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Sample records for body fluid volumes

  1. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Krauhs, J. M.; Leach, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  2. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Krauhs, J M; Leach, C S

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  3. Evaluation of isolator system and large-volume centrifugation method for culturing body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Elston, H R; Wang, M; Philip, A

    1990-01-01

    The Isolator system was compared with the large-volume centrifugation method for processing and recovering organisms from body fluids other than blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. A total of 155 body fluid samples were processed for the recovery of clinically significant organisms. Of the 55 positive cultures, Isolator detected 94% and the large-volume centrifugation method detected 64%. The time necessary to indicate positivity was not significantly different in the two methods; however, in five cases, the Isolator system yielded clinically significant organisms 24 h sooner than the conventional method. The Isolator system was found to be a more sensitive alternative than the conventional large-volume centrifugation method. PMID:2405006

  4. Bioimpedance spectroscopy for the estimation of body fluid volumes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M E; Hu, L; Plato, C F; Kohan, D E

    2010-07-01

    Conventional indicator dilution techniques for measuring body fluid volume are laborious, expensive, and highly invasive. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) may be a useful alternative due to being rapid, minimally invasive, and allowing repeated measurements. BIS has not been reported in mice; hence we examined how well BIS estimates body fluid volume in mice. Using C57/Bl6 mice, the BIS system demonstrated <5% intermouse variation in total body water (TBW) and extracellular (ECFV) and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) between animals of similar body weight. TBW, ECFV, and ICFV differed between heavier male and lighter female mice; however, the ratio of TBW, ECFV, and ICFV to body weight did not differ between mice and corresponded closely to values in the literature. Furthermore, repeat measurements over 1 wk demonstrated <5% intramouse variation. Default resistance coefficients used by the BIS system, defined for rats, produced body composition values for TBW that exceeded body weight in mice. Therefore, body composition was measured in mice using a range of resistance coefficients. Resistance values at 10% of those defined for rats provided TBW, ECFV, and ICFV ratios to body weight that were similar to those obtained by conventional isotope dilution. Further evaluation of the sensitivity of the BIS system was determined by its ability to detect volume changes after saline infusion; saline provided the predicted changes in compartmental fluid volumes. In summary, BIS is a noninvasive and accurate method for the estimation of body composition in mice. The ability to perform serial measurements will be a useful tool for future studies.

  5. Body Fluids Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, Steven F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for determining volumes of body fluids in a subject using bioelectrical response spectroscopy. The human body is represented using an electrical circuit. Intra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with a capacitor; extra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with two parallel inductors. The parallel inductors represent the resistance due to vascular fluids. An alternating, low amperage, multifrequency signal is applied to determine a subject's impedance and resistance. From these data, statistical regression is used to determine a 1% impedance where the subject's impedance changes by no more than 1% over a 25 kHz interval. Circuit component, of the human body circuit are determined based on the 1% impedance. Equations for calculating total body water, extra-cellular water, total blood volume, and plasma volume are developed based on the circuit components.

  6. Effect of a central redistribution of fluid volume on response to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaselli, Clare M.; Frey, Mary A. B.; Kenney, Richard A.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1990-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were studied following 1 hour of 6-deg head-down tilt to determine whether a redistribution of blood volume toward the central circulation modifies the subsequent response to orthostatic stress. Responses of 12 men, ages 30-39 years, were evaluated by electrocardiography, impedance cardiography, sphygmomanometry, and measurement of calf circumference. During the LBNP that followed head-down tilt, as compared with control LBNP (no preceding head-down tilt) subjects, had smaller stroke volume and cardiac output, greater total peripheral resistance, and less calf enlargement. These differences reflect differences in the variables immediately preceding LBNP. Magnitudes of the responses from pre-LBNP to each pressure stage of the LBNP procedure did not differ between protocols. Mean and diastolic arterial pressures were slightly elevated after LBNP-control, but they fell slightly during LBNP post-tilt.

  7. Effect of a central redistribution of fluid volume on response to lower-body negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Tomaselli, C M; Frey, M A; Kenney, R A; Hoffler, G W

    1990-01-01

    We studied cardiovascular responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) following 1 hour (h) of 6 degrees head-down tilt to determine whether a redistribution of blood volume toward the central circulation modifies the subsequent response to orthostatic stress. Responses of 12 men, ages 30-39 years, were evaluated by electrocardiography, impedance cardiography, sphygmomanometry, and measurement of calf circumference. During the LBNP that followed head-down tilt--as compared with control LBNP (no preceding head-down tilt)--subjects had smaller stroke volume and cardiac output, greater total peripheral resistance, and less calf enlargement. These differences reflect differences in the variables immediately preceding LBNP. Magnitudes of the responses from pre-LBNP to each pressure stage of the LBNP procedure did not differ between protocols. Mean and diastolic arterial pressures were slightly elevated after LBNP-control, but they fell slightly during LBNP post-tilt. These cardiovascular responses to simulated gravitational stress following head-down tilt may reflect the manner in which adaptation to microgravity affects subsequent responses to orthostatic stress on return to Earth. PMID:2302125

  8. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  9. Sex Hormone Effects on Body Fluid Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Stachenfeld, Nina S.

    2010-01-01

    In young women, estradiol and progesterone primarily control reproduction, but they also affect fluid regulation. Estradiol lowers the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin and thirst and increases plasma volume. Although total body water and sodium content are only mildly affected, data presented in this article suggest that reproductive hormones alter homeostatic set points for body fluid and tonicity. PMID:18580296

  10. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  11. Elevation of the panting threshold of the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis, during dehydration: potential roles of changes in plasma osmolality and body fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Dupré, R K; Crawford, E C

    1986-01-01

    Dehydration of the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis, resulted in a progressive elevation in the magnitude of the skin temperature necessary to elicit thermal panting (i.e., the panting threshold). Panting threshold increased from 43.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C at 100% initial body weight (IBW) to 45.4 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 90% IBW to 45.7 +/- 0.9 degrees C at 80% IBW. Plasma osmolality showed no significant change with dehydration to 80% IBW. Changes in plasma osmolality, whether induced by NaCl or non-ionic sucrose loading, had a significant impact on panting threshold. Increasing plasma osmolality resulted in an elevation of panting threshold while decreasing plasma osmolality resulted in lower panting thresholds. Decreasing body fluid volume by exsanguination of 1 ml whole blood/100 g body weight resulted in a mean increase in panting threshold by 0.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C. Volume loading with 160 mM NaCl (approximately isosmotic) had no significant effect on panting threshold. These data suggest that plasma osmolality and decreases in body fluid volume may be potent modulators of panting threshold during periods of water deprivation. However, at least in desert iguanas, increases in plasma osmolality would not appear to be an important factor in the elevation of panting threshold during dehydration to 80% IBW.

  12. Smart and Fast Blood Counting of Trace Volumes of Body Fluids from Various Mammalian Species Using a Compact, Custom-Built Microscope Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingjuan; Smith, Zachary J; Lin, Tzu-yin; Carrade Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    We report an accurate method to count red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, as well as to determine hemoglobin in the blood of humans, horses, dogs, cats, and cows. Red and white blood cell counts can also be performed on human body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal fluid. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope to record large field-of-view, bright-field, and fluorescence images of samples that are stained with a single dye and using automatic algorithms to count blood cells and detect hemoglobin. The total process takes about 15 min, including 5 min for sample preparation, and 10 min for data collection and analysis. The minimum volume of blood needed for the test is 0.5 μL, which allows for minimally invasive sample collection such as using a finger prick rather than a venous draw. Blood counts were compared to gold-standard automated clinical instruments, with excellent agreement between the two methods as determined by a Bland-Altman analysis. Accuracy of counts on body fluids was consistent with hand counting by a trained clinical lab scientist, where our instrument demonstrated an approximately 100-fold lower limit of detection compared to current automated methods. The combination of a compact, custom-built instrument, simple sample collection and preparation, and automated analysis demonstrates that this approach could benefit global health through use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible.

  13. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:23101507

  14. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  15. Fluid simulation with articulated bodies.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Nipun; Wojtan, Chris; Carlson, Mark; Essa, Irfan; Mucha, Peter J; Turk, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for creating realistic animations of characters that are swimming through fluids. Our approach combines dynamic simulation with data-driven kinematic motions (motion capture data) to produce realistic animation in a fluid. The interaction of the articulated body with the fluid is performed by incorporating joint constraints with rigid animation and by extending a solid/fluid coupling method to handle articulated chains. Our solver takes as input the current state of the simulation and calculates the angular and linear accelerations of the connected bodies needed to match a particular motion sequence for the articulated body. These accelerations are used to estimate the forces and torques that are then applied to each joint. Based on this approach, we demonstrate simulated swimming results for a variety of different strokes, including crawl, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. The ability to have articulated bodies interact with fluids also allows us to generate simulations of simple water creatures that are driven by simple controllers. PMID:19910662

  16. Body Fluid Regulation and Hemopoiesis in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Bodymass and Fluid Distribution During Longterm Spaceflight with and without Countermeasures; Plasma Volume, Extracellular Fluid Volume, and Regulatory Hormones During Long-Term Space Flight; Effect of Microgravity and its Ground-Based Models on Fluid Volumes and Hemocirculatory Volumes; Seventeen Weeks of Horizontal Bed Rest, Lower Body Negative Pressure Testing, and the Associated Plasma Volume Response; Evaporative Waterloss in Space Theoretical and Experimental Studies; Erythropoietin Under Real and Simulated Micro-G Conditions in Humans; and Vertebral Bone Marrow Changes Following Space Flight.

  17. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement. PMID:21144005

  18. Sys-BodyFluid: a systematical database for human body fluid proteome research.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Jun; Peng, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Bo-Shu; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jia-Rui; Li, Yi-Xue; Zeng, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, body fluids have widely become an important target for proteomic research and proteomic study has produced more and more body fluid related protein data. A database is needed to collect and analyze these proteome data. Thus, we developed this web-based body fluid proteome database Sys-BodyFluid. It contains eleven kinds of body fluid proteomes, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, seminal fluid, human milk and amniotic fluid. Over 10,000 proteins are presented in the Sys-BodyFluid. Sys-BodyFluid provides the detailed protein annotations, including protein description, Gene Ontology, domain information, protein sequence and involved pathways. These proteome data can be retrieved by using protein name, protein accession number and sequence similarity. In addition, users can query between these different body fluids to get the different proteins identification information. Sys-BodyFluid database can facilitate the body fluid proteomics and disease proteomics research as a reference database. It is available at http://www.biosino.org/bodyfluid/.

  19. Fluid volumes changes induced by spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P C

    1979-10-01

    The blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and extracellular fluid volume changes produced in crewmembers during spaceflights of 11-84 days were compared to changes after 14 or 28 days of bedrest. Spaceflight and bedrest produce approximately equal BV changes but the recorded PV change after spaceflight was less. However, the diurnal change in PV may explain the smaller decreases recorded after spaceflight. The cardiovascular deconditioning caused by spaceflight and bedrest was compared using the mean heart rate response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) testing at -50 mmHg pressure. These tests show approximately equal LBNP produced heart rate changes after bedrest and spaceflight. A countermeasure which includes 4 hr of LBNP treatment at -30 mmHg and the ingestion of one l. of saline was studied and found capable of returning the heart rate response and the PV of bedrested subjects to control (prebedrest) levels suggesting that it would be useful to the crewmembers after a spaceflight. PMID:11902176

  20. Hypothalamic integration of body fluid regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Denton, D A; McKinley, M J; Weisinger, R S

    1996-01-01

    The progression of animal life from the paleozoic ocean to rivers and diverse econiches on the planet's surface, as well as the subsequent reinvasion of the ocean, involved many different stresses on ionic pattern, osmotic pressure, and volume of the extracellular fluid bathing body cells. The relatively constant ionic pattern of vertebrates reflects a genetic "set" of many regulatory mechanisms--particularly renal regulation. Renal regulation of ionic pattern when loss of fluid from the body is disproportionate relative to the extracellular fluid composition (e.g., gastric juice with vomiting and pancreatic secretion with diarrhea) makes manifest that a mechanism to produce a biologically relatively inactive extracellular anion HCO3- exists, whereas no comparable mechanism to produce a biologically inactive cation has evolved. Life in the ocean, which has three times the sodium concentration of extracellular fluid, involves quite different osmoregulatory stress to that in freshwater. Terrestrial life involves risk of desiccation and, in large areas of the planet, salt deficiency. Mechanisms integrated in the hypothalamus (the evolutionary ancient midbrain) control water retention and facilitate excretion of sodium, and also control the secretion of renin by the kidney. Over and above the multifactorial processes of excretion, hypothalamic sensors reacting to sodium concentration, as well as circumventricular organs sensors reacting to osmotic pressure and angiotensin II, subserve genesis of sodium hunger and thirst. These behaviors spectacularly augment the adaptive capacities of animals. Instinct (genotypic memory) and learning (phenotypic memory) are melded to give specific behavior apt to the metabolic status of the animal. The sensations, compelling emotions, and intentions generated by these vegetative systems focus the issue of the phylogenetic emergence of consciousness and whether primal awareness initially came from the interoreceptors and vegetative

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of degraded forensic body fluids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Han; Jones, Daniel F; Fleming, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has facilitated a significant increase in transcriptomic studies in all biological disciplines. However, the analysis of degraded RNA remains a genuine challenge in practice. In forensic science the biological samples encountered are often extensively degraded and of low abundance. RNA from these compromised samples is used for body fluid identification through the detection of body fluid-specific transcripts. Here we demonstrate the sequencing of four forensically relevant body fluids: oral mucosa/saliva (buccal), circulatory blood, menstrual blood and vaginal fluid. RNA was extracted from fresh, two and six week aged samples. Despite the extensive degradation of most body fluids, significant high quality sequencing output (>80% sequence above Q30) was generated. An average of over 80% of reads from all but one sample aligned successfully to the reference human genome. Furthermore, FPKMs (fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) generated indicate the accurate detection of known body fluid markers in respective body fluids. Assessment of global gene expression levels over degradation time enabled the characterisation of differential RNA degradation in different body fluids. This study demonstrates the practical application of MPS technology for the accurate analysis of degraded RNA from minimal samples.

  2. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    PubMed

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  3. Bioimpedance Measurement of Segmental Fluid Volumes and Hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Wu, Yi-Chang; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Gerth, Wayne A.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bioimpedance has become a useful tool to measure changes in body fluid compartment volumes. An Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) system is described that extends the capabilities of conventional fixed frequency impedance plethysmographic (IPG) methods to allow examination of the redistribution of fluids between the intracellular and extracellular compartments of body segments. The combination of EIS and IPG techniques was evaluated in the human calf, thigh, and torso segments of eight healthy men during 90 minutes of six degree head-down tilt (HDT). After 90 minutes HDT the calf and thigh segments significantly (P < 0.05) lost conductive volume (eight and four percent, respectively) while the torso significantly (P < 0.05) gained volume (approximately three percent). Hemodynamic responses calculated from pulsatile IPG data also showed a segmental pattern consistent with vascular fluid loss from the lower extremities and vascular engorgement in the torso. Lumped-parameter equivalent circuit analyses of EIS data for the calf and thigh indicated that the overall volume decreases in these segments arose from reduced extracellular volume that was not completely balanced by increased intracellular volume. The combined use of IPG and EIS techniques enables noninvasive tracking of multi-segment volumetric and hemodynamic responses to environmental and physiological stresses.

  4. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  5. Aptamer-Based Screens of Human Body Fluids for Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Albaba, Dania; Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aptamers have come to replace antibodies in high throughput multiplexed experiments. The aptamer-based biomarker screening technology, which kicked off in 2010, is capable of interrogating thousands of proteins in a very small sample volume. With this new technology, researchers hope to find clinically appropriate biomarkers for a myriad of illnesses by screening human body fluids. In this work, we have reviewed a total of eight studies utilizing aptamer-based biomarker screens of human body fluids, and have highlighted novel protein biomarkers discovered. PMID:27600232

  6. Aptamer-Based Screens of Human Body Fluids for Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Albaba, Dania; Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aptamers have come to replace antibodies in high throughput multiplexed experiments. The aptamer-based biomarker screening technology, which kicked off in 2010, is capable of interrogating thousands of proteins in a very small sample volume. With this new technology, researchers hope to find clinically appropriate biomarkers for a myriad of illnesses by screening human body fluids. In this work, we have reviewed a total of eight studies utilizing aptamer-based biomarker screens of human body fluids, and have highlighted novel protein biomarkers discovered.

  7. Body Fluid Dynamics: Back to the Future

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Gautam; Neilson, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Pioneering investigations conducted over a half century ago on tonicity, transcapillary fluid exchange, and the distribution of water and solute serve as a foundation for understanding the physiology of body fluid spaces. With passage of time, however, some of these concepts have lost their connectivity to more contemporary information. Here we examine the physical forces determining the compartmentalization of body fluid and its movement across capillary and cell membrane barriers, drawing particular attention to the interstitium operating as a dynamic interface for water and solute distribution rather than as a static reservoir. Newer work now supports an evolving model of body fluid dynamics that integrates exchangeable Na+ stores and transcapillary dynamics with advances in interstitial matrix biology. PMID:22034644

  8. Body fluid dynamics: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Gautam; Neilson, Eric G

    2011-12-01

    Pioneering investigations conducted over a half century ago on tonicity, transcapillary fluid exchange, and the distribution of water and solute serve as a foundation for understanding the physiology of body fluid spaces. With passage of time, however, some of these concepts have lost their connectivity to more contemporary information. Here we examine the physical forces determining the compartmentalization of body fluid and its movement across capillary and cell membrane barriers, drawing particular attention to the interstitium operating as a dynamic interface for water and solute distribution rather than as a static reservoir. Newer work now supports an evolving model of body fluid dynamics that integrates exchangeable Na(+) stores and transcapillary dynamics with advances in interstitial matrix biology. PMID:22034644

  9. [Body fluids during 120-day anti-orthostatic hypokinesia].

    PubMed

    Lobachik, V I; Zhidkov, V V; Abrosimov, S V

    1989-01-01

    Body fluid variations were examined during 120-day antiorthostatic (-5 degrees) hypokinesia in 21 test subjects, 9 of which comprised a control group (Group 1). The remaining 12 subjects formed three groups (four subjects each) who received drugs to normalize mineral and lipid metabolism (Group 2), or performed specially developed exercises (Group 3), or were on the combined treatment (Group 4). Total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid volume (IFV), extracellular fluid volume (EFV), and EFV composition were measured by nuclear physical methods. Measurements were taken prior to exposure, on head-down tilt days 1, 60 and 120, and on recovery day 15. Body composition and K40 content were investigated before and after head-down tilt. The controls showed body dehydration that began on tilt day 1 at the expense of vascular fluid and continued by day 60 at the expense of interstitial fluid and by day 120 at the expense of IFV. Group 2 subjects exhibited variations that were similar to those of controls. Group 3 subjects were in better shape due to the beneficial effect of exercise which diminished as head-down tilt continued. In the recovery period the above changes regressed.

  10. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  11. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  12. Fluid intake and changes in limb volumes in male ultra-marathoners: does fluid overload lead to peripheral oedema?

    PubMed

    Bracher, Alexia; Knechtle, Beat; Gnädinger, Markus; Bürge, Jolanda; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    An increase in body mass due to oedema has been previously described. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential association between both fluid and electrolyte intake and the formation of peripheral oedemas. Fluid and electrolyte intakes and the changes in limb volumes in 50 male 100-km ultra-marathoners were measured. Pre- and post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na(+)]), serum aldosterone concentration, serum copeptin concentration, serum and urine osmolality and body mass were determined. Fluid intake, renal function parameters and urinary output, as well as the changes of volume in the extremities, were measured. The changes of volume in the limbs were measured using plethysmography. Serum [Na(+)] increased by 1.6%; body mass decreased by 1.9 kg. Serum copeptin and aldosterone concentrations were increased. The change in serum copeptin concentration and the change in serum [Na(+)] correlated positively; the change in serum [Na(+)] and body mass correlated negatively. A mean fluid intake of 0.58 L/h was positively related to running speed and negatively to post-race serum [Na(+)]. Total fluid intake was positively related to the changes in both arm and lower leg volumes. Running speed was positively associated with the changes in arm and lower leg volumes; race time was related to the changes in serum copeptin or aldosterone concentrations. To conclude, fluid intake was related to the changes in limb volumes, where athletes with an increased fluid intake developed an increase in limb volumes. PMID:21720884

  13. Neural Control Mechanisms and Body Fluid Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposed research was to study the nature of afferent signals to the brain that reflect the status of body fluid balance and to investigate the central neural mechanisms that process this information for the activation of response systems which restore body fluid homeostasis. That is, in the face of loss of fluids from intracellular or extracellular fluid compartments, animals seek and ingest water and ionic solutions (particularly Na(+) solutions) to restore the intracellular and extracellular spaces. Over recent years, our laboratory has generated a substantial body of information indicating that: (1) a fall in systemic arterial pressure facilitates the ingestion of rehydrating solutions and (2) that the actions of brain amine systems (e.g., norepinephrine; serotonin) are critical for precise correction of fluid losses. Because both acute and chronic dehydration are associated with physiological stresses, such as exercise and sustained exposure to microgravity, the present research will aid in achieving a better understanding of how vital information is handled by the nervous system for maintenance of the body's fluid matrix which is critical for health and well-being.

  14. Assessing volume status and fluid responsiveness in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, David C.; Noble, Vicki E.

    2014-01-01

    Resuscitation with intravenous fluid can restore intravascular volume and improve stroke volume. However, in unstable patients, approximately 50% of fluid boluses fail to improve cardiac output as intended. Increasing evidence suggests that excess fluid may worsen patient outcomes. Clinical examination and vital signs are unreliable predictors of the response to a fluid challenge. We review the importance of fluid management in the critically ill, methods of evaluating volume status, and tools to predict fluid responsiveness. PMID:27752556

  15. Physiologic mechanisms of circulatory and body fluid losses in weightlessness identified by mathematical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Central volume expansion due to fluid shifts in weightlessness is believed to activate adaptive reflexes which ultimately result in a reduction of the total circulating blood volume. However, the flight data suggests that a central volume overdistention does not persist, in which case some other factor or factors must be responsible for body fluid losses. We used a computer simulation to test the hypothesis that factors other than central volume overdistention are involved in the loss of blood volume and other body fluid volumes observed in weightlessness and in weightless simulations. Additionally, the simulation was used to identify these factors. The results predict that atrial volumes and pressures return to their prebedrest baseline values within the first day of exposure to head down tilt (HDT) as the blood volume is reduced by an elevated urine formation. They indicate that the mechanisms for large and prolonged body fluid losses in weightlessness is red cell hemoconcentration that elevates blood viscosity and peripheral resistance, thereby lowering capillary pressure. This causes a prolonged alteration of the balance of Starling forces, depressing the extracellular fluid volume until the hematocrit is returned to normal through a reduction of the red cell mass, which also allows some restoration of the plasma volume. We conclude that the red cell mass becomes the physiologic driver for a large 'undershoot' of the body fluid volumes after the normalization of atrial volumes and pressures.

  16. Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 16

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, M.; Wehausen, J.V.; Lumley, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Selected topics in fluid mechanics are examined in reviews of recent theoretical and experimental research. Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and photographs taken from and/or summarizing the publications surveyed are provided. Topics discussed include wave action and wave/mean-flow interaction, numerical simulation of turbulent flows, nonlinear interactions in liquid He II, secondary flow in curved open channels, vortex shedding from oscillating bluff bodies, optical techniques, aeroacoustics of turbulent shear flows, supercritical-wing design, and perturbed free shear layers.

  17. After an exposure to sharps or body fluids

    MedlinePlus

    ... htm After an exposure to sharps or body fluids To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Being exposed to sharps (needles) or body fluids means that another person's blood or other body ...

  18. Wakes of Maneuvering Bodies in Stratified Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Fernando, H. J.

    2007-05-01

    We present the results of experimental/theoretical studies on large momentum eddies generated in late wakes of unsteady moving self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids. The experiments were conducted with scaled submarine model at high Reynolds numbers (50,000), corresponding to the fully turbulent flow regime. Dye visualization and PIV were used for flow diagnostics. When a self-propelled body makes a maneuver, e.g. accelerates, it imparts net momentum on the surrounding fluid. We show that in a stratified fluid this leads to impulsive momentum wakes with large, long-lived coherent vortices in the late flows, which may be used as a signature for identification of submarine wakes in oceanic thermocline. First, we consider dynamics and properties of such wakes in a linearly stratified fluid and present a model that permits to predict the main flow characteristics. Second, we consider wakes in a two layer stratified fluid (analog of the upper ocean) and show that such wakes may penetrate to the water surface; we present a model for this phenomenon and propose criteria for the penetration of wake signatures to the water surface in terms of main governing parameters (signature contrast versus confinement number). Finally, we consider the evolution of such momentum wake eddies in the field of decaying background turbulence, which mimics the oceanic thermocline, and show that for the flow configuration studied the contrast number remains sufficiently large and detectable wake imprints survive for a long period of time. Some pertinent estimates for submarines cruising in the upper ocean are also given. For more details see [1-3]. This study was supported by grant from the Office of Naval Research. 1. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S., Smirnov S.A. & Morrison R.J. 2006. On surface signatures generated by submersed momentum sources. Phys. Fluids, under revision. 2. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S. & Morrison R.J. 2006. Dipolar eddies in a stratified turbulent flow. J. Fluid

  19. Physiologic mechanisms effecting circulatory and body fluid losses in weightlessness as shown by mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Simanonok, K E; Srinivasan, R S; Charles, J B

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms causing large body water losses in weightlessness are not clear. It has long been considered that a central volume expansion drives the physiologic adaptation to a reduced total blood volume, with normal blood composition eventually regained. However, inflight venous pressure measures suggest that central volume expansion in weightlessness may be very transient, or that considerable cardiovascular adaptation to fluid shifts occurs on the ground while astronauts wait in the semi-supine pre-launch position. If a central volume stimulus does not persist, other mechanisms must drive the adaptation of circulation to a reduced blood volume and account for body fluid losses. Recent results from the SLS-1 mission suggest that body fluid volumes do not simply decline to new equilibria but that they decrease to a low point, then undergo some recovery. Similar "under-shoots" of body fluid volumes have also been shown in computer simulations, providing confidence in the validity of the model. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms which could explain the loss of body fluids in weightlessness and how a cardiovascular preadaptation countermeasure we previously tested ameliorated body fluid losses. It is assumed that the physiology of head down tilt (HDT) provides a reasonably accurate analog of weightless exposure. PMID:11537415

  20. Normal volume and cellular contents of pleural fluid.

    PubMed

    Noppen, M

    2001-07-01

    The pleural space in healthy humans was thought to contain a few milliliters of fluid, based on extrapolation from animal studies. However, because of the obvious technical difficulties in atraumatically retrieving such a small volume of fluid, the exact volume and cellular content of human pleural fluid has not been known. Development of a minimally invasive pleural lavage technique has allowed, for the first time, the measurement of volume and cellular content of the pleural fluid in healthy humans. PMID:11470970

  1. Body fluid identification by integrated analysis of DNA methylation and body fluid-specific microbial DNA.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ajin; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2014-01-01

    Identification of body fluids found at crime scenes provides important information that can support a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. Previous studies have reported that DNA methylation analysis at several tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) enables successful identification of semen, and the detection of certain bacterial DNA can allow for identification of saliva and vaginal fluid. In the present study, a method for detecting bacterial DNA was integrated into a previously reported multiplex methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-polymerase chain reaction. The developed multiplex PCR was modified by the addition of a new semen-specific marker and by including amplicons for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of saliva- and vaginal fluid-specific bacteria to improve the efficacy to detect a specific type of body fluid. Using the developed multiplex system, semen was distinguishable by unmethylation at the USP49, DACT1, and PFN3 tDMRs and by hypermethylation at L81528, and saliva could be identified by detection of saliva-specific bacteria, Veillonella atypica and/or Streptococcus salivarius. Additionally, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood were differentiated from other body fluids by hypomethylation at the PFN3 tDMR and the presence of vaginal fluid-specific bacteria, Lactobacillus crispatus and/or Lactobacillus gasseri. Because the developed multiplex system uses the same biological source of DNA for individual identification profiling and simultaneously analyses various types of body fluid in one PCR reaction, this method will facilitate more efficient body fluid identification in forensic casework.

  2. System and Method for Wirelessly Determining Fluid Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and method are provided for determining the volume of a fluid in container. Sensors are positioned at distinct locations in a container of a fluid. Each sensor is sensitive to an interface defined by the top surface of the fluid. Interfaces associated with at least three of the sensors are determined and used to find the volume of the fluid in the container in a geometric process.

  3. Computer simulation of preflight blood volume reduction as a countermeasure to fluid shifts in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid shifts in weightlessness may cause a central volume expansion, activating reflexes to reduce the blood volume. Computer simulation was used to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume prior to exposure to weightlessness could counteract the central volume expansion due to fluid shifts and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses resulting in large losses of fluid from body water compartments. The Guyton Model of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Circulatory Regulation was modified to simulate the six degree head down tilt that is frequently use as an experimental analog of weightlessness in bedrest studies. Simulation results show that preadaptation of the blood volume by a procedure resembling a blood donation immediately before head down bedrest is beneficial in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After ten hours of head down tilt, blood volume after preadaptation is higher than control for 20 to 30 days of bedrest. Preadaptation also produces potentially beneficial higher extracellular volume and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest.

  4. Body Fluid Identification Using mRNA Profiling.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Amy D; Haas, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    RNA analysis is a valuable tool for the identification of the forensically relevant body fluids, saliva, blood, menstrual blood, cervicovaginal fluid, and semen. Multiple human mRNA and bacterial RNA markers have been identified for each of these body fluids. RNA and DNA can be coextracted from the same portion of a sample and RNA markers for different body fluids can be multiplexed in a single PCR, thereby maximizing the number of analyses that can be performed with limited sample material.

  5. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution.

    PubMed

    Powers, Michael E.; Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. DESIGN AND SETTING: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. SUBJECTS: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 +/- 3.01 years, height = 179.8 +/- 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 +/- 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 +/- 2.51 years, height = 163.4 +/- 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 +/- 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. RESULTS: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. CONCLUSIONS: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed.

  6. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. Design and Setting: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. Subjects: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 ± 3.01 years, height = 179.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 ± 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 ± 2.51 years, height = 163.4 ± 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 ± 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. Results: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. Conclusions: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed. PMID:12937471

  7. Unified method for serial study of body fluid compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spears, C. P.; Hyatt, K. H.; Vogel, J. M.; Langfitt, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    Methods for the simultaneous determination of equilibrium space of I-125/RISA(radio-iodinated serum albumin) (plasma volume), Cr-51 red cell mass, Br-82 space (extracellular fluid volume), and tritiated water space (total body water) are described. Determinations were made on two occasions separated by a 1 week interval in 43 healthy young men who were on a strict metabolic diet. Hourly samples were taken for 6 hours after injection of the radionuclides. Correlation of these values to the inscribed exponential disappearance curve was high. In 15 subjects, earlier and more-frequent sampling led to no improvement in the accuracy of estimation of the I-125/RISA space. Use of this method gave results in 12 subjects for Br-82 space and in 11 subjects for tritiated water space which were not significantly different from those obtained by correction for urine loss.

  8. Assessment of extracellular fluid volume and fluid status in hemodialysis patients: current status and technical advances.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yanna; Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The assessment of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) and fluid status is both important and challenging in hemodialysis patients. Extracellular fluid is distributed in two major sub-compartments: interstitial fluid and plasma. A variety of methods are used to assess the ECV, with tracer dilution techniques considered gold standard. However, ECV defined as the distribution space of bromide, sodium, chloride, and ferrocyanide appears to be larger than the distribution volume of inulin and sucrose, suggesting a partial distribution into the intracellular volume. Relative blood volume monitoring, measurement of inferior vena cava diameter by ultrasound and biochemical markers are indirect methods, which do not reflect the ECV and fluid status accurately. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) techniques enable assessment of ECV and intracellular volume. Currently, BIS appears to be the most practical method for assessing ECV volume and fluid status in dialysis patients.

  9. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  10. Constitutive secretion of soluble interleukin-2 receptor by human T cell lymphoma xenografted into SCID mice. Correlation of tumor volume with concentration of tumor-derived soluble interleukin-2 receptor in body fluids of the host mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, M. A.; Sioutos, N.; Tuttle, M.; Butmarc, J. R.; Kaplan, W. D.; Kadin, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    sIL-2R in patients with lymphoid tumors. In addition, our data further support monitoring sIL-2R concentration in body fluids as a sensitive method to detect change in tumor volume in such patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8178932

  11. Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyke, M.; Wehausen, J. V.; Lumley, J. L.

    The review includes papers on fluid-dynamical problems in galaxies, existence theorems for the equations of motion of a compressible viscous fluid, conditional sampling in turbulence measurement, power from water waves, and aspects of three-dimensional laminar boundary layers. Also, topics covered modeling of planetary boundary layers, cavitation in fluid machinery and hydraulic structures, cup, propeller, vane, and sonic anemometers in turbulence research, and organized motion in turbulent flow.

  12. Determination of trace elements in body fluids by XRF spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadj, M.; Injuk, J.; Lakatos̆s, J.; Valković, V.

    1987-04-01

    X-ray emission spectroscopy is used for trace element analysis of body fluids. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and XRF setup are described for the analysis of blood serum and amniotic fluid samples for different gravidity stages. The comparison between the distribution of these elements in amniotic fluid and serum is presented and discussed.

  13. Impact of bodies on and their penetration into fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagomonian, Artur Iakovlevich

    Transition phenomena accompanying the impact of solid bodies on fluid surfaces (i.e., high-velocity impact and the subsequent initial period of penetration into the fluid) are examined. Analytical and numerical methods for the investigation of this interaction are examined in a review of examples from the published literature. The case of an ideal incompressible fluid is considered first, with subsequent attention given to the impact of rigid and elastic bodies on ideal compressible fluids. Finally, analytical and numerical solutions are given to the problem of high-velocity impact on a plastically compressible fluid (a soil model).

  14. Fluid-structure interaction -- 1996. PVP-Volume 337

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Ma, D.C.; Shin, Y.W.; Kulak, R.F.; Chang, F.C.; Kaneko, S.; Brochard, D.; Moody, F.J.

    1996-12-01

    This special volume contains papers on various topics of interest to the pressure vessel and piping industries. These papers are presented in nine sessions covering three topics. The titles of these three sessions are: (1) fluid-structure interaction and structural mechanics; (2) sloshing and fluid-structure interaction; and (3) transient thermal hydraulics, heat transfer, and coupled vessel-piping structural response. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in this volume.

  15. Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 19

    SciTech Connect

    Lumley, J.L.; Van dyke, M.; Reed, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The present evaluation of the status of fluid mechanical research gives attention to confined vortices in flow machinery, turbulent secondary flows, upstream blocking and airflow over mountains, critical point concept descriptions of eddying motions and flow patterns, viscoelastic flows through contractions, the theory of solute transport by groundwater, tsunamis, turbulent premixed flame behavior, and viscous fingering in porous media. Also treated are the computation of flows with shocks, the use of spectral methods in fluid dynamics, the dynamics of tornadic thunderstorms, thermocapillary instabilities, the behavior of magnetic fluids, Von Karman swirling flows, the use of isolated eddy models in geophysics, recent developments in rapid distortion theory, and rarefaction waves in liquid and gas-liquid media.

  16. Standard biobanking conditions prevent evaporation of body fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Eline A J; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J A; Durieux-Lu, Sisi; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2015-03-10

    Pre-analytical variation in biobanking procedures, e.g., long-term storage, could confound biomarker outcomes. We investigated evaporation in various body fluids at different storage temperatures and storage durations. Biobank sample tubes (Sarstedt 72.694.007) filled with water in different volumes (50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500μl) were stored at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, room temperature (RT)) for 4.5years and weighed at regular intervals. Next, saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF were stored in different volumes (50, 250, 500, 1000μl) at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, RT) for 2years. An extra set of CSF was stored in tubes with safe-lock cap (Eppendorf 0030 120.086) instead of a screw cap with o-ring. No evaporation of water stored in biobanking tubes at -80°C or -20°C occurred over 4.5years. Storage of saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF at -80°C or -20°C, monitored over 2years, protected these samples from evaporation too. At 4°C, evaporation was minor, approximately 1.5% (50μl) or 0% (1ml) yearly, where at RT it ranged from 38% (50μl) to 2% (1ml). Differences were observed neither between different body fluids, nor between tube caps. Our data provide support for long-term biobanking conform current biobanking guidelines, encouraging retrospective use of clinical cohorts. PMID:25661086

  17. Standard biobanking conditions prevent evaporation of body fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Eline A J; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J A; Durieux-Lu, Sisi; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2015-03-10

    Pre-analytical variation in biobanking procedures, e.g., long-term storage, could confound biomarker outcomes. We investigated evaporation in various body fluids at different storage temperatures and storage durations. Biobank sample tubes (Sarstedt 72.694.007) filled with water in different volumes (50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500μl) were stored at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, room temperature (RT)) for 4.5years and weighed at regular intervals. Next, saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF were stored in different volumes (50, 250, 500, 1000μl) at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, RT) for 2years. An extra set of CSF was stored in tubes with safe-lock cap (Eppendorf 0030 120.086) instead of a screw cap with o-ring. No evaporation of water stored in biobanking tubes at -80°C or -20°C occurred over 4.5years. Storage of saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF at -80°C or -20°C, monitored over 2years, protected these samples from evaporation too. At 4°C, evaporation was minor, approximately 1.5% (50μl) or 0% (1ml) yearly, where at RT it ranged from 38% (50μl) to 2% (1ml). Differences were observed neither between different body fluids, nor between tube caps. Our data provide support for long-term biobanking conform current biobanking guidelines, encouraging retrospective use of clinical cohorts.

  18. DNA methylation-specific multiplex assays for body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Choi, Ajin; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in whole-genome epigenetic analysis indicate that chromosome segments called tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) show different DNA methylation profiles according to cell or tissue type. Therefore, body fluid-specific differential DNA methylation is a promising indicator for body fluid identification. However, DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental factors and aging. Therefore, we investigated age-related methylation changes in semen-specific tDMRs using body fluids from young and elderly men. After confirming the stability of the body fluid-specific DNA methylation profile over time, two different multiplex PCR systems were constructed using methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme PCR and methylation SNaPshot, in order to analyze the methylation status of specific CpG sites from the USP49, DACT1, PRMT2, and PFN3 tDMRs. Both multiplex systems could successfully identify semen with spermatozoa and could differentiate menstrual blood and vaginal fluids from blood and saliva. Although including more markers for body fluid identification might be necessary, this study adds to the support that body fluid identification by DNA methylation profiles could be a valuable tool for forensic analysis of body fluids. PMID:22653424

  19. DNA methylation-specific multiplex assays for body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Choi, Ajin; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in whole-genome epigenetic analysis indicate that chromosome segments called tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) show different DNA methylation profiles according to cell or tissue type. Therefore, body fluid-specific differential DNA methylation is a promising indicator for body fluid identification. However, DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental factors and aging. Therefore, we investigated age-related methylation changes in semen-specific tDMRs using body fluids from young and elderly men. After confirming the stability of the body fluid-specific DNA methylation profile over time, two different multiplex PCR systems were constructed using methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme PCR and methylation SNaPshot, in order to analyze the methylation status of specific CpG sites from the USP49, DACT1, PRMT2, and PFN3 tDMRs. Both multiplex systems could successfully identify semen with spermatozoa and could differentiate menstrual blood and vaginal fluids from blood and saliva. Although including more markers for body fluid identification might be necessary, this study adds to the support that body fluid identification by DNA methylation profiles could be a valuable tool for forensic analysis of body fluids.

  20. Volume transport and generalized hydrodynamic equations for monatomic fluids.

    PubMed

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the effects of volume transport on the generalized hydrodynamic equations for a pure simple fluid are examined from the standpoint of statistical mechanics and, in particular, kinetic theory of fluids. First, we derive the generalized hydrodynamic equations, namely, the constitutive equations for the stress tensor and heat flux for a single-component monatomic fluid, from the generalized Boltzmann equation in the presence of volume transport. Then their linear steady-state solutions are derived and examined with regard to the effects of volume transport on them. The generalized hydrodynamic equations and linear constitutive relations obtained for nonconserved variables make it possible to assess Brenner's proposition [Physica A 349, 11 (2005); Physica A 349, 60 (2005)] for volume transport and attendant mass and volume velocities as well as the effects of volume transport on the Newtonian law of viscosity, compression/dilatation (bulk viscosity) phenomena, and Fourier's law of heat conduction. On the basis of study made, it is concluded that the notion of volume transport is sufficiently significant to retain in irreversible thermodynamics of fluids and fluid mechanics.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    PubMed

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  2. Fluid volume control during short-term space flight and implications for human performance.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, D E

    2001-09-01

    Space flight exerts substantial effects on fluid volume control in humans. Cardiac distension occurs during the first 1-2 days of space flight relative to supine and especially upright 1g conditions. Plasma volume contraction occurs quickly in microgravity, probably as a result of transcapillary fluid filtration into upper-body interstitial spaces. No natriuresis or diuresis has been observed in microgravity, such that diuresis cannot explain microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Reduction of fluid intake occurs irrespective of space motion sickness and leads to hypovolemia. The fourfold elevation of urinary antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels on flight day 1 probably results from acceleration exposures and other stresses of launch. Nevertheless, it is fascinating that elevated ADH levels and reduced fluid intake occur simultaneously early in flight. Extracellular fluid volume decreases by 10-15% in microgravity, and intracellular fluid volume appears to increase. Total red blood cell mass decreases by approximately 10% within 1 week in space. Inflight Na(+) and volume excretory responses to saline infusion are approximately half those seen in pre-flight supine conditions. Fluid volume acclimation to microgravity sets the central circulation to homeostatic conditions similar to those found in an upright sitting posture on Earth. Fluid loss in space contributes to reduced exercise performance upon return to 1g, although not necessarily in flight. In-flight exercise training may help prevent microgravity-induced losses of fluid and, therefore, preserve the capacity for upright exercise post-flight. Protection of orthostatic tolerance during space flight probably requires stimulation of orthostatic blood pressure control systems in addition to fluid maintenance or replacement.

  3. Fluid volume control during short-term space flight and implications for human performance.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, D E

    2001-09-01

    Space flight exerts substantial effects on fluid volume control in humans. Cardiac distension occurs during the first 1-2 days of space flight relative to supine and especially upright 1g conditions. Plasma volume contraction occurs quickly in microgravity, probably as a result of transcapillary fluid filtration into upper-body interstitial spaces. No natriuresis or diuresis has been observed in microgravity, such that diuresis cannot explain microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Reduction of fluid intake occurs irrespective of space motion sickness and leads to hypovolemia. The fourfold elevation of urinary antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels on flight day 1 probably results from acceleration exposures and other stresses of launch. Nevertheless, it is fascinating that elevated ADH levels and reduced fluid intake occur simultaneously early in flight. Extracellular fluid volume decreases by 10-15% in microgravity, and intracellular fluid volume appears to increase. Total red blood cell mass decreases by approximately 10% within 1 week in space. Inflight Na(+) and volume excretory responses to saline infusion are approximately half those seen in pre-flight supine conditions. Fluid volume acclimation to microgravity sets the central circulation to homeostatic conditions similar to those found in an upright sitting posture on Earth. Fluid loss in space contributes to reduced exercise performance upon return to 1g, although not necessarily in flight. In-flight exercise training may help prevent microgravity-induced losses of fluid and, therefore, preserve the capacity for upright exercise post-flight. Protection of orthostatic tolerance during space flight probably requires stimulation of orthostatic blood pressure control systems in addition to fluid maintenance or replacement. PMID:11581336

  4. Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.

  5. Synovial fluid replication in knee wear testing: an investigation of the fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Wear testing cannot replicate the variations in wear rates and wear mechanisms seen in vivo, which may be related to differences between in vivo and in vitro conditions. A considerable difference exists between the in vivo synovial fluid volume (few milliliter) and the in vitro substituted bovine serum volume (several hundred milliliter). The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a reduced fluid volume on the wear behavior in a knee wear simulator study. Four wear tests with decreasing fluid volumes (250, 150, 75, and 45 ml) were carried out. Using a large fluid volume of 250 ml for wear testing resulted in a wear rate of 9.7±1.2 mm3/10(6)  cycles. Decreasing the fluid volume consecutively reduced the wear rate to down to 8.8±1.4 mm3/10(6) for 150 ml (p=1.00), 5.6±1.2 mm3/10(6) for 75 ml (p=0.01), and 1.0±0.2 mm3/10(6) cycles for 45 ml fluid volume (p≤0.01). Additionally, higher serum degradation and larger wear particles were observed with smaller fluid volumes used for testing. This study demonstrates the high relevance of the protein-based lubricant on the wear behavior and the technical limitation to replicate the synovial fluid in simulator tests. Wear testing should be carried out using larger fluid volumes (e.g., 250 ml) to generate physiological relevant wear masses.

  6. A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahady, Kyle; Afkhami, Shahriar; Kondic, Lou

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to model the fluid/solid interaction forces in a direct solver of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the volume of fluid interface tracking method. The key ingredient of the model is the explicit inclusion of the fluid/solid interaction forces into the governing equations. We show that the interaction forces lead to a partial wetting condition and in particular to a natural definition of the equilibrium contact angle. We present two numerical methods to discretize the interaction forces that enter the model; these two approaches differ in complexity and convergence. To validate the computational framework, we consider the application of these models to simulate two-dimensional drops at equilibrium, as well as drop spreading. We demonstrate that the model, by including the underlying physics, captures contact line dynamics for arbitrary contact angles. More generally, the approach permits novel means to study contact lines, as well as a diverse range of phenomena that previously could not be addressed in direct simulations.

  7. Noninvasive estimation of fluid shifts between body compartments by measurement of bioelectric characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has established that bioelectrical characteristics of the human body reflect fluid status to some extent. It has been previously assumed that changes in electrical resistance (R) and reactance (X) are associated with changes in total body water (TBW). The purpose of the present pilot investigation was to assess the correspondence between body R and X and changes in estimated TBW and plasma volume during a period of bedrest (simulated weightlessness). R and X were measured pre-, during, and post- a 13 day bedrest status. Although a clear relationship was not elucidated, evidence was found suggesting that R and X reflect plasma volume rather than TBW. Indirect evidence provided by previous studies which investigated other aspects of the electrical/fluid relationship, also suggests the independence of TBW and electrical properties. With further research, a bioelectrical technique for noninvasively tracking fluid changes consequent to space flight may be developed.

  8. Disorders of body fluids, sodium and potassium in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Mitch, W E; Wilcox, C S

    1982-03-01

    A stable volume and composition of extracellular fluid are essential for normal functioning of the body. Since the kidney is primarily responsible for regulating extracellular fluid, loss of kidney function should have catastrophic consequences. Fortunately, even with loss of more than 90 percent of renal function, a remarkable capacity to regulate body fluid volumes and sodium and potassium persists. Nevertheless, this capacity is limited to chronic renal disease and this has important consequences for clinical management of these patients. How can sodium and potassium homeostasis be assessed? Methods for evaluating the steady-state regulation of sodium include measurement of body fluids and their distribution in different compartments and measurement of exchangeable and intracellular sodium. Short-term regulation of body sodium can be assessed from measurement of sodium balance during changes in dietary salt. Potassium is predominantly contained within cells and thus the assessment of its regulation requires special emphasis on measurement of steady-state body stores and potassium distribution across cell membranes. However, the methods used to make all of these measurements require assumptions that may not hold in the altered state of uremia. This raises problems in interpretation requiring critical analysis before conclusions can be made regarding sodium and potassium homeostasis in patients with chronic renal failure. This review focuses on abnormalities of body fluids, sodium and potassium in patients with creatinine clearances of less than 20 ml/min due to chronic renal failure and the impact of conservative therapy, dialysis and renal transplantation on these patients.

  9. Dose of progesterone and allantoic fluid volume in conceptuses in ovariectomised goats.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P T

    1976-01-01

    The volume and composition of fetal fluids in conceptuses from untreated goats and from ovariectomised goats in which pregnancy was maintained with a high (0-76 mg per kg body weight) or low (0-35 mg per kg body weight) dose of progesterone, were determined. The mean allantoic fluid volume per conceptus was similar in the untreated goats (77-0+/-13-49 ml) and the ovariectomised goats which received the higher dose of progesterone (81-4+/-18-24 ml) but was significantly greater in the ovariectomised goats which received the lower dose of progesterone (251-5+/-66-49 ml). The increase in allantoic fluid was associated with a rise in K+ concentration. PMID:943819

  10. Small acoustically forced symmetric bodies in viscous fluids.

    PubMed

    Nadal, François; Lauga, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The total force exerted on a small rigid body by an acoustic field in a viscous fluid is addressed analytically in the limit where the typical size of the particle is smaller than both the viscous diffusion length scale and the acoustic wavelength. In this low-frequency limit, such a force can be calculated provided the effect of the acoustic steady streaming is negligible. Using the Eulerian linear expansion of Lagrangian hydrodynamic quantities (velocity and pressure), the force on a small solid sphere free to move in an acoustic field is first calculated in the case of progressive and standing waves, and it is compared to past results. The proposed method is then extended to the case of more complex shapes with three planes of symmetry. For a symmetric body oriented with one of its axis along the wave direction, the acoustic force exerted by a progressive wave is affected by the particle shape at leading order. In contrast, for a standing wave (with the same orientation), the force experienced by the particle at leading order is the same as the one experienced by a sphere of same volume and density. PMID:27036245

  11. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  12. Characterization and differentiation of body fluids, putrefaction fluid, and blood using Hounsfield unit in postmortem CT.

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Jackowski, Christian; Buetikofer, Yanik; Kara, Levent

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ranges of Hounsfield unit (HU) found in body fluids, putrefaction fluids, and blood on postmortem CT and how these ranges are affected by postmortem interval, temperatures, and CT beam energy. Body fluids, putrefaction fluids, and blood from a total of 53 corpses were analyzed to determine the ranges of HU values from postmortem CT images that were taken prior to autopsy. The fluids measured in CT images were obtained at autopsy and examined in terms of macroscopic and microscopic appearances. Body fluids and blood were also collected in plastic bottles, which were subjected to CT scans at different beam energies (80-130 kV) and at various fluid temperatures (4 to 40 °C). At a postmortem interval of 1 to 4 days, the ranges of HU values of the serous fluids (13-38 HU) and the nonsedimented blood (40-88 HU) did not overlap. In the sedimented blood, the upper serum layer exhibited HU value ranges that overlapped with those of the serous fluids. The putrefaction fluids exhibited a range of HU values between 80 and -130 HU. Elevated HU values were observed in fluids with accretive cell impurities. HU values decreased slightly with increasing temperature and CT beam energy. We concluded that serous fluids and blood in fresh corpses can be characterized and differentiated from each other based on HU value ranges. In contrast, body fluids in decomposed corpses cannot be differentiated by their HU value ranges. Different beam energies and corpse temperatures had only minor influences on HU value ranges and therefore should not be obstacles to the differentiation and characterization of body fluids and blood.

  13. Raman spectroscopic signature of vaginal fluid and its potential application in forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-03-10

    Traces of human body fluids, such as blood, saliva, sweat, semen and vaginal fluid, play an increasingly important role in forensic investigations. However, a nondestructive, easy and rapid identification of body fluid traces at the scene of a crime has not yet been developed. The obstacles have recently been addressed in our studies, which demonstrated the considerable potential of Raman spectroscopy. In this study, we continued to build a full library of body fluid spectroscopic signatures. The problems concerning vaginal fluid stain identification were addressed using Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Calculated characteristic Raman and fluorescent spectral components were used to build a multidimensional spectroscopic signature of vaginal fluid, which demonstrated good specificity and was able to handle heterogeneous samples from different donors.

  14. Fluid sloshing and fluid-structure interaction 1995. PVP-Volume 314

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Tani, J.; Brochard, D.; Fujita, K.

    1995-11-01

    In recognition of the importance of fluid sloshing and fluid-structure interaction, the 1995 Joint ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, held July 23--27 in Honolulu, Hawaii, has organized five technical sessions in various technical areas of fluid sloshing and fluid-structure interaction. This volume contains the twenty-one papers presented in the five sessions. The subjects cover sloshing suppression submerged components, flow-induced sloshing, waste storage tanks, spent fuel facilities, fluid-piping interaction, added mass, etc. This publication is a direct result of continuing interests and cooperation in the research and development concerning fluid sloshing and fluid-structure interaction between the American and Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  15. Changes in body fluid compartments on re-induction to high altitude and effect of diuretics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Tyagi, A. K.; Bhagat, Maj J. K.; Parshad, R.; Divekar, H. M.

    1988-03-01

    Studies were carried out in 29 healthy young adults in the Indian Army stationed in the plains and posted at an elevation of 3500 m for more than 6 months. After exposure to a low elevation in Delhi (260 m) for 3 weeks they were reinduced to a height of 3500 m. The subjects were divided into three groups, each of which was treated with either placebo or acetazolamide or spironolactone. The drug treatment was started immediately after their landing at high altitude and continued for 2 days only. Total body water, extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, plasma volume, blood pH, PaO2, PaCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on exposure at Delhi and on re-induction to high altitude. Plasma volume was increased after the descent from high altitude and remained high for up to 21 day's study. This increased plasma volume may have some significance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema. Total body water and intracellular fluid content were increased at 260 m elevation, while extracellular fluid decreased. On re-induction there was a decrease in total body water with no change in the extracellular fluid content.

  16. Experimental verification of gravitational interaction of bodies immersed in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vybiral, B.

    1987-11-01

    This article deals with the experimental verification of the generalized Newton's gravitational law, formulated by Z. Horák. According to this law, the gravitational force between two resting homogeneous bodies immersed in resting homogeneous fluids is dependent on the densities ρ1, ρ2 of both the bodies anbd densities ρ1arcmin, ρ2arcmin of both the fluids: furthermore, Farcmin = (1-ρ1arcmin/ρ1)(1-ρ2arcmin/ρ2)F = h1h2F, where F is the force between the bodies in a vacuum and h1, h2 are the density factors. The aim of the experimental verification of the law was to determine the density factors by exploring the phenomenon that is influenced by the gravitational interaction of the bodies immersed in different fluids. With the relative error of 0.4%, the validity of Horák's gravitational law was proved.

  17. Space Shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.; Thornton, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This is a study of the inflight and postflight leg volume changes associated with spaceflight on Space Shuttle missions. The results show an inflight volume loss of 2 l from the lower extremities, 1 l from each leg, representing an 11.6 percent volume change. The vast majority of this change appears to be a shift in body fluids, both intravascular and extravascular. The fluid shift occurs mostly on Mission Day One and is essentially complete by 6 to 10 hr. The regional origin of shift and leg volume changes shows a far greater absolute volume (708 ml vs. 318 ml) and percentage (69 percent vs. 31 percent) of the total change coming from the higher as compared to the lower leg. Postflight, the return of fluid to the lower extremities occurs rapidly with the majority of volume return complete within 1.5 hr postlanding. At 1 week postflight, there is a residual leg volume decrement of 283 ml or 3.2 percent that is probably due to tissue loss secondary to atrophic deconditioning and weight loss.

  18. Space shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes.

    PubMed

    Moore, T P; Thornton, W E

    1987-09-01

    This is a study of the inflight and postflight leg volume changes associated with spaceflight on Space Shuttle missions. The results of this study show an inflight volume loss of 2 L from lower extremities, 1 L from each leg, representing an 11.6% volume change. The vast majority of this change appears to be a shift in body fluids, both intravascular and extravascular. The fluid shift occurs rapidly on Mission Day 1 (MD-1), with it being essentially complete by 6 to 10 h. The regional origin of shift and leg volume change shows a far greater absolute volume (708 ml vs. 318 ml) and percentage (69% vs. 31%) of the total change coming from the thigh as compared to the lower leg. Postflight, the return of fluid to the lower extremities occurs rapidly with the majority of volume return complete within 1.5 h postlanding. At 1 week postflight there is a residual leg volume decrement of 283 ml or 3.2% that is probably due to tissue loss secondary to atrophic deconditioning and weight loss.

  19. Space shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes.

    PubMed

    Moore, T P; Thornton, W E

    1987-09-01

    This is a study of the inflight and postflight leg volume changes associated with spaceflight on Space Shuttle missions. The results of this study show an inflight volume loss of 2 L from lower extremities, 1 L from each leg, representing an 11.6% volume change. The vast majority of this change appears to be a shift in body fluids, both intravascular and extravascular. The fluid shift occurs rapidly on Mission Day 1 (MD-1), with it being essentially complete by 6 to 10 h. The regional origin of shift and leg volume change shows a far greater absolute volume (708 ml vs. 318 ml) and percentage (69% vs. 31%) of the total change coming from the thigh as compared to the lower leg. Postflight, the return of fluid to the lower extremities occurs rapidly with the majority of volume return complete within 1.5 h postlanding. At 1 week postflight there is a residual leg volume decrement of 283 ml or 3.2% that is probably due to tissue loss secondary to atrophic deconditioning and weight loss. PMID:3675513

  20. Capacitance Probe for Fluid Flow and Volume Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a micro-gravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.

  1. Capacitance probe for fluid flow and volume measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a microgravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.

  2. Rapid Weight Loss and the Body Fluid Balance and Hemoglobin Mass of Elite Amateur Boxers

    PubMed Central

    Reljic, Dejan; Hässler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Context Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. Objective To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Design Case-control study. Setting Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). Intervention(s) The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. Main Outcome Measure(s) During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. Results In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P < .001), and plasma volume (8.6% ± 3.9%). The intracellular water did not change (P > .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P < .05). In CON, we found no changes (P > .05). Conclusions In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in

  3. Lunar Fluid Core and Solid-Body Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2-5] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening has been improving [3,5] and now seems significant. This strengthens the case for a fluid lunar core.

  4. Normalizing Oral Fluid Hydrocodone Data Using Calculated Blood Volume.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Oneka T; Morris, Ayodele A; Enders, Jeffrey R; McIntire, Gregory L

    2016-09-01

    Oral fluid testing to assist in the assessment of treatment adherence for chronic pain patients is attractive for a number of reasons. However, efforts focused on interpreting patient results have been modest when compared to urine drug testing. This work details a retrospective approach developed to transform and normalize oral fluid testing results to provide a historical picture of patient values in this important test fluid. Using this approach, a model was developed using data from 6,800 independent patients who were both prescribed hydrocodone and tested positive (with limitations: reporting cutoff < X < upper limit of quantitation) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Patient demographic data were used to calculate the relevant parameters (e.g., calculated blood volume (CBV)) used in the transformation and normalization of the oral fluid data. The crucial normalizing factor in oral fluids was found to be the CBV which parallels the use of creatinine to normalize drug concentration levels in urine and is consistent with the view that oral fluid samples reflect plasma concentrations of the respective drugs. The resulting near Gaussian distribution is dose independent and as such should be of value to physicians in quickly assessing whether their patient is consistent with this historical population in the broad terms of this model. While this comparison alone is not definitive for adherence with a treatment regimen, together with patient interviews, prescription history and other clinical criteria, it can add an idea of expected patient values from oral fluid testing. PMID:27405365

  5. Amniotic fluid volume and fetal swallowing rate in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoda, S.; Brace, R.A.; Longo, L.D.

    1985-07-01

    To investigate amniotic fluid (AF) dynamics and volume regulatory mechanisms, the authors measured the concentration of radioiodinated (/sup 125/I) serum albumin (RISA), /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells (Cr-RBC), and /sup 103/Ru-labeled microspheres after injection into the amniotic cavity and determined AF volume and fetal swallowing rate in 22 singleton pregnant sheep. Under normal conditions 2-3 h were required for complete mixing of RISA and Cr-RBC within AF; however, when the fetus was dead only 3-5 h were required. AF volume of 17 sheep on the 5th postoperative day averaged 975 +/- 128 ml by RISA and 986 +/- 130 ml by Cr-RBC. AF volume determined with RISA and Cr-RBC correlated well. In contrast, AF volume measurement with microspheres produced erratic results. The disappearance rate of the labels in 17 ewes on the 5th postoperative day averaged 4.9 +/- 0.7%/h for RISA and 5.5 +/- 0.7 for Cr-RBC, and the calculated rates of fetal swallowing were 935 +/- 78 ml/day by RISA and 1,085 +/- 102 by Cr-RBC. In dead fetuses the disappearance rates were almost zero, suggesting that the labels disappear mainly by swallowing. Absolute volume swallowed and swallowed volume per fetal weight correlated with gestational age. AF volume correlated with fetal weight. Radiolabeled albumin or red blood cells may be used to simultaneously measure amniotic fluid volume and the rate of fetal swallowing. Furthermore it appears that fetal swallowing increases with gestational age.

  6. Measurement of net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport and effective vascular compliance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Schneider, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport (TFT) between the circulation and the interstitial (extravascular) space may be calculated as: IV - deltaPV - UV - IL, where IV=infused or ingested volume (when applicable), deltaPV = change in plasma volume, UV=urine volume, and IL=insensible loss. RESULTS: Infusion of 30 mL/kg isotonic saline over 25 minutes increased supine TFT from a basal capillary reabsorption of -106+/-24 mL/h (mean+/-SE) to a net filtration of 1,229+/-124 mL/h. One hour after infusion, reabsorption of -236+/-102 mL/h was seen, and control reabsorption levels returned by 3 hours. Four hours of 30 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) elicited no net TFT, probably because of upper body reabsorptive compensation for lower body capillary filtration. When ingestion of 1 L of isotonic saline accompanied LBNP, filtration of 145+/-10 mL/h occurred. Reabsorption of extravascular fluid into the circulation always followed LBNP. CONCLUSION: Application of this technique could aid understanding of physiologic conditions, experimental interventions, disease states, and therapies that cause or are influenced by fluid shifts between intravascular and interstitial compartments.

  7. Pulsatile flow of power-law fluid model for blood flow under periodic body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Chaturani, P; Palanisamy, V

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed to study the pulsatile flow of a power-law fluid through rigid circular tubes under the influence of a periodic body acceleration. Numerical solutions have been obtained by using finite difference method. The accuracy of the numerical procedure has been checked by comparing the obtained numerical results with other numerical and analytical solutions. It is found that the agreement between them is quite good. Interaction of non-Newtonian nature of fluid with the body acceleration has been investigated by using the physiological data for two particular cases (coronary and femoral arteries). The axial velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress and instantaneous volume flow rate have been computed and their variations with different parameters have been analyzed. The following important observations have been made: (i) The velocity and acceleration profiles can have more than one maxima, this is in contrast with usual parabolic profiles where they have only one maximum at the axis. As n increases, the maxima shift towards the axis; (ii) For the flow with no body acceleration, the amplitude of both, wall shear and flow rate, increases with n, whereas for the flow with body acceleration, the amplitude of wall shear (flow rate) increases (decreases) as n increases; (iii) In the absence of body acceleration, pseudoplastic (dilatant) fluids, with low frequency pulsations, have higher (lower) value of maximum flow rate Qmax than Newtonian fluids, whereas for high frequencies, opposite behavior has been observed; for flow with body acceleration pulsations gives higher (lower) value of Qmax for pseudoplastic (dilatant) fluids than Newtonian fluids.

  8. Toward consistent terminology: assessment and reporting of amniotic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Moise, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    Amniotic fluid is typically measured by ultrasound using the amniotic fluid index (AFI) or the maximum vertical pocket (MVP). Although both parameters correlate poorly with the actual amniotic fluid volume measured with dye-dilution methods, cross-sectional studies have been used to establish gestational norms. The current acceptable definition of polyhydramnios in the late second and the third trimester in both singleton and multiple gestations is a MVP > 8 cm, while the definition of oligohydramnios is a MVP < 2 cm. The pocket to be measured should exclude the umbilical cord or fetal parts. Randomized clinical trials have indicated that defining oligohydramnios as a MVP < 2 cm will result in fewer obstetrical interventions and similar perinatal outcomes when compared to an AFI < 5 cm.

  9. Equation of state for hard convex body fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    A model previously developed for the equation of state of pure fluids consisting of hard convex body molecules is extended to mixtures. The parameters of the model can be determined from the geometrical characteristics of the molecules which form the mixture. The equation of state is in excellent agreement with simulation data for mixtures of hard spheres with hard spherocylinders.

  10. Cronic effects of vasopressin on fluid volume distribution in conscious dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.C.; Cowley, A.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that acute elevations of arginine vasopressin (AVP) may result in an extravascular to intravascular shift of fluid independent of any change in total body H/sub 2/O (TBW). The present studies examined the chronic influence of elevated AVP on fluid volume distribution in five splenectomized, sodium-deprived conscious dogs. During 4 days of continuous intravenous AVP infusion the computerized average 24-h total body weight was maintained within 110 g of the control value by means of a sensitive servo-controlled scale device. Urine flow and urine osmolality averaged 335 +/- 52 ml/day and 637 +/- 36 mosmol/kg during the preinfusion period and changed to levels averaging 151 +/- 14 and 1377 +/- 121 with elevated AVP. Chromium-51-labeled red cell volume (/sup 51/Cr RBC), plasma volume (Evans blue), TBW (/sup 3/H/sub 2/O), calculated total blood volume (using /sup 51/Cr RBC and Hct), and mean arterial pressure remained unchanged during the AVP infusion period. Plasma protein, sodium, and osmolality also remained unchanged with elevated AVP. The authors conclude from the present studies that AVP has minimal or chronic influence on internal volume redistribution.

  11. Thermal responses and body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session.

    PubMed

    Soler, Reynaldo; Echegaray, Marcos; Rivera, Miguel A

    2003-05-01

    Thermoregulatory and body fluid balance (BFB) responses of competitive swimmers were studied during a typical interval training session under natural field conditions. Subjects were 9 males (18.0 +/- 1.7 years; VO(2)max = 3.8 +/- 0.9 L x min(-1)) who covered 9,000 m in 180 minutes in an outdoor pool (mean water temperature = 26.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; mean wet bulb globe temperature = 29.8 +/- 2.8 degrees C). Mean body weight (BWt) decreased by 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg (P < 0.05), and rectal temperature increased by 1.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C (P < 0.05). Volitional water intake (WI) (0.1 +/- 0.2 kg) did not maintain BFB (-0.5 kg per hour) and plasma volume decreased 10.7 +/- 5.4%. During a typical training session, swimmers experienced significant body fluid losses, and WI was not enough to prevent involuntary dehydration. The magnitude of the fluid losses (2.5% of BWt) was sufficient to compromise convective thermoregulation because of the decreased plasma volume. Hence, to prevent involuntary dehydration, swimmers should be encouraged to consume an amount of fluids that equals losses throughout the training sessions.

  12. Enabling fluorescent biosensors for the forensic identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Frascione, Nunzianda; Gooch, James; Daniel, Barbara

    2013-11-12

    The search for body fluids often forms a crucial element of many forensic investigations. Confirming fluid presence at a scene can not only support or refute the circumstantial claims of a victim, suspect or witness, but may additionally provide a valuable source of DNA for further identification purposes. However, current biological fluid testing techniques are impaired by a number of well-characterised limitations; they often give false positives, cannot be used simultaneously, are sample destructive and lack the ability to visually locate fluid depositions. These disadvantages can negatively affect the outcome of a case through missed or misinterpreted evidence. Biosensors are devices able to transduce a biological recognition event into a measurable signal, resulting in real-time analyte detection. The use of innovative optical sensing technology may enable the highly specific and non-destructive detection of biological fluid depositions through interaction with several fluid-endogenous biomarkers. Despite considerable impact in a variety of analytical disciplines, biosensor application within forensic analyses may be considered extremely limited. This article aims to explore a number of prospective biosensing mechanisms and to outline the challenges associated with their adaptation towards detection of fluid-specific analytes.

  13. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  14. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  15. Fluid ingestion during exercise increases skin blood flow independent of increases in blood volume.

    PubMed

    Montain, S J; Coyle, E F

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether fluid ingestion attenuates the hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift that occurs during exercise dehydration due to increases in blood volume. In addition, forearm blood flow, which is indicative of skin blood flow, was measured to determine whether the attenuation of hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise with fluid ingestion is due to higher skin blood flow. On three different occasions, seven trained cyclists [mean age, body weight, and maximum oxygen uptake: 23 +/- 3 yr, 73.9 +/- 10.5 kg, and 4.75 +/- 0.34 (SD) l/min, respectively] cycled at a power output equal to 62-67% maximum oxygen uptake for 2 h in a warm environment (33 degrees C, 50% relative humidity, wind speed 2.5 m/s). During exercise, they randomly received no fluid (NF) or a volume of a carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid replacement solution (FR) sufficient to replace 80 +/- 2% of sweat loss or were intravenously infused with 5.3 ml/kg of a blood volume expander (BVX; 6% dextran in saline). The infusion of 398 +/- 23 ml of BVX maintained blood volume at levels similar to that when 2,404 +/- 103 ml of fluid were ingested during FR and greater than that when no fluid was ingested during the 2nd h of exercise (P less than 0.05). However, BVX and NF resulted in similar esophageal and rectal temperatures, forearm blood flow, and elevations in serum osmolality and sodium concentration during 2 h of exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  17. Three-body interactions in complex fluids: Virial coefficients from simulation finite-size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, Douglas J.; Wilding, Nigel B.

    2014-06-28

    A simulation technique is described for quantifying the contribution of three-body interactions to the thermodynamical properties of coarse-grained representations of complex fluids. The method is based on a new approach for determining virial coefficients from the measured volume-dependent asymptote of a certain structural function. By comparing the third virial coefficient B{sub 3} for a complex fluid with that of an approximate coarse-grained model described by a pair potential, three body effects can be quantified. The strategy is applicable to both Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation. Its utility is illustrated via measurements of three-body effects in models of star polymers and in highly size-asymmetrical colloid-polymer mixtures.

  18. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    PubMed

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  19. Caffeine, body fluid-electrolyte balance, and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2002-06-01

    Recreational enthusiasts and athletes often are advised to abstain from consuming caffeinated beverages (CB). The dual purposes of this review are to (a) critique controlled investigations regarding the effects of caffeine on dehydration and exercise performance, and (b) ascertain whether abstaining from CB is scientifically and physiologically justifiable. The literature indicates that caffeine consumption stimulates a mild diuresis similar to water, but there is no evidence of a fluid-electrolyte imbalance that is detrimental to exercise performance or health. Investigations comparing caffeine (100-680 mg) to water or placebo seldom found a statistical difference in urine volume. In the 10 studies reviewed, consumption of a CB resulted in 0-84% retention of the initial volume ingested, whereas consumption of water resulted in 0-81% retention. Further, tolerance to caffeine reduces the likelihood that a detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalance will occur. The scientific literature suggests that athletes and recreational enthusiasts will not incur detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalances if they consume CB in moderation and eat a typical U.S. diet. Sedentary members of the general public should be a less risk than athletes because their fluid losses via sweating are smaller. PMID:12187618

  20. Body fluid regulation in micro-gravity differs from that on Earth: an overview.

    PubMed

    Drummer, C; Gerzer, R; Baisch, F; Heer, M

    2000-01-01

    Similar to the response to central hypervolemic conditions on Earth, the shift of blood volume from the legs to the upper part of the body in astronauts entering micro-gravity should, in accordance with the Henry-Gauer mechanism, mediate diuresis and natriuresis. However, fluid balance and kidney function experiments during various space missions resulted in the surprising observation that the responses qualitatively differ from those observed during simulations of hypervolemia on Earth. There is some evidence that the attenuated responses of the kidney while entering weightlessness, and also later during space flight, may be caused by augmented fluid distribution to extravascular compartments compared to conditions on Earth. A functional decoupling of the kidney may also contribute to the observation that renal responses during exposure to micro-gravity are consistently weaker than those during simulation experiments before space flight. Deficits in body mass after landing have always been interpreted as an indication of absolute fluid loss early during space missions. However, recent data suggest that body mass changes during space flight are rather the consequences of hypocaloric nutrition and can be overcome by improved nutrition schemes. Finally, sodium-retaining humoral systems are activated during space flight and may contribute to a new steady-state of metabolic balances with a pronounced increase in body sodium compared to respective conditions on Earth. A revision of the classical "micro-gravity fluid shift" scheme is required.

  1. Production and delivery of a fluid mixture to an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Bland, Ronald Gene; Foley, Ron Lee; Bloys, James B.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Daniel, John M.; Robinson, Ian M.; Carpenter, Robert B.

    2012-01-24

    The methods described herein generally relate to preparing and delivering a fluid mixture to a confined volume, specifically an annular volume located between two concentrically oriented casing strings within a hydrocarbon fluid producing well. The fluid mixtures disclosed herein are useful in controlling pressure in localized volumes. The fluid mixtures comprise at least one polymerizable monomer and at least one inhibitor. The processes and methods disclosed herein allow the fluid mixture to be stored, shipped and/or injected into localized volumes, for example, an annular volume defined by concentric well casing strings.

  2. The colloid osmotic pressures of invertebrate body fluids.

    PubMed

    Mangum, C P; Johansen, K

    1975-12-01

    Colloid osmotic pressures of the body fluids of twenty invertebrate species were measured directly. The results, which are generally lower than predicted values for the same species, pertain to several physiological questions: (1) they do not quantitatively explain the frequently observed hyperosmoticity of body fluids in species believed to be osmoconformers, indicating that the condition cannot be merely a consequence of a Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium; (2) the excess of hydrostatic over colloid osmotic pressure is very small. This result supports the hypothesis that the oxygen transport function of bloods with extracellular haemocyanins and haem proteins is limited by their colligative properties; (3) the pressure relationships and the absence of colloid osmotic activity in urine indicates that filtration contributes to urine formation in several species.

  3. Application of Control Volume Analysis to Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Cohen, Benjamin; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is among the most common birth defects and may not be prevented nor cured. Afflicted individuals face serious issues, which at present are too complicated and not well enough understood to treat via systematic therapies. This talk outlines the framework and application of a control volume methodology to clinical Phase Contrast MRI data. Specifically, integral control volume analysis utilizes a fundamental, fluid dynamics methodology to quantify intracranial dynamics within a precise, direct, and physically meaningful framework. A chronically shunted, hydrocephalic patient in need of a revision procedure was used as an in vivo case study. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements within the patient's aqueduct were obtained in four biomedical state and were analyzed using the methods presented in this dissertation. Pressure force estimates were obtained, showing distinct differences in amplitude, phase, and waveform shape for different intracranial states within the same individual. Thoughts on the physiological and diagnostic research and development implications/opportunities will be presented.

  4. Dielectric properties of porcine glands, gonads and body fluids.

    PubMed

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C

    2012-10-01

    Dielectric properties of porcine glandular tissues and gonads (in vivo) and body fluids (in vitro) have been obtained in the frequency range of 50 MHz to 20 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a two term Cole-Cole expression. The data presented complement the available dielectric properties of tissues in the literature and can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of people to electromagnetic fields.

  5. How do activities walking, standing, and resting influence trans-tibial amputee residual limb fluid volume?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan; Cagle, John; Allyn, Katheryn; Harrison, Daniel; Ciol, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how fluid volume changes in the residual limbs of people with trans-tibial amputation were affected by activity during test sessions with equal durations of resting, standing, and walking. Residual limb extracellular fluid volume was measured using biompedance analysis on 24 participants. Results showed that all subjects lost fluid volume during standing with equal weight-bearing, averaging a loss rate of 0.4%/min, and a mean loss over the 25 min test session of 2.6% (s.d.1.1). Sixteen subjects gained limb fluid volume during standing (mean gain of 1.0% (s.d.2.5)), and fifteen gained fluid volume during rest (mean gain of 1.0% (s.d.2.2)). Walking explained only 39.3% of the total session fluid volume change. There was a strong correlation between walk and rest fluid volume changes (−0.81). Subjects with peripheral arterial disease experienced relatively high fluid volume gains during sitting but minimal changes or losses during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitioning. Healthy female subjects experienced high fluid volume changes during transitioning from sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit. The differences in fluid volume response among subjects suggest that volume accommodation technologies should be matched to the activity-dependent, fluid transport characteristics of the individual prosthesis user. PMID:24933719

  6. Fluid structure interaction solver coupled with volume of fluid method for two-phase flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.

  7. Hippocampal volume predicts fluid intelligence in musically trained people.

    PubMed

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Descloux, Céline; Croquelois, Alexandre; Chanal, Julien; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; James, Clara E

    2013-07-01

    Recently, age-related hippocampal (HP) volume loss could be associated with a decrease in general fluid intelligence (gF). In the present study we investigated whether and how extensive musical training modulates human HP volume and gF performance. Previously, some studies demonstrated positive effects of musical training on higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory, associated with neural adaptations beyond the auditory domain. In order to detect possible associations between musical training and gF, we bilaterally segmented the HP formation and assessed the individual gF performance of people with different levels of musical expertise. Multiple regression analyses revealed that HP volume predicts gF in musicians but not in nonmusicians; in particular, bilaterally enhanced HP volume is associated with increased gF exclusively in musically trained people (amateurs and experts). This result suggests that musical training facilitates the recruitment of cognitive resources, which are essential for gF and linked to HP functioning. Musical training, even at a moderate level of intensity, can thus be considered as a potential strategy to decelerate age-related effects of cognitive decline.

  8. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.

    2002-06-01

    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p≤0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p≤0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  9. Encyclopedia of fluid mechanics. Volume 8 - Aerodynamics and compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P.

    Advanced analytical methods for compressible flows and their application to specific engineering problems are discussed in chapters by leading experts. Topics addressed include fluid viscosity, laminar flow past semiinfinite bodies, the structure of turbulent boundary layers, homogeneous turbulence, turbulent shear flows and jets, vortex patterns on slender bodies, wake interference and vortex shedding, turbulent rough-wall skin friction and heat transfer, FEM iterative solutions of compressible flows, transient natural-convection flows, and direct-contact transfer processes with moving liquid droplets. Consideration is given to artificially thickening turbulent boundary layers, subsonic transitory stalled flows in diffusers, impeller-blade design for centrifugal and axial blowers, transonic cascade flows, high-speed turboprop noise, turbine-blade vibrations, compressible flow in valves, the performance of cryogenic pumps, the structure of turbulent dense-spray jets, and the dynamics of wind machines.

  10. On the force on a body moving in a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesheuvel, Arie; Hagmeijer, Rob

    2006-10-01

    It is well-known that freely falling or rising objects and self-propelling bodies shed vorticity. It is then a natural question to ask how to define the forces (drag and lift) experienced by the body in terms of the vorticity distribution in the surrounding fluid and the normal velocity of the body surface, since these define the velocity distribution uniquely. In this paper we outline the answer given by Burgers in an almost forgotten paper from 1920, and point at the close relationship of Burgers's ideas in these matters with those of Sir James Lighthill. The connection with more recent work by Kambe and Howe is established and we briefly discuss related issues concerning "vortex methods" and "vortex sound".

  11. Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T.W.

    1992-03-01

    Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program is oscillating flow within a circular duct are present. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re{sub max}, Re{sub W}, and A{sub R}, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA`s Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radical components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and in reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. The following is presented in two-volumes. Volume I contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume II contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).

  12. mRNA profiling using a minimum of five mRNA markers per body fluid and a novel scoring method for body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Amy D; Haas, Cordula

    2013-07-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression varies among cell types; therefore, analyses for the presence of particular mRNAs can be used to identify biological fluids in forensic samples. For this work, several novel markers were characterized for saliva, cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), blood, and menstrual blood (MB). The new markers were used in combination with previously described markers to develop four multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays. These multiplexes incorporate two housekeeping and a minimum of five markers for each of the following forensically relevant body fluids: semen, saliva, CVF, blood, and MB. A large number of samples (>200) were analyzed to determine specificity of each marker. The majority of the markers were detected at low frequencies in non-target body fluids. Because markers were not specific to their respective target body fluids, a scoring system was developed to minimize the chances of misidentification of a sample due to marker expression in a non-target body fluid. Each marker was given a numerical value related to its "correct" (target body fluid) versus "incorrect" (non-target body fluid) expression in samples of known origin. For each of the five body fluids, the marker values of those mRNA markers that were present in a sample were added to produce a body fluid score. Threshold scores were then determined for the identification of each body fluid. Although this study highlights the complexity of body fluid identification, particularly in differentiating blood and MB, the use of threshold scores allowed for reliable body fluid identification in the samples tested.

  13. Instantaneous stroke volume in man during lower body negative pressure /LBNP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Richards, K. L.; Greene, E. R.; Eldridge, M. W.; Hoekenga, D. E.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an examination of the instantaneous time course of the stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q) in response to the onset and release of -50 torr lower body negative pressure (LBNP) are reported. Six male subjects were sealed into a LBNP box up to the iliac crest while being monitored by echocardiograph for centerlamina blood velocity, fluid displacement, stroke volume, heart rate, and leg volume. Particular use was made of pulsed ultrasonic Doppler velocity meters for measuring the blood velocities and flow dynamics. Measurements were made of the subjects continuously beginning from 20 sec prior to and one min after LBNP onset and release. A linear fall in the SV was observed with LBNP at 49% of the baseline value after 33 sec. A 62% drop, the lowest, was detected after 8 min of LBNP. The leg volume was inversely related to Q for the duration of the experiment.

  14. Forensic body fluid identification: the Raman spectroscopic signature of saliva.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci.,Int., 2008, 181, e1-e5). However, those experiments were performed using only one sample of each body fluid and did not investigate the potential for spectral variations among different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a single human saliva sample as well as among samples from multiple donors. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human saliva samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. Principal component analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry saliva is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The major chemical components known to be present in saliva were used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of saliva was also addressed. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry saliva in a quantitative way. The combination of these three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for saliva. This proof of concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be saliva during forensic analysis.

  15. Size heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor in human body fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pesonen, K.; Viinikka, L.; Koskimies, A.; Banks, A.R.; Nicolson, M.; Perheentupa, J.

    1987-06-29

    The authors measured the concentration of immunoreactive (IR) hEGF in various body fluids by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and evaluated its size heterogeneity by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography combined with RIA or with time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA). Mean concentration was 80 ng/ml in urine, 65 ng/ml in milk, 50 ng/ml in seminal plasma, 25 ng/ml in armpit sweat, 1 ng/ml in breast sweat, 0.3 ng/ml in third-trimester amniotic fluid, 3 ng/ml in saliva, 1.5 ng/ml in tears and 0.3 ng/ml in gastric juice. All the fluids except armpit sweat and gastric juice contained two to five molecular sizes of IR-hEGF. As well as the 6200-dalton (6.2kDa) hEGF the authors found at least four other different molecular sizes with approximate weights of greater than or equal to300, 150, 70 and 20 kDa. The authentic 6.2kDa form made up >90% of the total IR-hEGF in all except the amniotic fluid where its proportion was 71%, and the seminal plasma where the proportion could not be determined. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or...

  1. Correlation of leukocyte esterase activity and bacterial isolation from body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, D L; Bradley, M E

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated 230 body fluid samples, of which 131 were peritoneal effluents and 99 were other body fluids. Of these, 63 dialysates were culture positive, and 54 (85.7%) of these 63 were leukocyte esterase positive. Of 99 other body fluids, 8 were both culture positive and leukocyte esterase positive. PMID:6520224

  2. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Irvy M. A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric W.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity, viscous terms, and linear and angular acceleration. Since no effects of body acceleration appear in the inertial frame Navier-Stokes equations themselves, but only in their boundary conditions, it is useful to investigate acceleration source terms in the non-inertial frame. In this paper, a derivation of the energy equation is provided in addition to the continuity and momentum equations previously published. Relevant dimensionless constants are derived which can be used to obtain an indication of the relative significance of acceleration effects. The necessity for using computational fluid dynamics to capture nonlinear effects remains, and various implementation schemes for accelerating bodies are discussed. This theoretical treatment is intended to provide a foundation for interpretation of aerodynamic effects observed in manoeuvre, particularly for accelerating missiles.

  3. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Irvy M. A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric W.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity, viscous terms, and linear and angular acceleration. Since no effects of body acceleration appear in the inertial frame Navier-Stokes equations themselves, but only in their boundary conditions, it is useful to investigate acceleration source terms in the non-inertial frame. In this paper, a derivation of the energy equation is provided in addition to the continuity and momentum equations previously published. Relevant dimensionless constants are derived which can be used to obtain an indication of the relative significance of acceleration effects. The necessity for using computational fluid dynamics to capture nonlinear effects remains, and various implementation schemes for accelerating bodies are discussed. This theoretical treatment is intended to provide a foundation for interpretation of aerodynamic effects observed in manoeuvre, particularly for accelerating missiles.

  4. Geometry-Induced Casimir Suspension of Oblate Bodies in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Reid, M. T. Homer; Intravaia, Francesco; Woolf, Alexander; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Capasso, Federico; Johnson, Steven G.

    2013-11-01

    We predict that a low-permittivity oblate body (disk-shaped object) above a thin metal substrate (plate with a hole) immersed in a fluid of intermediate permittivity will experience a metastable equilibrium (restoring force) near the center of the hole. Stability is the result of a geometry-induced transition in the sign of the force, from repulsive to attractive, that occurs as the disk approaches the hole—in planar or nearly planar geometries, the same material combination yields a repulsive force at all separations, in accordance with the Dzyaloshinskiĭ-Lifshitz-Pitaevskiĭ condition of fluid-induced repulsion between planar bodies. We explore the stability of the system with respect to rotations and lateral translations of the disks and demonstrate interesting transitions (bifurcations) in the rotational stability of the disks as a function of their size. Finally, we consider the reciprocal situation in which the disk-plate materials are interchanged and find that in this case the system also exhibits metastability. The forces in the system are sufficiently large to be observed in experiments and should enable measurements based on the diffusion dynamics of the suspended bodies.

  5. Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

  6. Chronic effects of vasopressin on fluid volume distribution in conscious dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.C.; Cowley, A.W. Jr.; Skelton, M.M.

    1986-03-05

    Previous studies have suggested that acute elevations of vasopressin (AVP) may result in an extravascular to intravascular shift of fluid independent of any change in total body H/sub 2/O (TBW). The present studies examined the chronic influence of elevated AVP on fluid volume distribution in splenectomized, sodium-deprived conscious dogs (18.9 +/- 0.7 kg) (n=5). During 4 days of continuous i.v. AVP infusion (0.36 ng/kg/min) the computerized average 24-hr total body weight was maintained within 110 gm of the control value by means of a sensitive servocontrolled scale device. Urine flow and urine osmolality averaged 335 +/- 52 ml/day and 637 +/- 36 mOsm/kg during the preinfusion period and changed to levels averaging 151 +/- 14 and 1377 +/- 121 with elevated AVP (p < .05). Red cell volume (Cr/sup 51/RBC), plasma volume, TBW (H/sub 2/O), calculated total blood volume (using Cr/sup 51/RBC and Hct) and mean arterial pressure averaged 22 +/- 1 ml/kg, 54 +/- 7 ml/kg, 0.62 +/- 0.04 L/kg, 68 +/- 3 ml/kg and 99 +/- 3 mmHg respectively during the control period and remained unchanged during the AVP infusion period. Plasma protein, Na and osmolality averaged 6.4 +/- 0.1 g/dl, 145.7 +/- 0.8 mEq/L, and 295.0 +/- 1.5 mOsm/kg during the pre-infusion period and also remained unchanged with elevated AVP. They conclude from the present studies that AVP has minimal or no chronic influence on internal volume redistribution.

  7. Many-Body Effects on the Thermodynamics of Fluids, Mixtures, and Nanoconfined Fluids.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2015-11-10

    Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we show that taking into account the many-body interactions results in sharp changes in the grand-canonical partition functions of single-component systems, binary mixtures, and nanoconfined fluids. The many-body contribution, modeled with a 3-body Axilrod-Teller-Muto term, results in shifts toward higher chemical potentials of the phase transitions from low-density phases to high-density phases and accounts for deviations of more than, e.g., 20% of the value of the partition function for a single-component liquid. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we analyze how this contribution has a strong impact on some properties (e.g., pressure, coexisting densities, and enthalpy) and a moderate impact on others (e.g., Gibbs or Helmholtz free energies). We also characterize the effect of the 3-body terms on adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamic properties, thereby providing a full picture of the effect of the 3-body contribution on the thermodynamics of nanoconfined fluids. PMID:26574329

  8. Many-Body Effects on the Thermodynamics of Fluids, Mixtures, and Nanoconfined Fluids.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2015-11-10

    Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we show that taking into account the many-body interactions results in sharp changes in the grand-canonical partition functions of single-component systems, binary mixtures, and nanoconfined fluids. The many-body contribution, modeled with a 3-body Axilrod-Teller-Muto term, results in shifts toward higher chemical potentials of the phase transitions from low-density phases to high-density phases and accounts for deviations of more than, e.g., 20% of the value of the partition function for a single-component liquid. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we analyze how this contribution has a strong impact on some properties (e.g., pressure, coexisting densities, and enthalpy) and a moderate impact on others (e.g., Gibbs or Helmholtz free energies). We also characterize the effect of the 3-body terms on adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamic properties, thereby providing a full picture of the effect of the 3-body contribution on the thermodynamics of nanoconfined fluids.

  9. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    PubMed

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  10. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    PubMed

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  11. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and

  12. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Bighamian, Ramin; Reisner, Andrew T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called “target volume ratio”). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.6 and 9.5% across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  13. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Bighamian, Ramin; Reisner, Andrew T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called “target volume ratio”). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.6 and 9.5% across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes. PMID:27642283

  14. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion.

    PubMed

    Bighamian, Ramin; Reisner, Andrew T; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called "target volume ratio"). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.6 and 9.5% across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes. PMID:27642283

  15. Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1: Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re(sub max), Re(sub w), and A(sub R), embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. Volume 1 contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).

  16. Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 2: Tabulated data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re sub max, Re sub w, and A sub R, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation, and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphics).

  17. Residual gastric fluid volume and chewing gum before surgery.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Renate C; Ponnamma, Chandra M; Freyle, David; Wang, Shu-Ming; Kain, Zeev N

    2006-02-01

    In this study we sought to determine if chewing gum preoperatively increases gastric fluid volume (GFV) and changes gastric acidity. Children, 5-17 yr old, were randomized to one of three groups: a control group that was not given any gum, a group that was given sugarless bubble gum, and a group that was given sugared bubble gum. Patients in the two gum groups were instructed to chew their gum for a period of 30 min. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, the stomach was suctioned with a salem sump orogastric tube. We found that children who did not chew gum had significantly smaller GFV as compared with children who chewed sugared and sugarless gum (0.35 [0.2-0.5] mL/kg versus 0.88 [0.6-1.4] mL/kg versus 0.69 [0.4-1.6] mL/kg; P = 0.0001). Children who did not chew gum also had a significantly lower gastric fluid pH as compared with children chewing sugared and sugarless gum (geometric mean, 1.91 versus 2.25 versus 2.19; P = 0.007). We conclude that children who present for surgery while chewing gum have significantly larger GFV and higher pH. PMID:16428535

  18. From finch to fish to man: role of aquaporins in body fluid and brain water regulation.

    PubMed

    Schrier, R W; Chen, Y-C; Cadnapaphornchai, M A

    2004-01-01

    Charles Darwin, in his Origin of the Species, noted that different species of finches on the Galapagos Islands had adapted their beak size based on where they sought their food. Homer Smith, in his book From Fish to Philosopher, discussed the evolution of the nephron from a single conduit in salt water vertebrates, to nephrons with large glomerular capillaries and proximal and distal tubules in fresh water vertebrates, to smaller glomerular capillaries in amphibians, to nephrons with loops of Henle to allow for urinary concentration and dilution in mammals. The kidney with its million nephrons has emerged as the vital organ for regulating body fluid composition and volume. With the recent discovery of aquaporin water channels, our understanding of volume regulation has been greatly enhanced. This article reviews current knowledge regarding: 1) the unifying hypothesis of body fluid volume regulation; 2) brain aquaporins and their role in pathophysiologic states; and 3) function and regulation of renal aquaporins in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). PMID:15561406

  19. From finch to fish to man: role of aquaporins in body fluid and brain water regulation.

    PubMed

    Schrier, R W; Chen, Y-C; Cadnapaphornchai, M A

    2004-01-01

    Charles Darwin, in his Origin of the Species, noted that different species of finches on the Galapagos Islands had adapted their beak size based on where they sought their food. Homer Smith, in his book From Fish to Philosopher, discussed the evolution of the nephron from a single conduit in salt water vertebrates, to nephrons with large glomerular capillaries and proximal and distal tubules in fresh water vertebrates, to smaller glomerular capillaries in amphibians, to nephrons with loops of Henle to allow for urinary concentration and dilution in mammals. The kidney with its million nephrons has emerged as the vital organ for regulating body fluid composition and volume. With the recent discovery of aquaporin water channels, our understanding of volume regulation has been greatly enhanced. This article reviews current knowledge regarding: 1) the unifying hypothesis of body fluid volume regulation; 2) brain aquaporins and their role in pathophysiologic states; and 3) function and regulation of renal aquaporins in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

  20. Collisions of smooth bodies in viscous fluids: A mathematical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesla, Todd Inman

    Conventional wisdom holds that smoothly bounded rigid bodies cannot collide in an incompressible Newtonian fluid. We consider this proposition from the mathematical point of view. First we consider the ODE which arises from the equation of motion of a circular body ("disk") above a flat horizontal wall in two dimensions when the force is approximated using lubrication theory. If the disk is neutrally buoyant (and "thrown" toward the wall), we find that for large times t its distance h( t) from the wall decreases to a positive limit h min at an exponential rate; that is, ht˜hmin +ae-at. If it is negatively buoyant, then ht˜bt-2 . Lubrication theory thus supports the conventional belief. We then consider the exact system of equations governing the coupled fluid-body motion. For a single disk in a circular container in two dimensions, we show that ht≥ hmin,disk neutrallybuoyant,b t-2,disknegatively buoyant (different hmin and b ), a result we call the no-collision theorem. Thus, rigorous theory essentially shows that the disk cannot approach the wall any faster than predicted by lubrication theory. The proof is based on a combined fluid-body weak equation of motion. When the gap between the converging surfaces is sufficiently narrow, the viscous term dominates the acceleration terms, leading to a differential inequality which can be integrated to obtain the result. Physically this occurs because the Reynolds number based on gap width---the ratio of the acceleration to viscous terms---becomes very small. When there are two or more disks in a circular container, the analogous result can be proved---but only if the boundary of the configuration space has no cusps. This essentially means that no combination of disks can "jam" into a rigid configuration between the container walls. Since this is possible only if the radii of the disks and container satisfy a certain condition, it follows that for "generic" multiple-disk systems, the no-collision theorem can be proved.

  1. Effects of regional hemoconcentration during LBNP on plasma volume determinations. [Lower Body Negative Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1979-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from forearm vein or artery with indwelling cannula (1) before, (2) during the last min, and (3) about 2 min after lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in 16 experiments to determine whether plasma volume (PV) estimates were affected by regional hemoconcentration in the lower body. Total hemoglobin (THb) was estimated with the CO method prior to LBNP. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values from (2) gave only a 3% (87 ml) loss in PV due to LBNP, assuming no change in THb. However, Hb and Hct values from (3) showed an 11% loss in PV (313 ml). This 72% underestimation of PV loss with (2) must have resulted from the sequestration of blood and subsequent hemoconcentration in the lower body during LBNP. The effects of LBNP on PV should be estimated 1-3 min after exposure, after mixing but before extravascular fluid returns to the circulation.

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING ESTIMATES OF EXTRACRANIAL CEREBROSPINAL FLUID VOLUME AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, László Z; Bajzik, Gábor; Garamvölgyi, Rita; Petneházy, Örs; Lassó, András; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Borbála; Sótonyi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Dosages for myelography procedures in dogs are based on a hypothetical proportional relationship between bodyweight and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Anecdotal radiographic evidence and recent studies have challenged the existence of such a defined relationship in dogs. The objectives of this prospective cross-sectional study were to describe CSF volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a group of clinically healthy dogs, measure the accuracy of MRI CSF volumes, and compare MRI CSF volumes with dog physical measurements. A sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip-angle evolution MRI examination of the central nervous system was carried out on 12 healthy, male mongrel dogs, aged between 3 and 5 years with a bodyweight range of 7.5-35.0 kg. The images were processed with image analysis freeware (3D Slicer) in order to calculate the volume of extracranial CSF. Cylindrical phantoms of known volume were included in scans and used to calculate accuracy of MRI volume estimates. The accuracy of MRI volume estimates was 99.8%. Extracranial compartment CSF volumes ranged from 20.21 to 44.06 ml. Overall volume of the extracranial CSF increased linearly with bodyweight, but the proportional volume (ml/bodyweight kilograms) of the extracranial CSF was inversely proportional to bodyweight. Relative ratios of volumes in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral regions were constant. Findings indicated that the current standard method of using body weight to calculate dosages of myelographic contrast agents in dogs may need to be revised. PMID:26311617

  3. Role for Lower Extremity Interstitial Fluid Volume Changes in the Development of Orthostasis after Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Summers, Richard L.; Martin, David S.; Meck, Janice V.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    vein diameter and stroke volume upon tilting in contrast to the observations made before bed rest (54 vs 23% respectively). Compliance in the calf increased by an average of 36% by day 27 of bedrest. A systems analysis using a computer model of cardiovascular physiology suggests that microgravity induced interstitial volume depletion results in an accentuation of venous blood volume sequestration and is the initiating event in reentry orthostasis. This hypothesis was tested in volunteer subjects using a ground-based spaceflight analog model that simulated the body fluid redistribution induced by microgravity exposure. Measurements of changes in the interstitial spaces and observed responses of the anterior tibial vein with tilt, together with the increase in calf compliance, were consistent with our proposed mechanism for the initiation of postflight orthostasis often seen in astronauts.

  4. Wakes of Self-propelled Bodies in Stratified Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2008-11-01

    Using high Reynolds number (Re=10^4-10^5) experiments, the dynamics of stratified momentum wakes of self-propelled underwater and surface bodies were studied in (i) deep linearly stratified (deep ocean pycnocline), (ii) two layer (shallow pycnocline), and (iii) surface stratified (turbocline) fluids, and theoretical models wee advanced to explain the flow behavior. These models: (i) predict conditions under which submerged wakes signatures penetrate to the water surface, as expressed by the Confinement and Contrast numbers, and (ii) describe IR (infra-red) surface wakes signatures, as expressed by the Contrast and modified Froude numbers. If decaying turbulence is present surrounding the wake, the penetration of wake signature to the surface is still possible. Estimates for typical oceanic cases are given. PIV, LIF and high sensitivity Infrared Imaging cameras were employed for flow diagnostics.

  5. Casimir microsphere diclusters and three-body effects in fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, Jaime; McCauley, Alexander P.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2011-04-15

    Our previous paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)] predicted that Casimir forces induced by the material-dispersion properties of certain dielectrics can give rise to stable configurations of objects. This phenomenon was illustrated via a dicluster configuration of nontouching objects consisting of two spheres immersed in a fluid and suspended against gravity above a plate. Here, we examine these predictions from the perspective of a practical experiment and consider the influence of nonadditive, three-body, and nonzero-temperature effects on the stability of the two spheres. We conclude that the presence of Brownian motion reduces the set of experimentally realizable silicon-teflon spherical diclusters to those consisting of layered microspheres, such as the hollow core (spherical shells) considered here.

  6. Fluid Volume Overload and Congestion in Heart Failure: Time to Reconsider Pathophysiology and How Volume Is Assessed.

    PubMed

    Miller, Wayne L

    2016-08-01

    Volume regulation, assessment, and management remain basic issues in patients with heart failure. The discussion presented here is directed at opening a reassessment of the pathophysiology of congestion in congestive heart failure and the methods by which we determine volume overload status. Peer-reviewed historical and contemporary literatures are reviewed. Volume overload and fluid congestion remain primary issues for patients with chronic heart failure. The pathophysiology is complex, and the simple concept of intravascular fluid accumulation is not adequate. The dynamics of interstitial and intravascular fluid compartment interactions and fluid redistribution from venous splanchnic beds to central pulmonary circulation need to be taken into account in strategies of volume management. Clinical bedside evaluations and right heart hemodynamic assessments can alert clinicians of changes in volume status, but only the quantitative measurement of total blood volume can help identify the heterogeneity in plasma volume and red blood cell mass that are features of volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure and help guide individualized, appropriate therapy-not all volume overload is the same.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis for drug analysis in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Thormann, W; Zhang, C X; Schmutz, A

    1996-08-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) represent attractive methods for the determination of drugs and metabolites in body fluids. In CZE, minute (nanoliter) quantities of samples are applied to the beginning of a fused-silica capillary filled with buffer. On application of a high-voltage DC field, charged solutes begin to separate and are swept through the capillary by the combined action of electrophoresis and electroosmotic bulk flow and are on-column detected toward the capillary end. In MECC, the buffer contains charged micelles (e.g., dodecyl sulfate micelles) and both uncharged and charged solutes separate based on differential partitioning between the micelles and the surrounding buffer and, if charged, also by differential charge effects, including electrophoresis. Based on validated MECC drug assays developed in our laboratory, key aspects of measuring drug levels by MECC, including sample preparation, solute detection and identification, quantitation, reproducibility, and quality assurance are discussed. Drug levels determined by MECC are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained by nonisotopic immunoassays and/or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using on-column multi-wavelength detection, this technology is also well suited for toxicological drug screening and confirmation and for the exploration of drug metabolism. Compared with HPLC and gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis has distinct advantages, including automation, small sample size, minimal sample preparation, use of very small amounts of organic solvents and inexpensive chemicals, ease of buffer change and method development, and low cost of capillary columns. Electrokinetic capillary assays are complementary to the widely employed immunoassays. The state of the art and the pros and cons of capillary electrophoresis for the determination of drugs in body fluids are discussed with the goal of encouraging

  8. Effect of fluid and salt supplementation on body hydration of athletes during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Petrov, Kirill L.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Popov, Vladimir K.; Deogeneov, Viktor A.

    Body hydration decreases significantly during hypokinesia (HK) (diminished movement), but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on body hydration during HK. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of FSS on body hydration during HK. Studies were done during 30 days pre HK period and 364 days HK period. Thirty male athletes aged 24.5±6.6 yr were chosen as subjects. They were equally divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented hypokinetic subjects (UHKS) and supplemented hypokinetic subjects (SHKS). Hypokinetic subjects were limited to an average walking distance of 0.7 km day -1. The SHKS group took daily 30 ml of water/kg body weight and 0.1 g of sodium chloride (NaCl)/kg body weight. Control subjects experienced no changes in their professional training and routine daily activities. Plasma volume (PV), urinary and plasma sodium (Na) and potassium (K), plasma osmolality, plasma protein, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), plasma renin activity (PRA) plasma aldosterone (PA) levels, physical characteristics, food and fluid intakes were measured. Plasma osmolality, plasma protein, urinary and plasma Na and K, whole blood Hct and Hb, PRA and PA levels decreased significantly ( p⩽0.01), while PV and body weight increased significantly ( p⩽0.01) in the SHKS group when compared with the UHKS group and did not change when compared with the UACS group. Plasma osmolality, plasma protein, urinary and plasma Na and K, PRA and PA, whole blood Hb and Hct levels increased significantly ( p⩽0.01), while PV body weight, food and fluid intakes decreased significantly ( p⩽0.01) in UHKS group when compared with the SHKS and UACS groups. The measured parameters did not change in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. It was shown that during HK body hydration decreased significantly, while during HK and FSS body hydration increased significantly. It

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Demonstration of Rigid Bodies in Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarena, Ernesto; Vu, Bruce T.

    2011-01-01

    The Design Analysis Branch (NE-Ml) at the Kennedy Space Center has not had the ability to accurately couple Rigid Body Dynamics (RBD) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). OVERFLOW-D is a flow solver that has been developed by NASA to have the capability to analyze and simulate dynamic motions with up to six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Two simulations were prepared over the course of the internship to demonstrate 6DOF motion of rigid bodies under aerodynamic loading. The geometries in the simulations were based on a conceptual Space Launch System (SLS). The first simulation that was prepared and computed was the motion of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as it separates from its core stage. To reduce computational time during the development of the simulation, only half of the physical domain with respect to the symmetry plane was simulated. Then a full solution was prepared and computed. The second simulation was a model of the SLS as it departs from a launch pad under a 20 knot crosswind. This simulation was reduced to Two Dimensions (2D) to reduce both preparation and computation time. By allowing 2-DOF for translations and 1-DOF for rotation, the simulation predicted unrealistic rotation. The simulation was then constrained to only allow translations.

  10. INFLUENCE OF LUNG VOLUME, FLUID AND CAPILLARY RECRUITMENT DURING POSITIONAL CHANGES AND EXERCISE ON THORACIC IMPEDANCE IN HEART FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Fuglestad, Matthew A.; Ceridon Richert, Malie L.; Shen, Win K.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how dynamic changes in pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc), alveolar lung volume (derived from end-inspiratory lung volume, EILV) and interstitial fluid (ratio of alveolar capillary membrane conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume, Dm/Vc) influence lung impedance (ZT). The purpose of this study was to investigate if positional change and exercise result in increased EILV, Vc and/or lung interstitial fluid, and if ZT tracks these variables. Methods 12 heart failure (HF) patients underwent measurements (ZT, EILV, Vc/Dm) at rest in the upright and supine positions, during exercise and into recovery. Inspiratory capacity was obtained to provide consistent measures of EILV while assessing ZT. Results ZT increased with lung volume during slow vital capacity maneuvers (p<0.05). Positional change (upright→supine) resulted in an increased ZT (p<0.01), while Vc increased and EILV and Dm/Vc decreased (p<0.05). Moreover, during exercise Vc and EILV increased and Dm/Vc decreased (p<0.05), whereas, ZT did not change significantly (p>0.05). Conclusion Impedance appears sensitive to changes in lung volume and body position which appear to generally overwhelm small acute changes in lung fluid when assed dynamically at rest or during exercise. PMID:25128641

  11. mRNA profiling for body fluid identification by multiplex quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack

    2007-11-01

    An alternative approach to conventional protein-based body fluid identification is gene expression profiling analysis. In the present work, we report the development of sensitive and robust multiplex quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR assays for the identification of blood, saliva, semen, and menstrual blood. Each body fluid assay comprises a triplex system that detects transcripts from two body fluid-specific genes and a housekeeping gene GAPDH. The body fluid-specific genes include erythroid delta-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) and beta-spectrin (SPTB) for blood, statherin (STATH) and histatin 3 (HTN3) for saliva, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) for semen, and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) for menstrual blood. Normalization of both body fluid-specific genes to the housekeeping gene by means of appropriate cycle threshold metrics ensures the high specificity of each assay for its cognate body fluid.

  12. A simple and accurate equation of state for two-dimensional hard-body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeso, M. J.; Solana, J. R.

    1995-06-01

    A model relating the equation of state of two-dimensional linear hard-body fluids to the equation of state of the hard disk fluid is derived from the pressure equation in a similar way to that previously described for three-dimensional hard-body fluids. The equation of state reproduces simulation data practically within their accuracy for fluids with a great variety of molecular shapes.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  14. Explicit excluded volume of cylindrically symmetric convex bodies.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; Virga, Epifanio G

    2015-06-01

    We represent explicitly the excluded volume V(e){B(1),B(2)} of two generic cylindrically symmetric, convex rigid bodies, B(1) and B(2), in terms of a family of shape functionals evaluated separately on B(1) and B(2). We show that V(e){B(1),B(2)} fails systematically to feature a dipolar component, thus making illusory the assignment of any shape dipole to a tapered body in this class. The method proposed here is applied to cones and validated by a shape-reconstruction algorithm. It is further applied to spheroids (ellipsoids of revolution), for which it shows how some analytic estimates already regarded as classics should indeed be emended. PMID:26172727

  15. Relationships between three-body and two-body interactions in fluids and solids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Sadus, Richard J

    2006-10-14

    Molecular dynamics data are reported for two-body and three-body interactions in noble gases at densities covering the gas, liquid, and solid phases. The data indicate that simple relationships exist between three- and two-body interactions in both fluid and solid phases. The relationship for liquids has a simple density dependence with only one external parameter. In contrast, the solid phase relationship depends both on density and on the square of density and requires the evaluation of two parameters. The relationships are tested for both system-size and temperature dependences. The values of the relationship parameters are only sensitive to system size when a small number of atoms are involved. For 500 or more atoms, they remain nearly constant. The relationships are valid for both subcritical and slightly supercritical temperatures. A practical benefit of the relationships is that they enable the use of two-body intermolecular potentials for the prediction of the properties of real systems without the computational expense of three-body calculations. PMID:17042611

  16. Regulation of intramembranous absorption and amniotic fluid volume by constituents in fetal sheep urine.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Debra F; Jonker, Sonnet S; Louey, Samantha; Cheung, Cecilia Y; Brace, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that fetal urine contains a substance(s) that regulates amniotic fluid volume by altering the rate of intramembranous absorption of amniotic fluid. In late gestation ovine fetuses, amniotic fluid volumes, urine, and lung liquid production rates, swallowed volumes and intramembranous volume and solute absorption rates were measured over 2-day periods under control conditions and when urine was removed and continuously replaced at an equal rate with exogenous fluid. Intramembranous volume absorption rate decreased by 40% when urine was replaced with lactated Ringer solution or lactated Ringer solution diluted 50% with water. Amniotic fluid volume doubled under both conditions. Analysis of the intramembranous sodium and chloride fluxes suggests that the active but not passive component of intramembranous volume absorption was altered by urine replacement, whereas both active and passive components of solute fluxes were altered. We conclude that fetal urine contains an unidentified substance(s) that stimulates active intramembranous transport of amniotic fluid across the amnion into the underlying fetal vasculature and thereby functions as a regulator of amniotic fluid volume.

  17. Does temporary socket removal affect residual limb fluid volume of trans-tibial amputees?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Hartley, TL; Phillips, RH; Ciol, MA; Hafner, BJ; Allyn, KJ; Harrison, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower-limb prosthesis users typically experience residual limb volume losses over the course of the day that can detrimentally affect socket fit. Objectives To determine if temporarily doffing the prosthesis encouraged residual limb fluid volume recovery and if the recovered fluid was maintained. Study Design Experimental design. Methods Residual limb fluid volume was monitored on sixteen participants in three test sessions each. Participants conducted six cycles of resting/standing/walking. Between the third and fourth cycles, participants sat for 30 minutes with the prosthesis and liner: donned (ON), the prosthesis doffed but the liner donned (LINER), or the prosthesis and liner doffed (OFF). Results Percentage fluid volume gain and retention were greatest for the OFF condition followed by the LINER condition. Participants experienced fluid volume losses for the ON condition. Conclusion Doffing the prosthesis and/or liner during rest improved residual limb fluid volume retention compared with leaving the prosthesis and liner donned. Clinical Relevance Practitioners should advise patients who undergo high daily limb volume losses to consider temporarily doffing their prosthesis. Fluid volume retention during subsequent activity will be highest if both the prosthesis and liner are doffed. PMID:25710944

  18. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  19. Restricted versus Standard Maintenance Fluid Volume in Management of Transient Tachypnea of Newborn: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashtian, Masoud; Aramesh, Mohammad-Reza; Melekian, Arash; Aletayeb, Mohammad-Hasan; Ghaemmaghami, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of Transient Tachypnea of Newborn (TTN) is higher in infants born by cesarean section than with  vaginal delivery. Treatment of transient tachypnea of newborn is supportive. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of restricted fluid volume intake on the course of respiratory distress in patients with TTN. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental clinical trial of 83 neonates diagnosed with TTN admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in south west Iran. In this study the effect of restriction of maintenance fluid volume in the course of respiratory distress in newborns with transient tachypnea was assessed. Findings: In the standard fluid volume intake group 18 (42.8%) cases needed nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and one (2.38%) case mechanical ventilation, and in restricted fluid volume intake group 13 (32.5%) cases needed NCPAP and two (5%) cases mechanical ventilation. 54.82% of cases were supported with oxyhood in the standard fluid volume and 62.5% in the restricted fluid volume intake group. Differences in duration of the needed NCPAP and oxygen hood between the two groups were significant. Fluid restriction had no adverse effect on the urine specific gravity or weight loss of the studied newborns. Conclusion: Limited fluid administered to newborns with transient tachypnea of newborn is safe and resulted in shorter duration of respiratory support. PMID:25793064

  20. Current Applications of Chromatographic Methods in the Study of Human Body Fluids for Diagnosing Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising approaches to enable the discovery of biomarkers or pathophysiological mechanisms for disorders and diseases. Analysis of these fluids is challenging due to their complex composition and unique characteristics. Development of new analytical methods in this field has made it possible to analyze body fluids with higher selectivity, sensitivity, and precision. The composition and concentration of analytes in body fluids are most often determined by chromatography-based techniques. There is no doubt that proper use of knowledge that comes from a better understanding of the role of body fluids requires the cooperation of scientists of diverse specializations, including analytical chemists, biologists, and physicians. This article summarizes current knowledge about the application of different chromatographic methods in analyses of a wide range of compounds in human body fluids in order to diagnose certain diseases and disorders.

  1. Preliminary investigation of residual-limb fluid volume changes within one day

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E.; Allyn, Katheryn J.; Harrison, Daniel S.; Myers, Timothy R.; Ciol, Marcia A.; Tsai, Elaine C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rates of residual limb fluid volume change within a day on people with transtibial limb loss. Rates of fluid volume change during 30-minute test sessions of sitting, standing, and walking activities were measured twice a day on twelve regular prosthesis users, once in the morning and once in the afternoon, using bioimpedance analysis. Between test sessions all subjects consumed food and drink, and subject activity ranged from low to high. The rate of fluid volume change within sessions ranged from −8.5%/h to +5.9%/h with a median of −2.3%/h. The rate of fluid volume change between sessions ranged from −2.6%/h to 1.2%/h with a median of −1.0%/h. The between-session rate of fluid volume change was highly correlated with afternoon within-session rates of change (r=0.9) but not well-correlated with morning within-session rates of change (r=0.8). Subjects with peripheral arterial complications showed greater fluid volume loss rates during test sessions than between sessions. Rate of fluid volume change may be affected by sitting, standing, and walking activities; presence of peripheral arterial complications; being a female; time since amputation; and maintaining the socket without doffing for extended periods. PMID:23516051

  2. Use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate granules for spills of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Coates, D; Wilson, M

    1989-04-01

    The use of chlorine-containing granules for disinfecting body fluid spills has been evaluated by hospital trials and laboratory tests. Hospital trials were carried out by nurses using 'Presept' disinfectant granules according to a protocol. In general they preferred using granules to bleach and, in 50 tests using granules on natural and artificial spills in wards, no organisms were recovered from the floor by contact plates after using the granules. Laboratory tests were carried out on 'Haz-Tab' granules, 'Biospot' disinfectant powder, 'Presept' disinfectant granules, 'Virusorb' absorbent powder and 'Titan' Sanitizer SU 357 using a standardized surface test. Available chlorine levels varied from 57.8% to 1.0% and the performance of products in the surface test varied with the chlorine level present. Granules containing a relatively high level of chlorine have the advantages that spilled material is contained and that a contact time of only 2-3 min is required before the spill can be safely removed. PMID:2567753

  3. Corrosion and tribocorrosion of hafnium in simulated body fluids.

    PubMed

    Rituerto Sin, J; Neville, A; Emami, N

    2014-08-01

    Hafnium is a passive metal with good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, however, little is known about its resistance to wear and corrosion in biological environments. The corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of hafnium and commercially pure (CP) titanium in simulated body fluids were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic polarization scans and open circuit potential measurements were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution and 25% bovine calf serum solution to assess the effect of organic species on the corrosion behavior of the metal. A pin-on-plate configuration tribometer and a three electrode electrochemical cell were integrated to investigate the tribocorrosion performance of the studied materials. The results showed that hafnium has good corrosion resistance. The corrosion density currents measured in its passive state were lower than those measured in the case of CP titanium; however, it showed a higher tendency to suffer from localized corrosion, which was more acute when imperfections were present on the surface. The electrochemical breakdown of the oxide layer was retarded in the presence of proteins. Tribocorrosion tests showed that hafnium has the ability to quickly repassivate after the oxide layer was damaged; however, it showed higher volumetric loss than CP titanium in equivalent wear-corrosion conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1157-1164, 2014.

  4. Computer simulation of two-phase fluid motion in unsaturated complex fractures using a volume of fluid method

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Huang; Paul Meakin

    2005-12-01

    Complex fluid behavior in unsaturated fracture and fracture networks, such as film flow, the migration, fragmentation, and coalescence of droplets, and rivulet flow with or without meandering or pulsation, has been widely observed in laboratory experiments. In this study, a modified two-dimensional volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to simulate liquid motion in partially saturated fracture apertures under a variety of flow conditions. This modeling approach systematically incorporates the effects of inertial forces, viscosity, gravity acting on the fluid densities, fracture wall wetting, and the pressure drop across curved fluid-fluid interfaces due to surface tension. This allows us to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental physics governing unsaturated fluid flow in fracture apertures. The VOF method is able to handle the complex dynamics of fluid-fluid interfaces and free surfaces in unsaturated fractures by using a fixed Eulerian grid. Fragmentation and coalescence of the fluids are automatically handled without resorting to complex adaptive mesh refinement or interface repairing algorithms. The wetting of fracture walls was modeled by imposing contact angles near the contact lines (contact points in two-dimensional simulations), and different contact angles were automatically chosen depending on whether the liquid interface is advancing, receding, or essentially stationary. The qualitative agreements between the numerical simulations and complex multiphase fluid dynamics reported in laboratory experiments clearly demonstrate the potential value of the VOF method for the mechanistically based modeling of immiscible liquid motion in unsaturated fracture networks.

  5. New constitutive equation for the volume viscosity in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional volume viscosity, Stokes' hypothesis, and acoustical relaxation are reviewed. The lossy Navier-Stokes Equation is applied to periodic (acoustic) flow, and it is shown that the traditional volume viscosity leads to a result which contradicts that describing acoustical relaxation. It is demonstrated that the addition of a second volume viscosity term to the constitutive equation, to account for pressure relaxation, resolves the conflict, and leads to a direct correspondence between the volume viscosity parameters and the acoustical relaxation parameters. The representation of volume viscosity is formulated for the case of multiple relaxations, as occur in air. Finally, an application of the new constitutive equation to a simple convective compressible flow, namely a linearly accelerating flow, demonstrates the impact of volume viscosity upon the flow and the physical conditions for which it is important.

  6. A corresponding-states principle for the equation of state of hard-convex-body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeso, M. J.; Solana, J. R.

    1994-09-01

    A theoretically based corresponding-states principle is developed for the equation of state of hard-convex-body fluids. For all the fluids considered, the excess compressibility factor, reduced by means of a parameter which can be determined analytically. lies on a single curve whose analytical expression can be obtained from the equation of state of the hard-sphere fluid.

  7. Post-doffing residual limb fluid volume change in people with trans-tibial amputation

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E; Harrison, Daniel S; Cagle, John C; Myers, Timothy R; Ciol, Marcia A; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2014-01-01

    Background Residual limb volume may change after doffing, affecting the limb shape measured and used as a starting point for socket design. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare residual limb fluid volume changes after doffing for different test configurations. Study Design The study was a repeated measures experimental design with three conditions (Sit, Liner, and Walk). Methods Residual limb fluid volume on 30 people with trans-tibial amputation was measured using bioimpedance analysis. Three tests were conducted – Sit: sit for 10 minutes, remove the prosthesis, socks and liner, sit for 10 minutes; Liner: sit for 10 minutes, remove the prosthesis and socks but not the liner, sit for 10 minutes; Walk: conduct sit, stand and walk activities for 30 minutes, remove the prosthesis, socks and liner, sit for 10 minutes. Results The percentage fluid volume increase after doffing was significantly higher for Walk (2.8%) than for Sit (1.8%) (p = 0.03). The time to achieve a maximum or stable fluid volume was shorter for Liner (4.3 min) than for Sit (6.6 min) (p = 0.03). Conclusions Activity before doffing intensified the post-doffing limb fluid volume increase. Maintaining a liner after doffing caused limb fluid volume to stabilize faster than removing the liner. PMID:22588848

  8. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–based body volume measurement for 4-compartment body composition123

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joseph P; Mulligan, Kathleen; Fan, Bo; Sherman, Jennifer L; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tai, Viva W; Powers, Cassidy L; Marquez, Lorena; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Total body volume (TBV), with the exclusion of internal air voids, is necessary to quantify body composition in Lohman's 4-compartment (4C) model. Objective: This investigation sought to derive a novel, TBV measure with the use of only dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) attenuation values for use in Lohman's 4C body composition model. Design: Pixel-specific masses and volumes were calculated from low- and high-energy attenuation values with the use of first principle conversions of mass attenuation coefficients. Pixel masses and volumes were summed to derive body mass and total body volume. As proof of concept, 11 participants were recruited to have 4C measures taken: DXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and total body water (TBW). TBV measures with the use of only DXA (DXA-volume) and ADP-volume measures were compared for each participant. To see how body composition estimates were affected by these 2 methods, we used Lohman's 4C model to quantify percentage fat measures for each participant and compared them with conventional DXA measures. Results: DXA-volume and ADP-volume measures were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99) and showed no statistically significant bias. Percentage fat by DXA volume was highly correlated with ADP-volume percentage fat measures and DXA software-reported percentage fat measures (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.98, respectively) but were slightly biased. Conclusions: A novel method to calculate TBV with the use of a clinical DXA system was developed, compared against ADP as proof of principle, and used in Lohman's 4C body composition model. The DXA-volume approach eliminates many of the inherent inaccuracies associated with displacement measures for volume and, if validated in larger groups of participants, would simplify the acquisition of 4C body composition to a single DXA scan and TBW measure. PMID:22134952

  9. How does adding and removing liquid from socket bladders affect residual-limb fluid volume?

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Cagle, John C; Harrison, Daniel S; Myers, Timothy R; Allyn, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    Adding and removing liquid from socket bladders is a means for people with limb loss to accommodate residual-limb volume change. We fit 19 people with transtibial amputation using their regular prosthetic socket with fluid bladders on the inside socket surface to undergo cycles of bladder liquid addition and removal. In each cycle, subjects sat, stood, and walked for 90 s with bladder liquid added, and then sat, stood, and walked for 90 s again with the bladder liquid removed. The amount of bladder liquid added was increased in each cycle. We used bioimpedance analysis to measure residual-limb fluid volume. Results showed that the preferred bladder liquid volume was 16.8 +/- 8.4 mL (mean +/- standard deviation), corresponding with 1.7% +/- 0.8% of the average socket volume between the bioimpedance voltage-sensing electrodes. Residual-limb fluid volume driven out of the residual limb when bladder liquid was added was typically not recovered upon subsequent bladder liquid removal. Of the 19 subjects, 15 experienced a gradual residual-limb fluid volume loss over the test session. Care should be taken when implementing adjustable socket technologies in people with limb loss. Reducing socket volume may accentuate residual-limb fluid volume loss.

  10. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  11. The consequences of sudden fluid shifts on body composition in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Estimation of body composition as fat-free mass (FFM) is subjected to many variations caused by injury and stress conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU). Body cell mass (BCM), the metabolically active part of FFM, is reported to be more specifically correlated to changes in nutritional status. Bedside estimation of BCM could help to provide more valuable markers of nutritional status and may promote understanding of metabolic consequences of energy deficit in the ICU patients. We aimed to quantify BCM, water compartments and FFM by methods usable at the bedside for evaluating the impact of sudden and massive fluid shifts on body composition in ICU patients. Methods We conducted a prospective experimental study over an 6 month-period in a 18-bed ICU. Body composition of 31 consecutive hemodynamically stable patients requiring acute renal replacement therapy for fluid overload (ultrafiltration ≥5% body weight) was investigated before and after the hemodialysis session. Intra-(ICW) and extracellular (ECW) water volumes were calculated from the raw values of the low- and high-frequency resistances measured by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. BCM was assessed by a calculated method recently developed for ICU patients. FFM was derived from BCM and ECW. Results Intradialytic weight loss was 3.8 ± 0.8 kg. Percentage changes of ECW (-7.99 ± 4.60%) and of ICW (-7.63 ± 5.11%) were similar, resulting ECW/ICW ratio constant (1.26 ± 0.20). The fall of FFM (-2.24 ± 1.56 kg, -4.43 ± 2.65%) was less pronounced than the decrease of ECW (P < 0.001) or ICW (P < 0.001). Intradialytic variation of BCM was clinically negligible (-0.38 ± 0.93 kg, -1.56 ± 3.94%) and was significantly less than FFM (P < 0.001). Conclusions BCM estimation is less driven by sudden massive fluid shifts than FMM. Assessment of BCM should be preferred to FFM when severe hydration disturbances are present in ICU patients. PMID

  12. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  13. On the concentration structure of high-concentration constant-volume fluid mud gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. R.; Testik, F. Y.

    2013-01-01

    An exhaustive laboratory experimental campaign was undertaken in order to elucidate the concentration structure of two-dimensional constant-volume non-Newtonian fluid mud gravity currents. Two sets of experiments were conducted in a lock-exchange tank. The first set of experiments involved measuring the vertical concentration profiles using a siphoning technique; the second set involved auxiliary visual observations. The first set of experiments consisted of 32 experimental runs for four different experimental conditions, with an array of siphoned samples being withdrawn throughout the head and body of the gravity current. From these samples, vertical concentration profiles occurring in constant-volume fluid mud gravity currents were classified and the underlying physical processes that led to the occurrence of observed profiles were discussed. Furthermore, the functional form of the vertical concentration profiles within the head of relatively low-initial-concentration gravity currents was proposed. The relatively high-initial-concentration gravity currents revealed the presence of a lutocline in the current head and body, the presence of which was observed for constant-flux release gravity currents. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of a lutocline in constant-volume gravity currents. Abrupt transitions, a phenomenon in which the bulk of the suspended sediment in the propagating gravity current drops out, were observed through the concentration profiles and through 15 auxiliary visual experimental runs. It was found that abrupt transitions were caused by the presence of a lutocline. The entrainment of ambient water resulting in the dilution of the gravity current at different concentration contours has been quantified. In a previous work by the authors of this study, it was shown that the initial reduced gravity is directly proportional to the growth rate of the visual area of the two-dimensional current. The analysis of our experimental observations

  14. A new model of reaction-driven cracking: fluid volume consumption and tensile failure during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenbaum-Pikser, J. M.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Kelemen, P. B.; Wilson, C. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive fluid flow plays an important role in a wide range of geodynamic processes, such as melt migration, formation of hydrous minerals on fault surfaces, and chemical weathering. These processes are governed by the complex coupling between fluid transport, reaction, and solid deformation. Reaction-driven cracking is a potentially critical feedback mechanism, by which volume change associated with chemical reaction drives fracture in the surrounding rock. It has been proposed to play a role in both serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite, motivating consideration of its application to mineral carbon sequestration. Previous studies of reactive cracking have focused on the increase in solid volume, and as such, have considered failure in compression. However, if the consumption of fluid is considered in the overall volume budget, the reaction can be net volume reducing, potentially leading to failure in tension. To explore these problems, we have formulated and solved a 2-D model of coupled porous flow, reaction kinetics, and elastic deformation using the finite element model assembler TerraFERMA (Wilson et al, G3 2013 submitted). The model is applied to the serpentinization of peridotite, which can be reasonably approximated as the transfer of a single reactive component (H2O) between fluid and solid phases, making it a simple test case to explore the process. The behavior of the system is controlled by the competition between the rate of volume consumption by the reaction, and the rate of volume replacement by fluid transport, as characterized by a nondimensional parameter χ, which depends on permeability, reaction rate, and the bulk modulus of the solid. Large values of χ correspond to fast fluid transport relative to reaction rate, resulting in a low stress, volume replacing regime. At smaller values of χ, fluid transport cannot keep up with the reaction, resulting in pore fluid under-pressure and tensile solid stresses. For the range of χ relevant

  15. Raman spectroscopy offers great potential for the nondestructive confirmatory identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2008-10-25

    Raman spectroscopy was used to compare body fluids commonly found at crime scenes in a nondestructive manner. The dry traces of semen, vaginal fluid, sweat, saliva, and blood were analyzed using confocal Raman microscopy with a 785-nm excitation. The results show that the five fluids can be differentiated from one another by visual comparison of their Raman spectra, and that the laser radiation does not damage the sample. The Raman signature of each body fluid is specific and correlates with the known composition of the fluid. Dry traces of human and canine semen exhibited distinctly different Raman signatures. Overall, this preliminary study demonstrates the great potential of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids for forensic purposes.

  16. Endocrine, electrolyte, and fluid volume changes associated with Apollo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Alexander, W. C.; Johnson, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The endocrine and metabolic results obtained before and after the Apollo missions and the results of the limited in-flight sampling are summarized and discussed. The studies were designed to evaluate the biochemical changes in the returning Apollo crewmembers, and the areas studied included balance of fluids and electrolytes, regulation of calcium metabolism, adaptation to the environment, and regulation of metabolic processes.

  17. Multidimensional Raman spectroscopic signatures as a tool for forensic identification of body fluid traces: a review.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Lednev, Igor K

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of body fluid traces during forensic investigations is a critical step in determining the key details of a crime. Several confirmatory and presumptive biochemical tests are currently utilized. However, these tests are all destructive, and no single method can be used to analyze all body fluids. This review outlines recent progress in the development of a novel universal approach for the nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluid traces using Raman spectroscopy. The method is based on the use of multidimensional spectroscopic signatures of body fluids and accounts for the intrinsic heterogeneity of dry traces and donor variation. The results presented here demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy has potential for identifying traces of semen, blood, saliva, sweat, and vaginal fluid with high confidence.

  18. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  19. Body Composition Changes Resulting from Fluid Ingestion and Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girandola, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    It is recommended that when obtaining measures of body density by hydrostatic weighing, the subjects normal level of hydration be ascertained, since variance in body fat calculation from the hyperhydrated to the hydrated state can amount to twenty percent (two percent in actual body fat). (MB)

  20. Fluid-Structure Interactions with Flexible and Rigid Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, David Jesse

    Fluid structure interactions occur to some extent in nearly every type of fluid flow. Understanding how structures interact with fluids and visa-versa is of vital importance in many engineering applications. The purpose of this research is to explore how fluids interact with flexible and rigid structures. A computational model was used to model the fluid structure interactions of vibrating synthetic vocal folds. The model simulated the coupling of the fluid and solid domains using a fluid-structure interface boundary condition. The fluid domain used a slightly compressible flow solver to allow for the possibility of acoustic coupling with the subglottal geometry and vibration of the vocal fold model. As the subglottis lengthened, the frequency of vibration decreased until a new acoustic mode could form in the subglottis. Synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV) is a three-dimensional particle tracking technique. SAPIV was used to image the jet of air that emerges from vibrating human vocal folds (glottal jet) during phonation. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the glottal jet found faint evidence of flow characteristics seen in previous research, such as axis-switching, but did not have sufficient resolution to detect small features. SAPIV was further applied to reconstruct the smaller flow characteristics of the glottal jet of vibrating synthetic vocal folds. Two- and four-layer synthetic vocal fold models were used to determine how the glottal jet from the synthetic models compared to the glottal jet from excised human vocal folds. The two- and four-layer models clearly exhibited axis-switching which has been seen in other 3D analyses of the glottal jet. Cavitation in a quiescent fluid can break a rigid structure such as a glass bottle. A new cavitation number was derived to include acceleration and pressure head at cavitation onset. A cavitation stick was used to validate the cavitation number by filling it with different depths and hitting

  1. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John

    2015-07-01

    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science.

  2. Differential tolerance of body fluid dilution in two species of tropical hermit crabs: not due to osmotic/ionic regulation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Stephen G; Coates, Mike

    2004-02-01

    The tropical intertidal hermit crabs Clibanarius taeniatus and Clibanarius virescens were examined for differences in survival and physiological responses in low salinity. We found that C. taeniatus survived better in dilute seawater than C. virescens and that these species did not differ in their abilities to regulate haemolymph osmolarity, ionic concentration of the haemolymph or body fluid volume. We also found no difference in oxygen consumption between the species when acutely exposed to a range of temperature and salinity combinations. It is concluded that the greater survival in dilute seawater by C. taeniatus compared to C. virescens is due to a greater tolerance of dilution of body fluids by C. taeniatus. Differences in tolerance to dilute seawater may influence the habitat preferences of these species within the same geographical area.

  3. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, P.D.; Sarin, P.S.; Humphreys, J.C.; Eubanks, W.G.; Sun, D.; Hocken, D.G.; Thornton, A.; Adams, D.E.; Simic, M.G. )

    1989-11-01

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing.

  4. Effects of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid infusion on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors.

    PubMed

    Jacobshagen, Claudius; Pax, Anja; Unsöld, Bernhard W; Seidler, Tim; Schmidt-Schweda, Stephan; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Maier, Lars S

    2009-11-01

    International guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend mild hypothermia (32-34 degrees C) for 12-24h in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. To induce therapeutic hypothermia a variety of external and intravascular cooling devices are available. A cheap and effective method for inducing hypothermia is the infusion of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid. There are concerns regarding the effects of rapid infusion of large volumes of fluid on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors. We have retrospectively studied the effects of high volume cold fluid infusion on respiratory function in 52 resuscitated cardiac arrest patients. The target temperature of 32-34 degrees C was achieved after 4.1+/-0.5h (cooling rate 0.48 degrees C/h). During this period 3427+/-210 mL ice-cold fluid was infused. Despite significantly reduced LV-function (EF 35.8+/-2.2%) the respiratory status of these patients did not deteriorate significantly. On intensive care unit admission the mean PaO(2) was 231.4+/-20.6 mmHg at a F(i)O(2) of 0.82+/-0.03 (PaO(2)/F(i)O(2)=290.0+/-24.1) and a PEEP level of 7.14+/-0.31 mbar. Until reaching the target temperature of body temperature of 33 degrees C, the F(i)O(2) could be further reduced with unchanged PEEP. The infusion of large volume, ice-cold fluid is an effective and inexpensive method for inducing therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation from cardiac arrest is associated with a deterioration in respiratory function. The infusion of large volumes of cold fluid does not cause a statistically significant further deterioration in respiratory function. A larger, randomized and prospective study is required to assess the efficacy and safety of ice-cold fluid infusion for

  5. Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: body-fluid interaction in undulatory swimming.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Friesen, W O; Iwasaki, T

    2011-02-15

    Swimming of fish and other animals results from interactions of rhythmic body movements with the surrounding fluid. This paper develops a model for the body-fluid interaction in undulatory swimming of leeches, where the body is represented by a chain of rigid links and the hydrodynamic force model is based on resistive and reactive force theories. The drag and added-mass coefficients for the fluid force model were determined from experimental data of kinematic variables during intact swimming, measured through video recording and image processing. Parameter optimizations to minimize errors in simulated model behaviors revealed that the resistive force is dominant, and a simple static function of relative velocity captures the essence of hydrodynamic forces acting on the body. The model thus developed, together with the experimental kinematic data, allows us to investigate temporal and spatial (along the body) distributions of muscle actuation, body curvature, hydrodynamic thrust and drag, muscle power supply and energy dissipation into the fluid. We have found that: (1) thrust is generated continuously along the body with increasing magnitude toward the tail, (2) drag is nearly constant along the body, (3) muscle actuation waves travel two or three times faster than the body curvature waves and (4) energy for swimming is supplied primarily by the mid-body muscles, transmitted through the body in the form of elastic energy, and dissipated into the water near the tail.

  6. Mechanisms of proximal tubule sodium transport regulation that link extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Alicia A

    2010-04-01

    One-hundred years ago, Starling articulated the interdependence of renal control of circulating blood volume and effective cardiac performance. During the past 25 years, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interdependence of blood pressure (BP), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have begun to be revealed. These variables all converge on regulation of renal proximal tubule (PT) sodium transport. The PT reabsorbs two-thirds of the filtered Na(+) and volume at baseline. This fraction is decreased when BP or perfusion pressure is increased, during a high-salt diet (elevated ECFV), and during inhibition of the production of ANG II; conversely, this fraction is increased by ANG II, SNS activation, and a low-salt diet. These variables all regulate the distribution of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and the Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2), along the apical microvilli of the PT. Natriuretic stimuli provoke the dynamic redistribution of these transporters along with associated regulators, molecular motors, and cytoskeleton-associated proteins to the base of the microvilli. The lipid raft-associated NHE3 remains at the base, and the nonraft-associated NaPi2 is endocytosed, culminating in decreased Na(+) transport and increased PT flow rate. Antinatriuretic stimuli return the same transporters and regulators to the body of the microvilli associated with an increase in transport activity and decrease in PT flow rate. In summary, ECFV and BP homeostasis are, at least in part, maintained by continuous and acute redistribution of transporter complexes up and down the PT microvilli, which affect regulation of PT sodium reabsorption in response to fluctuations in ECFV, BP, SNS, and RAS. PMID:20106993

  7. Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.

  8. Encyclopedia of fluid mechanics. Volume 2 - Dynamics of single-fluid flows and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisinoff, N. P.

    Various papers on the dynamics of single-fluid flows and mixing are presented. The general topics addressed include: channel and free surface flows, mixing phenomena and practices, and fluid transport equipment. Individual papers discuss: statistics of deep water surface waves, unstable turbulent channel flow, hydraulic jumps and internal flows, wave attenuation in open channel flow, straight sediment stable channels, three-dimensional deep-water waves, estimating peak flows, hydrodynamics of laminar buoyant jets, impinging jets, hydrodynamics of confined coaxial jets, and turbulent mixing and diffusion of jets. Also addressed are: hydrodynamics of jets in cross flow, modelling turbulent jets in cross flow, batchwise jet mixing in tanks, stability of jets in liquid-liquid systems, jet mixing of fluids in vessels, mixing in loop reactors, backmixing in stirred vessels, industrial mixing equipment, pump classifications and design features, oscillating displacement pumps, fluid dynamics of inducers, hydrodynamics of outflow from vessels, and analysis of axial flow turbines.

  9. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, Patryk; Malec, Edward

    2015-06-01

    We formulate new general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids. They have been used to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well-known geometric dragging of frames. We derive two other general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the recently discovered dynamic antidragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids self-gravity. One can use the rotation laws to study the uniqueness and the convergence of the post-Newtonian approximations as well as the existence of the post-Newtonian limits.

  10. Circulating microRNA for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The development of molecular genetics-based body fluid identification methods in forensic science has become necessary to provide greater sensitivity and specificity than that obtained using conventional serological and immunological methods. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability to identify the body fluid origin of forensically relevant biological stains using messenger RNA expression analysis. However, the length of the amplified products used in these assays may not be ideal for use with highly degraded or environmentally compromised forensic casework samples. Therefore a novel approach to body fluid identification using small RNA profiling (e.g., microRNA or miRNA profiling) was developed in an attempt to improve the success of analysis with highly degraded samples. We have identified a set of nine differentially expressed miRNAs that permit the identification of the body fluid origin of forensic biological stains and in this chapter provide the detailed procedures for performing these assays.

  11. Screening and confirmation of microRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Ji; Luo, Haibo; Ye, Yi; Yan, Jing; Hou, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, ∼22 nucleotides) are small, non-protein coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs can express in a tissue-specific manner, and have been introduced to forensic body fluid identification. In this study, we employed the qPCR-array (TaqMan(®) Array Human MicroRNA Cards) to screen the body fluid-specific miRNAs. Seven candidate miRNAs were identified as potentially body fluid-specific and could be used as forensically relevant body fluid markers: miR16 and miR486 for venous blood, miR888 and miR891a for semen, miR214 for menstrual blood, miR124a for vaginal secretions, and miR138-2 for saliva. The candidate miRNA markers were then validated via hydrolysis probes quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan-qPCR). In addition, BestKeeper software was used to validate the expression stability of four genes, RNU44, RNU48, U6 and U6b, regularly used as reference genes (RGs) for studies involving forensic body fluids. The current study suggests that U6 could be used as a proper RG of miRNAs in forensic body fluid identification. The relative expression ratios (R) of miR486, miR888, miR214, miR16 and miR891a can differentiate the target body fluid from other body fluids that were tested in this study. The detection limit of TaqMan-qPCR of the five confirmed miRNA markers was 10pg of total RNA. The effect of time-wise degradation of blood stains and semen stains for 1 month under normal laboratory conditions was tested and did not significantly affect the detection results. Herein, this study proposes five body fluid-specific miRNAs for the forensic identification of venous blood, semen, and menstrual blood, of which miR486, miR888, and miR214 may be used as new markers for body fluid identification. Additional work remains necessary in search for suitable miRNA markers and stable RGs for forensic body fluid identification.

  12. PIXE analysis of preconcentrated body fluids, especially urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarinen, Pirjo; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Pallon, Jan

    1990-04-01

    A cation exchange resin, Chelex 100, has been used to separate and preconcentrate trace metal ions in urine. A good recovery of several metal ions in doped urine is achieved. The validity of the procedure has been checked by analyzing a certified control urine for metals, Lanonorm. The method is also applicable for amniotic fluid samples.

  13. Equations of state of hard-body fluids: a new proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    A new and accurate equation of state for hard-body fluids is proposed. For linear molecules, the equation only requires the second virial coefficient, which is known exactly for convex as well as for many non-convex hard-body fluids, to provide very good agreement with simulations even for quite elongated molecules. For non-linear molecules, some of the higher order virial coefficients might be needed, for which reasonable approximations would probably be sufficient to obtain satisfactory results.

  14. A simple model of fluid flow and electrolyte balance in the body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.; Neal, L.

    1973-01-01

    The model is basically a three-compartment model, the three compartments being the plasma, interstitial fluid and cellular fluid. Sodium, potassium, chloride and urea are the only major solutes considered explicitly. The control of body water and electrolyte distribution is affected via drinking and hormone levels. Basically, the model follows the effect of various oral input water loads on solute and water distribution throughout the body.

  15. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science.

  16. Messenger RNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification: research and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Su-hua; Di, Zhou; Zhao, Shu-min; Li, Cheng-tao

    2013-10-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. However, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time consumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Recently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profiling, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibility with current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:24466779

  17. Messenger RNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification: research and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Su-hua; Di, Zhou; Zhao, Shu-min; Li, Cheng-tao

    2013-10-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. However, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time consumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Recently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profiling, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibility with current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  18. Genome-wide methylation profiling and a multiplex construction for the identification of body fluids using epigenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; An, Ja Hyun; Jung, Sang-Eun; Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Ajin; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-07-01

    The identification of body fluids found at crime scenes can contribute to solving crimes by providing important insights into crime scene reconstruction. In the present study, body fluid-specific epigenetic marker candidates were identified from genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 42 body fluid samples including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. A total of 64 CpG sites were selected as body fluid-specific marker candidates by having more than 20% discrepancy in DNA methylation status between a certain type of body fluid and other types of body fluids and to have methylation or unmethylation pattern only in a particular type of body fluid. From further locus-specific methylation analysis in additional samples, 1 to 3 CpG sites were selected for each body fluid. Then, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction was constructed to analyze methylation status of 8 body fluid-specific CpG sites. The developed multiplex reaction positively identifies blood, saliva, semen and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ in one reaction, and produces successful DNA methylation profiles in aged or mixed samples. Although it remains to be investigated whether this approach is more sensitive, more practical than RNA- or peptide-based assays and whether it can be successfully applied to forensic casework, the results of the present study will be useful for the forensic investigators dealing with body fluid samples. PMID:25796047

  19. Genome-wide methylation profiling and a multiplex construction for the identification of body fluids using epigenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; An, Ja Hyun; Jung, Sang-Eun; Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Ajin; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-07-01

    The identification of body fluids found at crime scenes can contribute to solving crimes by providing important insights into crime scene reconstruction. In the present study, body fluid-specific epigenetic marker candidates were identified from genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 42 body fluid samples including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. A total of 64 CpG sites were selected as body fluid-specific marker candidates by having more than 20% discrepancy in DNA methylation status between a certain type of body fluid and other types of body fluids and to have methylation or unmethylation pattern only in a particular type of body fluid. From further locus-specific methylation analysis in additional samples, 1 to 3 CpG sites were selected for each body fluid. Then, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction was constructed to analyze methylation status of 8 body fluid-specific CpG sites. The developed multiplex reaction positively identifies blood, saliva, semen and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ in one reaction, and produces successful DNA methylation profiles in aged or mixed samples. Although it remains to be investigated whether this approach is more sensitive, more practical than RNA- or peptide-based assays and whether it can be successfully applied to forensic casework, the results of the present study will be useful for the forensic investigators dealing with body fluid samples.

  20. Blood volume reduction counteracts fluid shifts in water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, Karl E.; Bernauer, Edmund

    1993-01-01

    Six healthy men were bled by 15 percent of their total blood volume (TBV) before 7 h of seated water immersion, to test the hypothesis that some of the major physiological responses to an expansion of central blood volume can be counteracted by prior reduction of TBV. Subjects were their own controls under two conditions: seated dry in air and seated immersed to the suprasternal notch in water. Immersion without prior reduction of TBV Wet Control (WC) caused a statistically significant 22-percent increase in cardiac output (CO), 368-percent increase in urine production, and 200-percent increase in sodium excretion relative to dry control (DC) sessions. When TBV was reduced before immersion, CO was the same as during DC sessions; however there were significant increases above DC in urine flow (+73 percent) and sodium excretion (+120 percent), although they were significantly reduced from WC values. Potassium excretion was similar during DC and WC sessions, but was significantly increased (+75 percent) when subjects were immersed after 15-percent reduction of TBV.

  1. Body weight changes and voluntary fluid intakes during training and competition sessions in team sports.

    PubMed

    Broad, E M; Burke, L M; Cox, G R; Heeley, P; Riley, M

    1996-09-01

    Fluid losses (measured by body weight changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were measured in elite basketball, netball, and soccer teams during typical summer and winter exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements and the degree of fluid replacement. Each subject was weighed in minimal clothing before and immediately after training, weights, and competition sessions; fluid intake, duration of exercise, temperature and humidity, and opportunity to drink were recorded. Sweat rates were greatest during competition sessions and significantly lower during weights sessions for all sports. Seasonal variation in dehydration (%DH) was not as great as may have been expected, particularly in sports played indoors. Factors influencing fluid replacement during exercise included provision of an individual water bottle, proximity to water bottles during sessions, encouragement to drink, rules of the game, duration and number of breaks or substitutions, and awareness of personal sweat rates. Guidelines for optimizing fluid intakes in these three sports are provided.

  2. Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.

    2012-11-01

    We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.

  3. Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, C.W.; Nichols, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several methods have been previously used to approximate free boundaries in finite-difference numerical simulations. A simple, but powerful, method is described that is based on the concept of a fractional volume of fluid (VOF). This method is shown to be more flexible and efficient than other methods for treating complicated free boundary configurations. To illustrate the method, a description is given for an incompressible hydrodynamics code, SOLA-VOF, that uses the VOF technique to track free fluid surfaces.

  4. Potential forensic application of DNA methylation profiling to body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Choi, Ajin; An, Ja Hyun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis of various body fluid stains at crime scenes facilitates the identification of individuals but does not currently determine the type and origin of the biological material. Recent advances in whole genome epigenetic analysis indicate that chromosome pieces called tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) show different DNA methylation profiles according to the type of cell or tissue. We examined the potential of tissue-specific differential DNA methylation for body fluid identification. Five tDMRs for the genes DACT1, USP49, HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 were selected, and DNA methylation profiles for these tDMRs were produced by bisulfite sequencing using pooled DNA from blood, saliva, semen, menstrual blood, and vaginal fluid. The tDMRs for DACT1 and USP49 showed semen-specific hypomethylation, and the tDMRs for HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 displayed varying degrees of methylation according to the type of body fluid. Preliminary tests using methylation-specific PCR for the DACT1 and USP49 tDMRs showed that these two markers could be used successfully to identify semen samples including sperm cells. Body fluid-specific differential DNA methylation may be a promising indicator for body fluid identification. Because DNA methylation profiling uses the same biological source of DNA for individual identification profiling, the determination of more body fluid-specific tDMRs and the development of convenient tDMR analysis methods will facilitate the broad implementation of body fluid identification in forensic casework.

  5. Effects of nasal-airway volume and body temperature on intranasal chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nordin, S; Lötsch, J; Kobal, G; Murphy, C

    1998-02-01

    Interrelations between intranasal detection sensitivity for odor (H2S) and pain (CO2), nasal-airway volume (acoustic rhinometry), and body temperature were studied in young, healthy men across the diurnal cycle. The results showed a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between nasal volume and odor threshold and a weak but positive correlation between body temperature and odor threshold.

  6. Proceedings of the 1985 pressure vessels and piping conference. Volume PVP-98-7. Fluid-structure dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Moody, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Fluid-structure dynamics is an important subject in various fields such as nuclear power, petrochemical, offshore, and aerospace industries. The term ''fluid-structure dynamics'' covers the structural response, fluid transients and their interactions (fluid-structure interactions) of fluid-structure systems can be either: (1) fluid contained within structures; or (2) structures surrounded by fluid. Examples of (1) are pressure waves in piping and seismic response of liquid-storage tanks. Examples of (2) are fluid-induced vibration and dynamic response of submerged components. The response of fluid-structure systems can be either vibrational in nature or highly transient depending on the characteristics of external loadings. The aim of this volume is to provide a forum for bringing together recent research activities in various areas of fluid-structure dynamics. It is hoped that this volume will be beneficial for future research and upgrade the current analysis and design methodology of fluid-structure systems under dynamic loadings.

  7. Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore

  8. A sensitive micromethod for the routine estimation of methylmalonic acid in body fluids and tissues using thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, H R; Green, A; Linnell, J C

    1982-02-01

    A routine method for the rapid estimation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) has been developed using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on cellulose, locating the separated MMA zones by coupling with a diazo reagent and quantitating the results by densitometric scanning of a photocopy of the chromatogram on transparency film. The method can detect as little as 25 pg MMA in small volumes of urine, plasma and other body fluids or tissue homogenates, has potential for the simultaneous estimation of MMA, other organic acids, methylmalonyl coenzyme A and creatinine and should be of particular value in the investigation of occult cobalamin deficiency or suspected errors of vitamin B12 or intermediary metabolism. PMID:7055989

  9. Fluid flow volume measurements using a capacitance/conductance probe system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. X.; Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    A probe system has been developed to measure the flow volume of a single fluid passing through an orifice or flow line. The system employs both capacitance and a conductance probe at the orifice, together with phase detection and data acquisition circuitry to measure flow volume and salinity under low or zero gravity conditions. A wide variety of frequencies can be used for the radio frequency (RF) signal source which is chosen primarily by the capacitance of the orifice probe and the fluid passing through the orifice. Rapid measurements are made using the reflected signal from the orifice probe to determine the 'instantaneous' permittivity of the fluid/gas mixture passing through. The 'instantaneous' measurements are integrated over time to determine flow volume. Analysis reveals that a narrow orifice helps to reduce non-linearities caused by differing flow rates. The geometry of 'deflectors' and 'directors' for the flowing fluid are important in obtaining linearity. Measured data shows that a volume measurement accuracy of approximately four percent can be consistently achieved. The prototype hardware system and associated software have been optimized and are available for further applications. The system has immediate application in low or zero gravity environments for measurements of urine or other liquid volumes.

  10. Effects of 10 days 6° head-down tilt on the responses to fluid loading and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisch, F.; Heer, M.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Kropp, J.; Schulz, H.; Hillebrecht, A.; Meyer, M.

    In an international collaborative project six normal male subjects were studied before, during and after 10 days 6° HDT. Fluid intake was controlled at 40 ml/(kg bw·day). Urine volume and body weight were determined daily. Fluid loading and LBNP were performed in all three phases of the study. Body weight diminished by 2.6% because of fluid loss. Blood volume diminished by 13%. The responses to fluid loading were similar in the three phases of the study. Sixty minutes after end of infusion only 5.5% of the infused saline remained in the intravascular compartment. Excess interstitial fluid was eliminated in the next 24 hs but a negative balance was recorded also in the following day. The compliance of the lower limbs expressed as the rate of limb volume change/unit LBNP change was increased at the end of the HDT phase and during the post HDT phase. The set point of intravascular volume was defended, as shown by the response to FL. HDT increased the compliance of the lower limbs.

  11. Effects of 10 days 6 degrees head-down tilt on the responses to fluid loading and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Heer, M.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Kropp, J.; Schulz, H.; Hillebrecht, A.; Meyer, M.

    1991-01-01

    In an international collaborative project six normal male subjects were studied before, during and after 10 days 6 degrees HDT. Fluid intake was controlled at 40 ml/(kgbw day). Urine volume and body weight were determined daily. Fluid loading and LBNP were performed in all three phases of the study. Body weight diminished by 2.6% because of fluid loss. Blood volume diminished by 13%. The responses to fluid loading were similar in the three phases of the study. Sixty minutes after end of infusion only 5.5% of the infused saline remained in the intravascular compartment. Excess interstitial fluid was eliminated in the next 24 hs but a negative balance was recorded also in the following day. The compliance of the lower limbs expressed as the rate of limb volume change/unit LBNP change was increased at the end of the HDT phase and during the post HDT phase. The set point of intravascular volume was defended, as shown by the response to FL. HDT increased the compliance of the lower limbs.

  12. Influence of volume working fluid and ambient temperature on cooling efficiency of loop thermosyphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, P.; Malcho, M.; Jandačka, J.; Matušov, J.

    2014-03-01

    Article deal with research of device for electrical component cooling used to heat transfer working fluid phase change. Amount of heat flux transferred by thermosyphon loop depend from amount working fluid and from ambient temperature where is heat removal too. In article is described proposal construction of thermosyphon loop, comparisons of his cooling efficiency if is filled 40 % and 50 % volume of working fluid and condenser (ambient) temperature from 20, 30 up to 40 °C at heat load from 40 to 360 W.

  13. Correlations between Different Heavy Metals in Diverse Body Fluids: Studies of Human Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Mendiola, Jaime; Roca, Manuela; López-Espín, José J.; Guillén, José J.; Moreno, José M.; Moreno-Grau, Stella; Martínez-García, María J.; Vergara-Juárez, Nuria; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Ten, Jorge; Bernabeu, Rafael; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to heavy metals may impair male reproduction. To measure the effect produced by low doses of heavy metals on semen parameters, it is necessary to clarify in which body fluids those measurements must be performed. Sixty-one men attending infertility clinics participated in our study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and seminal plasma using spectroanalytical and electrochemical methods. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. For statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlations, mean comparison tests, and discriminant analysis were calculated. Significant correlations between the measured concentrations of the three heavy metals in the same biological fluids were observed. However, no similar relationship was seen when comparing the concentrations in different body fluids of the same metal. According to our results and previous publications, seminal plasma might be the best body fluid for assessing impairment of human semen parameters. PMID:22312326

  14. Simulations of dipolar fluids using effective many-body isotropic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sindt, Julien O; Camp, Philip J

    2015-07-14

    The partition function of a system with pairwise-additive anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions is equal to that of a hypothetical system with many-body isotropic interactions [G. Stell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 286 (1974)]. The effective many-body interactions contain n-body contributions of all orders. Each contribution is known as an expansion in terms of the particle-particle distances r, and the coefficients are temperature dependent. The leading-order two-body term is the familiar -r(-6) attraction, and the leading-order three-body term is equivalent to the Axilrod-Teller interaction. In this work, a fluid of particles with the leading-order two-body and three-body interactions is compared to an equivalent dipolar soft-sphere fluid. Molecular simulations are used to determine the conditions under which the effective many-body interactions reproduce the fluid-phase structures of the dipolar system. The effective many-body interaction works well at moderately high temperatures but fails at low temperatures where particle chaining is expected to occur. It is shown that an adjustment of the coefficients of the two-body and three-body terms leads to a good description of the structure of the dipolar fluid even in the chaining regime, due primarily to the ground-state linear configuration of the three-body Axilrod-Teller interaction. The vapor-liquid phase diagrams of systems with different Axilrod-Teller contributions are determined. As the strength of the three-body interaction is increased, the critical temperature and density both decrease and disappear completely above a threshold strength, where chaining eventually suppresses the condensation transition. PMID:26178112

  15. Detection and identification of body fluid stains using antibody-nanoparticle conjugates.

    PubMed

    Frascione, Nunzianda; Thorogate, Richard; Daniel, Barbara; Jickells, Sue

    2012-01-21

    Body fluids are considered one of the most important evidence types in forensic casework. The presence and location of blood, semen and saliva can provide crucial information to investigators. Current practice relies on an accurate visual examination followed by the use of presumptive tests to determine the identity of the body fluid type. Further laboratory based tests are required to unequivocally confirm the identity of a stain. Body fluid stains can be difficult to detect with the naked eye, particularly on dark backgrounds and hence vital evidence may be overlooked. Current methods are fluid-type specific, with a separate, and different, test required for each body fluid. The laborious nature of such analysis and the impossibility of being carried out at the crime scene, leads to a delay in the investigation process that could prove detrimental to the solving of the case. Hence, there is a need for sensitive, specific and direct methods which can simultaneously detect, differentiate, and locate human fluids on items of forensic evidence. Here, we describe the preparation of functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated to antibodies specific to blood and saliva components and their use in detecting small traces against non-contrasting substrates including glass, ceramic tile, paper and black fabric. The advantage of our technique is that it can simultaneously detect blood and saliva and can spatially locate and differentiate these body fluid types. Most importantly, our technology, which exploits the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, works in situ with no need to remove the body fluid stains for testing and with no washing steps and does not interfere with downstream DNA profiling. Thus, our technology represents a novel and effective alternative to existing methods.

  16. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  17. Water Metabolism and Fluid Compartment Volumes in Humans at Altitude. A Compendium of Research (1914 - 1996)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Gay, E.; West, G. I.; Barnes, P. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    This compendium includes abstracts and synopses of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of water metabolism and fluid compartment volumes in humans during altitude exposure. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed synopsis of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and subject indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work of those papers received after the volume was being prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1914 through 1995.

  18. A penalty immersed boundary method for a rigid body in fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongsam; Peskin, Charles S.

    2016-03-01

    We extend the penalty immersed boundary (pIB) method to the interaction between a rigid body and a surrounding fluid. The pIB method is based on the idea of splitting an immersed boundary, which here is a rigid body, notionally into two Lagrangian components: one is a massive component carrying all mass of the rigid body and the other is massless. These two components are connected by a system of stiff springs with 0 rest length. The massless component interacts with the surrounding fluid: it moves at the local fluid velocity and exerts force locally on the fluid. The massive component has no direct interaction with the surrounding fluid and behaves as though in a vacuum, following the dynamics of a rigid body, in which the acting forces and torques are generated from the system of stiff springs that connects the two Lagrangian components. We verify the pIB method by computing the drag coefficients of a cylinder and ball descending though a fluid under the influence of gravity and also by studying the interaction of two such descending cylinders and likewise the interaction of two such descending balls. The computational results are quite comparable to those in the literature. As a further example of an application, we include a freely falling maple seed with autorotation.

  19. High-Volume Airborne Fluids Handling Technologies to Fight Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Mark; Cox, Timothy; Hale, Cliff; Hatton, Rick

    2010-01-01

    specific wildfire situation. The system was manufactured by Jordan Air of Central Point, OR, and was installed by Victorville Aerospace in Victorville, CA. It can deliver 12,000 gallons (45.4 kL) of retardant in as little as eight seconds. The aircraft can deliver a partial load of retardant and make multiple drops on the same flight, or the entire load can be rapidly delivered in one pass if required for maximum coverage. The Evergreen 747 uses internal tankage and a pressurized delivery system to enable volume and coverage levels that also meet USFS requirements, but enables computer control of flow for desired precision. This system was designed and built by Adaptive Aerospace of Tehachapi, CA and can deliver about 20,000 gallons (75.7 kL) of retardant in approximately ten seconds. The 747 can also make multiple independent drops, or deliver the entire load at once. NASA found that both of these VLAT aircraft are compatible with the wildfire suppression mission when used to supplement other aerial retardant delivery platforms. The major recommendations for deployment that resulted from this study relate to terrain clearance, the type of terrain in the drop area, availability of qualified lead planes to guide the VLAT approach to the drop area, and low-altitude maneuvering limitations. NASA s analysis suggests that with the appropriate flight procedures, these aircraft will provide a powerful set of tools to fight wildfires.

  20. A Review of Electrical Impedance Spectrometry Methods for Parametric Estimation of Physiologic Fluid Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, B.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectrometry involves measurement of the complex resistance of a load at multiple frequencies. With this information in the form of impedance magnitude and phase, or resistance and reactance, basic structure or function of the load can be estimated. The "load" targeted for measurement and estimation in this study consisted of the water-bearing tissues of the human calf. It was proposed and verified that by measuring the electrical impedance of the human calf and fitting this data to a model of fluid compartments, the lumped-model volume of intracellular and extracellular spaces could be estimated, By performing this estimation over time, the volume dynamics during application of stimuli which affect the direction of gravity can be viewed. The resulting data can form a basis for further modeling and verification of cardiovascular and compartmental modeling of fluid reactions to microgravity as well as countermeasures to the headward shift of fluid during head-down tilt or spaceflight.

  1. How do sock ply changes affect residual limb fluid volume in people with trans-tibial amputation?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Allyn, KJ; Myers, TR; Ciol, MA; Tsai, EC

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sock addition and sock removal on residual limb fluid volume in people using prosthetic limbs. We used bioimpedance analysis to measure residual limb extracellular fluid volume on 28 transtibial amputee subjects during 30-minute test sessions. Upon addition of a 1-ply polyester sock, residual limb fluid volume changes ranged from −4.0% to 0.8% (mean −0.9% (s.d.=1.3%)) of the initial limb fluid volume. Changes for sock removal ranged from −1.2% to 2.8% (mean 0.5% (s.d.=0.8%)). Subjects who reduced in fluid volume with both addition and removal of a sock and subjects with high positive ratios between the fluid volume loss upon sock addition and the gain upon sock removal (high Add/Remove(AR) ratios) tended to have arterial disease, were obese and smokers. Subjects with low positive AR ratios, subjects who increased in fluid volume both with sock addition and removal, and a single subject who increased in fluid volume with sock addition and decreased with sock removal tended to be non-smokers and either healthy individuals without complications or individuals without arterial problems. Results are relevant towards anticipating limb volume changes during prosthetic fitting and towards the design of adjustable-socket technologies. PMID:22773526

  2. Development of single fluid volume element method for simulation of transient fluid flow in self-siphons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viridi, S.; Novitrian, Nurhayati, Hidayat, W.; Latief, F. D. E.; Zen, F. P.

    2014-09-01

    A simple model for transient flow in a narrow pipe is presented in this work. The model is simply derived from Newton's second law of motion. As an example it is used to predict flow occurrence in two forms of self-siphon, which are inverted-U and M-like forms. Simulation for system consists only a vertical pipe is also presented since it is actually part of the both siphon systems. For the simple systems the model can have good predictions but for the complex system it can only have 89.6 % good prediction. Its simplicity can be used to illustrate how the interface between fluid and air, single fluid volume element (SFVE) moves along the siphon. The method itself is named as SFVE method.

  3. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4–6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions. PMID:26543849

  4. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4-6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions.

  5. Apparatus and method for collection and concentration of respirable particles into a small fluid volume

    DOEpatents

    Simon, Jonathan N.; Brown, Steve B.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the collection of respirable particles and concentration of such particles into a small fluid volume. The apparatus captures and concentrates small (1-10 .mu.m) respirable particles into a sub-millileter volume of fluid. The method involves a two step operation, collection and concentration: wherein collection of particles is by a wetted surface having small vertical slits that act as capillary channels; and concentration is carried out by transfer of the collected particles to a small volume (sub-milliliter) container by centrifugal force whereby the particles are forced through the vertical slits and contact a non-wetted wall surface, and are deflected to the bottom where they are contained for analysis, such as a portable flow cytometer or a portable PCR DNA analysis system.

  6. Response of local vascular volumes to lower body negative pressure stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolthuis, R. A.; Leblanc, A.; Carpentier, W. A.; Bergman, S. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present study involved an intravenous injection of radioactive iodinated serum albumin, equilibration of this isotope within the vascular space, and the continuous measurement of isotope activity over selected anatomical areas before, during and following multiple human LBNP tests. Both rate and magnitude of vascular pooling were distinctly different within each of five selected lower body anatomical areas. In the upper body, all areas except the abdomen showed depletions from their resting vascular volumes during LBNP. The presence of uniquely different pooling patterns in the lower body, the apparent stability of abdominal vascular volumes, and a possible decrease in cerebral blood volume during LBNP represent the major findings of this study.

  7. A model for data analysis of microRNA expression in forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Luo, Haibo; Pan, Xiongfei; Liao, Miao; Hou, Yiping

    2012-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, 18-25 bases in length) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNA expression patterns, including presence and relative abundance of particular miRNA species, provide cell- and tissue-specific information that can be used for body fluid identification. Recently, two published studies reported that a number of body fluid-specific miRNAs had been identified. However, the results were inconsistent when different technology platforms and statistical methods were applied. To further study the role of miRNAs in identification of body fluids, this study sets out to develop an accurate and reliable model for data analysis of miRNA expression. To that end, the relative expression levels of three miRNAs were studied using the mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit, high-specificity stem-loop reverse transcription (RT) and high-sensitivity hydrolysis probes (TaqMan) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in forensically relevant biological fluids, including venous blood, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood, semen and saliva. Accurate quantification of miRNAs requires not only a highly sensitive and specific detection platform for experiment operation, but also a reproducible methodology with an adequate model for data analysis. In our study, the efficiency-calibrated model that incorporated the impact of the quantification cycle (Cq) values and PCR efficiencies of target and reference genes was developed to calculate the relative expression ratio of miRNAs in forensically relevant body fluids. Our results showed that venous blood was distinguished from other body fluids according to the relative expression ratio of miR16 using as little as 50pg of total RNA, while the expression level of miR658 was unstable and that of miR205 was nonspecific among different body fluids. Collectively, the findings may constitute a basis for future miRNA-based research on body fluid identification and show mi

  8. Effect of Lower Body Positive Pressure on Fluid Turnover in Human Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kawai, Yasuaki

    We have developed a device for walking rehabilitation which has a treadmill in a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber to unload the lower extremities. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge of effects of gravity, LBPP, and walking on leg fluid turnover in standing human. Prolonged standing caused swelling in the legs due to an effect of hydrostatic pressure. Circumferences of leg gradually increased during standing still and reached a plateau level after 30-40 minutes. Exposure to LBPP significantly improved the swelling in the thigh, suggesting that the LBPP possibly reduces fluid filtration by decreasing transmural pressure gradient in the capillaries and/or increases lymphatic outflow from the tissue. Walking also decreased the leg swelling by muscle pump activity, and this effect was further enhanced by applying LBPP. These results suggest that applying LBPP can change the body fluid turnover, resulting in a decrease in the tissue fluid of the legs in standing and walking human.

  9. 7th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-07-01

    The proceedings volumes 1 and 2 comprise the papers that were accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 11 to 14, 1994. The prime objective of this Seventh Symposium is to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and reveal significant results to fluid mechanics. The applications of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research is emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods are also considered where they facilitate new improved fluid mechanics research. Attention is focused on laser-Doppler anemometry, particle sizing and other methods for the measurement of velocity and scalars such as particle image velocimetry and laser induced fluorescence.

  10. 7th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-07-01

    The proceedings volumes 1 and 2 comprise the papers that were accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 11 to 14, 1994. The prime objective of this Seventh Symposium is to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and reveal significant results to fluid mechanics. The applications of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research is emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods are also considered where they facilitate new improved fluid mechanic research. Attention is focused on laser-Doppler anemometry, particle sizing and other methods for the measurement of velocity and scalars such as particle image velocimetry and laser induced fluorescence.

  11. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). 2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain. 3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines. 4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  12. The interaction between a solid body and viscous fluid by marker-and-cell method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. Y. K.

    1976-01-01

    A computational method for solving nonlinear problems relating to impact and penetration of a rigid body into a fluid type medium is presented. The numerical techniques, based on the Marker-and-Cell method, gives the pressure and velocity of the flow field. An important feature in this method is that the force and displacement of the rigid body interacting with the fluid during the impact and sinking phases are evaluated from the boundary stresses imposed by the fluid on the rigid body. A sample problem of low velocity penetration of a rigid block into still water is solved by this method. The computed time histories of the acceleration, pressure, and displacement of the block show food agreement with experimental measurements. A sample problem of high velocity impact of a rigid block into soft clay is also presented.

  13. Solution Preserves Nucleic Acids in Body-Fluid Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    A solution has been formulated to preserve deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in specimens of blood, saliva, and other bodily fluids. Specimens of this type are collected for diagnostic molecular pathology, which is becoming the method of choice for diagnosis of many diseases. The solution makes it possible to store such specimens at room temperature, without risk of decomposition, for subsequent analysis in a laboratory that could be remote from the sampling location. Thus, the solution could be a means to bring the benefits of diagnostic molecular pathology to geographic regions where refrigeration equipment and diagnostic laboratories are not available. The table lists the ingredients of the solution. The functions of the ingredients are the following: EDTA chelates divalent cations that are necessary cofactors for nuclease activity. In so doing, it functionally removes these cations and thereby retards the action of nucleases. EDTA also stabilizes the DNA helix. Tris serves as a buffering agent, which is needed because minor contaminants in an unbuffered solution can exert pronounced effects on pH and thereby cause spontaneous degradation of DNA. SDS is an ionic detergent that inhibits ribonuclease activity. SDS has been used in some lysis buffers and as a storage buffer for RNA after purification. The use of the solution is straightforward. For example, a sample of saliva is collected by placing a cotton roll around in the subject's mouth until it becomes saturated, then the cotton is placed in a collection tube. Next, 1.5 mL of the solution are injected directly into the cotton and the tube is capped for storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the solution has been demonstrated in tests on specimens of saliva containing herpes simplex virus. In the tests, the viral DNA, as amplified by polymerase chain reaction, was detected even after storage for 120 days.

  14. A Noninvasive Method to Study Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Volume in Rats Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR)-based measurement of body composition of rodents is an effective method to quickly and repeatedly measure proportions of fat, lean, and fluid without anesthesia. TD-NMR provides a measure of free water in a living animal, termed % f...

  15. Methylation Markers for the Identification of Body Fluids and Tissues from Forensic Trace Evidence.

    PubMed

    Forat, Sophia; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Fimmers, Rolf; Haidl, Gerhard; Denschlag, Dominik; Olek, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The identification of body fluids is an essential tool for clarifying the course of events at a criminal site. The analytical problem is the fact that the biological material has been very often exposed to detrimental exogenous influences. Thereby, the molecular substrates used for the identification of the traces may become degraded. So far, most protocols utilize cell specific proteins or RNAs. Instead of measuring these more sensitive compounds this paper describes the application of the differential DNA-methylation. As a result of two genome wide screenings with the Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChips 27 and 450k we identified 150 candidate loci revealing differential methylation with regard to the body fluids venous blood, menstrual blood, vaginal fluid, saliva and sperm. Among them we selected 9 loci as the most promising markers. For the final determination of the methylation degree we applied the SNuPE-method. Because the degree of methylation might be modified by various endogenous and exogenous factors, we tested each marker with approximately 100 samples of each target fluid in a validation study. The stability of the detection procedure is proved in various simulated forensic surroundings according to standardized conditions. We studied the potential influence of 12 relatively common tumors on the methylation of the 9 markers. For this purpose the target fluids of 34 patients have been analysed. Only the cervix carcinoma might have an remarkable effect because impairing the signal of both vaginal markers. Using the Illumina MiSeq device we tested the potential influence of cis acting sequence variants on the methylation degree of the 9 markers in the specific body fluid DNA of 50 individuals. For 4 marker loci we observed such an influence either by sole SNPs or haplotypes. The identification of each target fluid is possible in arbitrary mixtures with the remaining four body fluids. The sensitivity of the individual body fluid tests is in the same range

  16. Methylation Markers for the Identification of Body Fluids and Tissues from Forensic Trace Evidence.

    PubMed

    Forat, Sophia; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Fimmers, Rolf; Haidl, Gerhard; Denschlag, Dominik; Olek, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The identification of body fluids is an essential tool for clarifying the course of events at a criminal site. The analytical problem is the fact that the biological material has been very often exposed to detrimental exogenous influences. Thereby, the molecular substrates used for the identification of the traces may become degraded. So far, most protocols utilize cell specific proteins or RNAs. Instead of measuring these more sensitive compounds this paper describes the application of the differential DNA-methylation. As a result of two genome wide screenings with the Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChips 27 and 450k we identified 150 candidate loci revealing differential methylation with regard to the body fluids venous blood, menstrual blood, vaginal fluid, saliva and sperm. Among them we selected 9 loci as the most promising markers. For the final determination of the methylation degree we applied the SNuPE-method. Because the degree of methylation might be modified by various endogenous and exogenous factors, we tested each marker with approximately 100 samples of each target fluid in a validation study. The stability of the detection procedure is proved in various simulated forensic surroundings according to standardized conditions. We studied the potential influence of 12 relatively common tumors on the methylation of the 9 markers. For this purpose the target fluids of 34 patients have been analysed. Only the cervix carcinoma might have an remarkable effect because impairing the signal of both vaginal markers. Using the Illumina MiSeq device we tested the potential influence of cis acting sequence variants on the methylation degree of the 9 markers in the specific body fluid DNA of 50 individuals. For 4 marker loci we observed such an influence either by sole SNPs or haplotypes. The identification of each target fluid is possible in arbitrary mixtures with the remaining four body fluids. The sensitivity of the individual body fluid tests is in the same range

  17. Methylation Markers for the Identification of Body Fluids and Tissues from Forensic Trace Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Forat, Sophia; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Fimmers, Rolf; Haidl, Gerhard; Denschlag, Dominik; Olek, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The identification of body fluids is an essential tool for clarifying the course of events at a criminal site. The analytical problem is the fact that the biological material has been very often exposed to detrimental exogenous influences. Thereby, the molecular substrates used for the identification of the traces may become degraded. So far, most protocols utilize cell specific proteins or RNAs. Instead of measuring these more sensitive compounds this paper describes the application of the differential DNA-methylation. As a result of two genome wide screenings with the Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChips 27 and 450k we identified 150 candidate loci revealing differential methylation with regard to the body fluids venous blood, menstrual blood, vaginal fluid, saliva and sperm. Among them we selected 9 loci as the most promising markers. For the final determination of the methylation degree we applied the SNuPE-method. Because the degree of methylation might be modified by various endogenous and exogenous factors, we tested each marker with approximately 100 samples of each target fluid in a validation study. The stability of the detection procedure is proved in various simulated forensic surroundings according to standardized conditions. We studied the potential influence of 12 relatively common tumors on the methylation of the 9 markers. For this purpose the target fluids of 34 patients have been analysed. Only the cervix carcinoma might have an remarkable effect because impairing the signal of both vaginal markers. Using the Illumina MiSeq device we tested the potential influence of cis acting sequence variants on the methylation degree of the 9 markers in the specific body fluid DNA of 50 individuals. For 4 marker loci we observed such an influence either by sole SNPs or haplotypes. The identification of each target fluid is possible in arbitrary mixtures with the remaining four body fluids. The sensitivity of the individual body fluid tests is in the same range

  18. Isolated microvesicles from peripheral blood and body fluids as observed by scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Mrvar-Brecko, Anita; Sustar, Vid; Jansa, Vid; Stukelj, Roman; Jansa, Rado; Mujagić, Emir; Kruljc, Peter; Iglic, Ales; Hägerstrand, Henry; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika

    2010-04-15

    Microvesicles are sub-micron structures shed from the cell membrane in a final step of the budding process. After being released into the microenvironment they are free to move and carry signaling molecules to distant cells, thereby they represent a communication system within the body. Since all cells shed microvesicles, it can be expected that they will be found in different body fluids. The potential diagnostic value of microvesicles has been suggested, however, a standardized protocol for isolation has not yet been agreed upon. It is unclear what is the content of the isolates and whether the isolated microvesicles were present in vivo or-have they been created within the isolation procedure. To present evidence in this direction, in this work we focus on the visualization of the material obtained by the microvesicle isolation procedure. We present scanning electronic microscope images of microvesicles isolated from blood, ascites, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, postoperative drainage fluid and chyloid fluid acquired from human and animal patients. Vesicular structures sized from 1microm downto 50nm are present in isolates of all considered body fluids, however, the populations differ in size and shape reflecting also the composition of the corresponding sediments. Isolates of microvesicles contain numerous cells which indicates that methods of isolation and determination of the number of microvesicles in the peripheral blood are to be elaborated and improved. PMID:20199878

  19. Isolated microvesicles from peripheral blood and body fluids as observed by scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Mrvar-Brecko, Anita; Sustar, Vid; Jansa, Vid; Stukelj, Roman; Jansa, Rado; Mujagić, Emir; Kruljc, Peter; Iglic, Ales; Hägerstrand, Henry; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika

    2010-04-15

    Microvesicles are sub-micron structures shed from the cell membrane in a final step of the budding process. After being released into the microenvironment they are free to move and carry signaling molecules to distant cells, thereby they represent a communication system within the body. Since all cells shed microvesicles, it can be expected that they will be found in different body fluids. The potential diagnostic value of microvesicles has been suggested, however, a standardized protocol for isolation has not yet been agreed upon. It is unclear what is the content of the isolates and whether the isolated microvesicles were present in vivo or-have they been created within the isolation procedure. To present evidence in this direction, in this work we focus on the visualization of the material obtained by the microvesicle isolation procedure. We present scanning electronic microscope images of microvesicles isolated from blood, ascites, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, postoperative drainage fluid and chyloid fluid acquired from human and animal patients. Vesicular structures sized from 1microm downto 50nm are present in isolates of all considered body fluids, however, the populations differ in size and shape reflecting also the composition of the corresponding sediments. Isolates of microvesicles contain numerous cells which indicates that methods of isolation and determination of the number of microvesicles in the peripheral blood are to be elaborated and improved.

  20. Identification of forensically relevant body fluids using a panel of differentially expressed microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Erin K; Lubenow, Helge; Ballantyne, Jack

    2009-04-15

    The serology-based methods routinely used in forensic casework for the identification of biological fluids are costly in terms of time and sample and have varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity. Recently, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. However, the size of the amplification products used in these mRNA assays (approximately 200-300 nt) might not be ideal for use with degraded or compromised samples frequently encountered in forensic casework. Recently, there has been an explosion of interest in a novel class of small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, approximately 20-25 bases in length), with numerous published studies reporting that some miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In this article, we provide the first comprehensive evaluation of miRNA expression in dried, forensically relevant biological fluids--blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, and menstrual blood--in an attempt to identify putative body fluid-specific miRNAs. Most of the 452 human miRNAs tested (approximately 67% of the known miRNAome) were either expressed in multiple body fluids or not expressed at all. Nevertheless, we have identified a panel of nine miRNAs--miR451, miR16, miR135b, miR10b, miR658, miR205, miR124a, miR372, and miR412--that are differentially expressed to such a degree as to permit the identification of the body fluid origin of forensic biological stains using as little as 50 pg of total RNA. The miRNA-based body fluid identification assays were highly specific because the miRNA expression profile for each body fluid was different from that obtained from 21 human tissues. The results of this study provide an initial indication that miRNA profiling may provide a promising alternative approach to body fluid identification for forensic casework.

  1. Cerebral blood flow velocity and cranial fluid volume decrease during +Gz acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Puma, S. C.; Hargens, A. R.; Murthy, G.; Warkander, D.; Lundgren, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity and cranial fluid volume, which is defined as the total volume of intra- and extracranial fluid, were measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and rheoencephalography, respectively, in humans during graded increase of +Gz acceleration (onset rate: 0.1 G/s) without straining maneuvers. Gz acceleration was terminated when subjects' vision decreased to an angle of less than or equal to 60 degrees, which was defined as the physiological end point. In five subjects, mean CBF velocity decreased 48% from a baseline value of 59.4 +/- 11.2 cm/s to 31.0 +/- 5.6 cm/s (p<0.01) with initial loss of peripheral vision at 5.7 +/- 0.9 Gz. On the other hand, systolic CBF velocity did not change significantly during increasing +Gz acceleration. Cranial impedance, which is proportional to loss of cranial fluid volume, increased by 2.0 +/- 0.8% above the baseline value at the physiological end point (p<0.05). Both the decrease of CBF velocity and the increase of cranial impedance correlated significantly with Gz. These results suggest that +Gz acceleration without straining maneuvers decreases CBF velocity to half normal and probably causes a caudal fluid shift from both intra- and extracranial tissues.

  2. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  3. Discriminant analysis of Raman spectra for body fluid identification for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2010-01-01

    Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

  4. Flow cytometry for the microscopy of body fluids in patients with suspected infection.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Giuseppe Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Automating the microscopy of body fluids is challenging, due to the wider range and lower concentrations of cells in these fluids, as opposed to blood, while the viscous nature of some of these fluids can also be problematic. This review shows that there have been major improvements and that newer flow cytometers can have remarkably low limits of quantitation for WBCs. Accurate counting of RBCs is still problematic with many flow cytometers, but this is of no clinical significance. Many flow cytometers can give reasonably accurate WBC differential counts, but detection of eosinophils and neoplastic or other nucleated cells which are not blood cells can still be problematic, hence fail-safe measures are recommended. Cerebrospinal fluid is the most challenging body fluid as it requires the ability to count and differentiate WBCs down to a 'normal range', which is much lower than the diagnostic cut-off values used for serous fluids; precision at or around the cerebrospinal fluid WBC normal range is reduced even with the best flow cytometers, but manual microscopy is even less precise.

  5. The effect of intraocular gas and fluid volumes on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Simone, J N; Whitacre, M M

    1990-02-01

    Large increases in the intraocular pressure (IOP) of postoperative gas-containing eyes may require the removal of gas or fluid to reduce the IOP to the normal range. Application of the ideal gas law to Friedenwald's equation provides a mathematical model of the relationship between IOP, intraocular gas and fluid volumes, and the coefficient of scleral rigidity. This mathematic model shows that removal of a given volume of gas or fluid produces an identical decrease in IOP and that the more gas an eye contains, the greater the volume reduction necessary to reduce the pressure. Application of the model shows that the effective coefficient of scleral rigidity is low (mean K, 0.0021) in eyes with elevated IOP that have undergone vitrectomy and retinal cryopexy and very low (mean K, 0.0013) in eyes with elevated IOP that have undergone placement of a scleral buckle and band. By using the appropriate mean coefficient of rigidity, the volume of material to be aspirated to produce a given decrease in IOP can be predicted with clinically useful accuracy. PMID:2326014

  6. Influence of fluid and volume state on PaO2 oscillations in mechanically ventilated pigs.

    PubMed

    Bodenstein, Marc; Bierschock, Stephan; Boehme, Stefan; Wang, Hemei; Vogt, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert; David, Matthias; Markstaller, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Varying pulmonary shunt fractions during the respiratory cycle cause oxygen oscillations during mechanical ventilation. In artificially damaged lungs, cyclical recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for varying shunt according to published evidence. We introduce a complimentary hypothesis that cyclically varying shunt in healthy lungs is caused by cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion. Administration of crystalloid or colloid infusions would decrease oxygen oscillations if our hypothesis was right. Therefore, n=14 mechanically ventilated healthy pigs were investigated in 2 groups: crystalloid (fluid) versus no-fluid administration. Additional volume interventions (colloid infusion, blood withdrawal) were carried out in each pig. Intra-aortal PaO2 oscillations were recorded using fluorescence quenching technique. Phase shift of oxygen oscillations during altered inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) ventilation ratio and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) served as control methods to exclude that recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for oxygen oscillations. In hypovolemia relevant oxygen oscillations could be recorded. Fluid and volume state changed PaO2 oscillations according to our hypothesis. Fluid administration led to a mean decline of 105.3 mmHg of the PaO2 oscillations amplitude (P<0.001). The difference of the amplitudes between colloid administration and blood withdrawal was 62.4 mmHg in pigs not having received fluids (P=0.0059). Fluid and volume state also changed the oscillation phase during altered I:E ratio. EIT excluded changes of regional ventilation (i.e., recruitment of atelectasis) to be responsible for these oscillations. In healthy pigs, cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion can explain the size of respiratory-dependent PaO2 oscillations.

  7. General Relativistic Elastic Body, Fluid,quasi-rigid Body, Quasi-liquid and Others in Multiple Coordinate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chongming

    2009-05-01

    The approximation method in multiple coordinate systems at first post Newtonian (1 PN) level has been established by Darmour, Soffel and Xu (Phys. Rev. D(PRD) 43, 3273 (1991);D 45, 1017(1992);D 47, 3124 (1993);D 49, 618 (1994)). Normally, to discuss an astronomical object (e.g. a star in binary systems or the earth in solar system) we need multiple coordinate systems, especially for precise astrometry 1 PN (some time even 2 PN) approximate method is required. As we know up to now the ideas on elastic body, fluid, rigid body and liquid in the framework of Newtonian physics are still very useful for understanding and calculating some practical problems. Although the general relativistic theories of elastic body, general relativistic hydrodynamics and post-Newtonian quasi-rigid body have been discussed by many authors (including our papers (PRD63, 043002(2001); D63, 064001(2001); D68, 064009(2003); D69, 024003(2004); D71,024030 (2005))), but there is no completing discussion on all of these ideas in a unified point view. The applications of these ideas in the general relativity are important in the research fields of astrometry and geophysics, especially in case precise measurements reach so higher level (millimicro arc sec). The extended relativistic versions of these ideas should be revised the Newtonian results. In this paper, we shall give a complete discussion on all of these ideas in 1 PN approximation. We shall clarify the ideas on perfect elastic material, quasi-rigid body, quasi-liquid and so on with some precise mathematical forms. For fluid we show the hydrodynamic equations of a non-perfect fluid in multiple coordinates systems (both local and global).

  8. Effects of 2-, 4- and 12-hour fasting intervals on preoperative gastric fluid pH and volume, and plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis in children.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, N; Mikawa, K; Yaku, H; Nishina, K; Obara, H

    1993-11-01

    We evaluated 105 randomly-selected unpremedicated children aged 1-14 years to determine the effects of a 2-, 4- and 12-h preoperative fasting interval on the preoperative gastric fluid pH and volume, and plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis. Each child undergoing elective surgery ingested a large volume (approximately 10 ml/kg b.w.) of apple juice and then fasted for 2, 4 or 12 h before the estimated induction of anaesthesia. After induction of anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through a large-bore, multiorifice orogastric tube. Plasma concentrations of glucose, total ketone bodies, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triglycerides, and cortisol were measured at the time of induction to evaluate the fasting interval effects on preoperative plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis. There were no significant differences between the three groups in either gastric fluid volume or pH. In addition, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the proportion with a pH < 2.5 and volume > 0.4 ml/kg b.w. Neither plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, nor cortisol at the time of anaesthetic induction differed between the three groups. Both 4 and 12 h nil per os (NPO) caused an increase in lipolysis, which was presumably a compensatory mechanism to maintain normoglycaemia. The plasma NEFA and total ketone bodies concentrations were therefore significantly higher in these two fasting intervals than in 2 h NPO. These data suggest that a 2-h NPO, after a large volume of ingested apple juice, may offer additional benefits by preventing an increase in lipolysis during the fasting interval without either increasing the volume of gastric fluid or decreasing the gastric pH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Fluids, rivers, and vessels: metaphors and body concepts in Mesopotamian gynaecological texts.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the peculiar disease condition of "locked fluids" found in a number of gynaecological texts from 2(nd) and 1(st) millennium BCE Mesopotamia. To venture an interpretation of the underlying disease concept, the condition of "locked fluids" is first examined in the context of related and contrasting symptoms and female health problems connected to body fluids within the gynaecological corpus. The second part of this article turns to the physiological concepts of the (female) body linked to the disease condition of "locked fluids". The author highlights metaphors and comparisons with objects from daily life and the natural environment, which can be found in medical incantations and therapeutic rituals used to combat gynaecological disorders, as a key to indigenous concepts of physiology. The use of the same metaphors in connection with intestinal disorders points to an intuitive understanding of different processes within the body on the basis of comparisons and equations stemming from daily-life experiences. The last section presents similar notions to the Mesopotamian disease concept of "locked fluids", which are contained in gynaecological treatises of other cultures and times. PMID:24109494

  10. Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology Flight Volume Measurements Under Zero G Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garofalo, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.

  11. Precision metering of microliter volumes of biological fluids in micro-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Columbus, Richard L.; Palmer, Harvey J.; Mckinley, B. A.; Norfleet, William T.; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    Concepts were demonstrated and investigated for transferring accurately known and reproducible microliter volumes of biological fluids from sample container onto dry chemistry slides in microgravity environment. Specific liquid transfer tip designs were compared. Information was obtained for design of a liquid sample handling system to enable clinical chemical analysis in microgravity. Disposable pipet tips and pipet devices that were designed to transfer microliter volumes of biological fluid from a (test tube) sample container in 1-G environment were used during microgravity periods of parabolic trajectories of the KC-135 aircraft. The transfer process was recorded using charge coupled device camera and video cassette equipment. Metering behavior of water, a synthetic aqueous protein solution, and anticoagulated human blood was compared. Transfer of these liquids to 2 substrate materials representative of rapidly wettable and slowly wettable dry chemistry slide surface was compared.

  12. Fluid Vessel Quantity Using Non-invasive PZT Technology Flight Volume Measurements Under Zero G Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garofalo, Anthony A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.

  13. Endocrine and fluid metabolism in males and females of different ages after bedrest, acceleration and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Krauhs, J. M.; Sandler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle flight simulations were conducted to determine the effects of weightlessness, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), and acceleration of fluid and electrolyte excretion and the hormones that control it. Measurements were made on male and female subjects of different ages before and after bedrest. After admission to a controlled environment, groups of 6 to 14 subjects in the age ranges 25 to 35, 35 to 45, 45 to 55 to 65 years were exposed to +3 G sub z for 15 minutes (G1) and to LBNP (LBNP1) on different days. On 3 days during this prebedrest period, no tests were conducted. Six days of bedrest followed, and the G sub z (G2) and LBNP (LBNP2) tests were run again. Hormones, electrolytes, and other parameters were measured in 24-hour urine pools throughout the experiment. During bedrest, cortisol and aldosterone excretion increased. Urine volume decreased, and specific gravity and osmolality increased. Urinary electrolytes were statistically unchanged from levels during the non-stress control period. During G2, cortisol increased significantly over its control and bedrest levels. Urine volume, sodium, and chloride were significantly lower; specific gravity and osmolality were higher during the control period or bedrest. The retention of fluids and electrolytes after +G sub z may at least partially explain decreased urine volume and increased osmolality observed during bedrest in this study. There were some who indicated that space flight would not affect the fluid and electrolyte metabolism of females or older males any more severely than it has affected that of male astronauts.

  14. Rapid identification of microorganisms from sterile body fluids by use of FilmArray.

    PubMed

    Altun, Osman; Almuhayawi, Mohammed; Ullberg, Måns; Özenci, Volkan

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of the FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel in the identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture bottles inoculated with sterile body fluids. All organisms included in the FA BCID panel were accurately identified in 84/84 (100%) and 18/24 (75%) samples with mono- and polymicrobial growth, respectively.

  15. Components of paint thinner in body fluids clearly detected using the salting-out technique.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Nagata, T; Kimura, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T; Noda, M

    1990-01-01

    For a more sensitive detection of paint thinner components in body fluids, we made use of a salting-out technique, with sodium chloride added to blood samples followed by gas chromatography, using the headspace method. The detection of ethyl acetate and isobutanol was considerably enhanced using these approaches. PMID:2303209

  16. Biological Assay of Streptonigrin (NSC 45383) in Body Fluids and Tissues of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pittillo, Robert F.; Woolley, Carolyn

    1974-01-01

    Streptonigrin, a quinone antitumor antibiotic, has been reported to be effective in human trials. A sensitive and precise microbiological assay for the determination of distribution and concentrations of streptonigrin in the body fluids and tissues of treated mice has been developed in an attempt to supplement successful clinical application of this drug. PMID:4209070

  17. mRNA profiling for body fluid identification by reverse transcription endpoint PCR and realtime PCR.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Klesser, B; Maake, C; Bär, W; Kratzer, A

    2009-03-01

    mRNA profiling is a promising new method for the identification of body fluids from biological stains. Major advantages of mRNA profiling are the possibility of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction and of simultaneously isolating DNA without loss of material. A reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and a realtime PCR assay were established for the identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood, and were compared to conventional enzymatic and immunologic tests. The results for specificity, sensitivity and suitability to biological stains were satisfying and mRNA stability was demonstrated for up to 2-year-old stains. Two novel multiplex assays were created with the endpoint PCR primers: multiplex 1 amplifies two markers for each of the above mentioned body fluids and is suited for screening; multiplex 2 was designed for the detection of blood, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The results demonstrate that both endpoint PCR and realtime PCR are suitable for the identification of body fluids in forensic stains and represent an effective alternative to conventional enzymatic and immunologic tests.

  18. Messenger RNA profiling: a novel method for body fluid identification by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, Christa; Gharehbaghi-Schnell, Elisabeth; Korschineck, Irina

    2006-03-10

    Conventional methods for the identification of different body fluids like blood, semen and saliva from biological stains involve immunological or enzymatic detection of certain proteins. In this study, we investigated potential RNA markers with the aim of developing Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to allow differentiation between several body fluids. Total RNA samples from artificially stained swabs and from various pieces of evidence from case work were extracted, amplified and analyzed with several RNA markers. Three assays detecting the body fluids of interest were selected: hemoglobin-alpha locus 1 (HBA), kallikrein 3 (KLK) and mucin 4 (MUC). With this approach, we demonstrate that specific Real-Time PCR assays are useful in identifying the source of the biological stain. Furthermore, RNA profiling of various body fluids was even possible on samples stored over a long period of time at ambient temperature. The stability and sensitivity of the applied method outlines a novel application for Real-Time PCR within the forensic field.

  19. Messenger RNA profiling: a prototype method to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack

    2003-08-12

    Conventional methods of body fluid identification use a variety of labor-intensive, technologically diverse techniques that are performed in a series, not parallel, manner and are costly in terms of time and sample. Theoretically, the identification of a body fluid may be made by determining a sufficient number of mRNAs that are expressed exclusively in cells that collectively comprise that body fluid. Advantages of an mRNA-based approach, compared to conventional biochemical methods of analysis, include greater specificity, simultaneous and semi-automatic analysis through a common assay format, improved timeliness, decreased sample consumption and compatibility with DNA extraction methodologies. In this report, we demonstrate that RNA is stable in biological stains and can be recovered in sufficient quantity and quality for analysis. Messenger RNA from the housekeeping genes S15, beta-actin and GAPDH was detected in blood, semen and saliva stains using a sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR). Additionally, we have identified a number of candidate tissue-specific genes, statherin, histatin 3, PRB1, PRB2 and PRB3 that may be useful for the positive identification of saliva. Messenger RNAs from these genes were detectable in saliva stains but not in blood or semen stains. Collectively these findings constitute the basis of a prototype RNA based assay system that may eventually supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification.

  20. Comparative study of the biodegradability of porous silicon films in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Peckham, J; Andrews, G T

    2015-01-01

    The biodegradability of oxidized microporous, mesoporous and macroporous silicon films in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations similar to those found in human blood plasma were studied using gravimetry. Film dissolution rates were determined by periodically weighing the samples after removal from the fluid. The dissolution rates for microporous silicon were found to be higher than those for mesoporous silicon of comparable porosity. The dissolution rate of macroporous silicon was much lower than that for either microporous or mesoporous silicon. This is attributed to the fact that its specific surface area is much lower than that of microporous and mesoporous silicon. Using an equation adapted from [Surf. Sci. Lett. 306 (1994), L550-L554], the dissolution rate of porous silicon in simulated body fluid can be estimated if the film thickness and specific surface area are known.

  1. Application of FTA technology to extraction of sperm DNA from mixed body fluids containing semen.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    FTA technology is a novel method designed to simplify the collection, shipment, archiving and purification of nucleic acids from a wide variety of biological sources. In this study, we report a rapid and simple method of extracting DNA from sperm when body fluids mixed with semen were collected using FTA cards. After proteinase K digestion of the sperm and body fluid mixture, the washed pellet suspension as the sperm fraction and the concentrated supernatant as the epithelial cell fraction were respectively applied to FTA cards containing DTT. The FTA cards were dried, then directly added to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mix and processed by PCR. The time required from separation of the mixed fluid into sperm and epithelial origin DNA extractions was only about 2.5-3h. Furthermore, the procedure was extremely simple. It is considered that our designed DNA extraction procedure using an FTA card is available for application to routine work.

  2. The development of a mRNA multiplex RT-PCR assay for the definitive identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Rachel I; Harbison, SallyAnn

    2010-07-01

    With current methodology, DNA profiling can identify an individual from a sample of biological material but it does not reveal what body fluid or tissue source the DNA profile originated from. We have developed a multiplex PCR system using messenger RNA (mRNA) that can identify blood, saliva, semen and menstrual blood in individual stains or in mixtures of body fluids. Messenger RNA transcripts specific to each type of body fluid have been identified and a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system developed to identify these body fluids along with three housekeeping genes. This multiplex can detect semen and seminal fluid (semen without spermatozoa present). Furthermore, we have targeted the co-isolation of RNA and DNA from the same sample and, with the RT-PCR multiplex, we can determine the type of body fluid present as well as generate a DNA profile(s) from the same stain.

  3. The development of a mRNA multiplex RT-PCR assay for the definitive identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Rachel I; Harbison, SallyAnn

    2010-07-01

    With current methodology, DNA profiling can identify an individual from a sample of biological material but it does not reveal what body fluid or tissue source the DNA profile originated from. We have developed a multiplex PCR system using messenger RNA (mRNA) that can identify blood, saliva, semen and menstrual blood in individual stains or in mixtures of body fluids. Messenger RNA transcripts specific to each type of body fluid have been identified and a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system developed to identify these body fluids along with three housekeeping genes. This multiplex can detect semen and seminal fluid (semen without spermatozoa present). Furthermore, we have targeted the co-isolation of RNA and DNA from the same sample and, with the RT-PCR multiplex, we can determine the type of body fluid present as well as generate a DNA profile(s) from the same stain. PMID:20457026

  4. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sreepada, S.R.; Rippel, R.R.

    1990-12-19

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varying optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  5. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sreepada, S.R.; Rippel, R.R.

    1992-05-05

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varying optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry. 3 figs.

  6. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOEpatents

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and in endometrial tissues of mares.

    PubMed

    Haines, G R; Brown, M P; Gronwall, R R; Merritt, K A; Baltzley, L K

    2001-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics and distribution of orbifloxacin into body fluids and endometrium was studied in 6 mares after intragastric (IG) administration at a single dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. Orbifloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrial tissues over 24 hours. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of orbifloxacin were determined for 120 equine pathogens over an 11-month period. The mean peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.41+/-0.30 microg/mL at 1.5 hours after administration and decreased to 0.17+/-0.01 microg/mL (Cmin) at 24 hours. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 9.06+/-1.33 hours and area under the serum concentration vs time curve (AUC) was 20.54+/-1.70 mg h/L. Highest mean peritoneal fluid concentration was 2.15+/-0.49 microg/mL at 2 hours. Highest mean synovial fluid concentration was 1.17+/-0.28 microg/mL at 4 hours. Highest mean urine concentration was 536.67+/-244.79 microg/mL at 2 hours. Highest mean endometrial concentration was 0.72+/-0.23 microg/g at 1.5 hours. Mean CSF concentration was 0.46+/-0.55 microg/mL at 3 hours. The minimum inhibitory concentration of orbifloxacin required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) ranged from < or = 0.12 to > 8.0 microg/mL, with gram-negative organisms being more sensitive than gram-positive organisms. Orbifloxacin was uniformly absorbed in the 6 mares and was well distributed into body fluids and endometrial tissue. At a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg once a day, many gram-negative pathogens, such as Actinobacillus equuli, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella spp., and Salmonella spp. would be expected to be susceptible to orbifloxacin.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and in endometrial tissues of mares.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, G R; Brown, M P; Gronwall, R R; Merritt, K A; Baltzley, L K

    2001-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics and distribution of orbifloxacin into body fluids and endometrium was studied in 6 mares after intragastric (IG) administration at a single dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. Orbifloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrial tissues over 24 hours. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of orbifloxacin were determined for 120 equine pathogens over an 11-month period. The mean peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.41+/-0.30 microg/mL at 1.5 hours after administration and decreased to 0.17+/-0.01 microg/mL (Cmin) at 24 hours. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 9.06+/-1.33 hours and area under the serum concentration vs time curve (AUC) was 20.54+/-1.70 mg h/L. Highest mean peritoneal fluid concentration was 2.15+/-0.49 microg/mL at 2 hours. Highest mean synovial fluid concentration was 1.17+/-0.28 microg/mL at 4 hours. Highest mean urine concentration was 536.67+/-244.79 microg/mL at 2 hours. Highest mean endometrial concentration was 0.72+/-0.23 microg/g at 1.5 hours. Mean CSF concentration was 0.46+/-0.55 microg/mL at 3 hours. The minimum inhibitory concentration of orbifloxacin required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) ranged from < or = 0.12 to > 8.0 microg/mL, with gram-negative organisms being more sensitive than gram-positive organisms. Orbifloxacin was uniformly absorbed in the 6 mares and was well distributed into body fluids and endometrial tissue. At a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg once a day, many gram-negative pathogens, such as Actinobacillus equuli, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella spp., and Salmonella spp. would be expected to be susceptible to orbifloxacin. PMID:11480524

  9. Uranium(VI) Binding Forms in Selected Human Body Fluids: Thermodynamic Calculations versus Spectroscopic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Osman, Alfatih A A; Geipel, Gerhard; Barkleit, Astrid; Bernhard, Gert

    2015-02-16

    Human exposure to uranium increasingly becomes a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Knowledge about uranium chemical binding forms(speciation) in human body fluids can be of great importance to understand not only its biokinetics but also its relevance in risk assessment and in designing decorporation therapy in the case of accidental overexposure. In this study, thermodynamic calculations of uranium speciation in relevant simulated and original body fluids were compared with spectroscopic data after ex-situ uranium addition. For the first time, experimental data on U(VI) speciation in body fluids (saliva, sweat, urine) was obtained by means of cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K. By using the time dependency of fluorescence decay and the band positions of the emission spectra, various uranyl complexes were demonstrated in the studied samples. The variations of the body fluids in terms of chemical composition, pH, and ionic strength resulted in different binding forms of U(VI). The speciation of U(VI) in saliva and in urine was affected by the presence of bioorganic ligands, whereas in sweat, the distribution depends mainly on inorganic ligands. We also elucidated the role of biological buffers, i.e., phosphate (H(2)PO(4−)/HPO(4)(2−)) on U(VI) distribution, and the system Ca(2+)/UO(2)(2+)/PO(4)(3−) was discussed in detail in both saliva and urine. The theoretical speciation calculations of the main U(VI) species in the investigated body fluids were significantly consistent with the spectroscopic data. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy showed success and reliability for direct determination of U(VI) in such biological matrices with the possibility for further improvement.

  10. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure residual limb fluid volume on seven trans-tibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and non-elevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30-min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. A number of variables including the time of day data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size differences and shape differences, and subject health may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater impact on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume. PMID:22234667

  11. [Differentiation of human amniotic fluid stem cells into cardiomyocytes through embryonic body formation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Chen, Shuai; Cheng, Xiang; Dou, Zhongying; Wang, Huayan

    2008-09-01

    To isolate human amniotic fluid stem cells (hASCs) and induce hASCs into cardiomyocytes after forming the embryonic bodies. We cultivated hASCs isolated from the amniotic fluid continually for over 42 passages. The biological characteristics of hASCs were detected by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and flow cytometer, hASCs at 10-15th passage were suspension cultured to form embryonic bodies that were induced to cardiomyocytes. Fibroblastoid-type hASCs were obtained. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that hASCs were positive for some specific makers of the embryonic stem cell. hASCs could form embryonic bodies that were alkaline-phosphatase positive and expressed fgf5, zeta-globin and alpha-fetoprotein. The embryonic bodies could differentiate into cardiomyocytes showing alpha-actin positive and Tbx5, Nkx2.5, GATA4 and alpha-MHC positive. We conclued that hASCs obtained from human amniotic fluid could differentiate into cardiomyocytes through the formation of embryonic bodies. PMID:19160841

  12. [Differentiation of human amniotic fluid stem cells into cardiomyocytes through embryonic body formation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Chen, Shuai; Cheng, Xiang; Dou, Zhongying; Wang, Huayan

    2008-09-01

    To isolate human amniotic fluid stem cells (hASCs) and induce hASCs into cardiomyocytes after forming the embryonic bodies. We cultivated hASCs isolated from the amniotic fluid continually for over 42 passages. The biological characteristics of hASCs were detected by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and flow cytometer, hASCs at 10-15th passage were suspension cultured to form embryonic bodies that were induced to cardiomyocytes. Fibroblastoid-type hASCs were obtained. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that hASCs were positive for some specific makers of the embryonic stem cell. hASCs could form embryonic bodies that were alkaline-phosphatase positive and expressed fgf5, zeta-globin and alpha-fetoprotein. The embryonic bodies could differentiate into cardiomyocytes showing alpha-actin positive and Tbx5, Nkx2.5, GATA4 and alpha-MHC positive. We conclued that hASCs obtained from human amniotic fluid could differentiate into cardiomyocytes through the formation of embryonic bodies.

  13. Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. In some useful cases experimental pressures are plotted for comparison with theoretical. The pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight are calculated. General equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid are derived. Formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms are presented.

  14. Identification and analysis of circulating exosomal microRNA in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Lässer, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm sized vesicles released from cells when multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. These vesicles take part in cell-to-cell communication by binding and signalling through membrane receptors on cells or by transferring proteins, RNA, and lipids into the cells. Exosomal RNA in body fluids, such as plasma and urine, has been associated with malignancies, making the exosomal RNA a potential biomarker for early detection of these diseases. This has increased the interest in the field of extracellular RNA and in particular, the interest in exosomal RNA.In this chapter, a well-established exosome isolation method is described, as well as how to characterize the isolated vesicles by electron microscopy. Furthermore, two types of RNA isolation methods are described with a focus on isolating RNA from body fluids, which can be more viscous than cell culture media.

  15. The origin, function, and diagnostic potential of extracellular microRNAs in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongwei; Gong, Fei; Zhang, Suyang; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have documented the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) as an essential cornerstone of the genetic system. Although RNA is usually considered an unstable molecule because of the ubiquitous ribonuclease, miRNAs are now known to circulate in the bloodstream and other body fluids in a stable, cell-free form. Importantly, extracellular miRNAs are aberrantly present in plasma, serum, and other body fluids during the pathogenesis of many diseases and, thus, are promising noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers to assess the pathological status of the body. However, the origin and biological function of extracellular miRNAs remains incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the biogenesis and working models of extracellular miRNAs, and we highlight the impact of extending these ongoing extracellular miRNA studies to clinical applications.

  16. Feasibility and impact of the measurement of extracellular fluid volume simultaneous with GFR by 125I-iothalamate.

    PubMed

    Visser, Folkert W; Muntinga, Jaap H J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Navis, Gerjan

    2008-09-01

    The feasibility, validity, and possible applications of the assessment of extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) simultaneous with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed in a series of validation studies using the constant infusion method of (125)I-iothalamate (IOT). In 48 subjects with a broad range of GFR, distribution volume (V(d)) of IOT corresponded well with V(d) bromide (16.71 +/- 3.0 and 16.73 +/- 3.2 l, respectively, not significant), with a strong correlation (r = 0.933, P < 0.01) and without systematic deviations. Reproducibility assessment in 25 healthy male subjects showed coefficients of variation of 8.6% of duplicate measurement of V(d) IOT during strictly standardized (50 mmol Na(+)/d) sodium intake. An increase in dietary sodium intake (200 mmol Na(+)/d) induced a corresponding rise in V(d) IOT of 1.11 +/- 1.5 l (P < 0.01). In 158 healthy prospective kidney donors, the impact of indexing of GFR to ECFV was analyzed. Age, gender, height, and body surface area (BSA) were determinants of GFR. Whereas GFR, GFR/BSA, and GFR/height were gender-dependent, GFR/ECFV was gender-independent and not related to height or BSA. This supports the potential of normalizing GFR by ECFV. Thus, ECFV can be simultaneously assessed with GFR by the constant infusion method using IOT. After appropriate validation, also other GFR tracers could be used for such a simultaneous estimation, providing a valuable resource of data on ECFV in renal studies and, moreover, allowing GFR to be indexed to the body fluid compartment it clears: the ECFV.

  17. Octupolar approximation for the excluded volume of axially symmetric convex bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piastra, Marco; Virga, Epifanio G.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a simply computable formula for the excluded volume of convex, axially symmetric bodies, based on the classical Brunn-Minkoski theory for convex bodies, which is briefly outlined in an Appendix written in a modern mathematical language. This formula is applied to cones and spherocones, which are regularized cones; a shape-reconstruction algorithm is able to generate the region in space inaccessible to them and to compute their excluded volume, which is found to be in good agreement with our approximate analytical formula. Finally, for spherocones with an appropriately tuned amplitude, we predict the occurrence of a relative deep minimum of the excluded volume in a configuration lying between the parallel alignment (where the excluded volume is maximum) and the antiparallel alignment (where the excluded volume is minimum).

  18. Brain ventricular volume and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brian R.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johanson, Conrad E.; Stopa, Edward G.; Donahue, John E.; Silverberg, Gerald D.

    2010-01-01

    The frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus suggests a possible link between ventricular dilation and AD. If enlarging ventricles serve as a marker of faulty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance mechanisms, then a relationship may be demonstrable between increasing ventricular volume and decreasing levels of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) in CSF in preclinical and early AD. CSF biomarker data (Aβ, tau, and phosphorylated tau) as well as direct measurements of whole brain and ventricular volumes were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset. The ratio of ventricular volume to whole brain volume was derived as a secondary independent measure. Baseline data were used for the group analyses of 288 subjects classified as being either normal (n=87), having the syndrome of mild cognitive impairment (n=136), or mild AD (n=65). Linear regression models were derived for each biomarker as the dependent variable, using the MRI volume measures and age as independent variables. For controls, ventricular volume was negatively associated with CSF Aβ in APOE ε4 positive subjects. A different pattern was seen in AD subjects, in whom ventricular volume was negatively associated with tau, but not Aβ in ε4 positive subjects. Increased ventricular volume may be associated with decreased levels of CSF Aβ in preclinical AD. The basis for the apparent effect of APOE ε4 genotype on the relationship of ventricular volume to Aβ and tau levels is unknown, but could involve altered CSF-blood-brain barrier function during the course of disease. PMID:20182051

  19. Estimation of fluid volumes in hemodialysis patients: comparing bioimpedance with isotopic and dilution methods.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Both single-frequency bioimpedance and multiple-frequency spectroscopy are equally accurate in measuring total-body water and intracellular fluid. Estimates are consistent at a population level but not at the individual level, because of wide limits of agreement. There is no real 'gold standard' method providing estimates with absolute accuracy (in liters). Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis allows comparison of the actual body impedance with that of the reference population (in Ω/m). Hemodialysis prescription can be optimized with the use of this feedback.

  20. Effect of the Volume of Magneto-rheological Fluid on Shear Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. h.; Jin, L.

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of smart material, MR (magneto-rheological) fluid is dramatically influenced by the external magnetic field and can change from the liquid state to semi-solid state in several milliseconds. In this paper, the effect of different volume of MRF on its shear performance is proposed. A set of testing systems, including the plate-on-plate MRF shearing test rig, is built up to measure the relationship between the produced shear torque and the added volume of MRF in different current. The variation of magnetic flux density in the shear gap is measured by teslameter and simulated before and after MRF is added. The results validate the effect of volume on the shear torque experimentally.

  1. Nonlinear dynamic fluid-structure interaction calculations with coupled finite element and finite volume programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.W.; Kashiwa, B.A.; Meier, R.W.; Bishop, S.

    1994-08-01

    Two- and three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computer programs for the simulation of nonlinear dynamics were developed and applied to a number of problems. The programs were created by coupling Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite volume fluid dynamics programs with strictly Lagrangian finite element structural dynamics programs. The resulting coupled programs can use either fully explicit or implicit time integration. The implicit time integration is accomplished by iterations of the fluid dynamics pressure solver and the structural dynamics system solver. The coupled programs have been used to solve problems involving incompressible fluids, membrane and shell elements, compressible multiphase flows, explosions in both air and water, and large displacements. In this paper, we present the approach used for the coupling and describe test problems that verify the two-dimensional programs against an experiment and an analytical linear problem. The experiment involves an explosion underwater near an instrumented thin steel plate. The analytical linear problem is the vibration of an infinite cylinder surrounded by an incompressible fluid to a given radius.

  2. Nonlinear dynamic fluid-structure interaction calculations with coupled finite element and finite volume programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M. W.; Kashiwa, B. A.; Meier, R. W.; Bishop, S.

    1994-07-01

    Two- and three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computer programs for the simulation of nonlinear dynamics were developed and applied to a number of problems. The programs were created by coupling Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite volume fluid dynamics programs with strictly Lagrangian finite element structural dynamics programs. The resulting coupled programs can use either fully explicit or implicit time integration. The implicit time integration is accomplished by iterations of the fluid dynamics pressure solver and the structural dynamics system solver. The coupled programs have been used to solve problems involving incompressible fluids, membrane and shell elements, compressible multiphase flows, explosions in both air and water, and large displacements. In this paper, we present the approach used for the coupling and describe test problems that verify the two-dimensional programs against an experiment and an analytical linear problem. The experiment involves an explosion underwater near an instrumented thin steel plate. The analytical linear problem is the vibration of an infinite cylinder surrounded by an incompressible fluid to a given radius.

  3. A Biodegradation Study of SBA-15 Microparticles in Simulated Body Fluid and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngjin; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Heon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jaeyun

    2015-06-16

    Mesoporous silica has received considerable attention as a drug delivery vehicle because of its large surface area and large pore volume for loading drugs and large biomolecules. Recently, mesoporous silica microparticles have shown potential as a three-dimensional vaccine platform for modulating dendritic cells via spontaneous assembly of microparticles in a specific region after subcutaneous injection. For further in vivo applications, the biodegradation behavior of mesoporous silica microparticles must be studied and known. Until now, most biodegradation studies have focused on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs); here, we report the biodegradation of hexagonally ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, with micrometer-sized lengths (∼32 μm with a high aspect ratio). The degradation of SBA-15 microparticles was investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in mice by analyzing the structural change over time. SBA-15 microparticles were found to degrade in SBF and in vivo. The erosion of SBA-15 under biological conditions led to a loss of the hysteresis loop in the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm and fingerprint peaks in small-angle X-ray scattering, specifically indicating a degradation of ordered mesoporous structure. Via comparison to previous results of degradation of MSNs in SBF, SBA-15 microparticles degraded faster than MCM-41 nanoparticles presumably because SBA-15 microparticles have a pore size (∼8 nm) and a pore volume larger than those of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The surface functional groups, the residual amounts of organic templates, and the hydrothermal treatment during the synthesis could affect the rate of degradation of SBA-15. In in vivo testing, previous studies focused on the evaluation of toxicity of mesoporous silica particles in various organs. In contrast, we studied the change in the physical properties of SBA-15 microparticles depending on the duration after subcutaneous injection. The pristine SBA-15 microparticles injected

  4. Accumulation of deuterium oxide in body fluids after ingestion of D/sub 2/O-labeled beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Lamb, D.R.; Burgess, W.A.; Bartoli, W.P.

    1987-11-01

    A simple low-cost procedure was developed to compare the temporal profiles of deuterium oxide (D/sub 2/O) accumulation in body fluids after ingestion of D/sub 2/O-labeled solutions. D/sub 2/O concentration was measured in plasma and saliva samples taken at various intervals after ingestion of 20 ml of D/sub 2/O mixed with five solutions differing in carbohydrate and electrolyte concentrations. An infrared spectrometer was used to measure D/sub 2/O in purified samples obtained after a 48-h incubation period during which the water (D/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/O) in the sample was equilibrated with an equal volume of distilled water in a sealed diffusion dish. The procedure yields 100% recoveries of 60-500 ppm D/sub 2/O with an average precision of 5%. When compared with values for distilled water, D/sub 2/O accumulation in serial samples of plasma and saliva was slower for ingested solutions containing 40 and 15% glucose and faster for hypotonic saline and a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution. These differences appear to reflect known differences in gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of these beverages. Therefore, this technique may provide a useful index of the rate of water uptake from ingested beverages into the body fluids.

  5. Strongly coupled dynamics of fluids and rigid-body systems with the immersed boundary projection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2015-08-01

    A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.

  6. Microarray screening and qRT-PCR evaluation of microRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Park, Seong-Min; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Lee, Han-chul; Kim, Jin-young; Seok, Hyun Ha; Lee, Woo Sik; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small (∼22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate diverse biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs have great potential for forensic body fluid identification because they are expressed in a tissue specific manner and are less prone to degradation. Previous studies reported several miRNAs as body fluid specific, but there are few overlaps among them. Here, we used a genome-wide miRNA microarray containing over 1700 miRNAs to assay 20 body fluid samples and identify novel miRNAs useful for forensic body fluid identification. Based on Shannon Entropy and Q-statistics, 203 miRNAs specifically expressed in each body fluid were first selected. Eight miRNAs were then selected as novel forensically relevant miRNA markers: miR-484 and miR-182 for blood, miR-223 and miR-145 for saliva, miR-2392 and miR-3197 for semen, and miR-1260b and miR-654-5p for vaginal secretions. When the eight selected miRNAs were evaluated in 40 additional body fluid samples by qRT-PCR, they showed high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that the eight miRNAs may be candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for forensic body fluid identification.

  7. Renal distal tubular handling of sodium in central fluid volume homoeostasis in preascitic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sansoe, G; Ferrari, A; Baraldi, E; Castellana, C; De Santis, M C; Manenti, F

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Patients with preascitic liver cirrhosis have an increased central plasma volume, and, for any given plasma aldosterone concentration, they excrete less sodium than healthy controls. A detailed study of the distribution of sodium reabsorption along the segments of the renal tubule, especially the distal one, is still lacking in preascitic cirrhosis.
METHODS—Twelve patients with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis and nine control subjects (both groups on a normosodic diet) were submitted to the following investigations: (a) plasma levels of active renin and aldosterone; (b) four hour renal clearance of lithium (an index of fluid delivery to the loop of Henle), creatinine, sodium, and potassium; (c) dopaminergic activity, as measured by incremental aldosterone response to intravenous metoclopramide.
RESULTS—Metoclopramide induced higher incremental aldosterone responses, indicating increased dopaminergic activity in patients than controls, which is evidence of an increased central plasma volume (+30 min: 160.2 (68.8) v 83.6 (35.2) pg/ml, p<0.01; +60 min: 140.5 (80.3) v 36.8 (36.1) pg/ml, p<0.01). Patients had increased distal fractional sodium reabsorption compared with controls (26.9 (6.7)% v 12.5 (3.4)% of the filtered sodium load, p<0.05). In the patient group there was an inverse correlation between: (a) absolute distal sodium reabsorption and active renin (r −0.59, p<0.05); (b) fractional distal sodium reabsorption and sodium excretion (r −0.66, p<0.03).
CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that in preascitic cirrhosis the distal fractional tubular reabsorption of sodium is increased and critical in regulating both central fluid volume and sodium excretion.


Keywords: kidney; sodium handling; lithium clearance; liver cirrhosis; dopamine; central fluid volume PMID:10517915

  8. Trapped modes around freely floating bodies in a two-layer fluid channel

    PubMed Central

    Cal, Filipe S.; Dias, Gonçalo A. S.; Videman, Juha H.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the trapping of time-harmonic water waves by fixed obstacles, the oscillation of freely floating structures gives rise to a complex nonlinear spectral problem. Still, through a convenient elimination scheme the system simplifies to a linear spectral problem for a self-adjoint operator in a Hilbert space. Under symmetry assumptions on the geometry of the fluid domain, we present conditions guaranteeing the existence of trapped modes in a two-layer fluid channel. Numerous examples of floating bodies supporting trapped modes are given. PMID:25294970

  9. Trapped modes around freely floating bodies in a two-layer fluid channel.

    PubMed

    Cal, Filipe S; Dias, Gonçalo A S; Videman, Juha H

    2014-10-01

    Unlike the trapping of time-harmonic water waves by fixed obstacles, the oscillation of freely floating structures gives rise to a complex nonlinear spectral problem. Still, through a convenient elimination scheme the system simplifies to a linear spectral problem for a self-adjoint operator in a Hilbert space. Under symmetry assumptions on the geometry of the fluid domain, we present conditions guaranteeing the existence of trapped modes in a two-layer fluid channel. Numerous examples of floating bodies supporting trapped modes are given.

  10. A comparison of hydration effect on body fluid and temperature regulation between Malaysian and Japanese males exercising at mild dehydration in humid heat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of hydration differences on body fluid and temperature regulation between tropical and temperate indigenes exercising in the heat. Methods Ten Japanese and ten Malaysian males with matched physical characteristics (height, body weight, and peak oxygen consumption) participated in this study. Participants performed exercise for 60 min at 55% peak oxygen uptake followed by a 30-min recovery at 32°C and 70% relative air humidity with hydration (4 times each, 3 mL per kg body weight, 37°C) or without hydration. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, skin blood flow, and blood pressure were measured continuously. The percentage of body weight loss and total sweat loss were calculated from body weight measurements. The percentage change in plasma volume was estimated from hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. Results Malaysian participants had a significantly lower rectal temperature, a smaller reduction in plasma volume, and a lower heart rate in the hydrated condition than in the non-hydrated condition at the end of exercise (P <0.05), whereas Japanese participants showed no difference between the two hydration conditions. Hydration induced a greater total sweat loss in both groups (P <0.05), and the percentage of body weight loss in hydrated Malaysians was significantly less than in hydrated Japanese (P <0.05). A significant interaction between groups and hydration conditions was observed for the percentage of mean cutaneous vascular conductance during exercise relative to baseline (P <0.05). Conclusions The smaller reduction in plasma volume and percentage body weight loss in hydrated Malaysians indicated an advantage in body fluid regulation. This may enable Malaysians to reserve more blood for circulation and heat dissipation and thereby maintain lower rectal temperatures in a hydrated condition. PMID:24490869

  11. Tensorial density functional theory for non-spherical hard-body fluids.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Mecke, Klaus

    2010-09-15

    In a recent publication (Hansen-Goos and Mecke 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 018302) we constructed a free energy functional for the inhomogeneous hard-body fluid, which reduces to Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory (Rosenfeld 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 63 980) when applied to hard spheres. The new functional is able to yield the isotropic-nematic transition for the hard-spherocylinder fluid in contrast to Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory for non-spherical particles (Rosenfeld 1994 Phys. Rev. E 50 R3318). The description of inhomogeneous isotropic fluids is also improved when compared with data from Monte Carlo simulations for hard spherocylinders in contact with a planar hard wall. However, the new functional for the inhomogeneous fluid in general does not comply with the exact second order virial expansion. We introduced the ζ correction in order to minimize the deviation from Onsager's exact result in the isotropic bulk fluid. In this article we give a detailed account of the construction of the new functional. An extension of the ζ correction makes the latter better suited for non-isotropic particle distributions. The extended ζ correction is shown to improve the description of the isotropic-nematic bulk phase diagram while it has little effect on the results for the isotropic but inhomogeneous hard-spherocylinder fluid. We argue that the gain from using higher order tensorial weighted densities in the theory is likely to be inferior to the associated increase in complexity. PMID:21386523

  12. Physiological and behavioral effects of tilt-induced body fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Tjernstrom, O.; Ivarsson, A.; Gulledge, W. L.; Poston, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the 'fluid shift theory' of space motion sickness. The primary purpose of the research was the development of procedures to assess individual differences in response to rostral body fluid shifts on earth. Experiment I examined inner ear fluid pressure changes during head-down tilt in intact human beings. Tilt produced reliable changes. Differences among subjects and between ears within the same subject were observed. Experiment II examined auditory threshold changes during tilt. Tilt elicited increased auditory thresholds, suggesting that sensory depression may result from increased inner ear fluid pressure. Additional observations on rotation magnitude estimation during head-down tilt, which indicate that rostral fluid shifts may depress semicircular canal activity, are briefly described. The results of this research suggest that the inner ear pressure and auditory threshold shift procedures could be used to assess individual differences among astronauts prior to space flight. Results from the terrestrial observations could be related to reported incidence/severity of motion sickness in space and used to evaluate the fluid shift theory of space motion sickness.

  13. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume: mathematical model based on intramembranous transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Debra F.; Cheung, Cecilia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Experimentation in late-gestation fetal sheep has suggested that regulation of amniotic fluid (AF) volume occurs primarily by modulating the rate of intramembranous transport of water and solutes across the amnion into underlying fetal blood vessels. In order to gain insight into intramembranous transport mechanisms, we developed a computer model that allows simulation of experimentally measured changes in AF volume and composition over time. The model included fetal urine excretion and lung liquid secretion as inflows into the amniotic compartment plus fetal swallowing and intramembranous absorption as outflows. By using experimental flows and solute concentrations for urine, lung liquid, and swallowed fluid in combination with the passive and active transport mechanisms of the intramembranous pathway, we simulated AF responses to basal conditions, intra-amniotic fluid infusions, fetal intravascular infusions, urine replacement, and tracheoesophageal occlusion. The experimental data are consistent with four intramembranous transport mechanisms acting in concert: 1) an active unidirectional bulk transport of AF with all dissolved solutes out of AF into fetal blood presumably by vesicles; 2) passive bidirectional diffusion of solutes, such as sodium and chloride, between fetal blood and AF; 3) passive bidirectional water movement between AF and fetal blood; and 4) unidirectional transport of lactate into the AF. Further, only unidirectional bulk transport is dynamically regulated. The simulations also identified areas for future study: 1) identifying intramembranous stimulators and inhibitors, 2) determining the semipermeability characteristics of the intramembranous pathway, and 3) characterizing the vesicles that are the primary mediators of intramembranous transport. PMID:25186112

  14. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume: mathematical model based on intramembranous transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brace, Robert A; Anderson, Debra F; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2014-11-15

    Experimentation in late-gestation fetal sheep has suggested that regulation of amniotic fluid (AF) volume occurs primarily by modulating the rate of intramembranous transport of water and solutes across the amnion into underlying fetal blood vessels. In order to gain insight into intramembranous transport mechanisms, we developed a computer model that allows simulation of experimentally measured changes in AF volume and composition over time. The model included fetal urine excretion and lung liquid secretion as inflows into the amniotic compartment plus fetal swallowing and intramembranous absorption as outflows. By using experimental flows and solute concentrations for urine, lung liquid, and swallowed fluid in combination with the passive and active transport mechanisms of the intramembranous pathway, we simulated AF responses to basal conditions, intra-amniotic fluid infusions, fetal intravascular infusions, urine replacement, and tracheoesophageal occlusion. The experimental data are consistent with four intramembranous transport mechanisms acting in concert: 1) an active unidirectional bulk transport of AF with all dissolved solutes out of AF into fetal blood presumably by vesicles; 2) passive bidirectional diffusion of solutes, such as sodium and chloride, between fetal blood and AF; 3) passive bidirectional water movement between AF and fetal blood; and 4) unidirectional transport of lactate into the AF. Further, only unidirectional bulk transport is dynamically regulated. The simulations also identified areas for future study: 1) identifying intramembranous stimulators and inhibitors, 2) determining the semipermeability characteristics of the intramembranous pathway, and 3) characterizing the vesicles that are the primary mediators of intramembranous transport.

  15. A mass-conserving volume of fluid method for DNS of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, Antonino; Dodd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We developed a mass-conserving wisps-free volume of fluid (VoF) method for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of droplet-laden turbulent flows. We used the continuous surface force (CSF) model to include the surface tension within a split-advection and mass-conserving VoF. The liquid-gas interface curvature is computed accurately using a variable-stencil height-function technique. We modified the sequence of the advection sweeps, and our results show that, in the case of non-zero Weber number, the algorithm is accurate and stable. We present DNS results of fully-resolved droplet-laden incompressible decaying isotropic turbulence at initial Reλ = 190 using a computational mesh of 10243 grid points, droplet volume fraction 0.1 tracking the volumes of 7000 droplets of Weber number We = 0 . 5 based on the r.m.s. velocity fluctuation, droplet-to-fluid density ratio 10, and initial droplet diameter equal to the Taylor length-scale of turbulence.

  16. A SUB-GRID VOLUME-OF-FLUIDS (VOF) MODEL FOR MIXING IN RESOLVED SCALE AND IN UNRESOLVED SCALE COMPUTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    VOLD, ERIK L.; SCANNAPIECO, TONY J.

    2007-10-16

    A sub-grid mix model based on a volume-of-fluids (VOF) representation is described for computational simulations of the transient mixing between reactive fluids, in which the atomically mixed components enter into the reactivity. The multi-fluid model allows each fluid species to have independent values for density, energy, pressure and temperature, as well as independent velocities and volume fractions. Fluid volume fractions are further divided into mix components to represent their 'mixedness' for more accurate prediction of reactivity. Time dependent conversion from unmixed volume fractions (denoted cf) to atomically mixed (af) fluids by diffusive processes is represented in resolved scale simulations with the volume fractions (cf, af mix). In unresolved scale simulations, the transition to atomically mixed materials begins with a conversion from unmixed material to a sub-grid volume fraction (pf). This fraction represents the unresolved small scales in the fluids, heterogeneously mixed by turbulent or multi-phase mixing processes, and this fraction then proceeds in a second step to the atomically mixed fraction by diffusion (cf, pf, af mix). Species velocities are evaluated with a species drift flux, {rho}{sub i}u{sub di} = {rho}{sub i}(u{sub i}-u), used to describe the fluid mixing sources in several closure options. A simple example of mixing fluids during 'interfacial deceleration mixing with a small amount of diffusion illustrates the generation of atomically mixed fluids in two cases, for resolved scale simulations and for unresolved scale simulations. Application to reactive mixing, including Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), is planned for future work.

  17. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  18. An incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the motion of rigid bodies in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofighi, N.; Ozbulut, M.; Rahmat, A.; Feng, J. J.; Yildiz, M.

    2015-09-01

    A two-dimensional incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics scheme is presented for simulation of rigid bodies moving through Newtonian fluids. The scheme relies on combined usage of the rigidity constraints and the viscous penalty method to simulate rigid body motion. Different viscosity ratios and interpolation schemes are tested by simulating a rigid disc descending in quiescent medium. A viscosity ratio of 100 coupled with weighted harmonic averaging scheme has been found to provide satisfactory results. The performance of the resulting scheme is systematically tested for cases with linear motion, rotational motion and their combination. The test cases include sedimentation of a single and a pair of circular discs, sedimentation of an elliptic disc and migration and rotation of a circular disc in linear shear flow. Comparison with previous results at various Reynolds numbers indicates that the proposed method captures the motion of rigid bodies driven by flow or external body forces accurately.

  19. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Workshop. Volume 2: Roundtable Discussion of Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Workshop was held April 28 to 30, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The major objective of the workshop was to identify future NASA needs for technology concerning the management of subcritical cryogenic fluids in the low-gravity space environment. In addition, workshop participants were asked to identify those technologies which will require in-space experimentation and thus are candidates for inclusion in the flight experiment being defined at Lewis. The principal application for advanced fluid management technology is the Space-Based Orbit Transfer Vehicle (SBOTV) and its servicing facility, the On-Orbit Cryogenic Fuel Depot (OOCFD). Other potential applications include the replenishment of cryogenic coolants (with the exception of superfluid helium), reactants, and propellants on board a variety of spacecraft including the space station and space-based weapon systems. The last day was devoted to a roundtable discussion of cryogenic fluid management technology requirements by 30 representatives from NASA, industry, and academia. This volume contains a transcript of the discussion of the eight major technology categories.

  20. Quantification of the cerebrospinal fluid from a new whole body MRI sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebret, Alain; Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno; Hodel, Jérôme; Rahmouni, Alain; Decq, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Our work aims to develop a biomechanical model of hydrocephalus both intended to perform clinical research and to assist the neurosurgeon in diagnosis decisions. Recently, we have defined a new MR imaging sequence based on SPACE (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution). On these images, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appears as a homogeneous hypersignal. Therefore such images are suitable for segmentation and for volume assessment of the CSF. In this paper we present a fully automatic 3D segmentation of such SPACE MRI sequences. We choose a topological approach considering that CSF can be modeled as a simply connected object (i.e. a filled sphere). First an initial object which must be strictly included in the CSF and homotopic to a filled sphere, is determined by using a moment-preserving thresholding. Then a priority function based on an Euclidean distance map is computed in order to control the thickening process that adds "simple points" to the initial thresholded object. A point is called simple if its addition or its suppression does not result in change of topology neither for the object, nor for the background. The method is validated by measuring fluid volume of brain phantoms and by comparing our volume assessments on clinical data to those derived from a segmentation controlled by expert physicians. Then we show that a distinction between pathological cases and healthy adult people can be achieved by a linear discriminant analysis on volumes of the ventricular and intracranial subarachnoid spaces.

  1. Diagnostic Relevance of microRNAs in Other Body Fluids Including Urine, Feces, and Saliva.

    PubMed

    Igaz, Ivan; Igaz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Beside blood-borne circulating miRNAs, miRNAs have been identified in other body fluid and excrements including stool, bile, saliva, and urine. Given the direct link of these body fluids to certain organs, their analysis for potential diagnostic miRNA markers is plausible. Several independent findings underline the potential utility of stool-derived miRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Given the difficulties in the diagnosis of cholangiocellular cancer, biliary miRNAs might be envisaged as useful markers. Several miRNAs have been identified in the saliva that could be associated with diseases, including tumors of the oral cavity. The urinary pool of miRNAs could be exploited for the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases and some appear to enable early diagnosis. In this chapter, we present findings supporting the potential diagnostic utility of fecal, biliary, salivary, and urinary miRNAs focusing mostly on tumors.

  2. Wall effect on fluid-structure interactions of a tethered bluff body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan; Smith, Marilyn

    2013-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid-structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.

  3. Clinical relevance and contemporary methods for counting blood cells in body fluids suspected of inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chérina; Russcher, Henk; Lindemans, Jan; de Jonge, Robert

    2015-10-01

    In many inflammatory diseases, the cellular components in body fluids [cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serous fluids] are increased, rendering essential diagnostic information. The diagnostic value of the total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential count has been evaluated extensively over the years, and a remarkable amount of knowledge has been gained; yet, there is a great deal of clinical uncertainty whether the diagnosis should be based solely on these variables. In some diseases, such as peritonitis, the total WBC and differential count has high sensitivity; whereas, in differentiating pleural effusions, it lacks the sensitivity required to be clinically useful. Nevertheless, many guidelines consider these tests as cornerstone parameters, and in combination with clinical variables, they can successfully guide clinical decision making in initiating or postponing a treatment course for infection and/or inflammatory diseases while awaiting culture results. Although other methods are available for detecting and differentiating WBCs in body fluids, manual microscopy is still considered the gold standard despite its many limitations. During the last decade, automated analyzers have become a popular method for first line screening. Continued progress in their design has led to major improvements including their speed, improved accuracy and lower variability compared with microscopy. Disadvantages of this method include high imprecision in low ranges (depending on the method) and interfering factors. In a time where automation is at the front line in clinical laboratories, it is essential the results obtained are precise, accurate and reproducible. This review provides an overview of the relevance for cell counting in a variety of diagnostic body fluids, and highlights the current technologies used.

  4. Study on fluid-structure interaction in liquid oxygen feeding pipe systems using finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xin; Sun, Bing

    2011-10-01

    The fluid-structure interaction may occur in space launch vehicles, which would lead to bad performance of vehicles, damage equipments on vehicles, or even affect astronauts' health. In this paper, analysis on dynamic behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) feeding pipe system in a large scale launch vehicle is performed, with the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) taken into consideration. The pipe system is simplified as a planar FSI model with Poisson coupling and junction coupling. Numerical tests on pipes between the tank and the pump are solved by the finite volume method. Results show that restrictions weaken the interaction between axial and lateral vibrations. The reasonable results regarding frequencies and modes indicate that the FSI affects substantially the dynamic analysis, and thus highlight the usefulness of the proposed model. This study would provide a reference to the pipe test, as well as facilitate further studies on oscillation suppression.

  5. A corresponding states principle for the equation of state of hard body fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Largo, J.; Solana, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A theoretically based corresponding-states principle is developed for athermal mixtures consisting of hard molecules. The principle states that when scaled appropriately, the excess compressibility factor for such mixtures reduces to a universal function of the effective packing fraction of the mixture. The latter represents the number density reduced by means of the effective molecular volume, which is defined as the volume a molecule excludes to any point of another molecule and depends on the geometry of both molecules. The scaling factor is related to a sort of effective nonsphericity parameter for the mixture that depends on composition as well as the nonsphericity parameters of the molecules which form the mixture and their effective molecular volumes. The universal function represents the excess compressibility factor of a pure hard-sphere fluid. Results are in good agreement with available simulation data.

  6. Oscillations of a cylindrical body submerged in a fluid with ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkacheva, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    The linear plane problem of oscillations of an elliptic cylinder in an ideal incompressible fluid of finite depth in the presence of an ice cover of finite length is solved. The ice cover is modeled by an elastic plate of constant thickness. The hydrodynamic loads acting on the body are determined as functions of the oscillation frequency and the positions of the cylinder and plate.

  7. Multiplex mRNA profiling for the identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack

    2005-08-11

    We report the development of a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for the definitive identification of the body fluids that are commonly encountered in forensic casework analysis, namely blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions. Using selected genes that we have identified as being expressed in a tissue-specific manner we have developed a multiplex RT-PCR assay which is composed of eight body fluid-specific genes and that is optimized for the detection of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions as single or mixed stains. The genes include beta-spectrin (SPTB) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) for blood, statherin (STATH) and histatin 3 (HTN3) for saliva, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) for semen, and human beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1) and mucin 4 (MUC4) for vaginal secretions. The known or presumed functions of these genes suggest an extremely restricted pattern of gene expression, which is a basic requirement for incorporation into a tissue-specific assay. The methodology is based upon gene expression profiling analysis in which the body fluid-specific genes are identified by detecting the presence of appropriate mRNA species using capillary electrophoresis/laser induced fluorescence. An mRNA-based approach, such as the multiplex RT-PCR method described in the present work, allows for the facile identification of the tissue components present in a body fluid stain and could supplant the battery of serological and biochemical tests currently employed in the forensic serology laboratory.

  8. Self-propulsion of flapping bodies in viscous fluids: Recent advances and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shizhao; He, Guowei; Zhang, Xing

    2016-08-01

    Flapping-powered propulsion is used by many animals to locomote through air or water. Here we review recent experimental and numerical studies on self-propelled mechanical systems powered by a flapping motion. These studies improve our understanding of the mutual interaction between actively flapping bodies and surrounding fluids. The results obtained in these works provide not only new insights into biolocomotion but also useful information for the biomimetic design of artificial flyers and swimmers.

  9. Optical Detection and Virotherapy of Live Metastatic Tumor Cells in Body Fluids with Vaccinia Strains

    PubMed Central

    Minev, Boris R.; Zimmermann, Martina; Aguilar, Richard J.; Zhang, Qian; Sturm, Julia B.; Fend, Falko; Yu, Yong A.; Cappello, Joseph; Lauer, Ulrich M.; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic tumor cells in body fluids are important targets for treatment, and critical surrogate markers for evaluating cancer prognosis and therapeutic response. Here we report, for the first time, that live metastatic tumor cells in blood samples from mice bearing human tumor xenografts and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cancer were successfully detected using a tumor cell-specific recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV). In contrast to the FDA-approved CellSearch system, VACV detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a cancer biomarker-independent manner, thus, free of any bias related to the use of antibodies, and can be potentially a universal system for detection of live CTCs of any tumor type, not limited to CTCs of epithelial origin. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that VACV was effective in preventing and reducing circulating tumor cells in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Importantly, a single intra-peritoneal delivery of VACV resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of tumor cells in the ascitic fluid from a patient with gastric cancer. Taken together, these results suggest VACV to be a useful tool for quantitative detection of live tumor cells in liquid biopsies as well as a potentially effective treatment for reducing or eliminating live tumor cells in body fluids of patients with metastatic disease. PMID:24019862

  10. In Vitro Studies Evaluating Leaching of Mercury from Mine Waste Calcine Using Simulated Human Body Fluids

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almadén, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 μg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 μg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 μg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 μg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway. PMID:20491469

  11. In vitro studies evaluating leaching of mercury from mine waste calcine using simulated human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Morman, Suzette A; Higueras, Pablo L; Crock, James G; Lowers, Heather A; Witten, Mark L

    2010-06-15

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almaden, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 microg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 microg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 microg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 microg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway.

  12. Does amniotic fluid volume affect fetofetal transfusion in monochorionic twin pregnancies? Modelling two possible mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umur, Asli; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Ross, Michael G.

    2002-06-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that increased amniotic fluid volume due to polyhydramnios increases placental vascular resistance. We have sought to model the possible effects of an increased amniotic fluid volume on the net fetofetal transfusion in monochorionic twin pregnancies. We wanted to compare these effects with the results of previous simulations, which aimed to explain why the twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) placentas more often include bidirectional arteriovenous (AV) rather than AV plus arterioarterial (AA) anastomoses. We extended our mathematical model of TTTS by simulating two different mechanisms that increase the placental vascular resistance as a consequence of polyhydramnios. First, there is an increase in the placental capillary resistance and hence in deep AV and opposite AV (denoted as VA) resistances due to polyhydramnios. Second, there is an increase in the resistance of chorionic veins due to polyhydramnios, assuming that these veins act as Starling resistors. We then simulated the effects of polyhydramnios on different placental anastomotic patterns. The results were as follows. In the first mechanism (polyhydramnios affects AV-VA resistances), an increased amniotic fluid volume hardly affected bidirectional AV, but slightly decreased fetofetal transfusion in AV plus AA anastomoses. However, for these effects to change the natural development of the pregnancy, polyhydramnios needed to persist for approximately 4 weeks, and by comparing the effects of polyhydramnios with the effects of amnioreduction, amnioreduction was more beneficial for normalizing the donor amniotic fluid volume. Therefore, these beneficial effects due to polyhydramnios have no practical clinical significance. In the second mechanism (Starling resistor for chorionic veins), polyhydramnios slightly increased fetofetal transfusion and hence slightly increased TTTS severity in bidirectional AV and AV plus VV, but did not affect AV plus AA anastomoses. In conclusion, we

  13. Sharps Injuries and Other Blood and Body Fluid Exposures Among Home Health Care Nurses and Aides

    PubMed Central

    Markkanen, Pia K.; Galligan, Catherine J.; Kriebel, David; Chalupka, Stephanie M.; Kim, Hyun; Gore, Rebecca J.; Sama, Susan R.; Laramie, Angela K.; Davis, Letitia

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified risks of sharp medical device (sharps) injuries and other blood and body fluid exposures among home health care nurses and aides, identified risk factors, assessed the use of sharps with safety features, and evaluated underreporting in workplace-based surveillance. Methods. We conducted a questionnaire survey and workplace-based surveillance, collaborating with 9 home health care agencies and 2 labor unions from 2006 to 2007. Results. Approximately 35% of nurses and 6.4% of aides had experienced at least 1 sharps injury during their home health care career; corresponding figures for other blood and body fluid exposures were 15.1% and 6.7%, respectively. Annual sharps injuries incidence rates were 5.1 per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) nurses and 1.0 per 100 FTE aides. Medical procedures contributing to sharps injuries were injecting medications, administering fingersticks and heelsticks, and drawing blood. Other contributing factors were sharps disposal, contact with waste, and patient handling. Sharps with safety features frequently were not used. Underreporting of sharps injuries to the workplace-based surveillance system was estimated to be about 50%. Conclusions. Sharps injuries and other blood and body fluid exposures are serious hazards for home health care nurses and aides. Improvements in hazard intervention are needed. PMID:19890177

  14. Strongly Coupled Fluid-Body Dynamics in the Immersed Boundary Projection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2014-11-01

    A computational algorithm is developed to simulate dynamically coupled interaction between fluid and rigid bodies. The basic computational framework is built upon a multi-domain immersed boundary method library, whirl, developed in previous work. In this library, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. A solver for the dynamics of rigid-body systems is also included. The fluid and rigid-body solvers are strongly coupled with an iterative approach based on the block Gauss-Seidel method. Interfacial force, with its intimate connection with the Lagrange multipliers used in the fluid solver, is used as the primary iteration variable. Relaxation, developed from a stability analysis of the iterative scheme, is used to achieve convergence in only 2-4 iterations per time step. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of linked plates and three-dimensional propulsion of flexible fluked tail. This work has been supported by AFOSR, under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.

  15. Parallel simulation of multiphase flows using octree adaptivity and the volume-of-fluid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbaglah, Gilou; Delaux, Sébastien; Fuster, Daniel; Hoepffner, Jérôme; Josserand, Christophe; Popinet, Stéphane; Ray, Pascal; Scardovelli, Ruben; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    We describe computations performed using the Gerris code, an open-source software implementing finite volume solvers on an octree adaptive grid together with a piecewise linear volume of fluid interface tracking method. The parallelisation of Gerris is achieved by domain decomposition. We show examples of the capabilities of Gerris on several types of problems. The impact of a droplet on a layer of the same liquid results in the formation of a thin air layer trapped between the droplet and the liquid layer that the adaptive refinement allows to capture. It is followed by the jetting of a thin corolla emerging from below the impacting droplet. The jet atomisation problem is another extremely challenging computational problem, in which a large number of small scales are generated. Finally we show an example of a turbulent jet computation in an equivalent resolution of 6×1024 cells. The jet simulation is based on the configuration of the Deepwater Horizon oil leak.

  16. Rumen volume, saliva flow rate, and systemic fluid homeostasis in dehydrated cattle.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, N; Tadmor, A

    1989-04-01

    This work was carried out to test the hypothesis that the high level of salivary secretion containing much Na+ and the volume of fluid sequestered in the foregut of ruminants play an important part in water and Na+ homeostasis. Saliva flow and composition and water and Na+ balance in the rumen have been measured in hydrated and dehydrated cows with esophageal fistulas. Reduction of voluntary feed intake in beef cattle during water deprivation was related to the stage of dehydration. Salivary secretion rate was linearly related to voluntary feed intake (r = 0.96) and inversely and linearly related to plasma osmolality (r = 0.88). The reduction in the volume of water stored in the rumen contributed to the major portion (55%) of the total water loss. Utilization of gut water attenuated the rise in blood plasma osmolality, and this may be connected with an animal's ability to continue eating despite dehydration.

  17. Associations of Hospital and Patient Characteristics with Fluid Resuscitation Volumes in Patients with Severe Sepsis: Post Hoc Analyses of Data from a Multicentre Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Perner, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fluid resuscitation is a key intervention in patients with sepsis and circulatory impairment. The recommendations for continued fluid therapy in sepsis are vague, which may result in differences in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate associations between hospital and patient characteristics and fluid resuscitation volumes in ICU patients with severe sepsis. Methods We explored the 6S trial database of ICU patients with severe sepsis needing fluid resuscitation randomised to hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 vs. Ringer’s acetate. Our primary outcome measure was fluid resuscitation volume and secondary outcome total fluid input administered from 24 hours before randomisation until the end of day 3 post-randomisation. We performed multivariate analyses with hospital and patient baseline characteristics as covariates to assess associations with fluid volumes given. Results We included 654 patients who were in the ICU for 3 days and had fluid volumes available. Individual trial sites administered significantly different volumes of fluid resuscitation and total fluid input after adjusting for baseline variables (P<0.001). Increased lactate, higher cardiovascular and renal SOFA subscores, lower respiratory SOFA subscore and surgery were all independently associated with increased fluid resuscitation volumes. Conclusions Hospital characteristics adjusted for patient baseline values were associated with differences in fluid resuscitation volumes given in the first 3 days of severe sepsis. The data indicate variations in clinical practice not explained by patient characteristics emphasizing the need for RCTs assessing fluid resuscitation volumes fluid in patients with sepsis. PMID:27196104

  18. Laboratory testing of extravascular body fluids in Croatia: a survey of the Working group for extravascular body fluids of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Vogrinc, Zeljka; Kocijan, Irena; Culej, Jelena; Aralica, Merica; Jokic, Anja; Antoncic, Dragana; Bozovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that extravascular body fluid (EBF) analysis in Croatia is not harmonized and aimed to investigate preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures used in EBF analysis in order to identify key aspects that should be addressed in future harmonization attempts. Materials and methods An anonymous online survey created to explore laboratory testing of EBF was sent to secondary, tertiary and private health care Medical Biochemistry Laboratories (MBLs) in Croatia. Statements were designed to address preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures of cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal (ascites), pericardial, seminal, synovial, amniotic fluid and sweat. Participants were asked to declare the strength of agreement with proposed statements using a Likert scale. Mean scores for corresponding separate statements divided according to health care setting were calculated and compared. Results The survey response rate was 0.64 (58 / 90). None of the participating private MBLs declared to analyse EBF. We report a mean score of 3.45 obtained for all statements evaluated. Deviations from desirable procedures were demonstrated in all EBF testing phases. Minor differences in procedures used for EBF analysis comparing secondary and tertiary health care MBLs were found. The lowest scores were obtained for statements regarding quality control procedures in EBF analysis, participation in proficiency testing programmes and provision of interpretative comments on EBF’s test reports. Conclusions Although good laboratory EBF practice is present in Croatia, procedures for EBF analysis should be further harmonized to improve the quality of EBF testing and patient safety. PMID:27812307

  19. Reliability and validity of the lung volume measurement made by the BOD POD body composition system.

    PubMed

    Davis, James A; Dorado, Silvia; Keays, Kathleen A; Reigel, Kimberly A; Valencia, Kristoffer S; Pham, Patrick H

    2007-01-01

    The BOD POD Body Composition System uses air-displacement plethysmography to measure body volume. To correct the body volume measurement for the subject's lung volume, the BOD POD utilizes pulmonary plethysmography to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) at mid-exhalation as that is the subject's lung volume during the body volume measurement. Normally, FRC is measured at end-exhalation. The BOD POD FRC measurement can be corrected to an end-exhalation volume by subtracting approximately one-half of the measured tidal volume. Our purpose was to determine the reliability and validity of the BOD POD FRC measurement at end-exhalation. Ninety-two healthy adults (half female) underwent duplicate FRC measurements by the BOD POD and one FRC measurement by a traditional gas dilution technique. The latter method was used as the reference method for the validity component of the study. The order of the FRC measurements by the two methods was randomized. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the duplicate BOD POD FRC measurements for the male and female subjects were 0.966 and 0.948, respectively. The mean differences between the BOD POD FRC trial #1 measurement and gas dilution FRC measurement for the male and female subjects were -32 and -23 ml, respectively. Neither difference was statistically significant. The correlation coefficients for these two measurements in the male and female subjects were 0.925 and 0.917, respectively. Based on these results, we conclude that the BOD POD FRC measurement in healthy males and females is both reliable and valid.

  20. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    PubMed

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  1. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin-binding high molecular weight substances in the body fluid of shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Shiomi, K; Yamaguchi, S; Kikuchi, T; Yamamori, K; Matsui, T

    1992-12-01

    The shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) is highly resistant to tetrodotoxin (TTX) although it contains no detectable amount of TTX (less than 5 MU/g, where 1 MU is defined as the amount of TTX killing a 20 g mouse in 30 min). Its body fluid was examined for neutralizing effects against the lethal activity of TTX. When the mixture of the body fluid and TTX was injected i.p. into mice, the lethal activity of TTX was significantly reduced; 1 ml of the body fluid was evaluated to neutralize 3.6-4.0 MU of TTX. Higher neutralizing activity (7.2-12.5 MU/ml of the body fluid) was exhibited by i.v. administration of the body fluid into mice before or after i.p. challenge of TTX. The lethal effect of paralytic shellfish poisons was not counteracted by the body fluid. Analysis by gel filtration on Sepharose 6B revealed that the body fluid contained TTX-binding high mol. wt substances (> 2,000,000) responsible for the neutralizing activity of the body fluid against TTX, which accounts for the high resistibility of the crab to TTX. When the crude toxin extracted from the liver of puffer (Takifugu niphobles) was mixed with the body fluid and chromatographed on Sepharose 6B, almost pure TTX was obtained from the fractions containing the TTX-binding high mol. wt substances, suggesting that the TTX-binding high mol. wt substances could be useful in purification of TTX from biological samples.

  2. Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1930-01-01

    Part I gives a general method for finding the steady-flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. Part II, applying this steady-flow method, finds the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms, and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. Part III finds the pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight. Part IV derives general equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid, and in some cases compares the moment values with those found for bodies moving in air. Part V furnishes ready formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms. Thence are derived tables giving numerical values of those coefficients for a comprehensive range of shapes.

  3. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  4. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  5. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (p<0.05) by 15 min. The continued [PVP] depression with all fluids from 15 to 70 min was accompanied by unchanged plasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (p<0.05) in PV with 3) fluids (2 commercial and NaCitrate) and no change with the others. Percent changes in mean [PVP] and plasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  6. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.

  7. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)–1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model. PMID:27134507

  8. GANDALF: Graphical Astrophysics code for N-body Dynamics And Lagrangian Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubber, David; Rosotti, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    GANDALF, a successor to SEREN (ascl:1102.010), is a hybrid self-gravitating fluid dynamics and collisional N-body code primarily designed for investigating star formation and planet formation problems. GANDALF uses various implementations of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to perform hydrodynamical simulations of gas clouds undergoing gravitational collapse to form new stars (or other objects), and can perform simulations of pure N-body dynamics using high accuracy N-body integrators, model the intermediate phase of cluster evolution, and provide visualizations via its python interface as well as interactive simulations. Although based on many of the SEREN routines, GANDALF has been largely re-written from scratch in C++ using more optimal algorithms and data structures.

  9. Effects of hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, R.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of long-term hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume were studied in eight conscious dogs over a 34-day period. Plasma protein concentration (PPC) was decreased by daily plasmapheresis, and the effects of decreasing and increasing sodium intake were measured. By the 12th day of plasmapheresis PPC had decreased to 2.5 g/dl from a control value of 7.2 g/dl, mean arterial pressure had decreased to 78% of control, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 75.2% of control, and urinary sodium excretion was decreased. By day 18 of plasmapheresis, estimated renal plasma flow (ERPF) was decreased to 60% of control due to the decreased arterial pressure and an increase in renal vascular resistance. GFR and ERPF were determined from the total clearance of (/sup 125/I)iothalamate and (/sup 131/I)iodohippurate. Also, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration were both increased, and the relationship between mean arterial pressure and urinary sodium excretion was distinctly shifted to the left along the arterial pressure axis. In contradistinction to acute experiments, chronic hypoproteinemia results in decreases in GFR, ERPF, and urinary sodium excretion and has marked effects on both fluid volume and arterial pressure regulation.

  10. An efficient implicit unstructured finite volume solver for generalised Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Alireza; Sharbatdar, Mahkame; Ollivier-Gooch, Carl

    2016-03-01

    An implicit finite volume solver is developed for the steady-state solution of generalised Newtonian fluids on unstructured meshes in 2D. The pseudo-compressibility technique is employed to couple the continuity and momentum equations by transforming the governing equations into a hyperbolic system. A second-order accurate spatial discretisation is provided by performing a least-squares gradient reconstruction within each control volume of unstructured meshes. A central flux function is used for the convective terms and a solution jump term is added to the averaged component for the viscous terms. Global implicit time-stepping using successive evolution-relaxation is utilised to accelerate the convergence to steady-state solutions. The performance of our flow solver is examined for power-law and Carreau-Yasuda non-Newtonian fluids in different geometries. The effects of model parameters and Reynolds number are studied on the convergence rate and flow features. Our results verify second-order accuracy of the discretisation and also fast and efficient convergence to the steady-state solution for a wide range of flow variables.

  11. Mathematically Derived Body Volume and Risk of Musculoskeletal Pain among Housewives in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bihari, Vipin; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Mathur, Neeraj; Pangtey, Balram Singh; Kamal, Ritul; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Srivastava, Anup Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 demonstrates the impact of musculoskeletal diseases as the second greatest cause of disability globally in all regions of the world. The study was conducted to determine the role of mathematically derived body volume (BV), body volume index (BVI), body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA) and body fat % (BF %) on musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among housewives in National Capital Region (NCR). Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 495 housewives from Gurgaon and New Okhla Industrial Development Area (NOIDA) in National Capital Region (NCR), New Delhi, India. The study includes questionnaire survey, clinical examination and body composition monitoring among housewives. Results A significantly higher BMI, BVI, BV and BSA were observed in subjects with MSP as compared to those who had no MSP. This was also true for subjects with pain in knee for BMI category for overweight. Subjects with pain in limbs had significantly high BMI and BVI as compared to subjects with no MSP. A significant positive correlation of age with BMI, BVI, BV and BSA was observed among subjects having no MSP denoting a direct relationship of age and these body factors. Conclusions The prevalence of MSP among housewives is associated with increasing age, BMI and BVI. This can possibly be used for formulating a strategy for prevention of MSP. PMID:24223218

  12. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  13. Development and experience lead to increased volume of subcompartments of the honeybee mushroom body.

    PubMed

    Durst, C; Eichmüller, S; Menzel, R

    1994-11-01

    The mushroom bodies of insects are believed to be involved in higher order sensory integration and learning. In the honeybee, the mushroom body can be separated into three different, modality-specific input compartments and several morphologically inseparable output regions. By means of morphometric analysis we show that the volumes of these subcompartments depend on both the age of the adult bee and its experience. For the most part a significant, age-dependent increase in neuropile volume is observed. Additionally, the olfactory and visual input regions show experience-related differences. Unlike other subcompartments, the visual input region does not change in volume with age, but only with experience. We thus suggest that experience is an important factor in the structural development of higher order brain regions of an insect, the honeybee. PMID:7857249

  14. Electroanalytical and surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in cells and body fluids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghui; Yi, Xinyao; Wang, Jianxiu; Zhou, Feimeng

    2014-04-21

    Cancer and neurological disorders are two leading causes of human death. Their early diagnoses will either greatly improve the survival rate or facilitate effective treatments or modalities. Detection of biomarkers in body fluids and some tissues (e.g., blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluids) is relatively non-invasive and provides useful chemical and biological information that is complementary to tomographic imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography). Recent years have witnessed the contributions from and potential applications of bioanalytical methods for early detection of major diseases. In this review, we survey some recent developments of electroanalytical (as a representative label-based technique) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) (as a representative label-free technique) biosensors for detection of biomarkers relevant to etiologies of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While breast cancer is representative of cancers of complexity (multiple biomarkers, false positives from tomographic scans, and a need for more effective early diagnostic methods), AD is the most prevalent neurological disorder that is also linked to multiple biomarkers. Both electroanalytical and SPR-based sensors have attractive features of sensitivity, portability, obviation of large sample volumes, and capability of multiplexed detection. Various sensing protocols developed in the past five years are reviewed, demonstrating the feasibility of both techniques for diagnostic purposes. Problems inherent in these two techniques that must be overcome before being clinically viable are also discussed.

  15. Multicomponent T2 Analysis of Articular Cartilage With Synovial Fluid Partial Volume Correction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Chaudhary, Rajeev; Block, Walter F.; Samsonov, Alexey; Kijowski, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of a three-pool model to account for the confounding effects of synovial fluid on multicomponent T2 analysis of articular cartilage using Multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Shot Observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT). Materials and Methods mcDESPOT was performed on the knee of eight asymptomatic volunteers and eight patients with osteoarthritis at 3.0T with multicomponent T2 maps created using the two-pool model and a three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. The fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) and the T2 relaxation times for the fast-relaxing (T2F) and slow-relaxing (T2S) water components were measured in the superficial and deep layers of patellar cartilage using the two-pool and three-pool models in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis and were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results Within the superficial layer of patellar cartilage, FF was 22.5% and 25.6% for asymptomatic volunteers and 21.3% and 22.8% for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively, while T2S was 73.9 msec and 62.0 msec for asymptomatic volunteers and 72.0 msec and 63.1 msec for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively. For both asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis, the two-pool model provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower FF and higher T2S than the three-pool model, likely due to the effects of synovial fluid partial volume averaging. Conclusion The effects of partial volume averaging between superficial cartilage and synovial fluid may result in biased multicomponent T2 measurements that can be corrected using an mcDESPOT three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. PMID:26435385

  16. Response of a fluid-immersed microcantilever close to a deformable body

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R. J.; Lee, T. C.; Cater, J. E.; Bachtiar, V.; Minton, J.

    2015-03-07

    The importance of hydrodynamics upon the response of a microcantilever immersed in a viscous fluid has been well established [J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 64 (1998); C. A. Eysden and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044908 (2007)]. It has previously been shown that the presence of a nearby rigid planar surface can significantly alter a microcantilever's non-contact response, through microcantilever–surface hydrodynamic interactions [C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, Phys. Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., J. Fluid Mech. 545, 397426 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050801 (2006).]. In cases where the nearby surface is a finite-sized deformable body, such as in noncontact microrheology measurements, we expect to see further changes in the microcantilever's response. Hence, we here compute the thermal spectra of several microcantilevers in the presence of different compliant samples that have the characteristics of soft biological fibres. Our findings demonstrate that the elastohydrodynamic regime can substantially dictate the extent to which the compliance of a given body is evident in the microcantilever's thermal spectra, and suggest that certain nondimensional quantities should lie within particular, ranges for this to be the case. We expect these findings to be of interest in areas such as Atomic Force Microscopy, microsensing, and non-contact microrheology.

  17. Response of a fluid-immersed microcantilever close to a deformable body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. J.; Bachtiar, V.; Lee, T. C.; Cater, J. E.; Minton, J.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of hydrodynamics upon the response of a microcantilever immersed in a viscous fluid has been well established [J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 64 (1998); C. A. Eysden and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044908 (2007)]. It has previously been shown that the presence of a nearby rigid planar surface can significantly alter a microcantilever's non-contact response, through microcantilever-surface hydrodynamic interactions [C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, Phys. Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., J. Fluid Mech. 545, 397426 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050801 (2006).]. In cases where the nearby surface is a finite-sized deformable body, such as in noncontact microrheology measurements, we expect to see further changes in the microcantilever's response. Hence, we here compute the thermal spectra of several microcantilevers in the presence of different compliant samples that have the characteristics of soft biological fibres. Our findings demonstrate that the elastohydrodynamic regime can substantially dictate the extent to which the compliance of a given body is evident in the microcantilever's thermal spectra, and suggest that certain nondimensional quantities should lie within particular, ranges for this to be the case. We expect these findings to be of interest in areas such as Atomic Force Microscopy, microsensing, and non-contact microrheology.

  18. Raman spectroscopic signature of semen and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-12-15

    A great potential of Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci. Int. 2008). However, that analysis was carried out on only one sample of each body fluid and did not take into account any variations that might occur between different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a sample as well as among multiple donors for human semen. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human semen samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. The major chemical components that contributed to the Raman spectrum of semen were determined and used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of semen was also addressed. Advanced statistical analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry semen is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry semen in a quantitative way. The combination of the three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for semen. This proof-of-concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen during forensic analysis.

  19. Differential volume regulation and calcium signaling in two ciliary body cell types is subserved by TRPV4 channels

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Andrew O.; Lakk, Monika; Frye, Amber M.; Phuong, Tam T. T.; Redmon, Sarah N.; Roberts, Robin; Berkowitz, Bruce A.; Yarishkin, Oleg; Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    Fluid secretion by the ciliary body plays a critical and irreplaceable function in vertebrate vision by providing nutritive support to the cornea and lens, and by maintaining intraocular pressure. Here, we identify TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid isoform 4) channels as key osmosensors in nonpigmented epithelial (NPE) cells of the mouse ciliary body. Hypotonic swelling and the selective agonist GSK1016790A (EC50 ∼33 nM) induced sustained transmembrane cation currents and cytosolic [Ca2+]i elevations in dissociated and intact NPE cells. Swelling had no effect on [Ca2+]i levels in pigment epithelial (PE) cells, whereas depolarization evoked [Ca2+]i elevations in both NPE and PE cells. Swelling-evoked [Ca2+]i signals were inhibited by the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (IC50 ∼0.9 μM) and were absent in Trpv4−/− NPE. In NPE, but not PE, swelling-induced [Ca2+]i signals required phospholipase A2 activation. TRPV4 localization to NPE was confirmed with immunolocalization and excitation mapping approaches, whereas in vivo MRI analysis confirmed TRPV4-mediated signals in the intact mouse ciliary body. Trpv2 and Trpv4 were the most abundant vanilloid transcripts in CB. Overall, our results support a model whereby TRPV4 differentially regulates cell volume, lipid, and calcium signals in NPE and PE cell types and therefore represents a potential target for antiglaucoma medications. PMID:27006502

  20. Rheological modelling of complex fluids. I. The concept of effective volume fraction revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quemada, D.

    1998-01-01

    Number of complex fluids (as slurries, drilling muds, paints and coatings, many foods, cosmetics, biofluids...) can approximately be described as concentrated dispersions of Structural Units (SUs). Due to shear forces, SUs are assumed to be approximately spherical in shape and uniform in size under steady flow conditions, so that a complex fluid can be considered as a roughly monodisperse dispersion of roughly spherical SUs (with a shear-dependent mean radius), what allows to generalize hard sphere models of monodisperse suspensions to complex fluids. A rheological model of such dispersions of SUs is based on the concept of the effective volume fraction, φ_{eff} which depends on flow conditions. Indeed, in competition with particle interactions, hydrodynamic forces can modify (i) S, the number fraction of particles that all SUs contain, (ii) both SUs arrangements and their internal structure, especially the SU's compactness, \\varphi. As a structural variable, S is governed by a kinetic equation. Through the shear-dependent kinetic rates involved in the latter, the general solution S depends on Γ, a dimensionless shear variable, leading to φ_{eff}(t, Γ; \\varphi). The structural modelling is achieved by introducing this expression of φ_{eff} into a well-established viscosity model of hard sphere suspensions. Using the steady state solution of the kinetic equation, S_{eq}(Γ ), allows to model non-Newtonian behaviors of complex fluids under steady shear conditions, as pseudo-plastic, plastic, dilatant ... ones. In this model, the ratio of high shear to low shear limiting viscosities appears as a key variable. Different examples of application will be discussed.

  1. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A; Davies, L; Hale, R; Gallagher, JE

    2012-01-01

    Background: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010. Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity. Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72%) took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%), followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%). Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted. PMID:23118545

  2. Volume-of-fluid algorithm with different modified dynamic material ordering methods and their comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, Shashank

    2010-05-01

    Volume-of-fluid (VOF) interface reconstruction methods are used to define material interfaces to separate different materials in a mixed cell. These material interfaces are then used to evaluate transport flux at each cell edges in multi-material hydrodynamic calculations. Most of the VOF interface reconstruction methods and volume transport schemes rely on an accurate material order unique to each computational cell. Similarly, to achieve overshoot-free volume fractions, a non-intersecting interface reconstruction procedure has to be performed with the help of a 'material-order list' determined prior to interface reconstruction. It is, however, the least explored area of VOF technique especially for 'onion-skin' or 'layered' model. Also, important technical details how to prevent intersection among different material interfaces are missing in many literature. Here, we present an efficient VOF interface tracking algorithm along with modified 'material order' methods and different interface reconstruction methods. The relative accuracy of different methods are evaluated for sample problems. Finally, a convergence study with respect to mesh-size is performed.

  3. Can serpentinization induce fracturing? Fluid pathway development and the volume increase enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plümper, Oliver; Jamtveit, Bjørn; Røyne, Anja

    2013-04-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks has first-order effects on global element cycles, the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere, plays a key role in plate tectonics by lubricating subduction zones and has been linked to the origin of life due to the creation of abiogenic hydrocarbons. In addition, the capability of ultramafic rocks to safely store enormous amounts of carbon dioxide through mineral reactions may provide a unique solution to fight global warming. However, all the aforementioned processes are reliant on the creation and maintenance of fluid pathways to alter an originally impermeable rock. Although the forces that move tectonic plates can produce these fluid pathways by mechanical fracturing, there is ample evidence that serpentinization reactions can 'eat' their way through a rock. This process is facilitated by solid volume changes during mineral reactions that cause expansion, fracturing the rock to generate fluid pathways. Natural observations of serpentinization/carbonation in ultramafic rocks indicate that the associated positive solid volume change alone exerts enough stress on the surrounding rock to build up a fracture network and that the influence of external tectonic forces is not necessary. Through various feedbacks these systems can either become self-sustaining, when an interconnected fracture network is formed, or self-limiting due to fluid pathway obstruction. However, extensively serpentinized outcrops suggest that although crystal growth in newly opened spaces would reduce permeability, serpentinization is not always self-limiting as porosity generation can occur concomitantly, maintaining or even increasing permeability. This is consistent with theory and demonstrates that fluids transported through fracture networks can alter vast amounts of originally impermeable rock. Nevertheless, whether serpentinization can actually generate these fracture networks is still a matter of debate and only a few scientific investigations have

  4. Circulating MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers in Forensic Body Fluids Identification.

    PubMed

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Enache, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. Currently, it is possible to genotype all types of biological traces or micro-traces containing nucleated cells if they are not entirely destroyed, chemically or bacterial. The DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples, but due to the recent advances in molecular genetics, other biomarkers have been proposed to be used in forensic identifications, such as: messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation. MicroRNAs are part of a class of small, non-coding RNAs that contain 19 - 23 nucleotides. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of biochemical mechanisms, cell proliferation and other cellular mechanisms in the human body. The level of microRNAs in blood and other body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat) increases as a consequence of altered pathophysiological mechanisms and tissue insult. Moreover, the stability and specificity of microRNAs make them ideal candidates for circulating biomarkers in forensic bioanalytical procedures. In this review, we want to present a brief overview of biogenesis, functions, and applications of miRNAs in the identification of forensic body fluids. PMID:26554231

  5. Circulating MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers in Forensic Body Fluids Identification.

    PubMed

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Enache, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. Currently, it is possible to genotype all types of biological traces or micro-traces containing nucleated cells if they are not entirely destroyed, chemically or bacterial. The DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples, but due to the recent advances in molecular genetics, other biomarkers have been proposed to be used in forensic identifications, such as: messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation. MicroRNAs are part of a class of small, non-coding RNAs that contain 19 - 23 nucleotides. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of biochemical mechanisms, cell proliferation and other cellular mechanisms in the human body. The level of microRNAs in blood and other body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat) increases as a consequence of altered pathophysiological mechanisms and tissue insult. Moreover, the stability and specificity of microRNAs make them ideal candidates for circulating biomarkers in forensic bioanalytical procedures. In this review, we want to present a brief overview of biogenesis, functions, and applications of miRNAs in the identification of forensic body fluids.

  6. Inter-Fraction Tumor Volume Response during Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Correlated to Patient Variables

    PubMed Central

    Ayan, Ahmet S.; Mo, Xiaokui; Williams, Terence M.; Mayr, Nina A.; Grecula, John C.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Xu-Welliver, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Analyze inter-fraction volumetric changes of lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and determine if the volume changes during treatment can be predicted and thus considered in treatment planning. Methods and Materials Kilo-voltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) images obtained immediately prior to each fraction were used to monitor inter-fraction volumetric changes of 15 consecutive patients (18 lung nodules) treated with lung SBRT at our institution (45–54 Gy in 3–5 fractions) in the year of 2011–2012. Spearman's (ρ) correlation and Spearman's partial correlation analysis was performed with respect to patient/tumor and treatment characteristics. Multiple hypothesis correction was performed using False Discovery Rate (FDR) and q-values were reported. Results All tumors studied experienced volume change during treatment. Tumor increased in volume by an average of 15% and regressed by an average of 11%. The overall volume increase during treatment is contained within the planning target volume (PTV) for all tumors. Larger tumors increased in volume more than smaller tumors during treatment (q = 0.0029). The volume increase on CBCT was correlated to the treatment planning gross target volume (GTV) as well as internal target volumes (ITV) (q = 0.0085 and q = 0.0039 respectively) and could be predicted for tumors with a GTV less than 22 mL. The volume increase was correlated to the integral dose (ID) in the ITV at every fraction (q = 0.0049). The peak inter-fraction volume occurred at an earlier fraction in younger patients (q = 0.0122). Conclusions We introduced a new analysis method to follow inter-fraction tumor volume changes and determined that the observed changes during lung SBRT treatment are correlated to the initial tumor volume, integral dose (ID), and patient age. Furthermore, the volume increase during treatment of tumors less than 22mL can be predicted during treatment planning. The volume increase remained

  7. Maternal ingested methadone, body fluid methadone, and the neonatal withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harper, R G; Solish, G; Feingold, E; Gersten-Woolf, N B; Sokal, M M

    1977-10-15

    The relationship between the quantity of methadone ingested by the pregnant mother, the quantity of methadone in maternal and neonatal body fluids, and the subsequent neonatal withdrawal course was studied. The severity of the neonatal withdrawal syndrome was found to be related to the total dose of methadone ingested by the mother during the last 12 weeks of pregnancy (p less than 0.02), the maternal dose of methadone at delivery (p less than 0.01), and the intrapartum serum methadone levels (p less than 0.01). The cord blood levels of methadone were consistently lower than the maternal serum levels. Amniotic fluid methadone levels were not constantly related to maternal or neonatal serum methadone levels. Concentrations of methadone 10 to 60 times greater than that of cord blood were found in neonatal urine.

  8. Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis of a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to target messenger RNA markers for body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Haas, Cordula; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression is a promising new method for the identification of body fluids. A number of mRNA markers have been identified for the forensically most relevant body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, and menstrual blood. Apart from a significant improvement in specificity compared to conventional protein-based methods, other important advantages of body fluid identification by mRNA profiling include the possibility of simultaneously isolating RNA and DNA from the same piece of stain and the ability to multiplex numerous RNA markers for the identification of one or several body fluids. RNA profiling can be incorporated into current DNA analysis pipelines.

  10. Mushroom body volumes and visual interneurons in ants: comparison between sexes and castes.

    PubMed

    Ehmer, Birgit; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2004-02-01

    The mushroom bodies are brain centers involved in complex behaviors such as learning and orientation. Here we examine the organization of mushroom bodies in ants, focusing on visual input. We describe the structure of visual neurons and compare the volume of brain structures involved in visual processing, especially the optic lobes and parts of the mushroom bodies receiving visual input in males, winged females, and workers of carpenter ants (Camponotus). A relatively small number of neurons connect the medulla with the mushroom bodies, and these neurons have relatively large dendritic fields in the medulla, suggesting low spatial resolution in ants. These neurons terminate in different yet overlapping strata in the mushroom bodies' collar region. While males have larger optic lobes than workers, their collar region is smaller than in females. Male ants have an additional type of medulla-mushroom body neuron with dendrites probing the distal medulla. These neurons are absent in female and worker ants. Most mushroom body Kenyon cells that are postsynaptic to visual input neurons appear to integrate visual as well as antennal input. This is in contrast to honey bees, where visual input to the mushroom bodies is more prominent and where Kenyon cells are not known to combine visual and antennal input.

  11. Mushroom body volumes and visual interneurons in ants: comparison between sexes and castes.

    PubMed

    Ehmer, Birgit; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2004-02-01

    The mushroom bodies are brain centers involved in complex behaviors such as learning and orientation. Here we examine the organization of mushroom bodies in ants, focusing on visual input. We describe the structure of visual neurons and compare the volume of brain structures involved in visual processing, especially the optic lobes and parts of the mushroom bodies receiving visual input in males, winged females, and workers of carpenter ants (Camponotus). A relatively small number of neurons connect the medulla with the mushroom bodies, and these neurons have relatively large dendritic fields in the medulla, suggesting low spatial resolution in ants. These neurons terminate in different yet overlapping strata in the mushroom bodies' collar region. While males have larger optic lobes than workers, their collar region is smaller than in females. Male ants have an additional type of medulla-mushroom body neuron with dendrites probing the distal medulla. These neurons are absent in female and worker ants. Most mushroom body Kenyon cells that are postsynaptic to visual input neurons appear to integrate visual as well as antennal input. This is in contrast to honey bees, where visual input to the mushroom bodies is more prominent and where Kenyon cells are not known to combine visual and antennal input. PMID:14694534

  12. Direct Y-STR amplification of body fluids deposited on commonly found crime scene substrates.

    PubMed

    Dargay, Amanda; Roy, Reena

    2016-04-01

    Body fluids detected on commonly found crime scene substrates require extraction, purification and quantitation of DNA prior to amplification and generation of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiles. In this research Y-STR profiles were generated via direct amplification of blood and saliva deposited on 12 different substrates. These included cigarette butts, straws, grass, leaves, woodchips and seven different types of fabric. After depositing either 0.1 μL of blood or 0.5 μL of saliva, each substrate containing the dry body fluid stain was punched using a Harris 1.2 mm micro-punch. Each of these punched substrates, a total of 720 samples, containing minute amount of blood or saliva was either amplified directly without any pre-treatment, or was treated with one of the four washing reagents or buffer. In each of these five experimental groups the substrates containing the body fluid remained in the amplification reagent during the thermal cycling process. Each sample was amplified with the three direct Y-STR amplification kits; AmpFℓSTR(®) Yfiler(®) Direct, Yfiler(®) Plus Amplification Kits and the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System. Complete and concordant Y-STR profiles were successfully obtained from most of these 12 challenging crime scene objects when the stains were analyzed by at least one of the five experimental groups. The reagents and buffer were interchangeable among the three amplification kits, however, pre-treatment with these solutions did not appear to enhance the quality or the number of the full profiles generated with direct amplification. This study demonstrates that blood and saliva deposited on these simulated crime scene objects can be amplified directly.

  13. Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Fluid Structure Interaction with Complex 3D Rigid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2010-01-01

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782–1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken’s acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the

  14. Occupational Exposure of Shiraz Dental Students to Patients’ Blood and Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shaghaghian, Soheila; Golkari, Ali; Pardis, Soheil; Rezayi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Exposure to patients’ blood and body fluids would prone the dental students to the risk of blood borne infections. Several studies have shown a high prevalence of these exposures in dental settings particularly in developing countries. However, few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of these exposures in dental students in Iran. Purpose To assess the epidemiology of occupational exposures among dental students and consequently designing the appropriate interventions in order to prevent these exposures. Materials and Method In this cross-sectional study performed during March to June 2011, all 191 Shiraz clinical dental students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire included demographic information and experience of sharp injuries and mucocutaneous contaminations. Chi square and t-test were employed to evaluate the risk factors of exposure. Results 80%of the participants were exposed to the patients’ blood or body fluids during their clinical course. No association was found between the exposure and demographic factors. Injection needle and recapping were the most common causes of these injuries. The most common sites that were injured and caused mucocutaneous contamination were finger and face, respectively. The most frequent activity causing contamination was using high-speed rotary instruments. Only 6.4% of the exposures had been reported to the related authorities and the remains were underreported. Conclusion Blood and body fluid exposure in dental setting is common and a lot of them are not reported. To reduce the hazards of these exposures, infection control authorities should design interventions especially for mentioned high-risk conditions. They should change dental students’ behavior especially regarding not recapping injection needles and using eyewear. Dental schools seem to need a management center and a standard protocol for following up the exposures. PMID:26331151

  15. Body density and diving gas volume of the northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Patrick; Narazaki, Tomoko; Isojunno, Saana; Aoki, Kagari; Smout, Sophie; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-15

    Diving lung volume and tissue density, reflecting lipid store volume, are important physiological parameters that have only been estimated for a few breath-hold diving species. We fitted 12 northern bottlenose whales with data loggers that recorded depth, 3-axis acceleration and speed either with a fly-wheel or from change of depth corrected by pitch angle. We fitted measured values of the change in speed during 5 s descent and ascent glides to a hydrodynamic model of drag and buoyancy forces using a Bayesian estimation framework. The resulting estimate of diving gas volume was 27.4±4.2 (95% credible interval, CI) ml kg(-1), closely matching the measured lung capacity of the species. Dive-by-dive variation in gas volume did not correlate with dive depth or duration. Estimated body densities of individuals ranged from 1028.4 to 1033.9 kg m(-3) at the sea surface, indicating overall negative tissue buoyancy of this species in seawater. Body density estimates were highly precise with ±95% CI ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 kg m(-3), which would equate to a precision of <0.5% of lipid content based upon extrapolation from the elephant seal. Six whales tagged near Jan Mayen (Norway, 71°N) had lower body density and were closer to neutral buoyancy than six whales tagged in the Gully (Nova Scotia, Canada, 44°N), a difference that was consistent with the amount of gliding observed during ascent versus descent phases in these animals. Implementation of this approach using longer-duration tags could be used to track longitudinal changes in body density and lipid store body condition of free-ranging cetaceans. PMID:27296044

  16. Body density and diving gas volume of the northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patrick; Narazaki, Tomoko; Isojunno, Saana; Aoki, Kagari; Smout, Sophie; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diving lung volume and tissue density, reflecting lipid store volume, are important physiological parameters that have only been estimated for a few breath-hold diving species. We fitted 12 northern bottlenose whales with data loggers that recorded depth, 3-axis acceleration and speed either with a fly-wheel or from change of depth corrected by pitch angle. We fitted measured values of the change in speed during 5 s descent and ascent glides to a hydrodynamic model of drag and buoyancy forces using a Bayesian estimation framework. The resulting estimate of diving gas volume was 27.4±4.2 (95% credible interval, CI) ml kg−1, closely matching the measured lung capacity of the species. Dive-by-dive variation in gas volume did not correlate with dive depth or duration. Estimated body densities of individuals ranged from 1028.4 to 1033.9 kg m−3 at the sea surface, indicating overall negative tissue buoyancy of this species in seawater. Body density estimates were highly precise with ±95% CI ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 kg m−3, which would equate to a precision of <0.5% of lipid content based upon extrapolation from the elephant seal. Six whales tagged near Jan Mayen (Norway, 71°N) had lower body density and were closer to neutral buoyancy than six whales tagged in the Gully (Nova Scotia, Canada, 44°N), a difference that was consistent with the amount of gliding observed during ascent versus descent phases in these animals. Implementation of this approach using longer-duration tags could be used to track longitudinal changes in body density and lipid store body condition of free-ranging cetaceans. PMID:27296044

  17. Relation between pH and the strong ion difference (SID) in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Schück, Otto; Matousovic, Karel

    2005-06-01

    Acid-base balance evaluation according to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation enable us to assess the contribution of respiratory (pCO2) and/or non-respiratory (metabolic, HCO3(-)) components to the acid-base balance status. A new approach to acid-base balance evaluation according to Stewart-Fencl, which is based on a detailed physical-chemical analysis of body fluids shows that metabolic acid-base balance disorders are characterized not only by [HCO3(-)]. According to this concept independent variables must be taken into an account. The abnormality of concentration of one or more of the independent variable(s) determines the pH of a solution. The independent variables are: 1. strong ion difference (SID); 2. total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids [A(tot)]; 3. in agreement with the Henderson-Hasselbalch concept also pCO2. Traditional evaluation of acid-base balance disorders is based on the pH of body fluids (though pH may be within normal range if several acid-base balance disturbances are present). In order to maintain this view and simultaneously to respect the Stewart-Fencl principle, we invented a new equation, which uses only the independent variables to define the pH of body fluids. This analysis shows that for a given value of pCO2, the pH of body fluids is determined by a difference between SID and [A(tot)-]. pH = 6.1 + log((SID - [A(tot)-])/(0.03pCO2)) or in itemized form: pH = 6.1 + log((([Na+] + [K+] + [Ca2+] + [Mg2+] - [Cl-] - [UA-]) - (k1[Alb] + k2[P(i)]))/(0.03 x pCO2)). Evaluation of the individual components of this equation enables us to detect, which of the independent variable (or a combination of independent variables) deviates from the normal range and therefore which one or ones is a cause of the acid-base balance disorder. At the end of this paper we give examples of a practical application of this equation.

  18. Intracranial pressure pulse waveform correlates with aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid stroke volume.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert; Baldwin, Kevin; Fuller, Jennifer; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao; Bergsneider, Marvin

    2012-11-01

    This study identifies a novel relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume through the cerebral aqueduct and the characteristic peaks of the intracranial pulse (ICP) waveform. ICP waveform analysis has become much more advanced in recent years; however, clinical practice remains restricted to mean ICP, mainly due to the lack of physiological understanding of the ICP waveform. Therefore, the present study set out to shed some light on the physiological meaning of ICP morphological metrics derived by the morphological clustering and analysis of continuous intracranial pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm by investigating their relationships with a well defined physiological variable, i.e., the stroke volume of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct. Seven patients received both overnight ICP monitoring along with a phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) of the cerebral aqueduct to quantify aqueductal stroke volume (ASV). Waveform morphological analysis of the ICP signal was performed by the MOCAIP algorithm. Following extraction of morphological metrics from the ICP signal, nine temporal ICP metrics and two amplitude-based metrics were compared with the ASV via Spearman's rank correlation. Of the nine temporal metrics correlated with the ASV, only the width of the P2 region (ICP-Wi2) reached significance. Furthermore, both ICP pulse pressure amplitude and mean ICP did not reach significance. In this study, we showed the width of the second peak (ICP-Wi2) of an ICP pulse wave is positively related to the volume of CSF movement through the cerebral aqueduct. This finding is an initial step in bridging the gap between ICP waveform morphology research and clinical practice.

  19. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 3: Assessment Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, C.; Hughes, E. D.; Niederauer, G. F.; Wilkening, H.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Royl, P.; Baumann, W.

    1998-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best- estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume

  20. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 2: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B. D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G. A.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Lam, K. L.; Royl, P.; Wilson, T. L.

    1998-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume III

  1. Genome-wide mRNA profiling and multiplex quantitative RT-PCR for forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Min; Park, Seong-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Tae-Wook; Park, Jong-Lyul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Jong-Sik; Lee, Han-Chul; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In forensic science, identifying a tissue where a forensic specimen was originated is one of the principal challenges. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profile clearly reveals tissue-specific gene expression patterns that many attempts have been made to use RNA for forensic tissue identification. To systematically investigate the body-fluid-specific expression of mRNAs and find novel mRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we performed DNA microarray experiment with 24 Korean body fluid samples. Shannon entropy and Q-values were calculated for each gene, and 137 body-fluid-specific candidate genes were selected. By applying more stringent criteria, we further selected 28 candidate genes and validated them by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. As a result, we suggest a novel combination of four body-fluid-specific mRNA makers: PPBP for blood, FDCSP for saliva, MSMB for semen and MSLN for vaginal secretion. Multiplex qRT-PCR assay was designed using the four mRNA markers and DNA/RNA co-extraction method was tested for forensic use. This study will provide a thorough examination of body-fluid-specifically expressed mRNAs, which will enlarge the possibility of practical use of RNA for forensic purpose.

  2. Absorption of bacampicillin and ampicillin and penetration into body fluids (skin blister fluid, saliva, tears) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Simon, C; Malerczyk, V; Klaus, M

    1978-01-01

    Equimolar doses of bacampicillin, which is rapidly converted to ampicillin in the body by hydrolysis, and ampicillin were administered orally, in the case of ampicillin also by intravenous injection, to 10 healthy subjects (cross-over study). Comparison of the areas under the serum concentrations curves after intravenous and oral administration showed that bacampillin was absorbed to 95% and orally given ampicillin to 35%. The mean peak serum levels (Cmax) after 0.8 g of oral bacampicillin were higher (15.9 microgram/ml) and appeared earlier (tmax 60 min) than after 0.556 g of oral ampicillin (3.2 microgram/ml, tmax 150 min). One and three hours after oral administration skin blister fluid contained four times more ampicillin after doses of bacampicillin than after oral ampicillin. One hour after intravenous injection of ampicillin the skin blister concentrations were 20 times higher than after oral administration of this antibiotic and three to four times higher than after oral administration of bacampicillin. The levels in saliva and tears were also determined and showed similar relationships. Since higher peaks serum levels resulted in higher and longer lasting concentrations in the extravascular space, bacampicillin is to be preferred for oral therapy.

  3. Body fluid alterations during head-down bed rest in men at moderate altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Roach, R. C.; Selland, M. A.; Scotto, P.; Luft, F. C.; Luft, U. C.

    1993-01-01

    To determine the effects of hypoxia on fluid balance responses to simulated zero-gravity, measurements were made in six subjects before and during -5 deg continuous head-down bed rest (HDBR) over 8 d at 10,678 ft. The same subjects were studied again at this altitude without HDBR as a control (CON) using a cross-over design. During this time, they maintained normal upright day-time activities, sleeping in the horizontal position at night. Fluid balance changes during HDBR in hypoxia were more pronounced than similar measurements previously reported from HDBR studies at sea level. Plasma volume loss was slightly greater and the diuresis and natriuresis were doubled in magnitude as compared to previous studies in normoxia and sustained for 4 d during hypoxia. These changes were associated with an immediate but transient rise in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to day 4 of 140 percent in HDBR and 41 percent in CON (p less than 0.005), followed by a decline towards baseline. Differences were less striking between HDBR and CON for plasma antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone, which were transiently reduced by HDBR. Plasma catecholamines showed a similar pattern to ANP in both HDBR and CON, suggesting that elevated ANP and catecholamines together accounted for the enhanced fluid shifts with HDBR during hypoxia.

  4. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of mineral nanoparticles derived from human body fluids and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Chen, Chi-De; Yu, Jau-Song; Young, John D

    2011-11-01

    Mineralo-protein nanoparticles (NPs) formed spontaneously in the body have been associated with ectopic calcifications seen in atherosclerosis, chronic degenerative diseases, and kidney stone formation. Synthetic NPs are also known to become coated with proteins when they come in contact with body fluids. Identifying the proteins found in NPs should help unravel how NPs are formed in the body and how NPs in general, be they synthetic or naturally formed, interact within the body. Here, we developed a proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine the protein composition of carbonate-apatite NPs derived from human body fluids (serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, pleural effusion, and synovial fluid). LC-MS/MS provided not only an efficient and comprehensive determination of the protein constituents, but also a semiquantitative ranking of the identified proteins. Notably, the identified NP proteins mirrored the protein composition of the contacting body fluids, with albumin, fetuin-A, complement C3, α-1-antitrypsin, prothrombin, and apolipoproteins A1 and B-100 being consistently associated with the particles. Since several coagulation factors, calcification inhibitors, complement proteins, immune regulators, protease inhibitors, and lipid/molecule carriers can all become NP constituents, our results suggest that mineralo-protein complexes may interface with distinct biochemical pathways in the body depending on their protein composition. We propose that LC-MS/MS be used to characterize proteins found in both synthetic and natural NPs.

  5. Development, Verification and Validation of Parallel, Scalable Volume of Fluid CFD Program for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances involving liquid/gas interfaces and their dynamics in the design of liquid engine powered rockets such as the Space Launch System (SLS). Some examples of these applications are: Propellant tank draining and slosh, subcritical condition injector analysis for gas generators, preburners and thrust chambers, water deluge mitigation for launch induced environments and even solid rocket motor liquid slag dynamics. Commercially available CFD programs simulating gas/liquid interfaces using the Volume of Fluid approach are currently limited in their parallel scalability. In 2010 for instance, an internal NASA/MSFC review of three commercial tools revealed that parallel scalability was seriously compromised at 8 cpus and no additional speedup was possible after 32 cpus. Other non-interface CFD applications at the time were demonstrating useful parallel scalability up to 4,096 processors or more. Based on this review, NASA/MSFC initiated an effort to implement a Volume of Fluid implementation within the unstructured mesh, pressure-based algorithm CFD program, Loci-STREAM. After verification was achieved by comparing results to the commercial CFD program CFD-Ace+, and validation by direct comparison with data, Loci-STREAM-VoF is now the production CFD tool for propellant slosh force and slosh damping rate simulations at NASA/MSFC. On these applications, good parallel scalability has been demonstrated for problems sizes of tens of millions of cells and thousands of cpu cores. Ongoing efforts are focused on the application of Loci-STREAM-VoF to predict the transient flow patterns of water on the SLS Mobile Launch Platform in order to support the phasing of water for launch environment mitigation so that vehicle determinantal effects are not realized.

  6. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV.

  7. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV. PMID:27440743

  8. Cul-de-sac fluid in women with endometriosis: fluid volume, protein and prostanoid concentration during the periovulatory period--days 13 to 18.

    PubMed

    Rezai, N; Ghodgaonkar, R B; Zacur, H A; Rock, J A; Dubin, N H

    1987-07-01

    Cul-de-sac fluid from women with histologically confirmed endometriosis (n = 45) or from infertile women without evidence of endometriosis (n = 28) was collected at the time of laparoscopy during the periovulatory period (days 13 to 18). This fluid was analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a), 13,14-dihydro-15 keto-PGF2a (PGFM), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Protein content of the fluid also was determined. No difference (P greater than 0.05) in cul-de-sac fluid volume was found between women with and without endometriosis, nor were differences detected in the level of any of the prostanoids measured in fluid from infertile control patients compared with those with endometriosis. This was true regardless of whether the prostanoids were expressed as a concentration, total amount in fluid, or as a ratio of prostanoid to protein content. The present study does not support the theory that cul-de-sac fluid prostanoids provide a useful diagnostic index of endometriosis.

  9. Ratio of Trunk to Leg Volume as a New Body Shape Metric for Diabetes and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joseph P.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body shape is a known risk factor for diabetes and mortality, but the methods estimating body shape, BMI and waist circumference are crude. We determined whether a novel body shape measure, trunk to leg volume ratio, was independently associated with diabetes and mortality. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 1999–2004, a study representative of the US population, were used to generate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived trunk to leg volume ratio and determine its associations to diabetes, metabolic covariates, and mortality by BMI category, gender, and race/ethnicity group. Results The prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes increased with age, BMI, triglycerides, blood pressure, and decreased HDL level. After adjusting for covariates, the corresponding fourth to first quartile trunk to leg volume ratio odds ratios (OR) were 6.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–9.6) for diabetes, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.0–5.2) for high triglycerides, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.6–2.1) for high blood pressure, 3.0 (95% CI, 2.4–3.8) for low HDL, 3.6 (95% CI, 2.8–4.7) for metabolic syndrome, and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.20–2.60) for mortality. Additionally, trunk to leg volume ratio was the strongest independent measure associated with diabetes (P<0.001), even after adjusting for BMI and waist circumference. Even among those with normal BMI, those in the highest quartile of trunk to leg volume ratio had a higher likelihood of death (5.5%) than those in the lowest quartile (0.2%). Overall, trunk to leg volume ratio is driven by competing mechanisms of changing adiposity and lean mass. Conclusions A high ratio of trunk to leg volume showed a strong association to diabetes and mortality that was independent of total and regional fat distributions. This novel body shape measure provides additional information regarding central adiposity and appendicular wasting to better stratify individuals at risk for diabetes and mortality, even among those with

  10. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a body fluid biomarker for glial pathology in human disease.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Axel

    2015-03-10

    This review on the role of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a biomarker for astroglial pathology in neurological diseases provides background to protein synthesis, assembly, function and degeneration. Qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques for the investigation of human tissue and biological fluid samples are discussed including partial lack of parallelism and multiplexing capabilities. Pathological implications are reviewed in view of immunocytochemical, cell-culture and genetic findings. Particular emphasis is given to neurodegeneration related to autoimmune astrocytopathies and to genetic gain of function mutations. The current literature on body fluid levels of GFAP in human disease is summarised and illustrated by disease specific meta-analyses. In addition to the role of GFAP as a diagnostic biomarker for chronic disease, there are important data on the prognostic value for acute conditions. The published evidence permits to classify the dominant GFAP signatures in biological fluids. This classification may serve as a template for supporting diagnostic criteria of autoimmune astrocytopathies, monitoring disease progression in toxic gain of function mutations, clinical treatment trials (secondary outcome and toxicity biomarker) and provide prognostic information in neurocritical care if used within well defined time-frames.

  11. Use of proteomic methods in the analysis of human body fluids in Alzheimer research.

    PubMed

    Zürbig, Petra; Jahn, Holger

    2012-12-01

    Proteomics is the study of the entire population of proteins and peptides in an organism or a part of it, such as a cell, tissue, or fluids like cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, serum, urine, or saliva. It is widely assumed that changes in the composition of the proteome may reflect disease states and provide clues to its origin, eventually leading to targets for new treatments. The ability to perform large-scale proteomic studies now is based jointly on recent advances in our analytical methods. Separation techniques like CE and 2DE have developed and matured. Detection methods like MS have also improved greatly in the last 5 years. These developments have also driven the fields of bioinformatics, needed to deal with the increased data production and systems biology. All these developing methods offer specific advantages but also come with certain limitations. This review describes the different proteomic methods used in the field, their limitations, and their possible pitfalls. Based on a literature search in PubMed, we identified 112 studies that applied proteomic techniques to identify biomarkers for Alzheimer disease. This review describes the results of these studies on proteome changes in human body fluids of Alzheimer patients reviewing the most important studies. We extracted a list of 366 proteins and peptides that were identified by these studies as potential targets in Alzheimer research.

  12. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun; Olsen, Jesper V; Shi, Rong; de Souza, Gustavo; Pasini, Erica; Foster, Leonard J; Macek, Boris; Zougman, Alexandre; Kumar, Chanchal; Wisniewski, Jacek R; Jun, Wang; Mann, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and stringent validation criteria, false positive identification rates in MAPU are lower than 1:1000. Thus MAPU datasets can serve as reference proteomes in biomarker discovery. MAPU contains the peptides identifying each protein, measured masses, scores and intensities and is freely available at http://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic annotation information and links to other public databases are provided in MAPU and we plan to add further analysis tools.

  13. Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite in silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline ZSM-5 zeolite using simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Balwinder; Srivastava, Rajendra; Satpati, Biswarup; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    Silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline zeolite (Ag-Nano-ZSM-5) and silver ion-exchanged conventional zeolite (Ag-ZSM-5) were synthesized. Zeolites were incubated in simulated body fluid at 310K for different time periods to grow hydroxyapatite in their matrixes. Significant large amount of hydroxyapatite was grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 matrix after incubation in simulated body fluid when compared to Ag-ZSM-5. The resultant material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, N2-adsorption, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma analysis. Mechanical properties such as compressive modulus, compressive strength, and strain at failure of the parent materials were evaluated. Biocompatibility assays suggested that Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 and hydroxyapatite grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 were compatible and did not impose any toxicity to RAW 264.7 cells macrophase and Caco2 cells suggesting considerable potential for biomedical applications such as bone implants.

  14. A wireless pH sensor using magnetoelasticity for measurement of body fluid acidity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Pengfei; Gao, Xianjuan; Xiao, Xilin; Yang, Wenyue; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-04-01

    The determination of body fluid acidity using a wireless magnetoelastic pH-sensitive sensor is described. The sensor was fabricated by casting a layer of pH-sensitive polymer on a magnetoelastic ribbon. In response to an externally applied time-varying magnetic field, the magnetoelastic sensor mechanically vibrates at a characteristic frequency that is inversely dependent upon the mass of the pH polymer film, which varies as the film swells and shrinks in response to pH. As the magnetoelastic sensor is magnetostrictive, the mechanical vibrations of the sensor launch magnetic flux that can be detected remotely using a pickup coil. The sensor can be used for direct measurements of body fluid acidity without a pretreatment of the sample by using a filtration membrane. A reversible and linear response was obtained between pH 5.0 and 8.0 with a measurement resolution of pH 0.1 and a slope of 0.2 kHz pH(-1). Since there are no physical connections between the sensor and the instrument, the sensor can be applied to in vivo and in situ monitoring of the physiological pH and its fluctuations.

  15. Rapid evolution of body fluid regulation following independent invasions into freshwater habitats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Posavi, Marijan; Charmantier, Guy

    2012-04-01

    Colonizations from marine to freshwater environments constitute among the most dramatic evolutionary transitions in the history of life. Colonizing dilute environments poses great challenges for acquiring essential ions against steep concentration gradients. This study explored the evolution of body fluid regulation following freshwater invasions by the copepod Eurytemora affinis. The goals of this study were to determine (1) whether invasions from saline to freshwater habitats were accompanied by evolutionary shifts in body fluid regulation (hemolymph osmolality) and (2) whether parallel shifts occurred during independent invasions. We measured hemolymph osmolality for ancestral saline and freshwater invading populations reared across a range of common-garden salinities (0.2-25 PSU). Our results revealed the evolution of increased hemolymph osmolality (by 16-31%) at lower salinities in freshwater populations of E. affinis relative to their saline ancestors. Moreover, we observed the same evolutionary shifts across two independent freshwater invasions. Such increases in hemolymph osmolality are consistent with evidence of increased ion uptake in freshwater populations at low salinity, found in a previous study, and are likely to entail increased energetic costs upon invading freshwater habitats. Our findings are consistent with the evolution of increased physiological regulation accompanying transitions into stressful environments.

  16. Body fluid biomarkers for multiple sclerosis--the long road to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte E; Malekzadeh, Arjan; Leurs, Cyra; Bridel, Claire; Killestein, Joep

    2015-10-01

    There is a strong unmet clinical need for objective body fluid biomarkers to assist early diagnosis and estimate long-term prognosis, monitor treatment response and predict potential adverse effects in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we review recent studies (focusing on 2012 to early 2015) on body fluid markers in MS from the perspective of their clinical utility. Because the first step towards clinical implementation of a newly discovered biomarker is independent replication, we focus on biomarkers that have been validated in at least two independent cohorts. We also discuss recent data challenging earlier findings, and biomarkers for which new clinical uses are suggested. For early MS diagnosis and prediction of conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to MS, several new B-cell-associated candidate blood biomarkers have emerged. For prognosis, several novel axonal damage markers should be adopted to biomarker panels. The number of disease-modifying treatments for MS has increased sharply, but biomarkers for treatment response monitoring and adverse effect prediction are scarce, and markers for subtyping and staging of MS are still lacking. In view of the availability and implementation of several standardized protocols to optimize biomarker studies, we expect biomarker development for MS to be improved and accelerated, with clinical implementation in the near future. PMID:26392381

  17. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  18. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun; Olsen, Jesper V.; Shi, Rong; de Souza, Gustavo; Pasini, Erica; Foster, Leonard J.; Macek, Boris; Zougman, Alexandre; Kumar, Chanchal; Wiśniewski, Jacek R.; Jun, Wang; Mann, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and stringent validation criteria, false positive identification rates in MAPU are lower than 1:1000. Thus MAPU datasets can serve as reference proteomes in biomarker discovery. MAPU contains the peptides identifying each protein, measured masses, scores and intensities and is freely available at using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic annotation information and links to other public databases are provided in MAPU and we plan to add further analysis tools. PMID:17090601

  19. Generation of a novel transgenic rat model for tracing extracellular vesicles in body fluids

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Aya; Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Katsuda, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hisae; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tamai, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the transfer of biomolecules between cells. To elucidate the intercellular transfer fate of EVs in vivo, we generated a new transgenic (Tg) rat model using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human CD63. CD63 protein is highly enriched on EV membranes via trafficking into late endosomes and is often used as an EV marker. The new Tg rat line in which human CD63-GFP is under control of the CAG promoter exhibited high expression of GFP in various body tissues. Exogenous human CD63-GFP was detected on EVs isolated from three body fluids of the Tg rats: blood serum, breast milk and amniotic fluid. In vitro culture allowed transfer of serum-derived CD63-GFP EVs into recipient rat embryonic fibroblasts, where the EVs localized in endocytic organelles. These results suggested that this Tg rat model should provide significant information for understanding the intercellular transfer and/or mother-child transfer of EVs in vivo. PMID:27539050

  20. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, M. N. K. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  1. Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite in silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline ZSM-5 zeolite using simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Balwinder; Srivastava, Rajendra; Satpati, Biswarup; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    Silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline zeolite (Ag-Nano-ZSM-5) and silver ion-exchanged conventional zeolite (Ag-ZSM-5) were synthesized. Zeolites were incubated in simulated body fluid at 310K for different time periods to grow hydroxyapatite in their matrixes. Significant large amount of hydroxyapatite was grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 matrix after incubation in simulated body fluid when compared to Ag-ZSM-5. The resultant material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, N2-adsorption, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma analysis. Mechanical properties such as compressive modulus, compressive strength, and strain at failure of the parent materials were evaluated. Biocompatibility assays suggested that Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 and hydroxyapatite grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 were compatible and did not impose any toxicity to RAW 264.7 cells macrophase and Caco2 cells suggesting considerable potential for biomedical applications such as bone implants. PMID:26255163

  2. Generation of a novel transgenic rat model for tracing extracellular vesicles in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Aya; Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Katsuda, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hisae; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tamai, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the transfer of biomolecules between cells. To elucidate the intercellular transfer fate of EVs in vivo, we generated a new transgenic (Tg) rat model using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human CD63. CD63 protein is highly enriched on EV membranes via trafficking into late endosomes and is often used as an EV marker. The new Tg rat line in which human CD63-GFP is under control of the CAG promoter exhibited high expression of GFP in various body tissues. Exogenous human CD63-GFP was detected on EVs isolated from three body fluids of the Tg rats: blood serum, breast milk and amniotic fluid. In vitro culture allowed transfer of serum-derived CD63-GFP EVs into recipient rat embryonic fibroblasts, where the EVs localized in endocytic organelles. These results suggested that this Tg rat model should provide significant information for understanding the intercellular transfer and/or mother-child transfer of EVs in vivo. PMID:27539050

  3. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions.

  4. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: β-carotene as a volume sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Zdenek; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šery, Mojmir; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Advanced optical instruments are useful for analysis and manipulation of individual living cells and their internal structures. We have employed Raman microspectroscopic analysis for assessment of algal lipid body (LB) volume in vivo. Some algae contain β-carotene in high amounts in their LBs, including strains which are considered useful in biotechnology for lipid and pigment production. We have detected proportionality between the Raman vibrations of β-carotene and the LB volume. This finding may allow fast acquisition of LB volume approximation valuable e.g. for Raman microspectroscopy assisted cell sorting. We combine optical manipulation and analysis on a microfluidic platform in order to achieve fast, effective, and non-invasive sorting based on spectroscopic features of the individual living cells. The resultant apparatus could find its use in demanding biotechnological applications such as selection of rare natural mutants or artificially modified cells resulting from genetic manipulations.

  5. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: β-carotene as a volume sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Zdenek; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šery, Mojmir; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Advanced optical instruments are useful for analysis and manipulation of individual living cells and their internal structures. We have employed Raman microspectroscopic analysis for assessment of algal lipid body (LB) volume in vivo. Some algae contain β-carotene in high amounts in their LBs, including strains which are considered useful in biotechnology for lipid and pigment production. We have detected proportionality between the Raman vibrations of β-carotene and the LB volume. This finding may allow fast acquisition of LB volume approximation valuable e.g. for Raman microspectroscopy assisted cell sorting. We combine optical manipulation and analysis on a microfluidic platform in order to achieve fast, effective, and non-invasive sorting based on spectroscopic features of the individual living cells. The resultant apparatus could find its use in demanding biotechnological applications such as selection of rare natural mutants or artificially modified cells resulting from genetic manipulations.

  6. Advanced statistical analysis of Raman spectroscopic data for the identification of body fluid traces: semen and blood mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-10-10

    Conventional confirmatory biochemical tests used in the forensic analysis of body fluid traces found at a crime scene are destructive and not universal. Recently, we reported on the application of near-infrared (NIR) Raman microspectroscopy for non-destructive confirmatory identification of pure blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and sweat. Here we expand the method to include dry mixtures of semen and blood. A classification algorithm was developed for differentiating pure body fluids and their mixtures. The classification methodology is based on an effective combination of Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression (data selection) and SVM Discriminant Analysis of preprocessed experimental Raman spectra collected using an automatic mapping of the sample. This extensive cross-validation of the obtained results demonstrated that the detection limit of the minor contributor is as low as a few percent. The developed methodology can be further expanded to any binary mixture of complex solutions, including but not limited to mixtures of other body fluids.

  7. Differentiation of Body Fluid Stains on Fabrics Using External Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Body fluids are evidence of great forensic interest due to the DNA extracted from them, which allows genetic identification of people. This study focuses on the discrimination among semen, vaginal fluid, and urine stains (main fluids in sexual crimes) placed on different colored cotton fabrics by external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics. Semen-vaginal fluid mixtures and potential false positive substances commonly found in daily life such as soaps, milk, juices, and lotions were also studied. Results demonstrated that the IR spectral signature obtained for each body fluid allowed its identification and the correct classification of unknown stains by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Interestingly, results proved that these IR spectra did not show any bands due to the color of the fabric and no substance of those present in daily life which were analyzed, provided a false positive. PMID:26896150

  8. Using a Volume Discretization Method to Compute the Surface Gravity of Irregular Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-hui; Hu, Shou-cun; Wang, Su; Ji, Jiang-hui

    2016-01-01

    In the orbit design for small body exploration missions, it is important to take the effect of the gravitation of the small body into consideration. However, the majority of small bodies in the solar system are irregularly shaped with a non-uniform density distribution, this makes it difficult to precisely calculate the gravitational fields of these bodies. This paper proposes a method to model the gravitational field of an irregularly shaped small body, and calculate the corresponding spherical harmonic coefficients. This method is based on the shape of the small body resulted from the observed light curve, and uses finite volume elements to approximate the body shape. The spherical harmonic coefficients can be derived numerically by computing the integrals according to their definitions. A comparison is made with the polyhedron method. Taking the asteroid (433) Eros as an example, the spherical harmonic coefficients calculated by this method are compared with the result derived from the inversion of the NEAR (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) spacecraft' orbit data, and the comparison shows that the error of C20 is less than 2%. Using this method, we have calculated the gravity field of (1996) FG3 which is a candidate target in our future space exploration mission. Taking (4179) Toutatis, the target body of the Chang'e 2's flyby mission, as an example, the distribution of surface gravitational potential is calculated, in combination with the shape model derived from the radar data, it provides a theoretical basis for analyzing the surface soil distribution and flow direction from the optical images obtained in this mission. This method suits the objects of inhomogeneous density distribution, and can be used to provide the reliable gravitational data of small bodies for the orbit design and landing in future asteroid exploration missions.

  9. Using Finite Volume Element Definitions to Compute the Gravitation of Irregular Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. H.; Hu, S. C.; Wang, S.; Ji, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    In the orbit design procedure of the small bodies exploration missions, it's important to take the effect of the gravitation of the small bodies into account. However, a majority of the small bodies in the solar system are irregularly shaped with non-uniform density distribution which makes it difficult to precisely calculate the gravitation of these bodies. This paper proposes a method to model the gravitational field of an irregularly shaped small body and calculate the corresponding spherical harmonic coefficients. This method is based on the shape of the small bodies resulted from the light curve data via observation, and uses finite volume element to approximate the body shape. The spherical harmonic parameters could be derived numerically by computing the integrals according to their definition. Comparison with the polyhedral method is shown in our works. We take the asteroid (433) Eros as an example. Spherical harmonic coefficients resulted from this method are compared with the results derived from the track data obtained by NEAR (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) detector. The comparison shows that the error of C_{20} is less than 2%. The spherical harmonic coefficients of (1996) FG3 which is a selected target in our future exploration mission are computed. Taking (4179) Toutatis, the target body in Chang'e 2's flyby mission, for example, the gravitational field is calculated combined with the shape model from radar data, which provides theoretical basis for analyzing the soil distribution and flow from the optical image obtained in the mission. This method is applied to uneven density distribution objects, and could be used to provide reliable gravity field data of small bodies for orbit design and landing in the future exploration missions.

  10. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework.

  11. A novel application of real-time RT-LAMP for body fluid identification: using HBB detection as the model.

    PubMed

    Su, Chih-Wen; Li, Chiao-Yun; Lee, James Chun-I; Ji, Dar-Der; Li, Shu-Ying; Daniel, Barbara; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Linacre, Adrian; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei

    2015-06-01

    We report on a novel application of real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (real-time RT-LAMP) to identify the presence of a specific body fluid using blood as a proof-of-concept model. By comparison with recently developed methods of body fluid identification, the RT-LAMP assay is rapid and requires only one simple heating-block maintained at a single temperature, circumventing the need for dedicated equipment. RNA was extracted from different body fluids (blood, semen, saliva, menstrual blood, sweat, and urine) for use in real-time RT-LAMP reaction. The 18S rRNA locus was used as the internal control and hemoglobin beta (HBB) as the blood-specific marker. Reverse transcription and LAMP reaction were performed in the same tube using a turbidimeter for real-time monitoring the reaction products within a threshold of 60 min. HBB LAMP products were only detected in blood and not in any of the other body fluid, but products from the 18S rRNA gene were detected in all the tested body fluids as expected. The limit of detection was a minimum of 10(-5) ng total RNA for detection of both 18S rRNA and HBB. Augmenting the detection of RT-LAMP products was performed by separation of the products using gel electrophoresis and collecting the fluorescence of calcein. The data collected indicated complete concordance with the body fluid tested regardless of the method of detection used. This is the first application of real-time RT-LAMP to detect body fluid specific RNA and indicates the use of this method in forensic biology.

  12. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. PMID:25594487

  13. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japanese autopsy tissue and body fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tetsuya; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shaw; Nakano, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants are components of many plastics and are used in products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and personal computers. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants has increased exponentially during the last three decades. Our objective was to measure the body burden and distribution of PBDEs and to determine the concentrations of the predominant PBDE congeners in samples of liver, bile, adipose tissue, and blood obtained from Japanese autopsy cases. Tissues and body fluids obtained from 20 autopsy cases were analyzed. The levels of 25 PBDE congeners, ranging from tri- to hexa-BDEs, were assessed. The geometric means of the sum of the concentrations of PBDE congeners having detection frequencies >50 % (ΣPBDE) in the blood, liver, bile, and adipose tissue were 2.4, 2.6, 1.4, and 4.3 ng/g lipid, respectively. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 and BDE-153, followed by BDE-100, BDE-99, and BDE-28+33. These concentrations of PBDE congeners were similar to other reports of human exposure in Japan but were notably lower than concentrations than those reported in the USA. Significant positive correlations were observed between the concentrations of predominant congeners and ΣPBDE among the samples analyzed. The ΣPBDE concentration was highest in the adipose tissue, but PBDEs were distributed widely among the tissues and body fluids analyzed. The PBDE levels observed in the present study are similar to those reported in previous studies in Japan and significantly lower than those reported in the USA. PMID:22544599

  14. Multidimensional analysis of suction feeding performance in fishes: fluid speed, acceleration, strike accuracy and the ingested volume of water.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Day, Steven W; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-07-01

    Suction feeding fish draw prey into the mouth using a flow field that they generate external to the head. In this paper we present a multidimensional perspective on suction feeding performance that we illustrate in a comparative analysis of suction feeding ability in two members of Centrarchidae, the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). We present the first direct measurements of maximum fluid speed capacity, and we use this to calculate local fluid acceleration and volumetric flow rate. We also calculated the ingested volume and a novel metric of strike accuracy. In addition, we quantified for each species the effects of gape magnitude, time to peak gape, and swimming speed on features of the ingested volume of water. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed video were used to measure the flow in front of the mouths of three fish from each species in conjunction with a vertical laser sheet positioned on the mid-sagittal plane of the fish. From this we quantified the maximum fluid speed (in the earthbound and fish's frame of reference), acceleration and ingested volume. Our method for determining strike accuracy involved quantifying the location of the prey relative to the center of the parcel of ingested water. Bluegill sunfish generated higher fluid speeds in the earthbound frame of reference, accelerated the fluid faster, and were more accurate than largemouth bass. However, largemouth bass ingested a larger volume of water and generated a higher volumetric flow rate than bluegill sunfish. In addition, because largemouth bass swam faster during prey capture, they generated higher fluid speeds in the fish's frame of reference. Thus, while bluegill can exert higher drag forces on stationary prey items, largemouth bass more quickly close the distance between themselves and prey. The ingested volume and volumetric flow rate significantly increased as gape increased for both species, while time to peak

  15. Fluids, rivers, and vessels: metaphors and body concepts in Mesopotamian gynaecological texts1

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the peculiar disease condition of “locked fluids” found in a number of gynaecological texts from 2nd and 1st millennium BCE Mesopotamia. To venture an interpretation of the underlying disease concept, the condition of “locked fluids” is first examined in the context of related and contrasting symptoms and female health problems connected to body fluids within the gynaecological corpus. The second part of this article turns to the physiological concepts of the (female) body linked to the disease condition of “locked fluids”. The author highlights metaphors and comparisons with objects from daily life and the natural environment, which can be found in medical incantations and therapeutic rituals used to combat gynaecological disorders, as a key to indigenous concepts of physiology. The use of the same metaphors in connection with intestinal disorders points to an intuitive understanding of different processes within the body on the basis of comparisons and equations stemming from daily-life experiences. The last section presents similar notions to the Mesopotamian disease concept of “locked fluids”, which are contained in gynaecological treatises of other cultures and times. PMID:24109494

  16. Fluid force and static symmetry breaking modes of 3D bluff bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadot, Olivier; Evrard, Antoine; DFA Team

    2015-11-01

    A cavity at the base of the squareback Ahmed model at Re =6.106 is able to reduce the base suction by 18% and the drag coefficient by 9%, while the flow at the separation remains unaffected. Instantaneous pressure measurements at the body base, fluid force measurements and wake velocity measurements are investigated varying the cavity depth from 0 to 35% of the base height. Due to the reflectional symmetry of the rectangular base, there are two Reflectional Symmetry Breaking (RSB) mirror modes present in the natural wake that switch from one to the other randomly in accordance with the recent findings of Grandemange et al. (2013). It is shown that these modes exhibit an energetic 3D static vortex system close to the base of the body. A sufficiently deep cavity is able to stabilize the wake toward a symmetry preserved wake, thus suppressing the RSB modes and leading to a weaker elliptical toric recirculation. The stabilization can be modeled with a Langevin equation. The plausible mechanism for drag reduction with the base cavity is based on the interaction of the static 3D vortex system of the RSB modes with the base and their suppression by stabilization. There are some strong evidences that this mechanism may be generalized to axisymmetric bodies with base cavity.

  17. Cardiovascular drift in trained paraplegic and able-bodied individuals during prolonged wheelchair exercise: effect of fluid replacement.

    PubMed

    Zacharakis, Emmanouil D; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Nassis, George P; Geladas, Nickos D

    2013-04-01

    The progressive heart rate (HR) increase and stroke volume (SV) decline during prolonged constant-load leg exercise signifies cardiovascular drift (CVdrift); fluid replacement is known to minimize this phenomenon. Like their able-bodied counterparts (AB), paraplegic athletes undergo prolonged exercise during training and competition, which could result in CVdrift. The aim of this study is to address the role of rehydration on preventing CVdrift in spinal cord injured (SCI) paraplegic athletes. Eight SCI athletes with an injury level between C7 and T6 and 9 AB subjects performed 60-min constant-load exercise on a wheelchair ergometer in a thermo-neutral environment. No fluid was taken in 1 trial, whereas 85% of sweat losses were replaced by drinking water in another trial. Cardic output (CO), SV, HR, and oral temperature (Tor) were determined during exercise. Prolonged exercise resulted in similar HR (18 beats·min(-1) for AB and 12 beats·min(-1) for SCI) and Tor (0.63 °C for AB and 0.71 °C for SCI) elevation and SV decline (-8.5 mL·beat(-1) for AB and -5.5 mL·beat(-1) for SCI), whereas CO remained unchanged. Water intake restrained the exercise-induced hyperthermia and resulted in smaller SV decline (-4.0 mL for AB and -3.0 mL for SCI, p < 0.01). In conclusion, CVdrift was similar in SCI and AB subjects during prolonged wheelchair exercise. Likewise, the beneficial effects of hydration in both groups were analogous. PMID:23713529

  18. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  19. Evaluation of a co-extraction method for real-time PCR-based body fluid identification and DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Iwashima, Yasuki; Akutsu, Tomoko; Sekiguchi, Kazumasa; Sakurada, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Body fluid identification and individual identification are an important series of tests in usual criminal investigations. Recent reports have demonstrated a new approach using DNA/RNA co-extraction methods in which RNA for body fluid identification and DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) typing are extracted simultaneously from the same sample. This study evaluated a standard co-extraction kit, the AllPrep® DNA/RNA Mini Kit, in order to demonstrate the availability of the co-extraction procedure for those real-time polymerase chain reaction-based body fluid identification methods that we have validated previously. We demonstrated that the use of the Allprep Kit, for which we adjusted the lysis temperature to 56°C to improve extraction efficiency, can simultaneously extract sufficient RNA and DNA for body fluid identification and STR analysis; however, a longer incubation at a high temperature slightly affected the ΔCt value of each target gene and appeared to be not as effective for DNA extraction from old stains as from 1-day-old stains. This method is promising for future forensic investigations because the use of this kit can reduce sample consumption for body fluid identification and DNA typing.

  20. Clinical practice guide for the choice of perioperative volume-restoring fluid in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Basora, M; Colomina, M J; Moral, V; Asuero de Lis, M S; Boix, E; Jover, J L; Llau, J V; Rodrigo, M P; Ripollés, J; Calvo Vecino, J M

    2016-01-01

    The present Clinical practice guide responds to the clinical questions about security in the choice of fluid (crystalloid, colloid or hydroxyethyl starch 130) in patients who require volume replacement during perioperative period of non-cardiac surgeries. From the evidence summary, recommendations were made following the GRADE methodology. In this population fluid therapy based on crystalloids is suggested (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). In the events where volume replacement is not reached with crystalloids, the use of synthetic colloids (hydroxyethyl starch 130 or modified fluid gelatin) is suggested instead of 5% albumin (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). The choice and dosage of the colloid should be based in the product characteristics, patient comorbidity and anesthesiologist's experience.

  1. Clinical practice guide for the choice of perioperative volume-restoring fluid in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Basora, M; Colomina, M J; Moral, V; Asuero de Lis, M S; Boix, E; Jover, J L; Llau, J V; Rodrigo, M P; Ripollés, J; Calvo Vecino, J M

    2016-01-01

    The present Clinical practice guide responds to the clinical questions about security in the choice of fluid (crystalloid, colloid or hydroxyethyl starch 130) in patients who require volume replacement during perioperative period of non-cardiac surgeries. From the evidence summary, recommendations were made following the GRADE methodology. In this population fluid therapy based on crystalloids is suggested (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). In the events where volume replacement is not reached with crystalloids, the use of synthetic colloids (hydroxyethyl starch 130 or modified fluid gelatin) is suggested instead of 5% albumin (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). The choice and dosage of the colloid should be based in the product characteristics, patient comorbidity and anesthesiologist's experience. PMID:26343809

  2. Study of relationship between volume of distribution and body weight application to amikacin.

    PubMed

    Rughoo, L; Bourguignon, L; Maire, P; Ducher, M

    2014-06-01

    Amikacin use is difficult because of its narrow therapeutic and its pharmacokinetic variability. This variability of amikacin is not well known. To adapt amikacin the physician assumes that there is a linear and continuous relation between the volume of distribution and the body weight. The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the volume of distribution (Vd) and the body weight (BW) using a non parametric statistical analysis of dependence so called Z method. Retrospective pharmacokinetic population study and statistic analysis. 872 patients receiving intravenous amikacin. The volume of distribution was modelled using the Non Parametric Adaptive Grid algorithm (NPAG) for a two-compartment model with intravenous infusion. Z coefficient was performed to evaluate the relationships between Vd and BW. For the 872 patients (mean age of 73 ± 17 years) dispatched as follow 53 % female and 47 % male, the analysis of the statistical relationships by the non parametric Z analysis showed a scattered linkage between Vd and BW. For the whole population, the relationship between Vd and BW was not linear (regression analysis). Z analysis demonstrated that only for 80 % of patients there is a relationship between Vd and BW. For these patients, regression analysis give a significant adjustment of a linear model (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). In the whole studied population there is not a continuous and linear relationship between Vd estimated by NPAG and the BW. These results underline the difficulties to adapt doses of amikacin with only BW information.

  3. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determination of deuterium abundance in body fluids: application to measurement of total-body water in human infants

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Pearson, G.A.; Serfass, R.E.; Roth, C.W.; Finley, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to quantitate abundance of 2H in body water of human infants. This method provides precise measurement of total-body water without the extensive sample preparation requirements of previously described methods for determination of 2H content in body fluids. 2H2O (1 g/kg body weight) was administered to infants and saliva and urine were collected for up to 5 h. An internal standard was added directly to the fluid specimen and 2H enrichment in water was measured by NMR spectroscopy. Working range of deuterium abundance was 0.04-0.32 atom %. Coefficients of variation for saliva samples at 0.20 atom % 2H was 1.97%. 2H content in urine and saliva water reached a plateau by 4 h after administration, and amounts in the two fluids were virtually identical. Mean total-body water determination for six infants was 58.3 +/- 5.8% of body weight (range 53-66%).

  4. Deposition of hydroxyapatite on SiC nanotubes in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    SiC nanotubes can become candidate reinforcement materials for dental and orthopedic implants due to their light weight and excellent mechanical properties. However, the development of bioactive SiC materials has not been reported. In this study, hydroxyapatites were found on SiC nanotubes treated with NaOH and subsequently HCl solution after soaking in simulated body fluid. On the other hand, hydroxyapatites did not deposit on as-received SiC nanotubes, the SiC nanotubes with NH4OH solution treatment and SiC bulk materials with NaOH and subsequently HCl solution treatment. Therefore, we succeeded in the development of bioactive SiC nanotubes by downsizing SiC materials to nanometer size and treating with NaOH and subsequently HCl solutions for the first time.

  5. Potential role of body fluid 1H NMR metabonomics as a prognostic and diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2007-11-01

    This review briefly handles the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy in lipoprotein subclass analytics. Potential diagnostic uses of (1)H NMR metabonomics of human serum for coronary heart disease, diabetic nephropathy and cancer are also discussed. In addition, miscellaneous recent applications of NMR metabonomics (e.g., a pharmacometabonomic tactic to personalize drug treatment) as well as multi-organ, multispecies and multi-omics approaches to molecular systems biology are featured. Some related experimental and data analysis methodologies are briefly introduced with respect to the biochemical rationales. Critical considerations on the potential diagnostic value of in vitro (1)H NMR are presented together with optimism toward the usage of body fluid (1)H NMR metabonomics in disease risk assessment and as an aid for personalized medicine.

  6. Simulated Body Fluid Nucleation of Three-Dimensional Printed Elastomeric Scaffolds for Enhanced Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nathan J; Tan, Wilhelmina Nanrui; Shen, Charlie; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-07-01

    Osseous tissue defects caused by trauma present a common clinical problem. Although traditional clinical procedures have been successfully employed, several limitations persist with regards to insufficient donor tissue, disease transmission, and inadequate host-implant integration. Therefore, this work aims to address current limitations regarding inadequate host tissue integration through the use of a novel elastomeric material for three-dimensional (3D) printing biomimetic and bioactive scaffolds. A novel thermoplastic polyurethane-based elastomeric composite filament (Gel-Lay) was used to manufacture porous scaffolds. In an effort to render the scaffolds more bioactive, the flexible scaffolds were subsequently incubated in simulated body fluid at various time points and evaluated for enhanced mechanical properties along with the effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, and 3-week osteogenesis. This work is the first reported use of a novel class of flexible elastomeric materials for the manufacture of 3D printed bioactive scaffold fabrication allowing efficient and effective nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HA) leading to increased nanoscale surface roughness while retaining the bulk geometry of the predesigned structure. Scaffolds with interconnected microfibrous filaments of ∼260 μm were created and nucleated in simulated body fluid that facilitated cell adhesion and spreading after only 24 h in culture. The porous structure further allowed efficient nucleation, exchange of nutrients, and metabolic waste removal during new tissue formation. Through the incorporation of osteoconductive HA, human fetal osteoblast adhesion and differentiation were greatly enhanced thus setting the tone for further exploration of this novel material for biomedical and tissue regenerative applications. PMID:27298115

  7. Differentiation of five body fluids from forensic samples by expression analysis of four microRNAs using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Eva; Reinke, Ann-Kathrin; Courts, Cornelius

    2016-05-01

    Applying molecular genetic approaches for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids, which often yield crucial information for the reconstruction of a potential crime, is a current topic of forensic research. Due to their body fluid specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, microRNAs (miRNA) emerged as a promising molecular species, with a range of candidate markers published. The analysis of miRNA via quantitative Real-Time PCR, however, should be based on a relevant strategy of normalization of non-biological variances to deliver reliable and biologically meaningful results. The herein presented work is the as yet most comprehensive study of forensic body fluid identification via miRNA expression analysis based on a thoroughly validated qPCR procedure and unbiased statistical decision making to identify single source samples.

  8. Characterization of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical applications in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva environments.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ilven; Oktay, Enver

    2013-04-01

    Highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical applications was produced by space holder technique. Metal release and weight loss from 17-4 PH stainless steel foams was investigated in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva environments by static immersion tests. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer was employed to measure the concentrations of various metal ions released from the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams into simulated body fluids and artificial saliva. Effect of immersion time and pH value on metal release and weight loss in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva were determined. Pore morphology, pore size and mechanical properties of the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams were close to human cancellous bone.

  9. AFDM: An advanced fluid-dynamics model. Volume 6: EOS-AFDM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Henneges, G.; Kleinheins, S.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) documents the modeling of the equation of state (EOS) in the code. The authors present an overview of the basic concepts underlying the thermodynamics modeling and resulting EOS, which is a set of relations between the thermodynamic properties of materials. The AFDM code allows for multiphase-multimaterial systems, which they explore in three phase models: two-material solid, two-material liquid, and three-material vapor. They describe and compare two ways of specifying the EOS of materials: (1) as simplified analytic expressions, or (2) as tables that precisely describe the properties of materials and their interactions for mechanical equilibrium. Either of the two EOS models implemented in AFDM can be selected by specifying the option when preprocessing the source code for compilation. Last, the authors determine thermophysical properties such as surface tension, thermal conductivities, and viscosities in the model for the intracell exchanges of AFDM. Specific notations, routines, EOS data, plots, test results, and corrections to the code are available in the appendices.

  10. Comparisons and Limitations of Gradient Augmented Level Set and Algebraic Volume of Fluid Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anumolu, Lakshman; Ryddner, Douglas; Trujillo, Mario

    2014-11-01

    Recent numerical methods for implicit interface transport are generally presented as enjoying higher order of spatial-temporal convergence when compared to classical methods or less sophisticated approaches. However, when applied to test cases, which are designed to simulate practical industrial conditions, significant reduction in convergence is observed in higher-order methods, whereas for the less sophisticated approaches same convergence is achieved but a growth in the error norms occurs. This provides an opportunity to understand the underlying issues which causes this decrease in accuracy in both types of methods. As an example we consider the Gradient Augmented Level Set method (GALS) and a variant of the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method in our study. Results show that while both methods do suffer from a loss of accuracy, it is the higher order method that suffers more. The implication is a significant reduction in the performance advantage of the GALS method over the VoF scheme. Reasons for this lie in the behavior of the higher order derivatives, particular in situations where the level set field is highly distorted. For the VoF approach, serious spurious deformations of the interface are observed, albeit with a deceptive zero loss of mass.

  11. Equation of state for hard convex body fluids from the equation of state of the hard sphere fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeso, M. J.; Solana, J. R.

    1994-02-01

    A simple and accurate equation of state for fluids of hard convex molecules is derived from the pressure equation and the equation of state of the hard sphere fluid. The equation of state provides theoretical support to some equations of state used in perturbation theories for real molecular liquids. The equation of state reproduces the simulation data with an accuracy comparable to that derived from density functional theory.

  12. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population. PMID:26311108

  13. MicroRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification obtained from microarray screening and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Boersma, Anton W M; Choi, Ying; van Kuijk, Patricia F; Wiemer, Erik A C; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein coding molecules with important regulatory functions; many have tissue-specific expression patterns. Their very small size in principle makes them less prone to degradation processes, unlike messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which were previously proposed as molecular tools for forensic body fluid identification. To identify suitable miRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we first screened total RNA samples derived from saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, and venous and menstrual blood for the expression of 718 human miRNAs using a microarray platform. All body fluids could be easily distinguished from each other on the basis of complete array-based miRNA expression profiles. Results from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR; TaqMan) assays for microarray candidate markers confirmed strong over-expression in the targeting body fluid of several miRNAs for venous blood and several others for semen. However, no candidate markers from array experiments for other body fluids such as saliva, vaginal secretion, or menstrual blood could be confirmed by RT-PCR. Time-wise degradation of venous blood and semen stains for at least 1 year under lab conditions did not significantly affect the detection sensitivity of the identified miRNA markers. The detection limit of the TaqMan assays tested for selected venous blood and semen miRNA markers required only subpicogram amounts of total RNA per single RT-PCR test, which is considerably less than usually needed for reliable mRNA RT-PCR detection. We therefore propose the application of several stable miRNA markers for the forensic identification of blood stains and several others for semen stain identification, using commercially available TaqMan assays. Additional work remains necessary in search for suitable miRNA markers for other forensically relevant body fluids.

  14. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population.

  15. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, A A; Barnes, M; Macintyre, C R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, with around 800 specimens tested in total. Available evidence suggests that EBOV can persist in some body fluids after clinical recovery and clearance of virus from the blood. EBOV has been isolated from semen, aqueous humor, urine and breast milk 82, 63, 26 and 15 days after onset of illness, respectively. Viral RNA has been detectable in semen (day 272), aqueous humor (day 63), sweat (day 40), urine (day 30), vaginal secretions (day 33), conjunctival fluid (day 22), faeces (day 19) and breast milk (day 17). Given high case fatality and uncertainties around the transmission characteristics, patients should be considered potentially infectious for a period of time after immediate clinical recovery. Patients and their immediate contacts should be informed about these risks. Convalescent patients may need to abstain from sex for at least 9 months or should use condoms until their semen tests are negative. Breastfeeding should be avoided during the convalescent phase. There is a need for more research on persistence, and a uniform approach to infection control guidelines in convalescence. PMID:26808232

  16. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, A A; Barnes, M; Macintyre, C R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, with around 800 specimens tested in total. Available evidence suggests that EBOV can persist in some body fluids after clinical recovery and clearance of virus from the blood. EBOV has been isolated from semen, aqueous humor, urine and breast milk 82, 63, 26 and 15 days after onset of illness, respectively. Viral RNA has been detectable in semen (day 272), aqueous humor (day 63), sweat (day 40), urine (day 30), vaginal secretions (day 33), conjunctival fluid (day 22), faeces (day 19) and breast milk (day 17). Given high case fatality and uncertainties around the transmission characteristics, patients should be considered potentially infectious for a period of time after immediate clinical recovery. Patients and their immediate contacts should be informed about these risks. Convalescent patients may need to abstain from sex for at least 9 months or should use condoms until their semen tests are negative. Breastfeeding should be avoided during the convalescent phase. There is a need for more research on persistence, and a uniform approach to infection control guidelines in convalescence.

  17. Membrane Vesicles Nucleate Mineralo-organic Nanoparticles and Induce Carbonate Apatite Precipitation in Human Body Fluids*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M.; Young, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body. PMID:23990473

  18. Physicochemical properties and mineralization assessment of porous polymethylmethacrylate cement loaded with hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Sa, Yue; Yang, Fang; de Wijn, Joost R; Wang, Yining; Wolke, Joop G C; Jansen, John A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a pore generator and hydroxyapatite (HA) as an osteoconductive agent on the physicochemical properties and in-vitro mineralization ability of porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. To this end, various compositions of PMMA cements, which differed in amount of millimeter-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and CMC hydrogel, were prepared and immersed into simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. It was demonstrated that the incorporation of CMC hydrogel decreased the maximum temperature of cement to the normal body temperature and prolonged the handling time during polymerization. Further, the amount of CMC was responsible for the creation of porosity and interconnectivity, which in turn determined the final mechanical properties of cements. The loaded HA particles enhanced the potential bioactivity of cement for bone ingrowth. Albeit different amount of HA particles influenced their final exposures on the surface of cured cement, all of the three amounts of HA did not weaken the final mechanical properties of cements. The data here suggests that the HA particle loaded porous PMMA cement can serve as the promising candidate for bone reconstruction.

  19. Membrane vesicles nucleate mineralo-organic nanoparticles and induce carbonate apatite precipitation in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D

    2013-10-18

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body.

  20. Membrane vesicles nucleate mineralo-organic nanoparticles and induce carbonate apatite precipitation in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D

    2013-10-18

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body. PMID:23990473

  1. Area volume properties of fluid interfaces in turbulence: scale-local self-similarity and cumulative scale dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catrakis, Haris J.; Aguirre, Roberto C.; Ruiz-Plancarte, Jesus

    2002-07-01

    Area volume properties of fluid interfaces are investigated to quantify the scale-local and cumulative structure. An area volume density g3([lambda]) and ratio [Omega]3([lambda]) are introduced to examine the interfacial behaviour as a function of scale [lambda] or across a range of scales, respectively. These measures are demonstrated on mixed-fluid interfaces from whole-field [similar]10003 three-dimensional space time concentration measurements in turbulent jets above the mixing transition, at Re [similar] 20000 and Sc [similar] 2000, recorded by laser-induced-fluorescence and digital-imaging techniques, with Taylor's hypothesis applied. The cumulative structure is scale dependent in [Omega]3([lambda]), with a dimension D3([lambda]) that increases with increasing scale. In contrast, the scale-local structure exhibits self-similarity in g3([lambda]) with an exponent [alpha]g [approximate]1.3 for these interfaces. The scale dependence in the cumulative structure arises from the large scales, while the self-similarity corresponds to the small-scale area volume contributions. The small scales exhibit the largest area volume density and provide the dominant contributions to the total area volume ratio, which corresponds to [similar]10 times the area of a purely large-scale interface for the present flow conditions. The self-similarity in the scale-local structure at small scales provides the key ingredient to extrapolate the area volume behaviour to higher Reynolds numbers.

  2. Regulation of thyroid cell volumes and fluid transport: opposite effects of TSH and iodide on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Cauvi, D; Penel, C; Nlend, M C; Venot, N; Allasia, C; Chabaud, O

    2000-09-01

    Cell volume regulation by thyrotropin (TSH) and iodide, the main effectors involved in thyroid function, was studied in cultured thyroid cells. The mean cell volume, determined by performing 3-D reconstitution on confocal microscopy optical slices from living octadecylrhodamine-labeled cells cultured with both TSH and iodide (control cells), was 3.73 +/- 0.06 pl. The absence of iodide resulted in cell hypertrophy (136% of control value) and the absence of TSH in cell shrinkage (81%). These changes mainly affected the cell heights. The effect of TSH on cell volume was mediated by cAMP. The proportion of cytosolic volume (3-O-methyl-D-glucose space vs. total volume) decreased in the absence of iodide (85% of control value) and increased in the absence of TSH (139%), whereas protein content showed the opposite changes (121 and 58%, respectively). The net apical-to-basal fluid transport was also inversely controlled by the two effectors. Iodide thus antagonizes TSH effects on cell volumes and fluid transport, probably via adenylylcyclase downregulation mechanisms. The absence of either iodide or TSH may mimic the imbalance occurring in pathological thyroids.

  3. ESTIMATION OF FREE HYDROCARBON VOLUME FROM FLUID LEVELS IN MONITORING WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the assumption of local vertical equilibrium, fluid pressure distributions specified from well fluid levels in monitoring wells may be used to predict water and hydrocarbon saturation profiles given expressions for air-water-hydrocarbon saturation-pressure relations. Verti...

  4. Stroke volume variation fail to predict fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy with one-lung ventilation using thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Zhao, Feng; Mi, Weidong; Zhang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of stroke volume variation (SVV) to predict fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy with one lung ventilation (OLV). Thirty patients intubated with double-lumen tube were scheduled for a pulmonary lobectomy requiring OLV for at least 1 hour under general anesthesia. Hemodynamic variables including heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVI), central venous pressure (CVP) and SVV were measured before and after volume expansion (VE) (8 mL/kg of 6% hydroxyethyl starch). Fluid responsiveness was defined as an increase in CI ≥ 10% after VE. Of the 30 patients, 16 (53%) were responders and 14 (47%) were nonresponders to intravascular VE. There were significant increases of CI, SVI in responders after VE (p < 0.01), but there were no significant changes in SVV in responders and nonresponders (p > 0.05). The baseline value of SVV, CVP, CI and SVI did not correlate significantly with ΔCI (p > 0.05). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.507 for SVV (95% confidence interval, 0.294-0.720) and 0.556 for CVP (95% confidence interval, 0.339-0.773), neither was able to predict fluid responsiveness with sufficient statistical power. SVV measured by the Vigileo-FloTrac system was not able to predict fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy with OLV after thoractomy.

  5. The coupled effect of fiber volume fraction and void fraction on hydraulic fluid absorption of quartz/BMI laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2016-03-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (

  6. Cul-de-sac fluid in women with endometriosis: fluid volume and prostanoid concentration during the proliferative phase of the cycle--days 8 to 12.

    PubMed

    Rock, J A; Dubin, N H; Ghodgaonkar, R B; Bergquist, C A; Erozan, Y S; Kimball, A W

    1982-06-01

    Cul-de-sac fluid from women with histologically confirmed endometriosis (n = 45) or with no evidence of endometriosis (n = 17) was removed during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle (days 8 to 12) and analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). The fluid volume was recorded. Peripheral blood was also obtained to determine the concentration of PGFM. Prostanoid concentrations (PGE2, PGF2 alpha, PGFM, TXB2) in women with endometriosis were not significantly different from a comparable group of disease-free women. Furthermore, a meaningful elevation of prostanoid with increasing severity of disease could not be demonstrated. Plasma PGFM was not significantly different from controls. There was, however, an elevation of PGFM with severity of disease, although this increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). An increase in fluid volume was not demonstrated in women with endometriosis, as compared with controls.

  7. Body composition by air-displacement plethysmography by using predicted and measured thoracic gas volumes.

    PubMed

    McCrory, M A; Molé, P A; Gomez, T D; Dewey, K G; Bernauer, E M

    1998-04-01

    The BOD POD, a new air-displacement plethysmograph for measuring human body composition, utilizes the inverse relationship between pressure and volume (Boyle's law) to measure body volume directly. The quantity of air in the lungs during tidal breathing, the average thoracic gas volume (Vtg), is also measured by the BOD POD by using a standard plethysmographic technique. Alternatively, the BOD POD provides the use of a predicted Vtg (Vtgpred). The validity of using Vtgpred in place of measured Vtg (Vtgmeas) to determine the percentage of body fat (%BF) was evaluated in 50 subjects (36 women, 14 men; ages 18-56 yr). There was no significant difference between Vtgmeas and Vtgpred (mean difference +/- SE, 53.5 +/- 63.3 ml) nor in %BF by using Vtgmeas vs. Vtgpred (0.2 +/- 0.2 %BF). On an individual basis, %BF measured by using Vtgmeas vs. Vtgpred differed within +/-2.0% BF for 82% of the subjects; maximum differences were -2.9 to +3.0% BF. For comparison, data from 24 subjects who had undergone hydrostatic weighing were evaluated for the validity of using predicted vs. measured residual lung volume (VRpred vs. VRmeas, respectively). Differences between VRmeas and VRpred and in %BF calculated by using VRmeas vs. VRpred were significant (187 +/- 46 ml and 1.4 +/- 0.3% BF, respectively; P < 0.001). On an individual basis, %BF determined by using VRmeas vs. VRpred differed within +/-2.0% BF for 46% of the subjects; maximum differences were -2.9 to +3.8% BF. With respect to %BF measured by air displacement, our findings support the use of Vtgpred for group mean comparisons and for purposes such as screening in young to middle-aged individuals. This contrasts with the use of VRpred in hydrostatic weighing, which leads to significant errors in the estimation of %BF. Furthermore, although the use of Vtgpred has some application, determining Vtgmeas is relatively simple in most cases. Therefore, we recommend that the use of Vtgmeas remain as standard experimental and clinical

  8. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, Volumes, and Physical-chemical Properties of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Daiss, R.; Williams, L.; Singer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base fluid, proppant, and additives. Additives, comprised of one or more chemicals, are serve a specific engineering purpose (e.g., friction reducer, scale inhibitor, biocide). As part of the USEPA's Draft Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, we investigated the different types, volumes injected, and physical-chemical properties of HF fluid chemicals. The USEPA identified 1,076 chemicals used in HF fluids, based on 10 sources covering chemical use from 2005 to 2013. These chemicals fall into different classes: acids, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, bases, hydrocarbon mixtures, polysaccharides, and surfactants. The physical-chemical properties of these chemicals vary, which affects their movement through the environment if spilled. Properties range from fully miscible to insoluble, from highly hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. Most of these chemicals are not volatile. HF fluid composition varies from site to site depending on a range of factors. No single chemical or set of chemicals are used at every site. A median of 14 chemicals are used per well, with a range of four to 28 (5th and 95th percentiles). Methanol was the chemical most commonly reported in FracFocus 1.0 (72% of disclosures), and hydrotreated light petroleum distillates and hydrochloric acid were both reported in over half the disclosures. Operators store chemicals on-site, often in multiple containers (typically in 760 to 1,500 L totes). We estimated that the total volume of all chemicals used per well ranges from approximately 10,000 to 110,000 L. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the USEPA.

  9. Subject Positioning in the BOD POD® Only Marginally Affects Measurement of Body Volume and Estimation of Percent Body Fat in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Methods Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m2) were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a ‘forward bent’ position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. Results Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05) higher in the ‘straight’ position compared to the ‘bent’ position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = −71±211 ml) was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05) and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05) lower than in the straight position respectively. Conclusion Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (in)precision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest.The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin. PMID:22461887

  10. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5-18 years of age). We performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  11. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5–18 years of age). We performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level. PMID:27340668

  12. Assessing small-volume spinal cord dose for repeat spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Kirby, Neil; Korol, Renee; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2012-12-01

    Spinal cord biologically effective dose (BED) limits are critical to safe spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery. In particular, when repeating SBRT to the same site, the problem of adding non-uniform BED distributions within small volumes of spinal cord has yet to be solved. We report a probability-based generalized BED (gBED) model to guide repeat spine SBRT treatment planning. The gBED was formulated by considering the sequential damaging probabilities of repeat spine SBRT treatments. Parameters from the standard linear-quadratic model, such as α/β = 2 Gy for the spinal cord, were applied. We tested the model based on SBRT specific spinal cord tolerance using a simulated and ten clinical repeat SBRT cases. The gBED provides a consistent solution for superimposing non-uniform dose distributions from different fractionation schemes, analogous to the BED for uniform dose distributions. Based on ten clinical cases, the gBED was observed to eliminate discrepancies in the cumulative BED of approximately 5% to 20% within small volumes (e.g. 0.1-2.0 cc) of spinal cord, as compared to a conventional calculation method. When assessing spinal cord tolerance for repeat spinal SBRT treatments, caution should be exercised when applying conventional BED calculations for small volumes of spinal cord irradiated, and the gBED potentially provides more conservative and consistently derived dose surrogates to guide safe treatment planning and treatment outcome modeling.

  13. Newton's Investigation of the Resistance to Moving Bodies in Continuous Fluids and the Nature of "Frontier Science"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2010-01-01

    Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…

  14. [A comparative analysis of occupational risk in industry employees based on concentrations of some elements in teeth and body fluids].

    PubMed

    Poczatek, Michał; Machoy, Zygmunt; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Work safety and hygiene is a set of basic measures to protect workers from the negative effects of manufacturing processes. So far, numerous procedures for assessment of occupational health risk have been described. We measured the concentrations of some elements in teeth and body fluids of employees working in three different industries with an established production profile: Zakłady Naprawcze Taboru Kolejowego (repairs of rail vehicles), Philips Lighting Poland (production of lighting systems) and Metalplast (build ing furbishing factory). Different technologies were in place at each of these plants. Basing on laboratory analyses, the risk of exposure to chemical substances was evaluated. The study material included 100 extracted teeth, as well as body fluid samples (saliva, urine and blood) collected during routine health checks. Whenever possible, concentrations of the following elements were measured: calcium, magnesium, fluorine, phosphorus in the form of phosphates, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead. Metal elements were measured spectrophotometrically (ASA), fluorine with an ion-selective electrode, and phosphates with a colorimetric method. We found that concentrations of the elements in teeth and body fluids differed depending on the industry. For teeth, statistically significant differences applied to magnesium, phosphates, zinc, sodium, and potassium. In body fluids, statistically significant differences were found for calcium (blood and urine), magnesium (blood, urine and saliva), zinc (blood, urine and saliva), iron, lead and copper (urine). In conclusion, our findings may be helpful for monitoring safety at work in industrial plants. PMID:16871749

  15. Phosphate Minerals in Type 4-6 LL Chondrites: The Nature of Fluids on the LL Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; McCubbin, F. M.; Dreeland, L.; Guan, Y.

    2011-03-01

    Apatite in the LL chondrites is Cl-rich and extremely dry, with H2O contents <100 ppm. We suggest that this apatite may have a significant oxyapatite component. We infer that very dry, halogen-rich fluids pervaded the LL chondrite parent body.

  16. Intramyocardial capillary blood volume estimated by whole-body CT: validation by micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yue; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Zamir, Mair; Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-03-01

    Fast CT has shown that myocardial perfusion (F) is related to myocardial intramuscular blood volume (Bv) as Bv=A*F+B*F 1/2 where A,B are constant coefficients. The goal of this study was to estimate the range of diameters of the vessels that are represented by the A*F term. Pigs were placed in an Electron Beam CT (EBCT) scanner for a perfusion CT scan sequence over 40 seconds after an IV contrast agent injection. Intramyocardial blood volume (Bv) and flow (F) were calculated in a region of the myocardium perfused by the LAD. Coefficients A and B were estimated over the range of F=1-5ml/g/min. After the CT scan, the LAD was injected with Microfil (R) contrast agent following which the myocardium was scanned by micro-CT at 20μm, 4μm and 2.5 μm cubic voxel resolutions. The Bv of the intramyocardial vessels was calculated for diameter ranges d=0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20μm, etc. EBCT-derived data were presented so that it could be directly compared the micro-CT data. The results indicated that the blood in vessels less than 10μm in lumen diameter occupied 0.27-0.42 of total intravascular blood volume, which is in good agreement with EBCT-based values 0.28-0.48 (R2 =0.96). We conclude that whole-body CT image data obtained during the passage of a bolus of IV contrast agent can provide a measure of the intramyocardial intracapillary blood volume.

  17. Is internal target volume accurate for dose evaluation in lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiayuan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jiazhou; Xie, Jiang; Hu, Weigang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose 4DCT delineated internal target volume (ITV) was applied to determine the tumor motion and used as planning target in treatment planning in lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). This work is to study the accuracy of using ITV to predict the real target dose in lung cancer SBRT. Materials and methods Both for phantom and patient cases, the ITV and gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on the maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT and ten CT phases, respectively. A SBRT plan was designed using ITV as the planning target on average projection (AVG) CT. This plan was copied to each CT phase and the dose distribution was recalculated. The GTV_4D dose was acquired through accumulating the GTV doses over all ten phases and regarded as the real target dose. To analyze the ITV dose error, the ITV dose was compared to the real target dose by endpoints of D99, D95, D1 (doses received by the 99%, 95% and 1% of the target volume), and dose coverage endpoint of V100(relative volume receiving at least the prescription dose). Results The phantom study shows that the ITV underestimates the real target dose by 9.47%∼19.8% in D99, 4.43%∼15.99% in D95, and underestimates the dose coverage by 5% in V100. The patient cases show that the ITV underestimates the real target dose and dose coverage by 3.8%∼10.7% in D99, 4.7%∼7.2% in D95, and 3.96%∼6.59% in V100 in motion target cases. Conclusions Cautions should be taken that ITV is not accurate enough to predict the real target dose in lung cancer SBRT with large tumor motions. Restricting the target motion or reducing the target dose heterogeneity could reduce the ITV dose underestimation effect in lung SBRT. PMID:26968812

  18. Diesel organic Rankine bottoming-cycle powerplant program: Volume III. Appendices. Final report. [Using Fluorinol-85 as working fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The final report on organic Rankine cycle power systems used to recover energy either from the waste heat of power-generating diesel engines or from waste heat from industrial plants has the following appendices which are included in this volume: major component specifications; test plan for the power conversion subsystem of the Diesel-Organic Rankine-Cycle Power Plant; environmental assessment of Fluorinol-85 which is the working fluid in the Rankine Cycle System; and applicable regulations and codes. (LCL)

  19. The effect of acute fluid consumption following exercise-induced fluid loss on hydration status, percent body fat, and minimum wrestling weight in wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B

    2014-07-01

    Acute fluid consumption (approximately 1 L) has been shown to reduce urine specific gravity (Usg) among subjects after an overnight fast, yet it is unknown if Usg may be reduced among subjects who have experienced exercise-induced fluid loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on Usg, body mass, percent body fat (%BF), and minimum wrestling weight (MWW) following an exercise-induced fluid loss protocol. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches' perceptions of the weight certification program (WCP) were also evaluated. Twelve men wrestlers (19.8 ± 1.14 years) were tested prepractice (PRE), postpractice (POST), and 1 hour after consuming 1 L of water (PFC). Percent body fat was measured by skinfolds (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and multifrequency and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to calculate MWW. Urine specific gravity measurements significantly increased above PRE (1.013 ± 0.006) at the POST (1.019 ± 0.007; p = 0.017) and PFC (1.022 ± 0.008; p = 0.025) assessments; however, POST and PFC were not significantly different (p = 0.978) from one another. The %BF values were similar (p > 0.05) at each assessment point when using SF and ADP. When compared with PRE, MWW significantly reduced at the POST assessment when using SF (67.2 ± 8.4 vs. 65.7 ± 8.2 kg; p < 0.001) and ADP (66.6 ± 9.1 vs. 64.8 ± 9.0 kg; p = 0.001), reflecting the reduction in body mass observed after exercise. Forty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches completed the questionnaire and 2 central themes emerged: (a) concerns with the 1.5% weight loss plan and (b) wrestlers using strategies in an attempt to circumvent the WCP. Exercise-induced fluid loss followed by acute fluid consumption equal to 1 L was ineffective in reducing Usg.

  20. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  1. Unstructured Finite Volume Computational Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Method for Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Schallhorn, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a finite volume computational thermo-fluid dynamics method to solve for Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with energy equation and thermodynamic equation of state in an unstructured coordinate system. The system of equations have been solved by a simultaneous Newton-Raphson method and compared with several benchmark solutions. Excellent agreements have been obtained in each case and the method has been found to be significantly faster than conventional Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods and therefore has the potential for implementation in Multi-Disciplinary analysis and design optimization in fluid and thermal systems. The paper also describes an algorithm of design optimization based on Newton-Raphson method which has been recently tested in a turbomachinery application.

  2. A coupled phase-field and volume-of-fluid method for accurate representation of limiting water wave deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Xiping

    2016-09-01

    A coupled phase-field and volume-of-fluid method is developed to study the sensitive behavior of water waves during breaking. The THINC model is employed to solve the volume-of-fluid function over the entire domain covered by a relatively coarse grid while the phase-field model based on Allen-Cahn equation is applied over the fine grid. A special algorithm that takes into account the sharpness of the diffuse-interface is introduced to correlate the order parameter obtained on the fine grid and the volume-of-fluid function obtained on the coarse grid. The coupled model is then applied to the study of water waves generated by moving pressures on the free surface. The deformation process of the wave crest during the initial stage of breaking is discussed in details. It is shown that there is a significant variation of the free nappe developed at the front side of the wave crest as the wave steepness differs. It is of a plunging type at large wave steepness while of a spilling type at small wave steepness. The numerical results also indicate that breaking occurs later and the duration of breaking is shorter for waves of smaller steepness and vice versa. Neglecting the capillary effect leads to wave breaking with a sharper nappe and a more dynamic plunging process. The surface tension also has an effect to prevent the formation of a free nappe at the front side of the wave crest in some cases.

  3. Effect of oligochaete worm body fluids on biological phosphorus removal in a bench-scale EBPR system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Du, Shaoting; Sun, Peide; Zhu, Mingshan

    2012-01-01

    During waste sludge reduction by oligochaetes, phosphorus (P) concentrations in the effluent have been noticed to increase. In the current study, batch experiments were carried out in order to provide explanations for this phosphorus release. The results indicated that increase in effluent phosphorus concentration might not be directly linked to the phosphorus in worm body fluids, as the phosphorus concentration in the system at the start of each operational period did not change significantly. However, the phosphorus removal efficiency rapidly dropped from 93.9% +/- 1.9% to 62.2% +/- 1.3% with increasing addition ofoligochaete worm body fluids. Furthermore, an increase in worm body fluids induced a remarkable enhancement ofanaerobic phosphorus release rate as well as anaerobic storage of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA). At a worm density (wet weight) of 14.4 g/L, the anaerobic phosphorus release rate was elevated by 31.1% +/- 2.8% and 57.3% +/- 4.6% at 2.5% and 5.0% worm death rate, respectively, compared with the control. The contribution of worm body fluids to PHA production was 39.3-67.7 mg/g of dead worm (wet weight), which was mainly attributed to the extra synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyvalerate (PHV). Unfortunately, in the concomitant aerobic stage, inhibition of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) oxidation and ammonia utilization was observed along with the increasing addition of worm body fluids. Meanwhile, nitrite elevation was found at the beginning of the aerobic stage, which might be negative to the aerobic metabolic processes performed by phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs), namely PHB oxidation, phosphate uptake and ammonia utilization for biomass growth.

  4. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  5. Study of Nickel Ion Release in Simulated Body Fluid from C+-IMPLANTED Nickel Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Murtaza, G.; Saadat, Shahzad; Zaheer, Zeeshan; Shahnawaz, Muhammad; Uddin, Muhammad K. H.; Ahmad, Riaz

    2016-05-01

    Nickel ion release from NiTi shape memory alloy is an issue for biomedical applications. This study was planned to study the effect of C+ implantation on nickel ion release and affinity of calcium phosphate precipitation on NiTi alloy. Four annealed samples are chosen for the present study; three samples with oxidation layer and the fourth without oxidation layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveal amorphization with ion implantation. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) result shows insignificant increase in Ni release in simulated body fluid (SBF) and calcium phosphate precipitation up to 8×1013ions/cm2. Then Nickel contents show a sharp increase for greater ion doses. Corrosion potential decreases by increasing the dose but all the samples passivate after the same interval of time and at the same level of VSCE in ringer lactate solution. Hardness of samples initially increases at greater rate (up to 8×1013ions/cm2) and then increases with lesser rate. It is found that 8×1013ions/cm2 (≈1014) is a safer limit of implantation on NiTi alloy, this limit gives us lesser ion release, better hardness and reasonable hydroxyapatite incubation affinity.

  6. Shaping of Metal-Organic Frameworks: From Fluid to Shaped Bodies and Robust Foams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifa; Huang, Xianqiang; Zhang, Shenghan; Li, Siqing; Cao, Sijia; Pei, Xiaokun; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Bo

    2016-08-31

    The applications of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) toward industrial separation, catalysis, sensing, and some sophisticated devices are drastically affected by their intrinsic fragility and poor processability. Unlike organic polymers, MOF crystals are insoluble in any solvents and are usually not thermoplastic, which means traditional solvent- or melting-based processing techniques are not applicable for MOFs. Herein, a continuous phase transformation processing strategy is proposed for fabricating and shaping MOFs into processable fluids, shaped bodies, and even MOF foams that are capable of reversible transformation among these states. Based on this strategy, a cup-shaped Cu-MOF composite and hierarchically porous MOF foam were developed for highly efficient catalytic C-H oxidation (conv. 76% and sele. 93% for cup-shaped Cu-MOF composite and conv. 92% and sele. 97% for porous foam) with ease of recycling and dramatically improved kinetics. Furthermore, various MOF-based foams with low densities (<0.1 g cm(-3)) and high MOF loadings (up to 80 wt %) were obtained via this protocol. Imparted with hierarchically porous structures and fully accessible MOFs uniformly distributed, these foams presented low energy penalty (pressure drop <20 Pa, at 500 mL min(-1)) and showed potential applications as efficient membrane reactors. PMID:27511140

  7. Corrosion fatigue behavior of a biocompatible ultrafine-grained niobium alloy in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Rubitschek, F; Niendorf, T; Karaman, I; Maier, H J

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports on the corrosion fatigue behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Niobium 2 wt-% Zirconium (NbZr) alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF). The alloy was processed using multipass equal channel angular processing at room temperature, resulting in a favorable combination of high strength and ductility along with superior biocompatibility and excellent corrosion resistance. Electrochemical measurements revealed stable passive behavior in SBF saline solutions, similar to conventional Ti-6Al-4V alloy. High-cycle fatigue tests showed no alteration in the crack initiation behavior due to the SBF environment, and an absence of pitting and corrosion products. More severe test conditions were obtained in the fatigue crack growth experiments in saline environments. Crack growth rates in UFG NbZr were marginally increased in SBF as compared to laboratory air at a constant test frequency of 20 Hz. Upon a 100 fold decrease in the test frequency, slightly higher crack growth rates were observed only in the near-threshold region. Such excellent corrosion and corrosion fatigue properties of UFG NbZr recommend it as an attractive new material for biomedical implants.

  8. A new specific method to detect cyanide in body fluids, especially whole blood, by fluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Felscher, D; Wulfmeyer, M

    1998-09-01

    This study shows a simple, rapid, and specific method for the quantitative determination of cyanide ion in body fluids, especially blood, by fluorimetry. It is based upon the transformation of cyanide ion into hydrocyanic acid, which then reacts with 2,3-naphthalenedialdehyde and taurine in a self-contained system. The 1-cyano-2-benzoisoindole derivate thus formed is suitable for fluorimetric measurement (lambdaEX = 418 nm; lambdaEM = 460 nm). The fluorescence intensity can be determined by spectrophotometry or by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The detection limit is 0.002 microg/mL. Linearity was excellent from 0.002 to 1 microg/mL for spectrophotometry and from 0.002 to 5 microg/mL for HPLC with fluorescence detection. The coefficient of variation for repeatability was 8% or less. Thiocyanate and sulfide did not interfere, even at high concentrations (200 microg/mL). The method was applicable to whole blood, so it should be suitable for both clinical and forensic purposes. PMID:9737330

  9. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami

    2015-05-22

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH{sup +} and CaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +}. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  10. Determination of aminothiols in body fluids, cells, and tissues by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bayle, Christophe; Caussé, Elisabeth; Couderc, François

    2004-06-01

    Oxidative stress is present in cardiovascular diseases and hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor for these diseases. It may play a role by inducing production of oxygen free radicals. Reduced glutathione is the most abundant intracellular low-molecular-weight thiol and plays an essential role in protecting cells from toxic species. The thiol-containing compounds which are the most often considered in biological analysis, are homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH), cysteinyl-glycine (Cys-Gly), gamma-glutamyl-cysteine (gammaGlu-Cys), and their derivatives. These aminothiols are present in body fluids or cells, associated with proteins or occur free (reduced and oxidized). These free forms may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Because Hcy (with Cys) exhibits pro-oxidative properties and GSH (with Cys-Gly) antioxidative properties, and because there is extensive interconversion between these metabolites, their simultaneous analysis in biological samples is necessary to examine their role in human disease. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) seems to be a solution to reach this goal. No extensive review reports the analysis of aminothiols using CE. This review describes the different CE approaches which have been used to separate and assay aminothiols, and the different obtained datas.

  11. Surface Behavior of Bioactive Glass of Si-Na-Ca-P System in Simulated Body Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Dang, Xing; Bao, Ruiliang; Yao, Liang

    Glass of the Si-Na-Ca-P system has been synthesized by normal melting and annealing technique. The obtained glass powders and annealed blocks were showed to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of glasses were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), it showed that the glass transformation temperature (Tg) was 556.3°C. The behavior of annealed glass discs in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) was studied in polyethylene containers at a constant temperature of 37°C for different time up to 14 days. The changes in the surface morphology and composition were observed by electronic probe microanalyzer (EPMA) associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Glass surface changed quickly as soon as immersion took place, and after longer soaking time, it showed different superimposed internal and external layers, which were identified as SiO2-rich and CaO-P2O5-rich layers, and on the external layer, spherical particles were also discovered.

  12. Dependence of ion concentration in simulated body fluid on apatite precipitation on titania surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Akira; Nakano, Masayuki; Hieda, Junko; Ohtake, Naoto; Akasaka, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    Titanium and its alloys are used as biomaterials, because of their high biocompatibility. Apatite precipitates on a titania surface in vivo, and living bone and titanium alloy are coupled through the thin apatite layer. The initial precipitation behavior of apatite on titania in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions was evaluated and the effect of inorganic ions in the SBF was investigated. Measurement using the SPR phenomenon was used to evaluate the initial apatite precipitation. An SBF containing approximately equal ion concentrations to those in blood plasma was added to a titania surface and the SPR profile was obtained, from which the initial apatite precipitation rate was found to be 1.14 nm/h. Furthermore, the relationship between the inorganic concentration and the precipitation rate was determined for SBFs with different Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations. Apatite precipitation did not occur in the SBF with a low Na+ concentration, whereas the initial apatite precipitation rate in the SBF that did not contain Ca2+ was 0.32 nm/h. According to these results, Ca2+ has little effect on the initial apatite precipitation. In the initial reaction of apatite precipitation, sodium titanate is formed by the absorption of Na+. Next, calcium titanate precipitates upon the substitution of Na+ with Ca2+. Finally, Na+, phosphate ions and hydroxyl ions are attracted to the surface and apatite is formed. Thus, the rate-limiting factor in the initial nucleation of apatite is the Na+ concentration.

  13. Analysis of bacterial-surface-specific antibodies in body fluids using bacterial flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Moor, Kathrin; Fadlallah, Jehane; Toska, Albulena; Sterlin, Delphine; Balmer, Maria L; Macpherson, Andrew J; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin; Slack, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Antibacterial antibody responses that target surfaces of live bacteria or secreted toxins are likely to be relevant in controlling bacterial pathogenesis. The ability to specifically quantify bacterial-surface-binding antibodies is therefore highly attractive as a quantitative correlate of immune protection. Here, binding of antibodies from various body fluids to pure-cultured live bacteria is made visible with fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibodies and measured by flow cytometry. We indicate the necessary controls for excluding nonspecific binding and also demonstrate a cross-adsorption technique for determining the extent of cross-reactivity. This technique has numerous advantages over standard ELISA and western blotting techniques because of its independence from scaffold binding, exclusion of cross-reactive elements from lysed bacteria and ability to visualize bacterial subpopulations. In addition, less than 10(5) bacteria and less than 10 μg of antibody are required per sample. The technique requires 3-4 h of hands-on experimentation and analysis. Moreover, it can be combined with automation and mutliplexing for high-throughput applications.

  14. Tribological behavior study on Ti-Nb-Sn/hydroxyapatite composites in simulated body fluid solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuyong; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xu, Lijuan; Liu, Zhiguang; Kee, Do Woo

    2012-06-01

    In this study, Ti-35Nb-2.5Sn/xhydroxyapatite (HA) composites were sintered by pulse current activated sintering (PCAS) from powders milled for different time. These sintered composites were expected to be potential biomaterials. Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) phase which could increase hardness of sintered composites was found in the Ti-35Nb-2.5Sn/15HA composite sintered from 12 h milled powders. The sintered composites had low elastic modulus (18∼26 GPa) and high compression strength. Due to the importance of friction and wear in biomaterials application, the tribological behavior of sintered composites was studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Results revealed that milling time and HA content of powders could affect wear properties of sintered composites. The major wear mechanism was abrasive wear in the wear test. The wear rate and friction coefficient decreased when milling time and HA content of powders increased. The lowest friction coefficient (0.1223) was obtained in the Ti-35Nb-2.5Sn/15HA composite sintered from 12 h milled powders, and this composite had superior wear resistance. PMID:22520422

  15. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification.

  16. 1H NMR metabolite fingerprinting as a new tool for body fluid identification in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Scano, Paola; Locci, Emanuela; Noto, Antonio; Navarra, Gabriele; Murgia, Federica; Lussu, Milena; Barberini, Luigi; Atzori, Luigi; De Giorgio, Fabio; Rosa, Maria Francesca; d'Aloja, Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    In this feasibility study, we propose, for the first time, (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with mathematical strategies as a valid tool for body fluid (BF) trace identification in forensic science. In order to assess the ability of this approach to identify traces composed either by a single or by two different BFs, samples of blood, urine, saliva, and semen were collected from different donors, and binary mixtures were prepared. (1)H NMR analyses were carried out for all samples. Spectral data of the whole set were firstly submitted to unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA); it showed that samples of the same BF cluster well on the basis of their characterizing molecular components and that mixtures exhibit intermediate characteristics among BF typologies. Furthermore, samples were divided into a training set and a test set. An average NMR spectral profile for each typology of BF was obtained from the training set and validated as representative of each BF class. Finally, a fitting procedure, based on a system of linear equations with the four obtained average spectral profiles, was applied to the test set and the mixture samples; it showed that BFs can be unambiguously identified, even as components of a mixture. The successful use of this mathematical procedure has the advantage, in forensics, of overcoming bias due to the analyst's personal judgment. We therefore propose this combined approach as a valid, fast, and non-destructive tool for addressing the challenges in the identification of composite traces in forensics.

  17. Carbon nanotubes implanted manganese-based MOFs for simultaneous detection of biomolecules in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Qiang; Ye, Cui; Bao, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Ya-Nan; Xu, Mao-wen

    2016-02-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted much interest in electrochemical fields due to their controlled porosity, large internal surface area, and countless structural topologies. However, the direct application of single component MOFs is limited since they also exhibit poor electronic conductivity, low mechanical stability, and inferior electrocatalytic ability. To overcome these problems, we implanted multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into manganese-based metal-organic frameworks (Mn-BDC) using a one-step solvothermal method and found that the introduction of MWCNTs can initiate the splitting of bulky Mn-BDC into thin layers. This splitting is highly significant in that it enhances the electronic conductivity and electrocatalytic ability of Mn-BDC. The constructed Mn-BDC@MWCNT composites were utilized as an electrode modifying material in the fabrication of an electrochemical sensor and then were used successfully for the determination of biomolecules in human body fluid. The sensor displayed successful detection performance with wide linear detection ranges (0.1-1150, 0.01-500, and 0.02-1100 μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively) and low limits of detection (0.01, 0.002, and 0.005 μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively); thus, this preliminary study presents an electrochemical biosensor constructed with a novel electrode modifying material that exhibits superior potential for the practical detection of AA, DA and UA in urine samples.

  18. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  19. Species, Diaspore Volume and Body Mass Matter in Gastropod Seed Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores) is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1) further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2) to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. Methodology and Principal Findings We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean) mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length) swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus) swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa) than smaller ones. Conclusions and Significance Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size. PMID:23844239

  20. Path instabilities of heavy bodies in free fall in a viscous fluid: wake dynamics vs. aerodynamic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, David; Selvam, Kamal; Tchoufag, Joël; Assemat, Pauline; Magnaudet, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Solid bodies in free fall in a viscous fluid generally fall along a non-straight path, and a variety of periodic (fluttering, tumbling) and non-periodic regimes can be observed. We analyze the structure of the couplings between the fluid and the body, restricting to a linear stability framework. Introducing a simple toy model consisting of a infinitely long plate sliding along a vertical wall, we show that in the limit of large solid-to-fluid masses a decoupling takes place, allowing us to distinguish two kinds of modes: ``wake'' modes in which the body motion has virtually no influence, and ``body'' modes for which the intrinsic wake dynamics can be neglected. Turning to more realistic objects, we show that the ``body'' modes can be described through a rationally derived aerodynamic model (based on quasi-static assumptions), yielding either a static instability, or a dynamic, low-frequency, instability. Considering 2D rectangular rods and 3D disks, we explore the competition between the three kinds of instabilities. For objects elongated in the spanwise direction, it is found that wake instability dominates in case of 2D rectangles and low-frequency instability dominates in case of disks. For objects elongated in the streamwise direction, static instability always dominate.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares after repeated intragastric administration

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its distribution within the body fluids and endometrium of 6 mares were studied after intragastric (IG) administration of 5 individual doses. Difloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, urine, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrium over 120 h. Bacterial susceptibility to difloxacin was determined for 174 equine pathogens over a 7-month period. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.25 ± 0.70 μg/mL at 3.12 ± 2.63 h and Cmax after the 5th dose was 2.41 ± 0.86 μg/mL at 97.86 ± 1.45 h. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 8.75 ± 2.77 h and area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) was 25.13 ± 8.79 μg h/mL. Highest mean synovial fluid concentration was 1.26 ± 0.49 μg/mL at 100 h. Highest mean peritoneal fluid concentration was 1.50 ± 0.56 μg/mL at 98 h. Highest mean endometrial concentration was 0.78 ± 0.48 μg/g at 97.5 h. Mean cerebrospinal fluid concentration was 0.87 ± 0.52 μg/mL at 99 h. Highest mean urine concentration was 92.05 ± 30.35 μg/mL at 104 h. All isolates of Salmonella spp. and Pasteurella spp. were susceptible. In general, gram-negative organisms were more susceptible than gram-positives. Difloxacin appears to be safe, adequately absorbed, and well distributed to body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares and may be useful in the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in adult horses. PMID:16187554

  2. Effects of different carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on the appearance of ingested deuterium in body fluids during moderate exercise by humans in the heat.

    PubMed

    Koulmann, N; Melin, B; Jimenez, C; Charpenet, A; Savourey, G; Bittel, J

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether different forms of glucose (free and polymer) associated with sodium chloride influence the rate of water absorption during exercise in the heat, six men took part in five trials. Each trial included a passive heating session which resulted in a 2% loss of body mass, followed by 1h of treadmill exercise (at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake) in warm conditions (dry bulb temperature 35 degrees C, relative humidity 20%-30%). Immediately before exercise, the subjects were given either no fluid or a volume equal to 50% of the fluid previously lost (about 650 ml), chosen from among four D2O-labelled beverages: mineral water, a 6% glucose-electrolyte solution (GS), a 6% maltodextrin solution and a 6% maltodextrin-electrolyte solution. No significant differences were observed among these various beverages so far as temporal accumulation of deuterium in plasma, sweat and urine was concerned. During GS, the plasma volume was completely restored and the drifts of heart rate and rectal temperature were less marked than during other trials. These results would suggest that rehydration with GS was more efficient, probably because of an internal redistribution of water. The proportion of ingested water was twice as high in sweat as it was in urine. These findings may reflect the essential part played by circulatory adjustments in the transfer of plasma water into sweat and urine.

  3. ON THE PRESENCE OF CERTAIN BODIES IN THE SKIN AND BLISTER FLUID FROM SCARLET-FEVER AND MEASLES.

    PubMed

    Field, C W

    1905-07-15

    In sections of control and normal skin, the nuclei of the epithelial cells were often indented by the cell protoplasm, giving them an appearance similar to those indented by Mallory's bodies. It would seem that if these bodies of Mallory's were protozoa they would have been found in the sections from both the living and the dead skin of scarlet-fever and measles, as they were present in the blister fluid. Their absence is certainly more suggestive of a degeneration than of a protozoon. This view is also borne out by the fact that they were not found immediately after death, but were present in another specimen from the same case removed twenty-four hours later. It would seem probable also that the bodies found in the blister fluid were the products of degeneration and cytolytic activity, because they were found in the antitoxin rashes as well as in the cases of scarlet-fever and measles. The histological changes in the skin of these two diseases leads us to expect the presence of cytolytic products both in the blister fluid and in the sections. It certainly cannot be stated that none of these bodies is a protozoön, but it can be positively stated that a great majority of them arise from degenerating cells; and in many cases, I think, it is not possible to differentiate a degeneration from a protozoön by the study of its morphology and staining reactions. The bodies present in blister fluid resemble very closely those granular bodies found in blood under certain conditions, and seen in vaccine lymph and in emulsions of tissues and in exudates. I think, therefore, that they are for the most part, if not wholly, products of degenerating tissue cells and of leucocytes, and within certain limits specific to scarlet-fever and measles.

  4. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  5. Interface control volume finite element method for modelling multi-phase fluid flow in highly heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abushaikha, Ahmad S.; Blunt, Martin J.; Gosselin, Olivier R.; Pain, Christopher C.; Jackson, Matthew D.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new control volume finite element method that improves the modelling of multi-phase fluid flow in highly heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, called the Interface Control Volume Finite Element (ICVFE) method. The method drastically decreases the smearing effects in other CVFE methods, while being mass conservative and numerically consistent. The pressure is computed at the interfaces of elements, and the control volumes are constructed around them, instead of at the elements' vertices. This assures that a control volume straddles, at most, two elements, which decreases the fluid smearing between neighbouring elements when large variations in their material properties are present. Lowest order Raviart-Thomas vectorial basis functions are used for the pressure calculation and first-order Courant basis functions are used to compute fluxes. The method is a combination of Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) and CVFE methods. Its accuracy and convergence are tested using three dimensional tetrahedron elements to represent heterogeneous reservoirs. Our new approach is shown to be more accurate than current CVFE methods.

  6. Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  7. A fully-implicit finite-volume method for multi-fluid reactive and collisional magnetized plasmas on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Laguna, A.; Lani, A.; Deconinck, H.; Mansour, N. N.; Poedts, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a Finite Volume scheme for solving Maxwell's equations coupled to magnetized multi-fluid plasma equations for reactive and collisional partially ionized flows on unstructured meshes. The inclusion of the displacement current allows for studying electromagnetic wave propagation in a plasma as well as charge separation effects beyond the standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) description, however, it leads to a very stiff system with characteristic velocities ranging from the speed of sound of the fluids up to the speed of light. In order to control the fulfillment of the elliptical constraints of the Maxwell's equations, we use the hyperbolic divergence cleaning method. In this paper, we extend the latter method applying the CIR scheme with scaled numerical diffusion in order to balance those terms with the Maxwell flux vectors. For the fluids, we generalize the AUSM+-up to multiple fluids of different species within the plasma. The fully implicit second-order method is first verified on the Hartmann flow (including comparison with its analytical solution), two ideal MHD cases with strong shocks, namely, Orszag-Tang and the MHD rotor, then validated on a much more challenging case, representing a two-fluid magnetic reconnection under solar chromospheric conditions. For the latter case, a comparison with pioneering results available in literature is provided.

  8. A charge-conservative approach for simulating electrohydrodynamic two-phase flows using volume-of-fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Herrera, J. M.; Popinet, S.; Herrada, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    In the present study we propose a charge-conservative scheme to solve two-phase electrohydrodynamic (EHD) problems using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. EHD problems are usually simplified by assuming that the fluids involved are purely dielectric (insulators) or purely conducting. Gases can be considered as perfect insulators but pure dielectric liquids do not exist in nature and insulating liquids have to be approximated using the "Taylor-Melcher leaky dielectric model" [1,2] in which a leakage of charge through the liquid due to ohmic conduction is allowed. It is also a customary assumption to neglect the convection of charge against the ohmic conduction. The scheme proposed in this article can deal with any EHD problem since it does not rely on any of the above simplifications. An unrestricted EHD solver requires not only to incorporate electric forces in the Navier-Stokes equations, but also to consider the charge migration due to both conduction and convection in the electric charge conservation equation [3]. The conducting or insulating nature of the fluids arise on their own as a result of their electric and fluid mechanical properties. The EHD solver has been built as an extension to Gerris, a free software solver for the solution of incompressible fluid motion using an adaptive VOF method on octree meshes developed by Popinet [4,5].

  9. Ultrastructure of the intercalated body, a novel organelle associated with fluid forming cells in the organ of Corti.

    PubMed

    Sobkowicz, H M; Holy, J; Scott, G L

    1990-07-01

    The intercalated body is a newly discovered organelle in the inner and outer spiral sulcus cells of the mouse organ of Corti. The organelle was found in the cochleas of 14-day and older intact mice and in organs in culture of corresponding ages. The organelle consists of a stack of interconnected cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and of membrane bound rodlets that are intercalated between, and run parallel to, the cisternae. The cisternal membranes are predominantly smooth, but some may display ribosomes. Most rodlets are from 1 to 2 microns long, about 0.1 micron wide, and contain electron dense material. Mitochondria are commonly associated with or incorporated into the organelle. Some electron micrographs suggest that the rodlets may originate from modified mitochondria. It is our impression that the formation of the organelle begins with the apposition of cisternae and mitochondria. Cisternal-associated mitochondria appear to constrict, elongate, and lose their inner membranes. In both the intact animal and in culture, the cells of the inner and outer spiral sulci display microvilli, apical junctional complexes, lateral intercellular spaces containing interdigitating cell processes, and appear to be involved in fluid formation. Moreover, in culture, the cells of inner and outer spiral sulci as well as some cells proliferating in the outgrowth zone participate in fluid formation, producing large fluid pockets. All these cells commonly contain intercalated bodies. It is possible that in the intact animal, as in culture, intercalated bodies may play a role in fluid regulation in the immediate vicinity of the hair cells.

  10. Wing-Body Aeroelasticity Using Finite-Difference Fluid/Finite-Element Structural Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Chansup; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In recent years significant advances have been made for parallel computers in both hardware and software. Now parallel computers have become viable tools in computational mechanics. Many application codes developed on conventional computers have been modified to benefit from parallel computers. Significant speedups in some areas have been achieved by parallel computations. For single-discipline use of both fluid dynamics and structural dynamics, computations have been made on wing-body configurations using parallel computers. However, only a limited amount of work has been completed in combining these two disciplines for multidisciplinary applications. The prime reason is the increased level of complication associated with a multidisciplinary approach. In this work, procedures to compute aeroelasticity on parallel computers using direct coupling of fluid and structural equations will be investigated for wing-body configurations. The parallel computer selected for computations is an Intel iPSC/860 computer which is a distributed-memory, multiple-instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computer with 128 processors. In this study, the computational efficiency issues of parallel integration of both fluid and structural equations will be investigated in detail. The fluid and structural domains will be modeled using finite-difference and finite-element approaches, respectively. Results from the parallel computer will be compared with those from the conventional computers using a single processor. This study will provide an efficient computational tool for the aeroelastic analysis of wing-body structures on MIMD type parallel computers.

  11. Pharyngeal airway protective reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that the hypopharynx can safely hold is exceeded

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Kulwinder; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Aerodigestive reflexes triggered by pharyngeal stimulation can protect the airways by clearing fluid from the pharynx. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the maximum capacity of fluid that can safely dwell in the hypopharynx [hypopharyngeal safe volume (HPSV)] before spilling into the larynx and the threshold volumes required to trigger pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Twenty-five healthy volunteers (mean age 24 yr, 8 males) were studied in the semi-inclined supine position. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited using techniques of concurrent upper esophageal sphincter manometry and pharyngo-laryngoscopy. The hypopharynx was then anesthetized to abolish RPS. HPSV was determined by infusing water in the pharynx, and perfusion was stopped when the infusate reached the superior margin of the interarytenoid fold. The threshold volumes for triggering PGCR, PUCR, and RPS by slow and rapid injections before pharyngeal anesthesia were 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 ml; 0.20 ± 0.020 and 0.13 ± 0.04 ml; and 0.61 ± 0.04 and 0.4 ± 0.06 ml, respectively. All of the above volumes were significantly smaller than the HPSV (0.70 ± 0.06 ml, P < 0.01) except for the threshold volume to elicit RPS during slow perfusion, which was not significantly different (P = 0.23). We conclude that pharyngeal aerodigestive reflexes are triggered by both slow and rapid pharyngeal perfusion of water at significantly smaller volumes than the maximum capacity of the hypopharynx to safely hold contents without spilling into the airway. These reflexes thereby aid in prevention of aspiration. PMID:21566013

  12. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  13. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference: Exposition Topical Areas 1-6. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This CP (conference proceeding) is a compilation of the abstracts, presentations, and posters presented at the conference.

  14. Self-propulsion of free solid bodies with internal rotors via localized singular vortex shedding in planar ideal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, P.; Kelly, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    Diverse mechanisms for animal locomotion in fluids rely on vortex shedding to generate propulsive forces. This is a complex phenomenon that depends essentially on fluid viscosity, but its influence can be modeled in an inviscid setting by introducing localized velocity constraints to systems comprising solid bodies interacting with ideal fluids. In the present paper, we invoke an unsteady version of the Kutta condition from inviscid airfoil theory and a more primitive stagnation condition to model vortex shedding from a geometrically contrasting pair of free planar bodies representing idealizations of swimming animals or robotic vehicles. We demonstrate with simulations that these constraints are sufficient to enable both bodies to propel themselves with very limited actuation. The solitary actuator in each case is a momentum wheel internal to the body, underscoring the symmetry-breaking role played by vortex shedding in converting periodic variations in a generic swimmer's angular momentum to forward locomotion. The velocity constraints are imposed discretely in time, resulting in the shedding of discrete vortices; we observe the roll-up of these vortices into distinctive wake structures observed in viscous models and physical experiments.

  15. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  16. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis via Cl- transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl- uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl- channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl- environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl- content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl- uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl- homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated the cofunctional role

  17. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures.

    PubMed

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2015-11-13

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR "next-generation" peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva.

  18. Oral Factors Affecting Titanium Elution and Corrosion: An In Vitro Study Using Simulated Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Suito, Hideki; Iwawaki, Yuki; Goto, Takaharu; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ti, which is biocompatible and resistant to corrosion, is widely used for dental implants, particularly in patients allergic to other materials. However, numerous studies have reported on Ti allergy and the in vitro corrosion of Ti. This study investigated the conditions that promote the elution of Ti ions from Ti implants. Methods Specimens of commercially pure Ti, pure nickel, a magnetic alloy, and a gold alloy were tested. Each specimen was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) whose pH value was controlled (2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0) using either hydrochloric or lactic acid. The parameters investigated were the following: duration of immersion, pH of the SBF, contact with a dissimilar metal, and mechanical stimulus. The amounts of Ti ions eluted were measured using a polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Eluted Ti ions were detected after 24 h (pH of 2.0 and 3.0) and after 48 h (pH of 9.0). However, even after 4 weeks, eluted Ti ions were not detected in SBF solutions with pH values of 5.0 and 7.4. Ti elution was affected by immersion time, pH, acid type, mechanical stimulus, and contact with a dissimilar metal. Elution of Ti ions in a Candida albicans culture medium was observed after 72 h. Significance Elution of Ti ions in the SBF was influenced by its pH and by crevice corrosion. The results of this study elucidate the conditions that lead to the elution of Ti ions in humans, which results in implant corrosion and Ti allergy. PMID:23762461

  19. TRIS buffer in simulated body fluid distorts the assessment of glass-ceramic scaffold bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Rohanová, Dana; Boccaccini, Aldo Roberto; Yunos, Darmawati Mohamad; Horkavcová, Diana; Březovská, Iva; Helebrant, Aleš

    2011-06-01

    The paper deals with the characterisation of the bioactive phenomena of glass-ceramic scaffold derived from Bioglass® (containing 77 wt.% of crystalline phases Na(2)O·2CaO·3SiO(2) and CaO·SiO(2) and 23 wt.% of residual glass phase) using simulated body fluid (SBF) buffered with tris-(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (TRIS). A significant effect of the TRIS buffer on glass-ceramic scaffold dissolution in SBF was detected. To better understand the influence of the buffer, the glass-ceramic scaffold was exposed to a series of in vitro tests using different media as follows: (i) a fresh liquid flow of SBF containing tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane; (ii) SBF solution without TRIS buffer; (iii) TRIS buffer alone; and (iv) demineralised water. The in vitro tests were provided under static and dynamic arrangements. SBF buffered with TRIS dissolved both the crystalline and residual glass phases of the scaffold and a crystalline form of hydroxyapatite (HAp) developed on the scaffold surface. In contrast, when TRIS buffer was not present in the solutions only the residual glassy phase dissolved and an amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca-P) phase formed on the scaffold surface. It was confirmed that the TRIS buffer primarily dissolved the crystalline phase of the glass-ceramic, doubled the dissolving rate of the scaffold and moreover supported the formation of crystalline HAp. This significant effect of the buffer TRIS on bioactive glass-ceramic scaffold degradation in SBF has not been demonstrated previously and should be considered when analysing the results of SBF immersion bioactivity tests of such systems.

  20. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR “next-generation” peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva. PMID:26580595

  1. A Method for Measuring the Volume of Transdermally Extracted Interstitial Fluid by a Three-Electrode Skin Resistance Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dachao; Wang, Ridong; Yu, Haixia; Li, Guoqing; Sun, Yue; Liang, Wenshuai; Xu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to accurately measure the volume of transdermally extracted interstitial fluid (ISF), which is important for improving blood glucose prediction accuracy. Skin resistance, which is a good indicator of skin permeability, can be used to determine the volume of extracted ISF. However, it is a challenge to realize in vivo longitudinal skin resistance measurements of microareas. In this study, a three-electrode sensor was presented for measuring single-point skin resistance in vivo, and a method for determining the volume of transdermally extracted ISF using this sensor was proposed. Skin resistance was measured under static and dynamic conditions. The correlation between the skin resistance and the permeation rate of transdermally extracted ISF was proven. The volume of transdermally extracted ISF was determined using skin resistance. Factors affecting the volume prediction accuracy of transdermally extracted ISF were discussed. This method is expected to improve the accuracy of blood glucose prediction, and is of great significance for the clinical application of minimally invasive blood glucose measurement. PMID:24759111

  2. Lithium clearance in man: effects of dietary salt intake, acute changes in extracellular fluid volume, amiloride and frusemide.

    PubMed

    Atherton, J C; Green, R; Hughes, S; McFall, V; Sharples, J A; Solomon, L R; Wilson, L

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of amiloride and frusemide on lithium clearance were studied during changes in dietary sodium chloride intake and during infusion of 0.9% NaCl in normal human volunteers. 2. Lithium and fractional lithium clearances were less on the low than on the high salt diet. Values for the medium salt diet were intermediate. Acute extracellular fluid volume expansion with 0.9% NaCl infusion and extracellular fluid volume contraction 3-4 h after intravenous frusemide caused lithium and fractional lithium clearances to increase and decrease respectively. 3. Amiloride caused small changes in lithium and fractional lithium clearances on a low salt diet, but was without effect when salt intake was medium or high. 4. Increases in lithium clearance occurred immediately after frusemide irrespective of dietary salt intake and in subjects infused with 0.9% NaCl. Only in salt-depleted subjects did frusemide cause a substantial increase in fractional lithium clearance. Changes induced under other circumstances were small. 5. It is concluded that the lithium clearance method for assessment of proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption can be used with some degree of confidence in certain circumstances (medium and high salt intake as well as in acute volume expansion) but may not be reliable when dietary salt intake is low. PMID:3690979

  3. Generalized mapping of multi-body dissipative particle dynamics onto fluid compressibility and the Flory-Huggins theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Wagner, Jacob; Yamanoi, Mikio; Maia, Joao

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a generalized relation between the fluid compressibility, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), and the simulation parameters in multi-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is established. This required revisiting the MDPD equation of state previously reported in the literature and developing general relationships between the parameters used in the MDPD model. We derive a relationship to the Flory-Huggins χ parameter for incompressible fluids similar to the work previously done in dissipative particle dynamics by Groot and Warren. The accuracy of this relationship is evaluated using phase separation in small molecules and the solubility of polymers in dilute solvent solutions via monitoring the scaling of the radius of gyration (Rg) for different solvent qualities. Finally, the dynamics of the MDPD fluid is studied with respect to the diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity.

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of Ti-Ni SMA and Co-Cr alloys in dynamic Tyrode's simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenghao; Zheng, Runfen; Huang, Naibao; Wu, Bo

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy and Co-Cr alloys were investigated in dynamic Tyrode's simulated body fluid on a Model CP6 Potentiostat/Galvanostat. The results indicated that, for all alloys, the anodic dissolution and the pitting sensitivity increased with the flow rate of the Tyrode's solution increasing while the open-circuit potentials and pitting corrosion potentials decreased with the Tyrode's solution increasing. Pitting corrosion of Ti-Ni alloy was easier than Co-Cr alloys. Since the solution's flow enhanced oxygen transform and made it easy to reach the surface of electrodes, the plateau of oxygen diffusion control was diminished. All these indicated that the cathodic reduction and the corrosion reaction, which was controlled by the electrochemical mass transport process, were all accelerated in dynamic Tyrode's simulated body fluid.

  5. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Bladergroen, Marco R.; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods that involve solid-phase extraction (SPE) including affinity enrichment strategies have been automated. Obtained peptide and protein fractions can be mass analyzed by direct infusion into an electrospray ionization (ESI) source or by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) without further need of time-consuming liquid chromatography (LC) separations. PMID:25692071

  6. Solid-phase extraction strategies to surmount body fluid sample complexity in high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bladergroen, Marco R; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods that involve solid-phase extraction (SPE) including affinity enrichment strategies have been automated. Obtained peptide and protein fractions can be mass analyzed by direct infusion into an electrospray ionization (ESI) source or by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) without further need of time-consuming liquid chromatography (LC) separations. PMID:25692071

  7. Wing-Body Aeroelasticity Using Finite-Difference Fluid/Finite-Element Structural Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Chansup; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for computing the aeroelasticity of wing-body configurations on multiple-instruction, multiple-data (MIMD) parallel computers. In this procedure, fluids are modeled using Euler equations discretized by a finite difference method, and structures are modeled using finite element equations. The procedure is designed in such a way that each discipline can be developed and maintained independently by using a domain decomposition approach. A parallel integration scheme is used to compute aeroelastic responses by solving the coup