat are present at birth in healthy infants born at term, where body fat is measured using air displacement plethysmography and fat distribution by skin-fold thickness. Data were from a multiracial cross-sectional convenience sample of 332 term infants from four racial or ethnic groups based on maternal self-report (A, Asian; AA, non-Hispanic Black [African-American]; C, non-Hispanic White; and H, Hispanic). The main outcome measure was infant body fat at 1-3 days after birth, with age, birth weight, gestational age and maternal pre-pregnancy weight as covariates. Significant effects for race (P = 0.0011), sex (P = 0.0051) and a race by sex interaction (P = 0.0236) were found. C females had higher FM than C males (P = 0.0001), and AA females had higher FM than AA males (P = 0.0205). C males had less FM than A males (P = 0.0353) and H males (P = 0.0001). Race/ethnic and sex differences in FM are present in healthy term newborns. Although the implications of these differences are unclear, studies beginning in utero and birth set the stage for a life course approach to understanding disease later in life. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects?

    PubMed

    Santos, S; Severo, M; Gaillard, R; Santos, A C; Barros, H; Oliveira, A

    2016-11-01

    It remains unknown whether the effects of prenatal exposures on child's adiposity reflect entirely intrauterine programming. We aimed to assess the effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on the child's body fat patterns, disentangling the direct (through intrauterine programming) and indirect (through birthweight) effects. We included 4747 singleton 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal). At birth, maternal and newborn's characteristics were obtained. Anthropometrics were measured at age 7 years and body fat patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Path analysis was used to quantify direct, indirect and total effects of gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on body fat patterns. Pattern 1 was characterized by strong factor loadings with body mass index, fat mass index and waist-to-height ratio (fat quantity) and pattern 2 with waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-to-weight ratio (fat distribution). The positive total effect of maternal gestational weight gain and diabetes on the child's fat quantity was mainly through a direct pathway, responsible for 91.7% and 83.7% of total effects, respectively (β = 0.022; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.017, 0.027; β = 0.041; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.093). No effects on fat distribution were found. Maternal prenatal smoking had a positive direct effect on patterns 1 and 2, explaining 94.9% and 76.1% of total effects, respectively. The effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on a child's fat quantity seem to be mainly through intrauterine programming. Maternal smoking also showed a positive direct effect on child's fat distribution. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Body mass, fat percentage, and fat free mass as reference variables for lung function: effects on terms for age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, J; Chinn, D; Reed, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sex specific cross sectional reference values for lung function indices usually employ a linear model with terms for age and stature. The effects of also matching for body mass index (BMI= mass/stature2) or its components, fat percentage of body mass (fat%) and fat free mass index (FFMI = fat free mass/stature2) were studied.
METHODS—The subjects were 458 asymptomatic male and female non-smokers (383 men) and 22 female ex-smokers. Measurements were made of ventilatory capacity, lung volumes, transfer factor (diffusing capacity, single breath CO method), and body composition (skinfold method). Linear and proportional regression models were used.
RESULTS—Terms for fat% and FFMI significantly improved the accuracy of reference values for all the primary lung function indices. The improvements in subjects with atypical physiques (fat% and FFMI at the ends of the distributions for the subjects) were in the range 0.3-2.3 SD compared with conventional regression equations. The new partial regression coefficients on age were independent of age related changes in body fat. The coefficient for total lung capacity (TLC) on age in men was now positive. Most differences between the sexes were eliminated. A term for BMI improved the descriptions of subdivisions of TLC but lacked the other advantages.
CONCLUSION—Allowance for fat% and FFMI increases the accuracy of reference equations for lung function, particularly for subjects with a lot of fat and little muscle or vice versa. Allowance for BMI is less informative.

 PMID:11641507

  3. Lower-body fat mass as an independent marker of insulin sensitivity--the role of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Sørensen, T I A; Pedersen, O; Black, E; Holst, C; Toubro, S; Echwald, S; Holst, J J; Rasmussen, C; Astrup, A

    2005-06-01

    To study the association between lower-body fat and estimates of whole-body insulin sensitivity in middle-aged men with and without a history of juvenile onset obesity, and to determine the possible mediating role of fasting serum adiponectin level as an insulin-sensitizing peptide. A total of 401 men aged 39-65 y, body mass index 18-54 kg/m2, participated in the study. The following variables were measured on the study participants: regional body fat distribution as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal sagittal diameter, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), physical activity, fasting and post-glucose load levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and blood non-esterified fatty acid plus fasting levels of serum adiponectin and HbA1c. Lower-body fat mass was positively associated with insulin sensitivity as estimated by Matsudas index also after adjusting for age, lean tissue mass, trunkal fat mass, weight changes since draft board examination, VO2max and the level of physical activity. In a subgroup of men selected for a large lower-body fat mass, fasting serum insulin concentration was 24% lower (P<0.01) and fasting serum adiponectin 33% higher (P<0.005) compared to a subgroup of men with a small lower-body fat mass but with similar trunkal fat mass. Lower-body fat mass is positively associated with an estimate of insulin sensitivity independently of trunkal fat mass in both lean and obese middle-aged men and this effect could partly be statistically explained by variations in serum adiponectin levels.

  4. The roles of metabolic thermogenesis in body fat regulation in striped hamsters fed high-fat diet at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu-Lu; Fan, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Tan, Song; Wen, Jing; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wang, De-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic thermogenesis plays important roles in thermoregulation, and it may be also involved in body fat regulation. The thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is largely affected by ambient temperature, but it is unclear if the roles in body fat regulation are dependent on the temperature. In the present study, uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1)-based BAT thermogenesis, energy budget and body fat content were examined in the striped hamsters fed high fat diet (HF) at cold (5°C) and warm (30°C) temperatures. The effect of 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a chemical uncoupler, on body fat was also examined. The striped hamsters showed a notable increase in body fat following the HF feeding at 21°C. The increased body fat was markedly elevated at 30°C, but was significantly attenuated at 5°C compared to that at 21°C. The hamsters significantly increased energy intake at 5°C, but consumed less food at 30°C relative to those at 21°C. Metabolic thermogenesis, indicated by basal metabolic rate, UCP1 expression and/or serum triiodothyronine levels, significantly increased at 5°C, but decreased at 30°C compared to that at 21°C. A significant decrease in body fat content was observed in DNP-treated hamsters relative to the controls. These findings suggest that the roles of metabolic thermogenesis in body fat regulation largely depend on ambient temperature. The cold-induced enhancement of BAT thermogenesis may contribute the decreased body fat, resulting in a lean mass. Instead, the attenuation of BAT thermogenesis at the warm may result in notable obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Leptin correlates with distribution of fatty tissue and plasma levels of insulin, testosterone and tumor necrosis factor alpha in perimenopausal women with increased testosterone level and central location of body fat].

    PubMed

    Milewicz, Tomasz; Krzysiek, Józef; Janczak-Saif, Agnieszka; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of testosterone and fat tissue distribution on the serum leptin levels in perimenopausal women. 93 perimenopausal women without HRT (age: 51.0 +/- 8.8 yrs, FSH: 68.0 +/- 49.4 IU/l, estradiol: 38.3 +/- 37.0 ng/1) were divided into group A - 63 women with serum testosterone level < 0.6 ng/ml and group B--30 women with serum testosterone > or = 0.6 ng/ml. Each group was later divided according to WHR into subgroup I (AI and BI) (WHR < 0.8) and II (AII and BII) (WHR > or = 0.8). Basic fasting serum levels of LH, FSH, PRL, estradiol, insulin, hGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, leptin, testosterone, DHEAS TNF-alpha and SHBG were measured by RIA kits. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as triglycerides plasma levels were measured. Statistical evaluation was carried out by ANOVA and linear regression. BMI, WHR and plasma DHEAS level were higher in group B vs. group A. The lowest hGH, HDL-cholesterol and the highest TNF-alpha levels were found in group BII. The relations leptin/BMI and leptin/body mass were found in each group. The inverse relation between leptin and IGFBP-1 was found in groups A and B. In group A the inverse relations leptin/HDL-cholesterol and leptin/ DHEAS were observed. In group B the direct leptin/testosterone and inverse leptin/IGF-I relations were found. In group AI the inverse leptin/DHEAS relation remained, while in group AII inverse leptin/HDL-cholesterol relation remained and reverse leptin/IGFBP-1 relation was significant. The direct leptin/testosterone, leptin/WHR and inverse leptin/TNF-alpha links were observed in group BII. The serum leptin level was linked to WHR, serum testosterone, insulin, TNF-alpha levels only in groups of perimenopausal women with such cardiovascular risk factors as high WHR, overweight, high serum TNF-alpha and testosterone levels.

  6. Step count recommendations for children based on body fat.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K

    2007-01-01

    Current recommendations for pedometer-determined physical activity in children (boys, 15,000 steps/day; girls, 12,000 steps/day) were based on the association between weekday step counts and body mass index. The objective of this study was to develop new targets using both weekday and weekend step counts with percentage body fat (%BF) as the criterion reference. The %BF of 969 New Zealand European, Polynesian, and Asian children (515 male, 454 female) aged 5-12 years was measured in 2004 using hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis. Weekday and weekend step counts, assessed using sealed multi-day-memory pedometers over 5 days, were combined into a scaled mean step count. The contrasting groups method for determining criterion-referenced cut-off points was used to establish the optimal step count values for predicting overweight (%BF>85th percentile) and non-overweight (%BF<85th percentile). Overweight children had significantly lower mean step counts (14,238+/-3343, boys; 12,555+/-3169, girls) than non-overweight children (16,106+/-3208, boys; 14,176+/-2728, girls). Optimal step count cut-off points were 16,000 steps/day for boys and 13,000 steps/day for girls. Step count targets for reducing the risk of excess body fat in children are 1000 steps/day higher than existing BMI-referenced guidelines.

  7. Acoustic wave therapy for cellulite, body shaping and fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Hexsel, Doris; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Aline Flor; Siega, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Cellulite is a common aesthetic condition that affects almost every woman. To evaluate the efficacy of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) for cellulite and body shaping. In this open-label, single-centre trial, 30 women presenting moderate or severe cellulite underwent 12 sessions of AWT on the gluteus and back of the thighs, over six weeks. The following assessments were performed at baseline, and up to 12 weeks after treatment: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), body circumference measurements, subcutaneous fat thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quality of life related by Celluqol(®) and a satisfaction questionnaire. The treatment reduced cellulite severity from baseline up to 12 weeks after the last treatment session (subjects presenting severe cellulite: 60% to 38%). The mean CSS shifted from 11.1 to 9.5 (p < 0.001). Hips circumferences reduced from 99.7 and 103.2 cm to 96.2 and 100.3 cm (respectively, p < 0.001). The average thickness of the subcutaneous fat tissue also decreased (28.3 ± 6.5 mm to 26.7 ± 6.1mm; p < 0.001). The treatment also improved quality of life. More than 90% of the subjects would undergo the treatment again and 89% were satisfied with the results. No serious adverse events were reported. AWT is a safe treatment to improve cellulite appearance and reduce body circumferences.

  8. Body surface temperature distribution in relation to body composition in obese women.

    PubMed

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna; Kempińska-Podhorodecka, Agnieszka

    2014-07-01

    Adipose tissue levels and human obesity are known to be associated with increased heat production. At the same time, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. The energy implications of obesity and body thermoregulatory mechanisms remain relatively poorly understood. This study attempted to examine the potential relationship between body composition (subcutaneous and visceral fat) determined by bioimpedance as well as BMI (body mass index), and skin surface temperature distribution recorded at rest. One specific aim of this study was to draw a thermal map of body areas in obese women and compare this with women of normal body mass, and thus to identify body regions within which heat transfer is particularly impeded. As high fat content is a good insulator, it could reduce the body's ability to respond effectively to changes in environmental temperature, which would be problematic for thermal homeostasis. Our results showed that core temperature did not differ between obese and normal body mass participants, while skin temperature of most body surfaces was lower in obese subjects. The results of regression analysis showed that the mean body surface temperature (Tmean) decreased with increasing percentage of body fat (PBF) of the abdominal area. The opposite relationship was observed for the front area of the hand (simultaneous increase in Tmean and PBF). We also found a negative correlation between BMI and Tmean of the thigh areas, both the front and the back. From this it could be concluded that the mean body surface temperature is dependent on body fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Premature remodeling of fat body and fat mobilization triggered by platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huimei; Wang, Xuexiang; Guo, Pengfei; Ge, Wanzhong; Yan, Qinfeng; Gao, Weiqiang; Xi, Yongmei; Yang, Xiaohang

    2017-01-26

    In Drosophila, fat body remodeling accompanied with fat mobilization is an ecdysone-induced dynamic process that only occurs during metamorphosis. Here, we show that the activated Drosophila platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor (PVR) is sufficient to induce shape changes in the fat body, from thin layers of tightly conjugated polygonal cells to clusters of disaggregated round-shaped cells. These morphologic changes are reminiscent of those seen during early pupation upon initiation of fat body remodeling. Activation of PVR also triggers an early onset of lipolysis and mobilization of internal storage as revealed by the appearance of small lipid droplets and up-regulated lipolysis-related genes. We found that PVR displays a dynamic expression pattern in the fat body and peaks at the larval-prepupal transition under the control of ecdysone signaling. Removal of PVR, although it does not prevent ecdysone-induced fat body remodeling, causes ecdysone signaling to be up-regulated. Our data reveal that PVR is active in a dual-secured mechanism that involves an ecdysone-induced fat body remodeling pathway and a reinforced PVR pathway for effective lipid mobilization. Ectopic expression of activated c-kit-the mouse homolog of PVR in the Drosophila fat body-also results in a similar phenotype. This may suggest a novel function of c-kit as it relates to lipid metabolism in mammals.-Zheng, H., Wang, X., Guo, P., Ge, W., Yan, Q., Gao, W., Xi, Y., Yang, X. Premature remodeling of fat body and fat mobilization triggered by platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor in Drosophila.

  10. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  11. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  12. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  13. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  14. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  15. Body fat mass reduction and up-regulation of uncoupling protein by novel lipolysis-promoting plant extract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinobu; Satou, Mayumi; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Yoshizuka, Naonobu; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Takema, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    We have found natural products exhibiting lipolysis-promoting activity in subcutaneous adipocytes, which are less sensitive to hormones than visceral adipocytes. The activities and a action mechanisms of a novel plant extract of Cirsium oligophyllum (CE) were investigated in isolated adipocytes from rat subcutaneous fat, and its fat-reducing effects by peroral administration and topical application were evaluated in vivo. CE-induced lipolysis was synergistically enhanced by caffeine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and was reduced by propranolol, a beta adrenergic antagonist. The peroral administration of 10% CE solution to Wistar rats for 32 days reduced body weight gain, subcutaneous, and visceral fat weights by 6.6, 26.2, and 3.0%, respectively, as compared to the control group. By the topical application of 2% of this extract to rats for 7 days, weight of subcutaneous fat in the treated skin was reduced by 23.2%. This fat mass reduction was accompanied by the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP), a principal thermogenic mitochondrial molecule related to energy dissipating, in subcutaneous fat and UCP3 in skin except for the fat layer. These results indicate that CE promotes lipolysis via a mechanism involving the beta adrenergic receptor, and affects the body fat mass. This fat reduction may be partially due to UCP up-regulation in the skin including subcutaneous fat. This is the first report showing that repeated lipolysis promotion through CE administration may be beneficial for the systematic suppression of body fat accumulation or the control of fat distribution in obesity.

  16. Eating disorder risk and body dissatisfaction based on muscularity and body fat in male university students.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body dissatisfaction and perceptual attractiveness determined with the Bodybuilder Image Grid (BIG). There was a positive correlation (r=.16, p<.01) between the EAT and fat dissatisfaction and a negative correlation (r=-.14, p<.05) for muscle dissatisfaction, 28% of the males had an EAT score indicating that they were at risk for an eating disorder. Males chose a significantly more muscular and leaner body type than what females chose to be attractive. College-aged males may be at risk for eating disorders based on distortions in their perceived ideal body image, both for fat and muscle.

  17. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  18. Standards for total body fat and fat-free mass in infants.

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, N C; van Velthoven, K A; de Ridder, M; Stijnen, T; Juttmann, R E; Degenhart, H J; Visser, H K

    1996-01-01

    Data on body composition in conjunction with reference centiles are helpful in identifying the severity of growth and nutritional disorders in infancy and for evaluating the adequacy of treatment given during this important period of rapid growth. Total body fat (TBF) and fat-free mass (FFM) were estimated from total body electrical conductivity (TBEC) measurements in 423 healthy term Caucasian infants, aged 14-379 days. Cross sectional age, weight, and length related centile standards are presented for TBF and FFM. Centiles were calculated using Altman's method, based on polynomial regression and modelling of the residual variation. The TBF percentage steeply increased during the first half year of life, and slowly declined beyond this age. Various simple TBEC derived anthropometric prediction equations for TBF and FFM are available to be used in conjunction with these standards. Regression equations for the P50 and the residual SD, depending on age, weight, or length, are provided for constructing centile charts and calculating standard deviation scores. PMID:8669953

  19. Thin or overweight women's fat talk: which is worse for other women's body satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Pick, Cari M

    2014-01-01

    Fat talk is not merely correlated with, but appears to be one of the causes of body dissatisfaction in other women. Moderators of fat talk's deleterious effects, however, have not yet been identified. This experiment tested whether the body type of the fat-talker affects listeners' body satisfaction. Women viewed photos of either noticeably thin or overweight women making either fat talk or positive body statements. Fat talk by thin and overweight women both had a negative impact on women's body satisfaction, but dissatisfaction was highest after exposure to photos of thin women making fat talk statements. Statistically indistinguishable from this latter effect, however, was the negative effect of thin women making positive body statements. Results are considered within a social comparison framework. Theoretical implications for the thin-ideal and fat talk literatures are presented, as are clinical implications for work with clients.

  20. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  1. Roles of subcutaneous fat and thermoregulatory reflexes in determining ability to stabilize body temperature in water.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, M G; Keatinge, W R

    1981-01-01

    1. The lowest water temperature in which different young adults could stabilize body temperature was found to vary from 32 degrees C to less than 12 degrees C, because of large differences in both total body insulation and metabolic heat production. 2. Total body insulation per unit surface area, in the coldest water allowing stability, was quite closely determined by mean subcutaneous fat thickness measured ultrasonically (r = 0.92), regardless of differences in distribution of this fat between men and women. 3. Reactive individuals developed high metabolic rates, and often rather high insulations in relation to fat thickness, which enabled them to stabilize their body temperatures in water more than 10 degrees C colder than was possible for less reactive individuals of similar fat thickness. 4. Measurements of heat flux, after stabilization in the coldest water possible, showed that the trunk was the main site of heat loss and that over half of the internal insulation there could be accounted for by subcutaneous fat; by contrast, fat could account for less than a third of higher insulations found in muscular parts of the limbs, and for less than 3% of very high insulations in the hands and feet. 5. After stabilization of body temperature at rest in the coldest possible water, exercise reduced internal insulation only in muscular parts of the limbs. Exercise also increased heat loss elsewhere by exposing skin of protected regions such as flexural surfaces of joints. During exercise total heat production increased rather more than heat loss in unreactive subjects, but less than loss in subjects whose heat production had already risen to a high level when they were at rest in cold water. 6. In warm (37 degrees C) water, tissue insulations were lower and much more uniform between subjects and between different body regions than in the cold. Even in the warm, however, insulations remained rather higher in fat than thin subjects, higher at rest than during exercise

  2. Switching from zidovudine/lamivudine to tenofovir/emtricitabine improves fat distribution as measured by fat mass ratio.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E; Ribera, E; Clotet, B; Estrada, V; Sanz, J; Berenguer, J; Rubio, R; Pulido, F; Larrousse, M; Curran, A; Negredo, E; Arterburn, S; Ferrer, P; Álvarez, M L

    2015-07-01

    Fat mass ratio (FMR) has been suggested as an objective indicator of abnormal body fat distribution in HIV infection. Although it could provide more comprehensive information on body fat changes than limb fat mass, FMR has scarcely been used in clinical trials examining body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients. A subanalysis of a controlled, randomized clinical trial in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected men switching from zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) to emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir (TDF) versus continuing on ZDV/3TC was carried out. FMR was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for a period of 72 weeks. Lipoatrophy was defined as FMR ≥ 1.5. Multivariate linear regression models for the change in FMR from baseline were fitted. Sixty-five men were randomized and treated (28 in the FTC/TDF arm and 37 in the ZDV/3TC arm), and 57 completed the study (25 and 32 in each arm, respectively). In the FTC/TDF arm, adjusted mean FMR decreased by 0.52 at week 72 (P = 0.014), and in the ZDV/3TC arm it increased by 0.13 (P = 0.491; P between arms = 0.023). Among subjects with lipoatrophy (baseline FMR ≥ 1.5), adjusted FMR decreased by 0.76 (P = 0.003) in the FTC/TDF arm and increased by 0.21 (P = 0.411; P between arms = 0.009) in the ZDV/3TC arm. Baseline FMR and treatment group were significant predictors (P < 0.05) of post-baseline changes in FMR. Switching from ZDV/3TC to FTC/TDF led to an improvement in FMR, compared with progressive worsening of FMR in subjects receiving ZDV/3TC, showing that fat mass not only increased but was also distributed in a healthier way after the switch. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  3. The Relationship Between Nephrolithiasis Risk with Body Fat Measured by Body Composition Analyzer in Obese People.

    PubMed

    Bartani, Zohreh; Heydarpour, Behzad; Alijani, Ahmad; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2017-06-01

    Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and healthcare spending that visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may associate with kidney stone formation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nephrolithiasis with visceral fat scale in obese people in Western Iran for the first time. In 2017, 103 participants with BMI≥30 kg/m(2) were selected for the present study. The participants were divided into two groups, 52 as case group (having the kidney stone) and 58 as healthy control group (no kidney stone or history of the kidney stone or any other disease). The levels of body composition were checked by body composition analyzer (BoCA x1) based on Bio Impedance mechanism. Two groups were matched in terms of sex and BMI. There was a significant difference between two groups for the visceral fat to subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) that accordingly, the mean VSR in the case group was higher than the control group. The difference for other variables between two groups was not significant. The results showed that visceral and subcutaneous fat and VSR were important risk factors for kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Evaluating these fats in stone formers may facilitate a tailored metabolic evaluation and treatment plan.

  4. Markers of inflammation and fat distribution following weight loss in African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C; Hunter, Gary R; Oster, Robert A; Desmond, Renee A; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-04-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African-American (AA) and white (W) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and W women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27-30 kg/m(2). They were placed on a weight-loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI <25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble TNF receptor-I (sTNFR-I), sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among W, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in W compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in W.

  5. Markers of Inflammation and Fat Distribution following Weight Loss in African American and Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Desmond, Renee A.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and C women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27–30 kg/m2. They were placed on a weight loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI < 25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-I, sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among C, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in C compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in C. PMID:21527894

  6. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Silva, S R

    2013-08-01

    Several methods have been developed to monitor body fat reserves of farm animals and body condition scoring (BCS) is generally assumed to be the most practical. Objective methods, such as real time ultrasonography (RTU), are accepted methods for measuring fat reserves in several farm species but there is no published information about the use of RTU to monitor body fat reserves in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between RTU measurements and BCS in female donkeys (jennies) (n=16) with a BCS of 3-7 on a 9 point scale. Ultrasound images were captured using an Aloka 500-V scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz probe and subcutaneous fat (SF, range: 1.0-14.0mm) and thoracic wall tissue (TD, range: 5.6-21.4mm) depths measurements were determined. A significant correlation was found between BCS and all RTU measurements (0.65fat and tissue depths measurements to monitor fat reserves in jennies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inverted BMI rather than BMI is a better predictor of DEXA determined body fatness in children.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M J; Martins, C; Silva, G; Marques, E; Mota, J; Aires, L

    2014-05-01

    This study compared body mass index (BMI) and inverted BMI (iBMI) as predictors of body fatness in 177 Portuguese children (149 girls and 96 boys) aged 7-16 years. Participants undertook measures of height and body mass from which BMI (kg/m(2)) and iBMI (cm(2)/kg) were determined. Maturation was determined via self-report and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m(2)) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant relationships were evident between BMI and iBMI and FMI (both P=0.0001). BMI was not normally distributed (P=0.0001) but iBMI was (P>0.05). Analysis of covariance identified that BMI and iBMI, controlling for maturation, were both significant predictors of FMI (both P=0.0001) but that iBMI predicted a slightly greater amount of the variance (adjusted R(2)=0.970) compared with BMI (adjusted R(2)=0.968). This study suggests that iBMI is a similar proxy for body fatness compared with BMI in children.

  8. Association of Fat Mass and Obesity-associated Gene Variant with Lifestyle Factors and Body Fat in Indian Children.

    PubMed

    Parthasarthy, Lavanya S; Phadke, Nikhil; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khatod, Kavita; Ekbote, Veena; Shah, Surabhi; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2017-01-01

    Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. (1) The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI) categories and (2) to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years) were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire) and food intake (food frequency questionnaire) were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  9. Racial/ethnic differences in body fatness among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David S; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C; Mei, Zuguo; Pierson, Richard N; Dietz, William H; Horlick, Mary

    2008-05-01

    Although the BMI is widely used as a measure of adiposity, it is a measure of excess weight, and its association with body fatness may differ across racial or ethnic groups. To determine whether differences in body fatness between white, black, Hispanic, and Asian children vary by BMI-for-age, and whether the accuracy of overweight (BMI-for-age>or=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 95th percentile) as an indicator of excess adiposity varies by race/ethnicity. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided estimates of %body fat among 1,104 healthy 5- to 18-year-olds. At equivalent levels of BMI-for-age, black children had less (mean, 3%) body fatness than white children, and Asian girls had slightly higher (1%) levels of %body fat than white girls. These differences, however, varied by BMI-for-age, with the excess body fatness of Asians evident only among relatively thin children. The ability of overweight to identify girls with excess body fatness also varied by race/ethnicity. Of the girls with excess body fatness, 89% (24/27) of black girls, but only 50% (8/16) of Asian girls, were overweight (P=0.03). Furthermore, the proportion of overweight girls who had excess body fatness varied from 62% (8/13) among Asians to 100% (13/13) among whites. There are racial or ethnic differences in body fatness among children, but these differences vary by BMI-for-age. If race/ethnicity differences in body fatness among adults also vary by BMI, it may be difficult to develop race-specific BMI cut points to identify equivalent levels of %body fat.

  10. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Vaswani, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  11. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cohn, S H; Ellis, K J; Vartsky, D; Sawitsky, A; Gartenhaus, W; Yasumura, S; Vaswani, A N

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  12. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  13. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  14. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  15. ASSESSMENT OF BODY FAT IN OBESE PATIENTS PREOPERATIVELY FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    FERNANDEZ, Mônica; TOIMIL, Rosana Farah; RASSLAN, Zied; ILIAS, Elias Jirjoss; GRADINAR, Ana Lúcia Torloni; MALHEIROS, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The study of body composition in patient candidates for bariatric surgery is directly related to the increase and distribution of body fat in the development of cardiovascular disease. Aim: To correlate anthropometric indicators and bioelectrical impedance in the assessment of body fat in female candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study of 88 women. The weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference data were evaluated in the anthropometric analysis. The body fat was determinate by bioelectrical impedance conducted according to the manufacturer´s recommended technique with a specific severe obesity formula. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the average waist circumference and body mass index for better analysis of the results. Results: The group had a mean age of 39.7 years (±7.2), average weight of 125.6 kg (±16.2), mean body mass index of 48.7 kg/m2 (±6.4) and the mean waist circumference 137.6 cm (±12.4). Negative and significant relationship between BMI values waist circumference and resistance obtained by bioelectrical impedance ​​were found. By analyzing the two groups the mean BMI and waist circumference, a significant relationship was observed, ie, the higher the degree of obesity less resistance was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. The higher is the obesity the lower is value found for resistance. Conclusion: The increase of anthropometric indicators (BMI and waist circumference) determined reduction in resistance and reactance obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis in obese women candidates to bariatric surgery. PMID:27683778

  16. Body mass index and body fat status of men involved in sports, exercise, and sedentary activites.

    PubMed

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups with different physical activity levels. The height and weight of respondents were measured using the Seca weighing balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular regions, and suprailiac regions of each respondent were measured using Harpenden skinfold calipers. Percentage body fat was calculated as the sum of the four measurements of skinfold thickness. The results showed that the mean (± SD) BMIs in the athlete, exercise, and sedentary groups were 22.6 ± 2.9, 23.4 ± 3.5, and 24.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The combined prevalence of pre-obese (BMI 25.029.9) and obese (BMI ³ 30.0) subjects was 21.7% in the athlete group, 29.9% in the exercise group, and 47.5% in the sedentary group. The mean (± SD) percentage of body fat in athletes was 15.7 ± 5.4%, which was lower than in the exercise (18.9 ± 5.5%) and sedentary (20.6 ± 5.8%) groups. The study revealed that individuals who are actively involved in physical activity, particularly in sport activities, have lower BMIs and percentage body fat values compared to sedentary people. Therefore, to prevent obesity, all individuals are encouraged to perform regular physical activity, particularly sports activities.

  17. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  18. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  19. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    PubMed

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  20. The Skeleton Coast Diet Plan: body mass and body fat changes on an arduous expedition.

    PubMed

    Nicol, A; Donoghue, O

    2012-06-01

    No one has ever walked the 500 Km Skeleton Coast of Namibia totally unsupported. Fourteen explorers overcame this by carrying, along with all their other equipment, hand-held pumps to desalinate sea water on a daily basis to produce sufficient potable water. This paper highlights the changes in body mass, waist circumference and body fat in the group on this unique 20 day expedition. Eight males (mean (SD)) 42.3 (9.7) years, height 1.741 (0.043) m, weight 78.7 (8.6) kg, body mass index (BMI) 24.8 (2.0) kg/m(2)) and six females (mean (SD) 40.0 (5.3) years, height 1.628 (0.043) m, weight 63.2 (5.5) kg, BMI 23.8 (1.8) kg/m(2)) undertook the expedition. Average pack weight at the start of the expedition for the men was 32.5 kg, and 26.5 kg for the women. On most days, the team walked for 8 - 10 hours on varying terrain then pumped water for a further 4 hours. Measurements taken included height, body mass, waist circumference and skin-fold thickness at four regions of the body, and were taken before, during and at the end of the expedition. The approximate daily calorific intake for each team member was 2400 - 3000 kcal. Significant decreases in mean body mass (p < 0.001, d=0.50) and mean BMI (p < 0.001, d = 0.67) were observed after the 20 day trek compared to baseline values. Mean waist circumference decreased during the expedition (p < 0.001, d = 0.67). There were significant reductions in all measures of skinfold thicknesses and overall percentage body fat at Day 13 (p < 0.001, d = 1.19) and Day 21 (p < 0.001, d = 1.98) in comparison to baseline values All participants lost significant amounts of both body mass and body fat, with body fat reducing by over 30%.

  1. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Models of sporadic meteor body distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Belkovich, O. I.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of orbital elements and flux density over the celestial sphere are the most common forms of representation of the meteor body distribution in the vicinity of the Earth's orbit. The determination of flux density distribution of sporadic meteor bodies was worked out. The method and its results are discussed.

  3. [Use body fat determination instead of simple body composition parameters evaluate the risk of metabolic syndrome in Fuzhou adults].

    PubMed

    Yan, Sun-jie; Li, Yi-min; Shen, Xi-mei; Yang, Li-yong; Zhang, Song-jing; Yi, Ru-hai; Yan, Xiao-fang

    2010-06-22

    To compare the application of two different definitions of MS (IDF2005 and ATPIII2001) in this study population. According to IDF2005, evaluate the impact of body fat content and its distribution for the risk of metabolic syndrome. The sample of 818 subjects measure the simple anthropometric parameters including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and so on. Body fat mass and distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Quartile method is used to analyse the relevance ratio of MS in different value of BF and TF. ROC curve is used in evaluating of tipping point of BF, TF, simple body composition parameters and reliability of diagnosis. The risk of MS were analyzed by logistic regression. According to IDF2005, when BF, TF > or = P50. the relevance ratio of MS has a remarkable increasing (P < 0.01), its matching BMI is 24 and 23 kg/m2, according to NCEP ATPIII2001, when BF, TF > or =P75, the relevance ratio of MS has a remarkable increasing, too (P < 0.01), its matching BMI value is 26 kg/m2, BF and TF of MS patients which diagnosed by IDF2005 are lower than ATPIII2001 (P < 0.05). For each additional level of BF,the odds ratios of MS prevalence were 1.952 (male) and 2.644 (female); for each additional level of TF,the odds ratios of MS prevalence were 3. 276 (male) and 3.058 (female), BMI, WHR were not into the equation. The AUCROC which used to evaluate the exist of MS by BF and TF is larger than 0.9, and has better performance in sensitivity and specificity than BMI and WHR; the best point of contact of MS in BF is 25% (male), 35% (female), in TF is 30% (male), 38% (female). ATPIII standards may have been missed MS patients with normal high fasting blood glucose value and abdominal obesity. The application of IDF2005 standards was proved better in this population. Compared with simple anthropometric parameters, the accumulation of body fat, especially trunk fat even more harmful, to is better to identify the

  4. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  5. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    PubMed

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  6. Body composition and prediction equations using skinfold thickness for body fat percentage in Southern Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. Methods The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST–biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA. Results The prevalence of overweight in adolescents was 20.9%, and obesity 5.8%. Regression analysis through ordinary least square method (OLS) allowed obtainment of three equations with values of R2 = 0.935, 0.912 and 0.850, standard error estimated = 1.79, 1.78 and 1.87, and bias = 0.06, 0.20 and 0.05, respectively. Conclusion the innovation of this study lies in presenting new regression equations for predicting body fat in Southern Brazilian adolescents based on a representative and heterogeneous sample from DXA. PMID:28910398

  7. Body composition and prediction equations using skinfold thickness for body fat percentage in Southern Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST-biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA. The prevalence of overweight in adolescents was 20.9%, and obesity 5.8%. Regression analysis through ordinary least square method (OLS) allowed obtainment of three equations with values of R2 = 0.935, 0.912 and 0.850, standard error estimated = 1.79, 1.78 and 1.87, and bias = 0.06, 0.20 and 0.05, respectively. the innovation of this study lies in presenting new regression equations for predicting body fat in Southern Brazilian adolescents based on a representative and heterogeneous sample from DXA.

  8. [Adiposity and fat distribution in preschool children from low socioeconomic levels in Caracas].

    PubMed

    Pérez, B M; Vásquez, M; Landaeta-Jiménez, M; Rámirez, G; Ledezma, T

    1997-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that body fat distribution in adults is associated with chronical nontransmissible diseases, less is known during the growing years. The current study was undertaken to explore the relationship between level of fatness, fat patterning and some socioenvironmental variables in a group of 449 children aged 3 to 6, living in Caracas, who belong to the poorest Venezuelan socio-economic stratum. Data was analyzed taking nutritional status (weight-for-age), an index of socioeconomic conditions (ICSA), sex and age, as control variables. Using a multivariate analysis we derived first, two groups of households (G1 and G2) as determined by socioeconomic variables, to which principal component analysis was applied to elicited fatness and relative fat patterning through six skinfolds. First component identify level of adiposity, second extremity/trunk fatness, and third upper/lower pattern. Comparison of normal children with those of low weight-for-age showed differences in adiposity and in the upper/lower patterning as detected by the skinfolds involved in the differences: subscapular (-0.53) and supraspinale (0.32) in children with low weight-for-age; triceps (-0.46) and thigh (0.29) in those classified as normal. We found that gender, nutritional condition, environmental variables and age, were significant predictors of the differences in adiposity level; while age and households conditions, appear to be related to upper/lower patterning. The data equally suggests that body fat is more centrally distributed in boys with low weight-for-age. Since these patterns are indicators of risk in the ongoing years, we call tha attention about environmental circumstances.

  9. Capsaicin and Related Food Ingredients Reducing Body Fat Through the Activation of TRP and Brown Fat Thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of sympathetically activated adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis, thereby being involved in the regulation of energy balance and body fatness. Recent radionuclide imaging studies have revealed the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure and contributes to cold-induced increase in whole-body energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT is lower in older and obese individuals. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. In fact, repeated cold exposure recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The stimulatory effects of cold are mediated through the activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, most of which are also chemesthetic receptors for various naturally occurring substances including herbal plants and food ingredients. Capsaicin and its analog capsinoids, representative agonists of TRPV1, mimic the effects of cold to decrease body fatness through the activation and recruitment of BAT. The well-known antiobesity effect of green tea catechins is also attributable to the activation of the sympathetic nerve and BAT system. Thus, BAT is a promising target for combating obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Gjesing, Anette P.; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Jonsson, Anna; Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Have, Christian T.; Ekstrøm, Claus T.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Brage, Soren; Witte, Daniel R.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Aadahl, Mette; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan; Eiberg, Hans; Pedersen, Oluf; Grarup, Niels; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Hansen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus associates with CRF. Methods Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles of twelve independent risk variants known to associate with body fat%. We assessed CRF as maximal oxygen uptake expressed in millilitres of oxygen uptake per kg of body mass (VO2max), per kg fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM), or per kg fat mass (VO2maxFM). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, and when relevant, for body composition. Results We found a significant negative genetic correlation between VO2max and body fat% (ρG = -0.72 (SE ±0.13)). The body fat% GRS associated with decreased VO2max (β = -0.15 mL/kg/min per allele, p = 0.0034, age and sex adjusted). The body fat%-increasing FTO allele was associated with a 0.42 mL/kg/min unit decrease in VO2max per allele (p = 0.0092, age and sex adjusted). Both associations were abolished after additional adjustment for body fat%. The fat% increasing GRS and FTO risk allele were associated with decreased VO2maxFM but not with VO2maxFFM. Conclusions Our findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF. PMID:27846319

  11. Effects of telmisartan on fat distribution: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kim, Hyun Min; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Jaetaek

    2016-07-01

    Several meta-analyses have confirmed the positive metabolic effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker that can also act as a partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, compared to those of other angiotensin II receptor blockers. These effects include decreased fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. However, no systemic analysis of telmisartan's effects on body fat distribution has been performed. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled telmisartan trials to investigate its effects on body weight, fat distribution, and visceral adipose reduction. A literature search was performed using Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library between January 1966 and November 2013. Randomized controlled trials in English and meeting the following criterion were included: random assignment of hypertensive participants with overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome, or glucose intolerance to telmisartan or control therapy group. Of 651 potentially relevant reports, 15 satisfied the inclusion criterion. While visceral fat area was significantly lower in the telmisartan group than in the control group (weighted mean difference = -18.13 cm(2), 95% C.I. = -27.16 to -9.11, Pχ(2) = 0.19, I(2) = 41%), subcutaneous fat area was similar (weighted mean difference =2.94 cm(2), 95% C.I. = -13.01 to 18.89, Pχ(2) = 0.30, I(2) = 17%). Total cholesterol levels were significantly different between the groups (standardized mean difference = -0.24, 95% C.I. = -0.45 to -0.03, Pχ(2) = 0.0002, I(2) = 67%). Limitations include: (1) limited number of studies, especially those evaluating fat distribution; (2) different imaging modalities to assess visceral fat area (V.F.A.) and subcutaneous fat area (S.F.A.); (3) observed heterogeneity. The findings suggest that telmisartan affected fat distribution, inducing visceral fat reduction, and thus could be useful

  12. Relationship Between Body Fat and Physical Fitness in Army ROTC Cadets.

    PubMed

    Steed, Carly L; Krull, Benjamin R; Morgan, Amy L; Tucker, Robin M; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2016-09-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), including timed push-ups, sit-ups, and run, assesses physical performance for the Army. Percent body fat is estimated using height and circumference measurements. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the accuracy of height and circumference measurements to other, more accepted, body fat assessment methods and (b) determine the relationships between body composition and APFT results. Participants included Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets (n = 11 males, 2 females, 21.6 ± 3.5 years) from a midwestern university). At one visit, percent body fat was assessed using height and circumference measurements, air-displacement plethysmography, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. APFT results were provided by the ROTC director. All assessment methods for percent body fat were strongly associated (r ≥ 0.7, p < 0.01), implying that height and circumference measurement is a practical tool to estimate percent body fat of ROTC cadets. Total APFT score was not associated with any body fat assessment method. Push-up number was negatively associated with percent body fat by all assessment methods (r ≥ -0.8, p = 0.001), although run time was positively associated (r ≥ 0.6, p < 0.05). This suggests that percent body fat may be an important variable in determining or improving cardiovascular and muscular endurance, but not APFT performance.

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  15. Effect of BMI, Body Fat Percentage and Fat Free Mass on Maximal Oxygen Consumption in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Himel; Mishra, Snigdha Prava

    2017-06-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is an important measure of cardiorespiratory capacity of an individual at a given degree of fitness and oxygen availability. Risk of cardiovascular diseases increases with increasing degree of obesity and a low level of VO2max has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. To determine VO2max in young adults and to find its correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Fat% and Fat Free Mass (FFM). Fifty four (male=30, female=24) healthy young adults of age group18-25 years after screening by Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) participated in the study. Height was measured by stadiometer. Weight was measured by digital weighing scale with 0.1 kg sensitivity. Body fat% was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) method. FFM was calculated by subtracting fat mass from the body weight. VO2max (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) was obtained by Submaximal Exercise Test (SET) by first two stages of Bruce Protocol with the basis of linear relationship between Heart Rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Data were analysed statistically in GraphPad Prism software version 6.01 for windows. VO2max (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) of male (43.25±7.25) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than female (31.65±2.10). BMI showed weak negative correlation (r= -0.3232, p=0.0171) with VO2max but Body Fat% showed strong negative correlation (r= -0.7505, p<0.001) with VO2max. FFM positively correlated (r=0.3727, p=0.0055) with VO2max. Increased body fat is associated with decreased level of VO2max in young adults. Obesity in terms of Fat% is a better parameter than BMI for prediction of low VO2max.

  16. Reliability of field methods for estimating body fat.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Barnes, Jeremy T; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Isaacs, Melissa N; Pujol, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    When health professionals measure the fitness levels of clients, body composition is usually estimated. In practice, the reliability of the measurement may be more important than the actual validity, as reliability determines how much change is needed to be considered meaningful. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of two bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) devices (in athlete and non-athlete mode) and compare that to 3-site skinfold (SKF) readings. Twenty-one college students attended the laboratory on two occasions and had their measurements taken in the following order: body mass, height, SKF, Tanita body fat-350 (BF-350) and Omron HBF-306C. There were no significant pairwise differences between Visit 1 and Visit 2 for any of the estimates (P>0.05). The Pearson product correlations ranged from r = 0.933 for HBF-350 in the athlete mode (A) to r = 0.994 for SKF. The ICC's ranged from 0.93 for HBF-350(A) to 0.992 for SKF, and the MD's ranged from 1.8% for SKF to 5.1% for BF-350(A). The current study found that SKF and HBF-306C(A) were the most reliable (<2%) methods of estimating BF%, with the other methods (BF-350, BF-350(A), HBF-306C) producing minimal differences greater than 2%. In conclusion, the SKF method presented with the best reliability because of its low minimal difference, suggesting this method may be the best field method to track changes over time if you have an experienced tester. However, if technical error is a concern, the practitioner may use the HBF-306C(A) because it had a minimal difference value comparable to SKF.

  17. Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Bredlau, Carl; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Mueller, Manfred; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Maeda, Yuna; McDougall, Andrew; Peterson, Courtney M.; Ravussin, Eric; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a new geometrical index that combines height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) and relate this index to total and visceral body fat. Design and Methods Subject data were pooled from three databases that contained demographic, anthropometric, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured fat mass, and magnetic resonance imaging measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume. Two elliptical models of the human body were developed. Body roundness was calculated from the model using a well-established constant arising from the theory. Regression models based on eccentricity and other variables were used to predict % body fat and % VAT. Results A body roundness index (BRI) was derived to quantify the individual body shape in a height-independent manner. Body roundness slightly improved predictions of % body fat and % VAT compared to the traditional metrics of body mass index (BMI), WC, or HC. On this basis, healthy body roundness ranges were established. An automated graphical program simulating study results was placed at http://www.pbrc.edu/bodyroundness. Conclusions Body roundness index, a new shape measure, is a predictor of % body fat and % VAT and can be applied as a visual tool for health status evaluations. PMID:23519954

  18. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Interrelationship between food availability, fat body, and ovarian cycles in the frog, Rana tigrina, with a discussion on the role of fat body in anuran reproduction.

    PubMed

    Girish, S; Saidapur, S K

    2000-04-01

    Long-term experiments were conducted to study the progression of vitellogenic cycles in Rana tigrina (an annual breeder) having different foraging backgrounds and held under conditions of weekly or daily food supply and in presence or absence of abdominal fat bodies. They were autopsied in June to assess fecundity. In nature an adult R. tigrina produces on an average 4,000 eggs/100 g body mass (b.m.) And spawns in June-July following monsoon rains. Weekly feeding from July to next breeding season, June resulted in a significant decrease in both fecundity (1700 eggs/100 g body b.m.) And mean size of eggs, compared to well-fed or wild-caught frogs. The abdominal fat bodies were barely seen in frogs fed weekly throughout, whereas in frogs fed weekly from July-December but daily from January onwards, the fat bodies became noticeable (1% of b.m.) And number and mean size of eggs increased significantly over those fed weekly throughout. Frogs captured in January possessed enlarged fat bodies (5% of b.m.), depicting a good foraging history. Maintenance of these frogs on a weekly feeding regimen led to an exhaustion of fat stores. They produced less number of eggs (2, 000/100 g b.m.) As compared to wild frogs but of normal size, whereas daily feeding slowed down a depletion of fat body mass and also significantly increased fecundity (3,000/100 g b.m.) Over the weekly fed individuals. Sham operation or fat body ablation in October or February had no significant effect on total fecundity per se (3,000-3,500 eggs/100 g b.m.) Compared to that of wild-caught frogs. However, eggs were significantly smaller due to fat body ablation despite daily feeding. The study shows that food abundance/fat bodies influence egg size and number in R. tigrina and that a direct or indirect functional relationship exists between fat body and ovarian cycles that are characteristically inverse to each other. J. Exp. Zool. 286:487-493, 2000.

  20. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  1. Associations among calcium intake, resting energy expenditure, and body fat in a multiethnic sample of children

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Casazza, Krista; Willig, Amanda L.; Cardel, Michelle I.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine if calcium intake was associated with resting energy expenditure (REE) and body fat in children, after accounting for ancestral genetic background. Study design Participants included 315 children. REE, body composition, and dietary calcium were assessed by indirect calorimetry, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and 24-hour recalls, respectively. Structural equations modeling assessed the relationships among REE, calcium intake and body fat. Results There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01) and between REE and total body fat (p<0.0001). There was indirect effect of calcium intake on total body fat (p<0.01). There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01), and a trend towards an association of calcium intake and total body fat (p=0.065) among males only; whereas, the only significant relationship among females was an association of REE on total body fat (p<0.0001). Conclusions REE was associated with calcium intake and mediated a relationship between calcium intake and total body fat. These findings suggest calcium intake may play a role in fat accumulation and energy balance through its effects on REE, especially in males. PMID:20400090

  2. Estimating body fat by using bioelectrical-impedance measurements: a preliminary assessment.

    Treesearch

    M.G. Raphael; H.J. Harlow; S.W. Buskirk

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated a technique for measuring body fat content of marten (Martes americana) by using a noninvasive bioelectrical-impedance device with four electrodes to introduce a current into the body. Instantaneous readings of resistance were significantly correlated with fat-free mass (determined from solvent extraction) of carcasses of 17 skinned (r...

  3. Improved visualization of fat body conditions and abundance in the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fat bodies are a crucial source of energy for insect survival and reproduction. Differing types of fat body cells and amounts have been previously reported for southern green stink bug but clear supporting images are lacking. Further, in ongoing studies elucidating the ecology of southern green st...

  4. Validity of Three-Dimensional Photonic Scanning Technique for Estimating Percent Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Shitara, K; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T; Yanai, T; Kawakami, Y

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic scanning (3DPS) was recently developed to measure dimensions of a human body surface. The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of body volume measured by 3DPS for estimating the percent body fat (%fat). Design, setting, participants, and measurement: The body volumes were determined by 3DPS in 52 women. The body volume was corrected for residual lung volume. The %fat was estimated from body density and compared with the corresponding reference value determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). No significant difference was found for the mean values of %fat obtained by 3DPS (22.2 ± 7.6%) and DXA (23.5 ± 4.9%). The root mean square error of %fat between 3DPS and reference technique was 6.0%. For each body segment, there was a significant positive correlation between 3DPS- and DXA-values, although the corresponding value for the head was slightly larger in 3DPS than in DXA. Residual lung volume was negatively correlated with the estimated error in %fat. The body volume determined with 3DPS is potentially useful for estimating %fat. A possible strategy for enhancing the measurement accuracy of %fat might be to refine the protocol for preparing the subject's hair prior to scanning and to improve the accuracy in the measurement of residual lung volume.

  5. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  6. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  7. Increased visceral fat distribution in drug-naive and drug-free patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thakore, J H; Mann, J N; Vlahos, I; Martin, A; Reznek, R

    2002-01-01

    To investigate visceral fat distribution in patients with schizophrenia. Cross sectional study using CT scanning in patients with drug-naive and drug-free schizophrenia. Fifteen (13 men and two women) subjects with schizophrenia (mean age 33.7 y; mean body mass index (BMI)=26.7 kg/m(2)), and 15 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age 30.5 y; mean BMI=22.8 kg/(2)). Various fatness and fat distribution parameters (by CT scanning and anthropometry) and 16:00 h plasma cortisol. In comparison to controls, patients with schizophrenia had central obesity and had significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol. Furthermore, previous neuroleptic exposure did not appear to influence these findings as both drug-naive and drug-free patients had equally high levels of visceral fat deposition. Central obesity is a well recognized risk factor in developing certain general medical conditions. This study shows that patients with schizophrenia have increased intra-abdominal fat which may provide one explanation for why they die prematurely.

  8. Body mass index, body fat, and nutritional status of patients with heart failure: The PLICA study.

    PubMed

    Gastelurrutia, Paloma; Lupón, Josep; de Antonio, Marta; Zamora, Elisabet; Domingo, Mar; Urrutia, Agustín; Altimir, Salvador; Coll, Ramon; Díez, Crisanto; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional assessment may help to explain the incompletely understood obesity paradox in patients with heart failure (HF). Currently, obesity is usually identified by body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to assess the prognostic influence of undernourishment in HF outpatients. Two published definitions of undernourishment were used to assess 214 ambulatory HF patients. Definition 1 included albumin, total lymphocyte count, tricipital skinfold (TS), subscapular skinfold, and arm muscle circumference (AMC) measurements (≥2 below normal considered undernourishment). Definition 2 included TS, AMC, and albumin (≥1 below normal considered undernourishment). Patients were also stratified by BMI and body fat percentage and followed for 2 years. All-cause death or HF hospitalization was the primary endpoint. Based on BMI strata, among underweight patients, 60% and 100% were undernourished by Definitions 1 and 2, respectively (31% and 44% among normal-weight, 4% and 11% among overweight, and 0% and 3% among obese patients, respectively, according to the two definitions). The most prevalent undernourishment type was marasmus-like (18% of the total cohort). Undernourishment by both definitions was significantly associated with lower event-free survival. Following multivariable analysis, age, NYHA functional class, NTproBNP, and undernourishment (hazard ratio [HR] 2.25 [1.11-4.56] and 2.24 [1.19-4.21] for Definitions 1 and 2, respectively) remained in the model. In this cohort, BMI and percentage of body fat did not independently predict 2-year event-free survival. Nutritional status is a key prognostic factor in HF above and beyond BMI and percentage of body fat. Patients in normal BMI range and even in overweight and obese groups showed undernourishment. The high mortality observed in undernourishment, infrequent in high BMI patients, may help to partly explain the obesity paradox. Proper undernourishment assessment should become routine in patients with HF

  9. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P < 0.05; NDE group vs. ND group, P < 0.01). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that serum irisin level negatively correlated with TG level (r = -0.771, P < 0.05), percentage fat mass (r = -0.68, P < 0.05), fat mass (r = -0.576, P < 0.05), visceral fat mass (r = -0.439, P < 0.05) and TC level (r = -0.389, P < 0.05). The fat mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values < 0.01). Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  10. Arterial stiffness, body fat compartments, central hemodynamics, renal function and left atrial size.

    PubMed

    Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Krauze, Tomasz; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Stajgis, Marek; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Wysocki, Henryk; Wykrętowicz, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    Left atrial (LA) size is an important predictor of stroke, death, and atrial fibrillation. It was demonstrated recently that body fat, arterial stiffness and renal functions are associated with LA diameter. However, data are lacking for comprehensive assessments of all these risk factors in a single population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between LA size and different fat descriptors, central hemodynamics, arterial stiffness, and renal function in healthy subjects. To this end, body fat percentage, abdominal, subcutaneous fat, and general descriptors of body fat were estimated in 162 healthy subjects (mean age 51 years). Echocardiography was performed to assess LA diameter. Arterial stiffness and peripheral and central hemodynamics were estimated by digital volume pulse analysis and pulse wave analysis. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by MDRD formula. There were significant (p < 0.05) bivariate correlations between LA diameter and all descriptors of body fat (except subcutaneous fat). Arterial stiffness and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also significantly correlated with LA size. Multiple regression analysis including all significant confounders, such as sex, mean arterial pressure, arterial stiffness, eGFR and body fat descriptors, explained 35% of variance in LA diameter. In conclusion, the present study reveals significant, independent relationships between body fat, arterial stiffness, and LA size.

  11. The role of enteral fat as a modulator of body composition after small bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Pamela M; Sun, Raphael C; Sommovilla, Joshua; Diaz-Miron, Jose; Khil, Jaclyn; Erwin, Christopher R; Guo, Jun; Warner, Brad W

    2014-08-01

    After massive small bowel resection (SBR), a postoperative diet high in fat is associated with enhanced villus growth. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the quantity and composition of enteral fat in structural and metabolic changes after SBR. C57/Bl6 mice underwent a 50% proximal SBR. Mice were then randomized to receive a low-fat diet (12% kcal fat), medium-fat diet (44% kcal fat), or high-fat diet (HFD; 71% kcal fat) ad libitum. In a separate experiment, mice underwent 50% proximal SBR and then were randomized to liquid diets of 42% kcal of fat in which the fat was composed of menhaden oil, milk fat, or olive oil. After 2 weeks, mice underwent body composition analysis and the small intestine was harvested. Mice that ingested the greatest amount of enteral fat (HFD) had the greatest percent lean mass. When the effects of the different kinds of enteral fat were analyzed, mice that consumed menhaden oil had the greatest percent lean mass with the greatest overall retention of preoperative weight. These findings suggest that enteral fat enriched in omega-3 fatty acids may offer clinically relevant metabolic advantages for patients with short gut syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mmp1 and Mmp2 cooperatively induce Drosophila fat body cell dissociation with distinct roles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qiangqiang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hanhan; Li, Sheng

    2014-12-18

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the single-cell layer of fat body tissues gradually dissociates into individual cells. Via a fat body-specific RNAi screen in this study, we found that two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Mmp1 and Mmp2, are both required for fat body cell dissociation. As revealed through a series of cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic experiments, Mmp1 preferentially cleaves DE-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions, while Mmp2 preferentially degrades basement membrane (BM) components and thus destroy cell-BM junctions, resulting in the complete dissociation of the entire fat body tissues into individual cells. Moreover, several genetic interaction experiments demonstrated that the roles of Mmp1 and Mmp2 in this developmental process are cooperative. In conclusion, Mmp1 and Mmp2 induce fat body cell dissociation during Drosophila metamorphosis in a cooperative yet distinct manner, a finding that sheds light on the general mechanisms by which MMPs regulate tissue remodeling in animals.

  13. The relationships between fat talk, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness: perceived stress as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Warren, Cortney S; Holland, Samuel; Billings, Hilary; Parker, Alexa

    2012-06-01

    Although body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness are commonplace in college-aged women, their relationships with fat talk and stress are understudied. This study examined (a) whether fat talk predicts body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness and (b) whether stress moderates these relationships. Results from self-report questionnaires completed by 121 female college students revealed that fat talk and perceived stress were significantly positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Although fat talk was a significant independent predictor of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, stress moderated these relationships such that they were stronger at lower stress levels. Although contrary to predictions, these results are logical when means are considered. Results suggest that fat talk positively predicts body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in students with relatively lower stress levels, but does not for students under high stress because mean levels of these constructs are all already high.

  14. Fat body involvement in vitellogenin fate in the green frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Varriale, B; Di Matteo, L; Minucci, S; Pierantoni, R; Chieffi, G

    1988-01-01

    1. Since, in Rana esculenta, fat bodies contain vitellogenin, the present study was performed in order to determine whether or not fat bodies are involved in the fate of vitellogenin. 2. The experiment of November shows that fat body excision provokes plasma vitellogenin increase even in animals treated with estradion-17 beta + pituitary crude homogenate (as compared with relative control). The same picture has been shown in the April experiment. 3. The result on protein-bound phosphate in ovaries from the April experiment has shown that fat body extirpation causes a decrease of protein-bound phosphate in the ovary. 4. This results indicates that fat bodies play an important role in sequestrating circulating vitellogenin by the ovary.

  15. Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Diana M; Bredlau, Carl; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Mueller, Manfred; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Maeda, Yuna; McDougall, Andrew; Peterson, Courtney M; Ravussin, Eric; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2013-11-01

    To develop a new geometrical index that combines height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) and relate this index to total and visceral body fat. Subject data were pooled from three databases that contained demographic, anthropometric, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured fat mass, and magnetic resonance imaging measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume. Two elliptical models of the human body were developed. Body roundness was calculated from the model using a well-established constant arising from the theory. Regression models based on eccentricity and other variables were used to predict %body fat and %VAT. A body roundness index (BRI) was derived to quantify the individual body shape in a height-independent manner. Body roundness slightly improved predictions of %body fat and %VAT compared to the traditional metrics of body mass index (BMI), WC, or HC. On this basis, healthy body roundness ranges were established. An automated graphical program simulating study results was placed at http://www.pbrc.edu/bodyroundness. BRI, a new shape measure, is a predictor of %body fat and %VAT and can be applied as a visual tool for health status evaluations. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. The influence of increased body fat or lean body mass on aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Wiecha, Szczepan; Cempla, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine aerobic performance in men with an increased body mass due to (a) high body fat (>21.5%) but with a average (59.0-64.3 kg) lean body mass (HBF group) and (b) high lean body mass (>66.3 kg), but with average body fat (14.0-18.5%) (HLBM group). The men in the HBF and HLBM had similar absolute body mass and body mass index (BMI). The aerobic performance was also determined in control group. Methods: Study participants comprised 39 men aged 21.3 ± 1.9 years who did not participate in competitive sports but were recreationally physically active. Participants were divided into three groups. Each group comprised 13 persons. The study involved anthropometric measurements, assessing aerobic performance (VO2max) using an incremental test on a mechanical treadmill. VO2max was expressed in absolute values, relative to body mass (VO2max ⋅ BM(-1)), relative to lean body mass (VO2max ⋅ LBM(-1)), and relative to BM raised by the exponents of 0.75 and 0.67. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. No statistically significant differences in relative values of VO2max were found between the HBF and HLBM groups, in VO2max ⋅ BM(-1) (50.24 ± 4.56 vs. 53.11 ± 5.45 mL ⋅ kg(-1)), VO2max ⋅ LBM(-1) (65.33 ± 5.63 vs. 63.86 ± 7.13 mL ⋅ kgLBM(-1)), and VO2max ⋅ BM(-0.75) (150.29 ± 13.5 vs. 160.39 ± 16.15 mL ⋅ kg(-0.75)). Values of VO2max ⋅ BM(-1) were significantly lower in the HBF and HLBM groups than in the control group (58.23 ± 5.84 mL ⋅ kg(-1)). High body mass, regardless of the cause decreases VO2max ⋅ BM(-1).

  17. The Influence of Increased Body Fat or Lean Body Mass on Aerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Wiecha, Szczepan; Cempla, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine aerobic performance in men with an increased body mass due to (a) high body fat (>21.5%) but with a average (59.0–64.3 kg) lean body mass (HBF group) and (b) high lean body mass (>66.3 kg), but with average body fat (14.0–18.5%) (HLBM group). Methods The men in the HBF and HLBM had similar absolute body mass and body mass index (BMI). The aerobic performance was also determined in control group. Methods: Study participants comprised 39 men aged 21.3±1.9 years who did not participate in competitive sports but were recreationally physically active. Participants were divided into three groups. Each group comprised 13 persons. The study involved anthropometric measurements, assessing aerobic performance (VO2max) using an incremental test on a mechanical treadmill. VO2max was expressed in absolute values, relative to body mass (VO2max⋅BM−1), relative to lean body mass (VO2max⋅LBM−1), and relative to BM raised by the exponents of 0.75 and 0.67. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results No statistically significant differences in relative values of VO2max were found between the HBF and HLBM groups, in VO2max⋅BM−1 (50.24±4.56 vs. 53.11±5.45 mL⋅kg−1), VO2max⋅LBM−1 (65.33±5.63 vs. 63.86±7.13 mL⋅kgLBM−1), and VO2max⋅BM−0.75 (150.29±13.5 vs. 160.39±16.15 mL⋅kg−0.75). Values of VO2max⋅BM−1 were significantly lower in the HBF and HLBM groups than in the control group (58.23±5.84 mL⋅kg−1). Conclusion High body mass, regardless of the cause decreases VO2max⋅BM−1. PMID:24752377

  18. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P < .01), and subcutaneous abdominal fat volume remained unchanged (P = .9). Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P < .01) and paracardial fat volume from 4.6 mL ± 0.9 to 3.7 mL ± 0.8 (P = .02). Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  19. Clinical Usefulness of a New Equation for Estimating Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Escalada, Javier; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from both sexes (67% female) representing a wide range of ages (18–80 years) and adiposity. Additionally, a validation study in a separate cohort (n = 1,149) and a further analysis of the clinical usefulness of this prediction equation regarding its association with cardiometabolic risk factors (n = 634) was carried out. RESULTS The mean BF% in the cohort of 6,510 subjects determined by air displacement plethysmography was 39.9 ± 10.1%, and the mean BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE was 39.3 ± 8.9% (SE of the estimate, 4.66%). In this group, BF% calculated with the CUN-BAE showed the highest correlation with actual BF% (r = 0.89, P < 0.000001) compared with other anthropometric measures or BF% estimators. Similar agreement was found in the validation sample. Moreover, BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE exhibits, in general, better correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI as well as waist circumference in the subset of 634 subjects. CONCLUSIONS CUN-BAE is an easy-to-apply predictive equation that may be used as a first screening tool in clinical practice. Furthermore, our equation may be a good tool for identifying patients at cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:22179957

  20. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet.

  1. Body fat from body density: Underwater weighing vs. dual-photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Aulet, M.; Thornton, J.C.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1989-06-01

    We measured fat in 286 healthy volunteers by underwater weighing (FUWW) and dual-photon absorptiometry (FDPA) to develop a translation table for the differing results from these entirely different techniques and to study the sources of these differences. In 99 males and 187 females aged 19-94 yr, fatness was 7-47%. Prediction equations are presented for FUWW-FDPA (delta F), density of lean body mass (DLBM), and FDPA. FUWW and FDPA were significantly different from each other (P less than 0.01). Calculated DLBM is less than the assumed constant of 1.10 (P less than 0.01), ranging widely from 1.05 to 1.13 and being highly correlated with the ratio of total body bone mineral to lean body mass (TBBM/LBM). delta F, the differences between FUWW and FDPA measurements in individual subjects, varied widely (-7 to +11% in males and -18 to +13% in females). The difference was positively correlated with the DLBM. FUWW was no better than anthropometrics in equations for predicting FDPA. The FDPA predicted from anthropometrics showed smaller standard errors than when FUWW was used. Neither anthropometrics nor FUWW equations are clearly superior to those previously available.

  2. [EVALUATION OF THE BODY ADIPOSITY INDEX IN PREDICTING PERCENTAGE BODY FAT AMONG COLOMBIAN ADULTS].

    PubMed

    González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-07-01

    the body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. Up to now, few studies have evaluated the performance of BAI in determining excess fat in Colombians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAI as a predictor of body fat in among Colombian adults. cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of 204 male belonging to the education sector from Bogotá, Colombia. BAI was calculated based on the equation reported in the Bergman et al. %BF determined by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used as the reference measure of adiposity. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between the two methods: BAI and BIA. Associations between anthropometric measures of adiposity were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis. in general pupulation, the BAI overestimates %BF (mean difference: 12.5 % [95%CI = -4.04 % to -21.02 %]), mainly at lower levels of adiposity (mean difference: 10.2 ± 3.3). Significant correlations were found between BAI and all measurements, being the strongest-moderate correlation with %BF (r = 0.777, p < 0.001), waist to height ratio (r = 0.557, p < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.480, p < 0.001). the results of this investigation indicate that BAI results in large individual errors when predicting BF% among Colombian adults and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method can be a useful tool to predict %BF in Colombian adults, although it has some limitations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  4. Vitamin D3 distribution and status in the body.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Horst, Ronald L; Cullen, Diane M; Armas, Laura A G

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the amount, type, and tissue distribution of vitamin D in the adult body under typical inputs. Review and reanalysis of published measurements and analysis of tissue samples from growing pigs raised in confinement on diets providing about 2000 IU vitamin D/day. Cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration measured by HPLC. Mean serum 25(OH)D in all studies combined was 45 nmol/L. At the level of vitamin D repletion represented by this concentration, total body vitamin D would be 14,665 IU for a 70 kg adult woman. 65% of this total was present as native cholecalciferol and 35% as 25(OH)D. Nearly three-quarters of the cholecalciferol was in fat, while 25(OH)D was more evenly distributed throughout the body (20% in muscle, 30% in serum, 35% in fat, and 15% in all other tissues). At the daily vitamin D consumption rates in these animals total body stores provided only a approximately 7-day reserve. At total intakes on the order of 2000 IU/day, an adult has very little vitamin D reserve, despite intakes 10x the current recommendations. Those recommended inputs need to be increased by at least an order of magnitude. Food tables that fail to take into account 25(OH)D content of various meat products lead to underestimation of dietary vitamin D intake.

  5. MRI allows for longitudinal quantitative analysis of body fat composition in rats: an analysis of sibutramine-associated changes at the group level.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Niessen, Heiko G; Kaulisch, Thomas; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan; Stiller, Detlef

    2013-09-01

    Body fat distribution changes are associated with multiple alterations in metabolism. Therefore, the assessment of body fat compartments by MRI in animal models is a promising approach to obesity research. Standard T1-weighted (T1w) whole body MRI was used here to quantify different effects in the subcutaneous and visceral fat compartments in rats under treatment with an anorexiant. Twenty rats on a high caloric diet were investigated by the identical MRI protocol at baseline and after seven weeks. Ten rats received a treatment with sibutramine, 10 rats served as vehicle control group. To longitudinally assess body fat components, MRI analysis was used with two approaches: 2D slicewise graphic analysis (SGA) was compared with an automated 3D analysis algorithm (3DA). At the group level, fat volume differences showed a longitudinal increase of subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes for the control group, whereas the sibutramine group showed stable subcutaneous fat volumes and decrease in visceral fat volumes. SGA and 3DA volume determination showed significant correlations for subcutaneous fat volume (C=0.85, p<0.001), visceral fat volume (C=0.87, p<0.001), and total fat volume (C=0.90, p<0.001). It could be demonstrated that computer-based analysis of T1w MRI could be used to longitudinally assess changes in body fat compartments in rats at the group level. In detail, it was possible to investigate the effect of sibutramine separate on the fat compartments in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  7. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  8. Is fat talk more believable than self-affirming body talk?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments tested the extent to which the believability of women's body statements (fat talk or self-affirming) depends on their body type (thin or overweight). Experiment 1 (N=130) revealed fat talk was more believable than self-affirming talk regardless of body type. Experiment 2's (N=125) results showed, as hypothesized, that overweight women's fat talk was significantly more believable than fat talk by thin women and self-affirming talk by either thin or overweight women. Consistent with Experiment 1, there was a trend in Experiment 2 toward thin women's fat talk being more believable than their self-affirming talk. Overall, fat talk generally may be perceived as more believable than self-affirming body talk, and overweight women's fat talk may be perceived as most authentic. These results have implications for increasing understanding of fat talk's potential role in body dissatisfaction as well as the development of positive body image campaigns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  10. Accuracy of a digital skinfold system for measuring skinfold thickness and estimating body fat.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Teresa F; Restivo, Maria Teresa; Guerra, Rita S; Marques, Elisa; Chousal, Maria F; Mota, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    The use of skinfold thickness measurements to evaluate the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue and to predict body fat has recognised advantages. However, the different types of skinfold calliper available present limitations that make them unattractive and perhaps less used in daily practice. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and functionality of a new digital skinfold system, the Liposoft 2008+Adipsmeter V0 (LA), for measuring skinfold thickness and determining body fat proportion (%BF). Skinfold thickness measurements made by the LA were compared with those obtained with a Harpenden (H) calliper from two samples of adults (n 45) and older adults (n 56) in a university-based cross-sectional study. A comparison was also conducted between estimated %BF from skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bland and Altman plots show that skinfolds measured by the LA and H calliper are in high agreement, with a mean difference of 0·3 (95% CI -3·1, 3·4) mm. In regard to the %BF estimated from LA and H skinfolds measurement, the LA produced a similar approximation to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry %BF, with a mean difference of 0·2 (95% CI -0·8, 1·2) %, compared with %BF obtained with the H calliper. The LA system is an accurate instrumentation and represents an innovation in the evaluation of skinfold thickness and body composition based on anthropometric measurement.

  11. Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste.

    PubMed

    Cha, Youn-Soo; Yang, Ji-Ae; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Soo-Ran; Kim, Min-Gul; Jung, Su-Jin; Song, Won O; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2012-12-01

    Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) and WHR ≥ 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm(2)), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as (cm(2)), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults.

  12. Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Ae; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Soo-Ran; Kim, Min-Gul; Jung, Su-Jin; Song, Won O; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and WHR ≥ 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as (cm2), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults. PMID:23346302

  13. A comparison of the ganglioside distributions of fat tissues in various animals by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, M

    1979-01-01

    The ganglioside distributions of various fat tissues from human, rabbit, rat, mouse, chicken and frog were compared with pig adipose gangliosides by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. It was found that there is a remarkable species variation in ganglioside distribution, especially in the composition and relative concentration of complex gangliosides. Differing from pig adipose tissues, those of human, rabbit, rat, mouse, chicken, but not frog, contained GM3 as a most abundant ganglioside. The data for human, rabbit and chicken indicated a simple distribution of only NeuAc-type gangliosides, while those for rat and mouse indicated a rather complicated pattern containing both NeuAc- and NeuGc-type gangliosides. The ganglioside pattern of the frog fat body differed markedly from those of mammalian fat tissues because of the presence of three different, unusual monosialosylgangliosides as major components. In other respects, a substantial amount of disialosylgangliosides was commonly found in all animal fat tissues.

  14. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  15. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  16. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsivity of reward and attention regions to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt and a simultaneous decrease in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt versus adolescents who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat, who largely remained in a healthy weight range, showed increases in activation in the putamen, mid-insula, Rolandic operculum, and precuneus to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt versus those who showed stability of or loss of body fat, though these effects were partially driven by reductions in responsivity among the latter groups. Adolescents who gained body fat reported significantly greater milkshake wanting and milkshake pleasantness ratings at follow-up compared to those who lost body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat did not show a reduction in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt or changes in responsivity to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward. Data suggest that initiating a prolonged period of overeating may increase striatal responsivity to food cues, and that maintaining a balance between caloric intake and expenditure may reduce striatal, insular, and Rolandic operculum responsivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This novel, repeated-measures brain-imaging study suggests that adolescents who gained body fat over our follow-up period experienced an increase in striatal responsivity to cues for palatable foods compared to those who showed stability of or loss of body fat

  17. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  18. Protein intake induced an increase in exercise stimulated fat oxidation during stable body weight.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Plasqui, Guy; Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    Protein-rich weight-loss diets spare fat-free mass at the cost of fat mass. The objective was to examine if there is a change in stimulated fat oxidation related to protein intake during stable body weight. Subjects' (BMI 22±2kg/m(2), age 25±8 years) maximal fat oxidation (Fat(max)) was assessed during a graded bicycle test, before and after a 3-month dietary-intervention of 2MJ/day supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group and an isocaloric combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group. Daily protein intake was determined according to 24-h urine nitrogen. Body composition was measured according to a 4-compartment model by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their physical activity. The protein group (n=12) increased protein intake (11±14g, P<0.05) and had significantly higher daily protein intake vs. control (n=4) (80±21 vs.59±11g, P<0.05). Fat(max) increased significantly in the protein group (0.08±0.08g/min, P<0.01). Fat-free mass increased independent of change in body weight (P<0.01), and fat mass and fat percentage decreased (P<0.05). Change in Fat(max) was a function of change in protein intake (r=0.623, P<0.05), and not of changes in body composition or VO(2)max. Increased stimulated fat oxidation was related to increased protein intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  20. Predicting carcass and body fat composition using biometric measurements of grazing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    De Paula, N F; Tedeschi, L O; Paulino, M F; Fernandes, H J; Fonseca, M A

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop equations to predict carcass and body fat compositions using biometric measures (BM) and body postmortem measurements and to determine the relationships between BM and carcass fat and empty body fat compositions of 44 crossbred bulls under tropical grazing conditions. The bulls were serially slaughtered in 4 groups at approximately 0 d (n = 4), 84 d (n = 4), 168 d (n = 8), 235 d (n = 8), and 310 d (n = 20) of growth. The day before each slaughter, bulls were weighed, and BM were taken, including hook bone width, pin bone width, abdomen width, body length, rump height, height at withers, pelvic girdle length, rib depth, girth circumference, rump depth, body diagonal length, and thorax width. Others measurements included were total body surface (TBS), body volume (BV), subcutaneous fat (SF), internal fat (InF), intermuscular fat, carcass physical fat (CFp), empty body physical fat (EBFp), carcass chemical fat (CFch), empty body chemical fat (EBFch), fat thickness in the 12th rib (FT), and 9th- to 11th-rib section fat (HHF). The stepwise procedure was used to select the variables included in the model. The r(2) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used to account for precision and variability. Our results indicated that lower rates of fat deposition can be attributed to young cattle and low concentration of dietary energy under grazing conditions. The BM improved estimates of TBS (r(2) = 0.999) and BV (r(2) = 0.997). The adequacy evaluation of the models developed to predict TBS and BV using theoretical equations indicated precision, but lower and intermediate accuracy (bias correction = 0.138 and 0.79), respectively, were observed. The data indicated that BM in association with shrunk BW (SBW) were precise in accounting for variability of SF (r(2) = 0.967 and RMSE = 0.94 kg), InF (r(2) = 0.984 and RMSE = 1.26 kg), CFp (r(2) = 0.981 and RMSE = 2.98 kg), EBFp (r(2) = 0.985 and RMSE = 3.99 kg), CFch (r(2) = 0.940 and RMSE = 2

  1. Body fat assessment by a new bipedal bioimpedance instrument in normal weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Horejs, J; Müller, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluat