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Sample records for bog north estonia

  1. Late Holocene peatland carbon dynamics inferred from Teringi Bog in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Kristyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Borges, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated peat cores collected along a transect from Teringi Bog, an ombotrophic peatland, record changes in carbon accumulation rates during the late Holocene in response to shifting climatic conditions. Stable oxygen isotope records from nearby lakes indicate that periods of wetter conditions during the Holocene occurred at times when carbon accumulation rates were higher at Teringi. This suggests that shifting water table conditions drove much of the observed changes in carbon dynamics. Modern surface process observations indicate that carbon accumulation rates are indeed more variable at locations where the height of the water table is highly sensitive to rainfall amounts. In addition, carbon isotopes measured on water samples indicate that there is a close relationship between δ13C values and methane concentrations, suggesting that methanogenesis is strongly biomediated, and likewise varies as a function of the regional hydrology. Regardless, all of the cores collected indicate that there was a trend toward higher carbon accumulation rates from ~4.2 to 3.5 ka when precipitation amounts were higher, followed by lower values under drier conditions until ~2.8 ka. There was then a trend toward higher carbon accumulation rates through the remaining late Holocene. These observations further highlight the importance of high latitude peatland in global carbon dynamics as both a potential sink and source of CO2 and CH4.

  2. Health survey of wild and captive bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Deena; Lewbart, Gregory; Stebbins, Martha; Herman, Dennis W

    2002-12-01

    Blood samples, fecal samples, and cloacal swabs were collected from 42 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). including 14 wild males, 22 wild females, three captive males, and three captive females, in Virginia and North Carolina, USA. Samples were analyzed for hematologic and plasma chemistry values, Mycoplasma sp. antibodies, intestinal parasites, and normal cloacal flora.

  3. Concentration and grain-size distribution of aeolian sands in peat bogs as an indicator of past storminess in coastal areas of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandel, Egert; Vaasma, Tiit; Tõnisson, Hannes; Sugita, Shinya; Vilumaa, Kadri; Anderson, Agnes; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Kangur, Mihkel; Pensa, Margus; Küttim, Martin; Umbleja, Liisa; Puusepp, Liisa

    2016-04-01

    Storminess in the Baltic Sea region has significantly increased over the last 50 years. As we do not have meteorological data beyond 20th century, therefore the long-term changes in storminess (e.g., frequency and magnitude of the storms) and its impact on the coastal evolution are mostly unknown. This study aims to reconstruct the extreme storm events along the coast of Estonia in late Holocene, inferred from changes in grain-size distribution and concentration of aeolian sands preserved in peat deposits. Four cores in total were collected from bogs of coastal Estonia; three from west Estonian archipelago (Hiiumaa Island and Saaremaa Island); one from the northern coast of the mainland (Juminda Peninsula). Core from Saaremaa (166 cm) covers the last 2700 years, cores from Hiiumaa (171 cm and 330 cm) cover ca 4000 years, and core from Juminda (465 cm) covers ca 8500 years. All AMS dates (77) are converted to cal yrs BP. Analyses of LOI and grain size are carried out at every centimetre in order to obtain data for mineral matter content and concentration of sand particles. The Juminda core shows a consistently low content of mineral matter (LOI < 2%) without clear peaks over the last 8000 years. The LOI results at both Hiiumaa sites show that mineral matter content gradually decreases from 4000 to 1500 cal yrs BP and then becomes the lowest in the period of 1500-1000 cal yrs BP; since then, it becomes higher (up to 10%) with fluctuations and has a clear peak around 700 cal yrs BP. At Saaremaa, the overall trend of mineral matter content is similar to that at the Hiiumaa sites: gradual decline from 2700 to 1500 cal yrs BP, lowest in 1500-1000 cal yrs BP, and relatively high over the last millennium. Concentration of mineral particles reveal clear peaks of aeolian sands at each site. At northern Hiiumaa, concentration has peaks around 3500, 3000 and 2500 cal yrs BP and is relatively high over the last 700 years. At Saaremaa, concentration has peaked at 2100, 1600 and

  4. A hydrological study of Waen y Griafolen blanket bog, North Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G.

    2010-12-01

    Many mountain rivers in North Wales have their headwaters in peat blanket bogs. An example is Waen y Griafolen, source area for the Afon Mawddach, which formed the focus of a hydrological study by Bangor University over the period 2002-2004. Fieldwork has been supplemented by groundwater and surface water modelling. The blanket bog covers an area of approximately 6 km2 within a plateau basin in Lower Paleozoic shales. The structure of the blanket bog is complex. Erica and Trichophorum vegetation communities occupy the central area of the bog on deposits of old humified peat. Eroded into the old peat surface is a system of bifurcating channels occupied by actively accumulating Juncus and Sphagnum communities. River gravel and lake clay were found beneath the active peat channels at depths of several metres, indicative of an earlier and more extensive surface drainage system eroded into the bog surface. A palaeosoil occurs at the base of the old humified peat, with tree roots identified as Salix in growth position. A sample has been dated as 8905 ± 45 years before the reference year AD 1950. Waen y Griafolen has developed over the past 9000 years since the last ice sheets receded from upland Britain. Peat erosion represented by the buried river channels and lake bed may be linked to a period of increased rainfall across Europe at around 2600 years before the present. Groundwater levels have been continuously monitored at an instrumented borehole in the centre of the bog. It is found that the older humified peats have a surprisingly low water storage capacity and may become saturated during a single storm event. Storm flow occurs predominantly through fast surface runoff into the Juncus and Sphagnum infilled channels, where slow lateral movement takes place towards open stream courses at the basin outlet. There appears to be little vertical water movement into the underlying impermeable Ordovician shales. Climate change with an increase in winter rainfall may promote

  5. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Le Roux, Gaël; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Słowińskie Błota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements.

  6. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar.

    PubMed

    Nurmoja, I; Petrov, A; Breidenstein, C; Zani, L; Forth, J H; Beer, M; Kristian, M; Viltrop, A; Blome, S

    2017-01-24

    Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, African swine fever (ASF) is regarded as one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. Following the ongoing epidemic in the Transcaucasian countries and the Russian Federation, African swine fever virus was introduced into the Estonian wild boar population in 2014. Epidemiological investigations suggested two different introductions into the southern and the north-eastern part of Estonia. Interestingly, outbreak characteristics varied considerably between the affected regions. While high mortality and mainly virus-positive animals were observed in the southern region, mortality was low in the north-eastern area. In the latter, clinically healthy, antibody-positive animals were found in the hunting bag and detection of virus was rare. Two hypotheses could explain the different behaviour in the north-east: (i) the frequency of antibody detections combined with the low mortality is the tail of an older, so far undetected epidemic wave coming from the east, or (ii) the virus in this region is attenuated and leads to a less severe clinical outcome. To explore the possibility of virus attenuation, a re-isolated ASFV strain from the north-eastern Ida-Viru region was biologically characterized in European wild boar. Oronasal inoculation led to an acute and severe disease course in all animals with typical pathomorphological lesions. However, one animal recovered completely and was subsequently commingled with three sentinels of the same age class to assess disease transmission. By the end of the trial at 96 days post-initial inoculation, all animals were completely healthy and neither virus nor viral genomes were detected in the sentinels or the survivor. The survivor, however, showed high antibody levels. In conclusion, the ASFV strain from north-eastern Estonia was still highly virulent but nevertheless, one animal recovered completely. Under the experimental conditions, no transmission occurred from the survivor

  7. Bog bodies.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-06-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma. Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research.

  8. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  9. Eliminating rabies in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.

  10. Between East and West Is North: The Loyalties and Allegiances of Russian Authors and Painters Living in EU Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouillard, Remy

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Russian intelligentsia is closely related to discourses concerning Russia's position vis-a-vis Europe and the Western world, such as those of Slavophiles and Westernisers. This paper is about Russian authors and painters who are now becoming part of Europe, as the country in which they live, Estonia, has recently entered the…

  11. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in

  12. Snow Accumulation and Spring Melt Rates of Bogs and Fens in the North Granny Creek Catchment Basin, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. F.; Price, J. S.

    2009-05-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowlands contain one of the most extensive, contiguous peatland complexes in the world. Interlinked patterned peatlands developed in this region because of the cool climate, low-gradient topography and an underlying layer of low conductivity marine sediments. There is currently little research regarding the mechanisms that control runoff and surface water connectivity in this region, especially the functions of different peatland types on runoff production and flow pathways. Runoff generation in these systems is dependent on several factors such as soil and pool storage capacity, snow accumulation and melt rates, and peatland morphometry. Snowmelt accounts for a major portion of total annual runoff in this region and the timing of the melt will determine effective runoff production from a peatland catchment. One of the objectives of this project is to identify the processes and mechanisms that generate spring snowmelt runoff in different peatland types (i.e. bogs and fens) and quantify the relative contribution of each type in a peatland-dominated catchment basin. This research is being conducted in a 30 km2 catchment basin located near the DeBeers Victor diamond mine, located 90 km west of Attawapiskat, Ontario. The North Granny Creek basin is located approximately 3 km from the mine pit and is comprised of several peatland types and forms. The surface hydrology of this area is expected to be affected by groundwater depressurization due to dewatering of the mine pit by deep groundwater pumping wells. Effects of this activity on surface hydrology could possibly include increased soil storage capacity due to drier conditions and decreased melt rates due to reduced inputs of warm groundwater. Surface water connectivity is usually at a maximum in the spring because of a relatively impermeable frost table and low soil storage capacity which reduces infiltration. These effects of melt will not be observed uniformly over the entire catchment because of the

  13. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardio-Pulmonary Emergency Department Visits

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution i...

  14. Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with Cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air ...

  15. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed Through Syndromic Surveillance

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is...

  16. Nature and origins of acidity in bogs

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    To elucidate the causes of acidity in bogs, all of the processes generating and consuming acidity in a small peat bog in northern Minnesota were measured. These processes include ion exchange, plant nutrient uptake, atmospheric deposition, decomposition, organic acid production, sulfate reduction, and denitrification. Organic acid production was found to be the dominant source of acidity, responsible for the low pH of bog waters and the high acidity in the outflow. Net biological uptake (NBU) is the next largest source of acidity. Ion exchange accounts for only about 40% of the NBU-acidity. Plant uptake and ion exchange are much larger sources of acidity on an annual basis, but much of this acidity is neutralized by decomposition. Sulfate reduction and denitrification are quantitatively unimportant at this site because inputs (NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4/=) are low. Bog water samples and peat cores from bogs across northeastern North America were analyzed to determine if geographic trends in the rates of acidity-generating and -consuming processes exist. Rates of organic acid production varied little across the transect. Higher values of NBU-acidity were observed in maritime bogs than in midcontinental bogs. The effects of transformations of sulfur and nitrogen on the hydrogen-ion cycle were examined in detail. Nitrate appears to be taken up by bryophytes and little is lost to denitrification. Alkalinity from nitrate uptake is low. In contrast, there is a dynamic cycle of oxidation and reduction of sulfur within bogs. Inorganic forms of sulfur are not important storage pools in peat; 35% of the total sulfur input is accumulated as organic S.

  17. The Vanishing Bog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1990-01-01

    Directions for the construction of a model bog habitat are provided including examples of plants and animals which may be suitable. Activities that use this model are suggested. Background information on the ecology and chemistry of the bog is included. (CW)

  18. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  19. Bog discharge from different viewpoints: comparison of Ingram's theory with observations from an Estonian raised bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; van der Ploeg, Martine; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2013-04-01

    's approach. Our study site was Mannikjarve, a raised bog located centrally in Estonia and part of the larger Endla Nature Reserve. The size of the bog is approximately 2 km2. Mannikjarve is characterized by a surface pattern of different microtopes consisting of ridge-pool, hollow-ridge, hummock-hollow, Sphagnum lawn, and margin forest. We created a flow-net based on the raised bogs surface elevation. This flow-net defines the direction of lateral flow in the acrotelm. Based on the flow-net we divided the bog into sub-catchments representing the area contributing to discharge at the outlets of the bog. The measured discharge was used in a double mass analysis to calculate discharge ratio's. We assume that changes in discharge ratio's can be relate to changes in contributing area as a result of variable water flow paths. Furthermore, we compared the measured discharges with calculated discharge according to Ingram's model. Based on several reasonable estimates for input parameters, the observed discharges cannot be reproduced with the Ingram model. Furthermore, discharge ratio's between different sub-catchments within the peatland appear to be not constant over time, thus suggesting a shift in water divides that depends on atmospheric events.

  20. Investigating Bogs: An Interdisciplinary Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.; Schneider, Lois

    1995-01-01

    Presents the case for the use of bogs as ideal sites for hundreds of interdisciplinary lessons that combine chemistry, geology, various branches of biology, and wetlands archaeology. Includes general guidelines to aid in the design of interdisciplinary bog studies. (DDR)

  1. Possibilities for detailed dating of peat bog deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.; Ilomets, M.; Koff, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Geochemical and palynological data as well as radiocarbon dating were used to study the peat bog deposits in Niinsarre bog, northeast Estonia. The aim of this study was to establish criteria for determining a detailed chronology, which is important, for example, in studying paleoevents and historical monitoring. In some cases, they can use cumulative pollen data, as well as cumulative chemical and peat bulk density data. Material was gathered for [sup 14]C dating from three parallel samples taken from cores ca. 10--20 cm apart using a Russian peat sampler. Samples for peat bulk density, palynological and chemical measurements were taken from the same cores. To measure peat bulk density, the authors used a continuous sampling method. Sampling frequency was calculated to cover layers formed over 50 yr.

  2. Biobanking in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Keis, Aime

    2016-03-01

    Estonia is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a health care system that is built on the principle of compulsory, solidarity-based insurance and the all-round availability of services of private service providers. Estonia has specific biobank legislation as well as oversight via data protection laws. Its population-based biobank, the Estonian Genome Center (EGCUT), established in 2001, is one of the largest biobanks in Europe, and its database may be used only for scientific research, public health research, and statistics. The EGCUT can issue data to a third party, but only in coded form. This comprehensive database of genotypic, phenotypic, health, and genealogical information represents about 5% of Estonia's adult population, and is the largest cohort ever gathered in Estonia. Government approval is required for international data sharing, and sharing can be further limited by the requirement of ethics approval and permission from Estonian government.

  3. Remediation System Evaluation, Bog Creek Farm Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bog Creek Farm Superfund site is located in Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey onCounty Road 547. The site is bordered by two residences to the west, the north branch of SquankumBrook to the north, and open fields to the south and east.

  4. Drumlins of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõuk, Aarend-Mihkel; Raukas, Anto

    1989-05-01

    Drumlins, megaflutings and other subglacial streamlined forms, highly variable in shape and size, are widely distributed in Estonia as well as on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland, which was also affected by continental ice. Their total number amounts to 1000. The main drumlin fields are most common in Central Estonia on lateral slopes of bedrock uplands and/or in depressions between them, and they serve as a transitional landscape type between predominantly erosional (in northern Estonia) and depositional zones (in southern Estonia) of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Nevertheless, the local details of bedrock topography and glacial and deglacial history have led to some deviations (e.g. the unique Saadjärv field of big drumlins and megaflutings is situated in a "glacier shadow", on the lee side of a bedrock upland). Being of varied composition and age, drumlins and related streamlined forms represent complex interactions between erosional, transporting and depositional processes, although the dynamics of their formation are still somewhat enigmatic. It seems that in Estonia drumlins were formed both during ice advances and retreats. In some cases there are moraine hillocks, kames and eskers and other ice disintegration features superimposed on drumlins.

  5. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A.

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  6. Country report: Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  7. Hydrology controls methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in swamp and bog forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo; Pärn, Jaan; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Salm, Jüri-Ott; Sohar, Kristina; Teemusk, Alar

    2016-04-01

    We used data from a global soil, and N2O and CH4 gas sampling campaign. The objective was to analyse N2O and CH4 emissions related to peat conditions in swamp and bog forests. Altogether, we studied 21 swamp and bog forest sites under various climates: 3 alder swamps and 3 artificially drained bog pine forests in Estonia (Jan.-Dec. 2009), 2 bog forests in Transylvania/Romania (Apr. 2012 & June 2014), 3 cypress swamps in the Everglades (Apr. & Dec. 2013), 2 bog forests in West Siberia (July 2013) and a bog forest in Tasmania (Jan.-Feb. 2014). The N2O and CH4 effluxes were measured during 5-6 days with 8-10 opaque static chambers per site. Soil samples were taken for further analysis of pHKCl, NO3-N, NH4-N, soluble P, K, Ca and Mg, totN and C. Groundwater was measured from sampling wells. The most significant independent factor for site average CH4 fluxes was groundwater depth - an exponential relationship; R2=0.42; p=0.0007; n=21. The N2O fluxes showed a decreasing (power) relationship with the C/N ratio - R2=0.53; p<0.0001; n=21. Related to groundwater level, the N2O fluxes peak at around -40cm. Variation in greenhouse gas fluxes was largest at the more favourable conditions - at optimal water table (+5 to -20cm) for CH4 and at low C/N for N2O. The results agree with previous literature but they are the first to draw such conclusions from a global campaign following a uniform protocol.

  8. Toenail onychomycosis in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Järv, H; Naaber, P; Kaur, S; Eisen, M; Silm, H

    2004-02-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical features, predisposing factors and pathogens of toenail onychomycosis in Estonia. During study period we interviewed and examined 436 dermatological patients with clinical signs of toenail onychomycosis in all counties of Estonia. In 69% of cases, the clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed by the mycological analysis. The most common clinical symptoms of onychomycosis both in mycologically proven and non-proven cases were discolorization of nail plate, hyperkeratosis and brittle nails. The number of infected toenails positively correlated with patients' age. On average, patient had 5.4 infected nails. In 78% of culture-positive cases, a dermatophyte was isolated as the causative agent, in 10% yeasts and in 7% moulds. In 6% of culture-positive cases we reported mixed infections. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen. The high occurrence of mixed infections, clinical symptoms characteristic to long lasting or chronic infection and high number of infected toenails indicate that Estonian patients have more advanced stage of toenail onychomycosis compared with other western and central European countries.

  9. [Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia as a typical component of the microbial community of sphagnum peat bogs].

    PubMed

    Belova, S E; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia are a typical component of the microbial complex of sphagnum peat bogs and constitute a substantial portion of the aerobic chemoorganotrophic isolates which are routinely obtained from these environments on acidic nutrient media. The ecophysiological characteristics of the 27 strains of such organisms, which were isolated from the peat of acidic sphagnum bogs of the boreal and tundra zones of Russia, Canada, and Estonia, were investigated in the present paper. The overwhelming majority of the Burkholderia strains isolated from these bogs were phylogenetically close to the species B. glathei, B. phenazinium, B. fungorum, and B. caryophylli, the typical inhabitants of soil and plant rhizosphere. The bog isolates utilized a broad range of substrates as carbon and energy sources, including organic acids, sugars, polyalcohols, and certain aromatic compounds. All the strains studied were capable of growth on nitrogen-free media. They developed in the pH ranges of 3.5 to 7.4 and from 3 to 37 degrees C, with the optima at pH 5-7 and 11-23 degrees C, respectively. They were therefore moderately acidophilic, psychroactive, dinitrogen-fixing microorganisms well adapted to the conditions of acidic northern sphagnum bogs.

  10. The live-birth prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Krabbi, Külliki; Joost, Kairit; Zordania, Riina; Talvik, Inga; Rein, Reet; Huijmans, Jan G M; Verheijen, Frans V; Õunap, Katrin

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in different populations have shown considerable variations. There are, however, few data with regard to the prevalence of MPSs in Fenno-Ugric populations or in north-eastern Europe, except for a report about Scandinavian countries. A retrospective epidemiological study of MPSs in Estonia was undertaken, and live-birth prevalence of MPS patients born between 1985 and 2006 was estimated. The live-birth prevalence for all MPS subtypes was found to be 4.05 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with most other European studies. MPS II had the highest calculated incidence, with 2.16 per 100,000 live births (4.2 per 100,000 male live births), forming 53% of all diagnosed MPS cases, and was twice as high as in other studied European populations. The second most common subtype was MPS IIIA, with a live-birth prevalence of 1.62 in 100,000 live births. With 0.27 out of 100,000 live births, MPS VI had the third-highest live-birth prevalence. No cases of MPS I were diagnosed in Estonia, making the prevalence of MPS I in Estonia much lower than in other European populations. MPSs are the third most frequent inborn error of metabolism in Estonia after phenylketonuria and galactosemia.

  11. Dirofilaria repens Microfilaremia in Three Dogs in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Mõtsküla, Paul F; Heikkinen, Petra; Ülevaino, Epp; Oksanen, Antti; Lassen, Brian

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, the zoonotic parasite Dirofilaria repens continues to spread northward. We describe three likely autochthonous canine microfilaremic D. repens infections from Estonia, an European Union country located in the Baltic region of northern Europe. The parasite species was confirmed with sequencing. These are new northernmost D. repens findings in Europe and show that the zoonotic parasite has spread farther north. Infection with D. repens should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for human and animal hosts also in northern Europe.

  12. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  13. Estonia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system.

  14. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  15. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  16. Research into Multilingualism in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on several issues relevant to research into multilingualism in Estonia. It is argued that a macrosociolinguistic approach is insufficient when not counterbalanced with microsociolinguistic studies (case studies of actual linguistic behaviour, linguistic creativity, mechanisms and practices of multilingual…

  17. A Connecticut Yankee in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the real incomes of U.S. and Estonian workers using a procedure from Mark Twain's "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." Argues that the application of Twain's logic to the recent economic development of Estonia provides a colorful approach to teaching economic issues. (DSK)

  18. Burden of stroke in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kõrv, Janika; Vibo, Riina

    2013-07-01

    Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries. The decline in incidence of first-ever stroke during the 1990s has left Tartu, Estonia with a relatively low stroke incidence. However, the incidence rates for younger age groups, and the 28-day case fatality rate are higher compared with several other studies. Developments in the national health care system in recent years have been positive: the decline of mortality rate of stroke in Estonia is greater than the European Union average. However, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases is higher compared with several European countries. The prevalence of most stroke risk factors is comparable with European Union countries, while atrial fibrillation is somewhat more frequent (30%) among the patients having suffered from ischemic stroke. The management of stroke in Estonia has been in accordance with European and national stroke guidelines. Stroke units are organized in regional and central hospitals in bigger cities. A well-developed and free ambulance service, and a high priority of stroke code, enable a quick transportation of patients to the nearest hospital providing thrombolytic therapy. The number of thrombolyzed stroke cases has increased since 2003. The Estonian Stroke Initiative was founded in 2008 to improve stroke care, promote regional networks, and increase stroke knowledge among the general population and medical professionals. Since then, several activities regarding stroke awareness have been organized.

  19. Carbon and Water Cycles in a New Zealand Peat Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D.; Smith, J.

    2001-12-01

    Peat soils represent globally significant stores of carbon and an understanding of carbon exchange processes between peat wetland ecosystems and the atmosphere is important for understanding the effects of, and impacts upon, global climate change. Eddy covariance measurements of CO2, water vapour and energy fluxes were made during 1999 and 2000 at a remnant oligotrophic raised peat bog in North Island, New Zealand. The bog's hydrology has been modified by drainage of surrounding agricultural land, so that the water table is relatively deep compared to that of unmodified bogs in the region. Vegetation is dominated by two indigenous species of rush-like vascular plants belonging to the Southern hemisphere family Restionaceae. Maximum daytime CO2 fluxes were commonly -9 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 and averaged -1.3 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 over the 24-hour period in summertime. The ecosystem was a sink of atmospheric carbon for most of the year, with wintertime characterised by 12--15 weeks of carbon neutrality or slight carbon loss. Average carbon uptake by the ecosystem was 196 gC m-2 yr-1 for the two-year period. Modelling suggests that the key factor determining inter-annual variability of the carbon budget is seasonal soil temperature, whereas ecosystem respiration is relatively insensitive to the position of the lowered water table. The bog vegetation acts as a major control over water vapour loss and energy partitioning favors sensible heat production with mean summertime Bowen ratios of approximately 2.0. Water use efficiency was highest in the morning, indicating that the vegetation maximizes CO2 assimilation while the saturation vapour pressure deficit and transpiration rates are low. The dense canopy structure also restricts penetration of solar radiation to the peat surface, which minimizes evaporation and soil respiration.

  20. Reproduction of the stone loach, Barbatula barbatula (L.) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saat, Toomas; Lauringson, Gustav; Lees, Janek

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction of the stone loach was investigated in two rivers of northwestern Estonia (Vääna and Maidla, 59 degrees N). Loaches in the Vääna River were slow growing and males prevailed among older fish; in the Maidla River loaches were fast growing and females dominated among older fish. Reproduction indices (age at maturation, duration of the spawning season, number of egg batches, fecundity, oocyte diameter, annual dynamics of gonadosomatic index and oocyte diameter) of comparably sized loach of Vääna and Maidla were similar and intermediate between more southern and more northern populations. Female investment in offspring (measured as the volume of spawned eggs) in Estonia was close to that in England; however, energy was invested in a smaller number of larger eggs (larvae). Our results confirm earlier data on the remarkable variation of life history patterns of the stone loach and indicate clinal variation of several reproduction indices along a north-south axis.

  1. [Metagenomics and biodiversity of sphagnum bogs].

    PubMed

    Rusin, L Yu

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity of sphagnum bogs is one of the richest and less studied, while these ecosystems are among the top ones in ecological, conservation, and economic value. Recent studies focused on the prokaryotic consortia associated with sphagnum mosses, and revealed the factors that maintain sustainability and productivity of bog ecosystems. High-throughput sequencing technologies provided insight into functional diversity of moss microbial communities (microbiomes), and helped to identify the biochemical pathways and gene families that facilitate the spectrum of adaptive strategies and largely foster the very successful colonization of the Northern hemisphere by sphagnum mosses. Rich and valuable information obtained on microbiomes of peat bogs sets off the paucity of evidence on their eukaryotic diversity. Prospects and expectations of reliable assessment of taxonomic profiles, relative abundance of taxa, and hidden biodiversity of microscopic eukaryotes in sphagnum bog ecosystems are briefly outlined in the context of today's metagenomics.

  2. A new peat bog testate amoeba transfer function and quantitative palaeohydrological reconstructions from southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bellen, S.; Mauquoy, D.; Payne, R.; Roland, T. P.; Hughes, P. D.; Daley, T. J.; Street-Perrot, F. A.; Loader, N.

    2013-12-01

    Testate amoebae have been used extensively as proxies for environmental change and palaeoclimate reconstructions in European and North American peatlands. The presence of these micro-organisms in surface samples is generally significantly linked to the local water table depth (WTD) and preservation of the amoeba shells downcore allows for millennial length water table reconstructions. Peat bog archive records in southern Patagonia are increasingly the focus of palaeoecological research due to the possibility of detecting changes in the Southern Westerlies. These Sphagnum magellanicum-dominated peat bogs are characterised by a wide range of water table depths, from wet hollows to high hummocks (>100 cm above the water table). Here we present the first transfer function for this region along with ~2k-year palaeorecords from local peat bogs. A modern dataset (155 samples) was sampled along transects from five bogs in 2012 and 2013. Measurements of WTD, pH and conductivity were taken for all samples. The transfer function model was based on the 2012 dataset, while the 2013 samples served as an independent test set to validate the model. Besides the standard leave-one-out cross-validation, we applied leave-one-site-out and leave-one transect-out cross-validation, which are effective means of verifying the degree of clustering in the dataset. To ensure that the environmental gradient had been evenly sampled we quantified the root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) individually for segments of this gradient. Ordinations showed a clear hydrological gradient in amoeba assemblages, with the dominant Assulina muscorum at the dry end and Amphitrema wrightianum and Difflugia globulosa at the wet end. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that WTD was the most important environmental variable, accounting for 18% of the variance in amoeba assemblages. A weighted averaging-partial least squares model showed best performance in cross-validation, using the 2013 data as an

  3. Paired charcoal and tree-ring records of high-frequency Holocene fire from two New Mexico bog sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jass, R.B.; Toney, J.L.; Baisan, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Two primary methods for reconstructing paleofire occurrence include dendrochronological dating of fire scars and stand ages from live or dead trees (extending back centuries into the past) and sedimentary records of charcoal particles from lakes and bogs, providing perspectives on fire history that can extend back for many thousands of years. Studies using both proxies have become more common in regions where lakes are present and fire frequencies are low, but are rare where high-frequency surface fires dominate and sedimentary deposits are primarily bogs and wetlands. Here we investigate sedimentary and fire-scar records of fire in two small watersheds in northern New Mexico, in settings recently characterised by relatively high-frequency fire where bogs and wetlands (Chihuahuen??os Bog and Alamo Bog) are more common than lakes. Our research demonstrates that: (1) essential features of the sedimentary charcoal record can be reproduced between multiple cores within a bog deposit; (2) evidence from both fire-scarred trees and charcoal deposits documents an anomalous lack of fire since ???1900, compared with the remainder of the Holocene; (3) sedimentary charcoal records probably underestimate the recurrence of fire events at these high-frequency fire sites; and (4) the sedimentary records from these bogs are complicated by factors such as burning and oxidation of these organic deposits, diversity of vegetation patterns within watersheds, and potential bioturbation by ungulates. We consider a suite of particular challenges in developing and interpreting fire histories from bog and wetland settings in the Southwest. The identification of these issues and constraints with interpretation of sedimentary charcoal fire records does not diminish their essential utility in assessing millennial-scale patterns of fire activity in this dry part of North America. ?? IAWF 2008.

  4. Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Jan M.; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T.; Marshall, Robert P.; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F.; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages.

  5. Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Jan M; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T; Marshall, Robert P; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages.

  6. Isotope evidence for N2-fixation in Sphagnum peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Jackova, Ivana; Buzek, Frantisek; Stepanova, Marketa; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Curik, Jan; Prechova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Waterlogged organic soils store as much as 30 % of the world's soil carbon (C), and 15 % of the world's soil nitrogen (N). In the era of climate change, wetlands are vulnerable to increasing temperatures and prolonged periods of low rainfall. Higher rates of microbial processes and/or changing availability of oxygen may lead to peat thinning and elevated emissions of greenhouse gases (mostly CO2, but also CH4 and N2O). Biogeochemical cycling of C and N in peat bogs is coupled. Under low levels of pollution by reactive nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+), increasing N inputs may positively affect C storage in peat. Recent studies in North America and Scandinavia have suggested that pristine bogs are characterized by significant rates of microbial N2 fixation that augments C storage in the peat substrate. We present a nitrogen isotope study aimed at corroborating these findings. We conducted an isotope inventory of N fluxes and pools at two Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). For the first time, we present a time-series of del15N values of atmospheric input at the same locations as del15N values of living Sphagnum and peat. The mean del15N values systematically increased in the order: input NH4+ (-10.0 ‰) < input NO3- (-7.9 ‰) < peat porewater (-5.6 ‰) < Sphagnum (-5.0 ‰) < shallow peat (-4.2 ‰) < deep peat (-2.2 ‰) < runoff (-1.4 ‰) < porewater N2O (1.4 ‰). Importantly, N of Sphagnum was isotopically heavier than N of the atmospheric input (p < 0.001). If partial incorporation of reactive N from the atmosphere into Sphagnum was isotopically selective, the residual N would have to be isotopically extremely light. Such N, however, was not identified anywhere in the ecosystem. Alternatively, Sphagnum may have contained an admixture of isotopically heavier N from atmospheric N2 (del15N N2 = 0 ‰). We conlude that the N isotope systematics at the two Czech sites is consistent with the concept of significant N2 fixation

  7. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide exchange in bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, A.; Klinger, L.F.; Erickson, D.J. III )

    1993-01-22

    Measurements of Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes were carried out on bog microcosms using chamber sampling and tunable diode laser analysis. Intact bog microcosms (vascular plants, mosses, and peat) removed ambient levels of OCS in the light and dark with rates from [minus]2.4 to [minus]8.1 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2]. Peat and peat plus mosses emitted OCS in the light with rates of 17.4 and 10.9 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2], respectively. In the dark, the mosses apparently removed OCS at a rate equivalent to the peat emissions. A 3-D numerical tracer model using this data indicated that boreal bog ecosystems remove at most 1% of ambient OCS, not sufficient to account for an observed OCS depletion in boreal air masses. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, T.; Bird, G.; Wallace, D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  9. [Methanotrophic bacteria of acid sphagnum bogs].

    PubMed

    Dedysh, S N

    2002-01-01

    Acid sphagnum bogs cover a considerable part of the territory of Russia and are an important natural source of biogenic methane, which is formed in their anaerobic layers. A considerable portion of this methane is consumed in the aerobic part of the bog profile by acidophilic methanotrophic bacteria, which comprise the methane filter of sphagnum bogs and decrease CH4 emission to the atmosphere. For a long time, these bacteria escaped isolation, which became possible only after the elucidation of the optimal conditions of their functioning in situ: pH 4.5 to 5.5; temperature, from 15 to 20 degrees C; and low salt concentration in the solution. Reproduction of these conditions and rejection of earlier used media with a high content of biogenic elements allowed methanotrophic bacteria of two new genera and species--Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila--to be isolated from the peat of sphagnum bogs of the northern part of European Russia and West Siberia. These bacteria are well adapted to the conditions in cold, acid, oligotrophic sphagnum bogs. They grow in a pH range of 4.2-7.5 with an optimum at 5.0-5.5, prefer moderate temperatures (15-25 degrees C) and media with a low content of mineral salts (200-500 mg/l), and are capable of active nitrogen fixation. Design of fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the detection of Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila and their application to the analysis of sphagnum peat samples showed that these bacteria represent dominant populations of methanotrophs with a density of 10(5)-10(6) cells/g peat. In addition to Methylocella and Methylocapsa populations, one more abundant population of methanotrophs was revealed (10(6) cells/g peat), which were phylogenetically close to the genus Methylocystis.

  10. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  11. The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian (late ordovician) of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America.

  12. Bog iron formation in the Nassawango Creek watershed, Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.L.; Simon, N.S.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The Nassawango bog ores in the modern environment for surficial geochemical processes were studied. The formation of Nassawango bog ores was suggested to be due to inorganic oxidation when groundwater rich in ferrous iron emerges into the oxic, surficial environment. It was suggested that the process, providing a phosphorus sink, may be an unrecognized benefit for mitigating nutrient loading from agricultural lands. It is found that without the effect of iron fixing bacteria, bog deposites could not form at significant rates.

  13. Environmental impact assessment in Estonia and Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, J.

    1997-11-01

    Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental impact assessment (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.

  14. Peat bogs and their organic soils: Archives of atmospheric change and global environmentalsignificance (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William

    2013-04-01

    A bog is much more than a waterlogged ecosystem where organic matter accumulates as peat. Peatlands such as bogs represent a critical link between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plants growing at the surface of ombrotrophic bogs receive nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere. Despite the variations in redox status caused by seasonal fluctuations in depth to water table, the low pHof the waters, and abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve a remarkably reproducible history of atmospheric pollution, climate change, landscape evolution and human history. For example, peat cores from bogs in Europe and North America have provided detailed reconstructions of the changing rates and sources of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Tl, providing new insights into the geochemical cycles of these elements, including the massive perturbations induced by human activities beginning many thousands of years ago. Despite the low pH, and perhaps because of the abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve many silicate and aluminosilicate minerals which renders them valuable archives of atmospheric dust deposition and the climate changes which drive them. In the deeper, basal peat layers of the bog, in the minerotrophic zone where pore waters are affected bymineral-water interactions in the underlying and surrounding soils and sediments, peat serves as animportant link to the hydrosphere, efficiently removing from the imbibed groundwaters such trace elements as As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and U. These removal processes, while incompletely understood, are so effective that measuring the dissolved fraction of trace elements in the pore waters becomes a considerable challenge even for the most sophisticated analytical laboratories. While the trace elements listed above are removed from groundwaters (along with P and S), elements such as Fe and Mn are added to the waters because of reductive dissolution, an important first step in the formation of lacustrine Fe and Mn

  15. Relative importance of local habitat complexity and regional factors for assemblages of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.

  16. Climate change scenarios and the effect of sea-level rise for Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kont, Are; Jaagus, Jaak; Aunap, Raivo

    2003-03-01

    Climate warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have a significant impact on natural environment and human activity in high latitudes. Mostly, it should have a positive effect on human activity. The main threats in Estonia that could be connected with sea-level rise are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbour constructions. Possible climate change and its negative impacts in the coastal regions of Estonia are estimated in this paper. Climate change scenarios for Estonia were generated using a Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) and a regional climate change database—SCENanario GENerator (SCENGEN). Three alternative emission scenarios were combined with data from 14 general circulation model experiments. Climate change scenarios for the year 2100 indicate a significant increase in air temperature (by 2.3-4.5 °C) and precipitation (by 5-30%) in Estonia. The highest increase is expected to take place during winter and the lowest increase in summer. Due to a long coastline (3794 km) and extensive low-lying coastal areas, global climate change through sea-level rise will strongly affect the territory of Estonia. A number of valuable natural ecosystems will be in danger. These include both marine and terrestrial systems containing rare plant communities and suitable breeding places for birds. Most sandy beaches high in recreational value will disappear. However, isostatic land uplift and the location of coastal settlements at a distance from the present coastline reduce the rate of risk. Seven case study areas characterising all the shore types of Estonia have been selected for sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Results and estimates of vulnerability to 1.0-m sea-level rise by 2100 are presented in this paper. This is the maximum scenario according to which the actually estimated relative sea-level rise would vary from 0.9 m (SW Estonia) to 0

  17. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Estonia is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  18. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  19. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  20. Bog breath: Sleeper factor in global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Benyus, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    This artical examines the emission of gases from northern peatlands as plants grow and decay and its implication in the global increase in greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide and methane. Bogs do extract carbon dioxide from the air, incorporating it into green plants which become buried for a long time. However, the cold, wet conditions are ideal for microbes which emit methane. Global climate change models indicate that Minnesota, for example will be 5 degrees warmer and somewhat wetter in future years. As a result bacterial metabolism and methane generation may increase considerably. This paper discusses current research and speculation and looks at possible solutions, both man-created and natural.

  1. Geoinformatics meets education for a peat bog information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich; Fiene, Christina; Plass, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Within the project "Expedition Bog: Young researchers are experimenting, exploring and discovering" a bog-information- system is developed by the Department of Geography (University of Education Heidelberg, Germany), the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (University of Osnabrueck, Germany; the NABU Umweltpyramide gGmbH. This information system will be available for schools and to the public. It is supplemented by teaching units on various topics around the bog via an online platform. The focus of the project, however, is the original encounter with the bog habitat. This is realized by a GPS scavenger hunt with small research tasks and observations, mapping and experiments. The project areas are the Huvenhoops bog and the Lauenbruecker bog in Rotenburg in Lower Saxony, Germany. Equipped with a researcher backpack, GPS device and a mobile bog book by means of a pocket PC, students can discover different learning stations in the project bogs. In our areas the students can learn more about different topics such as "the historical memory of the bog", "water", "peat moss and other plants" and "animals of the bog". Moreover small inquiry research projects can be executed. Experimenting on site helps students to develop important scientific findings and increases their curiosity and enthusiasm for nature. It also promotes a number of other basic skills such as literacy, language skills, social skills or fine motor skills. Moreover it also fosters the development of a positive attitude to science in general. The main objective of the project is to promote sustainable environmental education, as well as the development of environmental awareness. This will be accomplished through the imparting of knowledge but also through experiencing nature with all senses in the context of original encounters.

  2. Experimental study on performance of BOG compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Tao; Peng, Xueyuan; Feng, Jianmei

    2015-08-01

    The boil-off gas (BOG) compressor is widely used for recycling the excessive boil-off gas of liquefied natural gas (LNG), and the extra-low suction temperature brings about great challenges to design of the BOG compressor. In this paper, a test system was built to examine the effects of low suction temperature on the compressor performance, in which the lowest temperature reached -178°C by means of a plate-fin heat exchanger with liquefied nitrogen. The test results showed that, as the suction temperature decreased from 20°C to -150°C, the volumetric efficiency of the compressor dropped by 37.0%, and the power consumption decreased by 10.0%. The preheat of the gas by the pipe through the suction flange to suction valve was larger than 20°C as the suction temperature was -150°C, and this value increased with the decreased suction temperature. The pressure loss through the suction valve at lower suction temperature was larger than that at ambient temperature while the volume flow rate was kept the same.

  3. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In

  4. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Droesler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-02-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only ten kilometers, they share the same formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for two years (July 2010 to June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73±38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the spruces that over-compensates the two times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger LAI of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source, if the whole life-cycle, since forest planting is considered. We determined the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. The estimate resulted in a strong carbon release of +156 t C ha-1 within the last 44 yr, means the spruces would need to grow for another 100 yr, at the current rate, to compensate the peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but consistent carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very robust regarding short

  5. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events—such as heat waves—throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed. PMID:27167851

  6. The Limits to Peat Bog Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clymo, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Not less than 2% of the Earth's land surface is peat-covered, so it is important to try to understand the dynamics of peat accumulation. Peat-forming systems (mires) accumulate peat because conditions within them impede the decay of the plant material produced by their surface vegetation. This paper concerns the rate of peat production and some unexpected consequences of the processes of decay. These consequences are likely to be of interest to those concerned with mire ecology and with the history of vegetation during Flandrian times. Most peat-forming systems consist of two layers: an upper 10-50 cm deep aerobic layer of high hydraulic conductivity, the acrotelm, in which the rate of decay is relatively high; and a thicker, usually anaerobic, lower layer, the catotelm, of low conductivity and with a much lower rate of decay. Plant structure at the base of the acrotelm collapses as a consequence of aerobic decay, and the hydraulic conductivity consequently decreases. As long as precipitation continues the water table therefore rises to this level, thus engulfing material at the base of the acrotelm. The rate, p_c, of this input to the catotelm is exactly analogous to the rate, p_a, of input to the acrotelm i.e. of primary productivity of the vegetation. During passage through the acrotelm the peat becomes richer in the more slowly decaying components. The depth of, and the time for transit through, the acrotelm thus control p_c. The catotelm, however, usually forms much the largest part of the peat mass. Selective decay may continue in the catotelm. The specific composition of the peat thus becomes a progressively poorer indicator of the surface vegetation that formed it, and to a degree that is not generally realized: reconstructions of the past surface vegetation may become very inaccurate. If p_c were constant and there were no decay in the catotelm then for the centre of a peat bog the profile of age against depth (measured as cumulative mass below the surface

  7. Distribution of enterobiasis among nursery school children in SE Estonia and of other helminthiases in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Remm, Mare

    2006-11-01

    The occurrence of helminthiases in Estonia was under extensive observation from 1956 until 1989. Enterobiasis had remained the most prevalent helminthiasis in Estonia in the 1990s. After 1990, the number of helminthological studies decreased. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and possible risk factors of enterobiasis among nursery school children in Southeast Estonia. A total of 954 nursery school children were examined from 22 nursery schools in Tartu and Põlva counties in Estonia. Enterobius vermicularis infection was detected using the anal swab technique. The parents of tested children were asked to complete questionnaires so as to ascertain the potential risk factors in children's homes and in their families. The overall rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg was 24.4%. The occurrence of enterobiasis among the examined nursery schools ranged from 11.8 to 46.2% and from 0 to 61.1% in nursery school groups. All nursery schools were infected. Children 5-8 years of age showed a significantly higher rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg than the younger children. The overall infection rate was higher among boys and among children from larger families. The infection rate was related to washing of hands after closet use. The socioeconomic status of the family was not associated with the frequency of enterobiasis.

  8. Biogeochemistry of aquatic humic substances in Thoreau's Bog, Concord, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane; Thurman, E. Michael; Wershaw, Robert L.; Hemond, Herold

    1985-01-01

    Thoreau's Bog is an ombrotrophic floating—mat Sphagnum bog developed in a glacial kettlehole and surrounded by a red maple swamp. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the porewater of the bog average 36 mg/L and are greatest near the surface, especially during late summer. This distribution suggest that the upper layer of living and dead Sphagnum and moderately humified peat is the major site of dissolved organic material production in the bog. The dissolved organic material consists mainly of aquatic fulvic acid (67%) and hydrophilic acids (20%); these organic acids control the pH (typically 4 or somewhat lower) of the bogwater. The elemental, amino acid, carbohydrate, and carboxylic acid contents of fulvic acid from the bog are similar to those of aquatic fulvic acid from the nearby Shawsheen River, although the phenolic hydroxyl content of fulvic acid from Thoreau's Bog is higher. The hydrophilic acids have greater amino acid, carbohydrate, and carboxylic acid contents than the fulvic acid, consistent with the hypothesis that hydrophilic acids are more labile intermediate compounds in the formation of fulvic acid.

  9. Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs

    PubMed Central

    Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Tiedje, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotrophic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values of 3 to 6. Enriched communities contained a mixture of rod-shaped bacteria arranged in aggregates with a minor contribution of Hyphomicrobium-like cells. The growth stoichiometry of isolates was characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria (CH4/O2/CO2=1:1.1:0.59), with an average apparent yield of 0.41 ± 0.03 g of biomass C/g of CH4-C. DNA from each enrichment yielded a PCR product of the expected size with primers for both mmoX and mmoY genes of soluble methane monooxygenase. Two types of sequences were obtained for PCR-amplified fragments of mmoX. One of them exhibited high identity to the mmoX protein of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group, whereas the other showed an equal level of divergence from both the Methylosinus-Methylocystis group and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and formed a distinct branch. The pH optimum for growth and for CH4 uptake was 4.5 to 5.5, which is very similar to that for the optimum CH4 uptake observed in the original peat samples. These methanotrophs are moderate acidophiles rather than acidotolerant organisms, since their growth rate and methane uptake were much lower at neutral pH. The growth of the methanotrophic community was enhanced by using media with a very low salt content (20 to 200 mg/liter), more typical of their natural environment. All four enriched communities grew on N-free medium. PMID:9501432

  10. Nitrogen dynamics in peat bogs: Comparison of sites with contrasting pollution levels (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, Kelman R.

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen belongs to chemical elements whose biogeochemical cycles are most heavily disturbed by human activities, and large regions worlwide experience elevated depositions of reactive N (NO3-, NH4+). Peatlands contain as much as 15 % of the world's soil N. It it is unclear whether fertilizing by anthopogenic N will lead to higher storage of C in wetlands. Elevated N input may lead to both higher net primary productivity, but will also augment microbial decomposition. Here we discuss two aspects of N cycling in Sphagnum-dominated bogs in the Czech Republic, an area characterized by a steep north-south pollution gradient and high annual N deposition (60 kg ha-1). These two aspects are N inventory in 210Pb-dated peat cores, and post-depositional mobility of N in peat. We compared the N inventory in two Czech bogs, differing in pollution, with cumulative atmospheric N input. We hypothesized that the total amount of N in the peat cores would be smaller than the cumulative N input (leaching of excess N from the bog, denitrification). The two bogs were VJ (industrial north) and CB (rural south). The investigated period was 1885-2002. The total amount of N was 4020 kg ha-1 at VJ and 1530 kg ha-1 at CB. Peat in the north contained 2.6 times more N than in the south. Historical rates of N deposition in the Czech Republic are well known (numerous papers by Kopacek). To estimate cumulative N inputs into the bogs, we also used the monthly N depositions between 1994 and 2002, measured in two nearby catchments. The estimated cumulative atmospheric N input was 1350 kg ha-1 at VJ, and 530 kg ha-1 at CB. In both cases, the amount of N found in peat was 3 times higher than the estimated atmospheric N input. Such high storage of N in peat is surprising. Post-depositional mobility of N may help to explain the discrepancies between atmospheric N inputs and N storage in peat. We found two-fold evidence for post-depositional mobility of N. Maximum N concentrations at VJ were observed in

  11. Mictomys borealis (northern bog lemming) and the Wisconsin paleoecology of the east-central Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Bell, Christopher J.; Murray, Lyndon K.

    1992-03-01

    Teeth of northern bog lemming, Mictomys borealis, are reported from Cathedral and Smith Creek caves and represent the first Wisconsin remains of the genus from the Great Basin. Specimens from Cathedral Cave, Snake Range, are associated with U-series ages of 24,000 to 15,000 yr B.P. Previous work with pollen and packrat middens, dating to the same age as the Mictomys, indicate that Smith Creek Canyon contained a riparian, locally mesic community, including Picea engelmannii (spruce), Betula sp. (birch), Cercocarpus sp. (mountain mahogany), and Artemisia sp. (sagebrush) among other species. Exposed canyon slopes and the adjacent valley apparently contained a more xeric steppe community including sagebrush and Chenopodiineae species; rocky outcrop permitted Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. longaeva (bristlecone pine) to grow adjacent to Lake Bonneville or low in the canyon. The region apparently experienced a dry climate (not necessarily drier than today); however, Smith Creek Canyon was fed by glacial meltwater from Mt. Moriah. The northern bog lemming probably lived only in the riparian community and possibly on the north-facing slope below Cathedral Cave. Few canyons of the Snake Range would have had the unusually mesic conditions found in Smith Creek Canyon.

  12. Sphagnum N and P Stoichiometry Indicates P-limitation on N2 Fixation in Ombrotrophic Bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, T.; Moore, T. R.; Disney, K.

    2015-12-01

    Biological N2 fixation is an important N input in ombrotrophic, nutrient poor and Sphagnum dominated bogs. As an energetically costly process, by which each N2 molecule is fixed to a cost of 16ATP molecules, N2 fixation might be P limited process. In this study we tested whether moss P and N concentrations, and N:P ratios could explain N2 fixation in the top 6cm photosynthetically active Sphagnum moss across eight ombrotrophic bogs along south-north geographical gradient in Ontario and Quebec. Under constant environmental conditions, we incubated subsamples of the surface Sphagnum mosses by using both, acetylene reduction assays (ARA) and 15N2 enriched method to measure N2 fixation rates. Same subsamples were later analyzed for N and P concentrations. Our preliminary data show that the increase of P concentration within moss capitula is related to a significant linear increase of ARA rates (R2=0.18, p<0.0001, N=150). N:P ratios showed a significant negative linear relationship with ARA (R2=0.34, p<0.0001, N=150) indicating that P limitation in the photosynthetically active part of mosses in bogs may also indicate P limitation on microbial N2 fixation

  13. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  14. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

    2009-07-01

    The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site.

  15. Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog.

    PubMed

    Antonović, Ivan; Brigić, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Soštarić, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog.

  16. Nutrient availability at Mer Bleue bog measured by PRSTM probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Moore, T. R.; Talbot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs, covering ~0.7 million km2 in Canada, store a large amount of C and N. As nutrient deficient ecosystems, it's critical to examine the nutrient availabilities and seasonal dynamics. We used Plant Root Simulators (PRSTM) at Mer Bleue bog to provide some baseline data on nutrient availability and its variability. In particular, we focused on ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium and potassium, iron, sulphate and aluminum. We placed PRS probes at a depth of 5 - 15 cm in pristine plots and plots with long term N, P and K fertilization for 4 weeks and determined the availability of these nutrients, from spring through to fall. Probes were also placed beneath the water table in hummock and hollow microtopography and along a transect including part of the bog which had been drained through the creation of a ditch 80 years ago. The result showed that there was limited available ammonium, nitrate and phosphate in the bog, the seasonal variation of nutrient availabilities probably due to mineralization, an increase in the availability of some nutrients between different water table depths or as a result of drainage, and the relative availability of nutrients compared to the input from fertilization. We suggest that PRS probes could be a useful tool to examine nutrient availability and dynamics in wetlands, with careful consideration of installing condition, for example, proper exposure period, depth relative to water table etc.

  17. Oribatid mite species numbers increase, densities decline and parthenogenetic species suffer during bog degradation.

    PubMed

    Seniczak, Anna; Seniczak, Stanisław; Maraun, Mark; Graczyk, Radomir; Mistrzak, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the oribatid mites in two natural and four industrially exploited bogs. One natural bog (Zakręt, Z) was located in northeastern Poland and the other one (Toporowy Staw Niżni, TSN), in southern Poland. The four exploited bogs were also located in southern Poland and can be ranked from least to most degraded as follows: Łysa Puścizna (LP), Baligówka (B), Puścizna Mała (PM) and Kaczmarka (K). In the natural bogs, the water pH was higher than in the degraded ones, but other parameters were lower (conductivity, colour value, oxygen demand, and concentration of chlorides). In the natural bogs, the Oribatida were highly abundant (average density was 169,100 ind./m(2)), but with low species diversity and one dominating species. In bog Z the most abundant was Limnozetes foveolatus that had dominance of 75 % and in bog TSN, located at higher altitude, Trimalaconothrus maior dominated (73 %). In two degraded bogs that had still good water conditions (LP and B) the oribatid communities resembled those from the natural bogs; in LP the most abundant species was Hydrozetes lacustris and in bog B, L. foveolatus. In contrast, in two more degraded bogs (PM and K) the abundance of mites was lower (average density was 17,850 ind./m(2)), species diversity of the Oribatida was higher, and no species achieved a high dominance like in the natural bogs. Additionally, in more degraded bogs the abundance of parthenogenetic species was lower than in the natural bogs.

  18. Rabies in Estonia: situation before and after the first campaigns of oral vaccination of wildlife with SAG2 vaccine bait.

    PubMed

    Niin, Enel; Laine, M; Guiot, A L; Demerson, J M; Cliquet, F

    2008-07-04

    Despite the extermination of stray animals and the compulsory vaccination of companion animals, rabies has been widely distributed over Estonia for more than 30 years. The red fox and the raccoon dog are the rabies virus reservoirs. Through a PHARE project, successive oral vaccination campaigns, using Rabidog SAG2 baits, were implemented in the autumn of 2005 in North Estonia, and in the spring and autumn 2006 throughout the whole territory. After the autumn 2005 campaign, 73.5% of the raccoon dogs and foxes were positive for the tetracycline biomarker. After the campaigns of 2006, the seroconversion rate for rabies virus was 64% in both species. After the vaccination campaigns of 2005 and 2006, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased. Of the 97 cases diagnosed in the whole of Estonia until the end of May 2006, 16 cases (16.5%) occurred within the vaccinated area. Only 17 cases were diagnosed between 1 June and 31 December 2006. In 2007, by the end of May, only two rabies cases have been registered.

  19. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica).

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms.

  20. Stable isotope record of Holocene precipitation changes from Lake Nuudsaku in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, Carolyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Dodd, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated, finely laminated lake sediments record Holocene precipitation changes from southern Estonia. Modern water isotope data suggest that Lake Nuudsaku is a mostly open system that is primarily fed by winter precipitation and groundwater, and summer precipitation plays only a secondary role in the overall hydrologic balance. Initial results indicate that changes in insolation likely drove the overall Holocene pattern with relatively wet conditions during the early Holocene, followed by arid conditions during the middle Holocene and a return to wetter conditions during the late Holocene. However, there is pronounced millennial and centennial-scale variability that cannot be explained by insolation forcing alone. Notably, there is a trend toward wetter conditions from ~4.0 to 2.0 ka, followed by a trend toward drier conditions during the last 2 millennia. This late Holocene pattern diverges from the pattern observed in records from north-central Estonia that suggest an overall trend of wetter conditions for the last ~4 ka. These initial results thus indicate that the Lake Nuudsaku sediments have the potential to yield a unique near-annual to decade-scale record of past precipitation changes from the southern Baltic region.

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of spinal muscular atrophy type I in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vaidla, Eve; Talvik, Inga; Kulla, Andres; Kahre, Tiina; Hamarik, Malle; Napa, Aita; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Piirsoo, Andres; Talvik, Tiina

    2006-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the second most frequent autosomal-recessive disorder in Europeans. There are no published epidemiological data on SMA in Estonia and other Baltic countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of SMA I in Estonia. All patients with SMA I diagnosed between January 1994 and December 2003 were included in the study. The diagnosis was established on the basis of neurological evaluation, ENMG findings, molecular studies and muscle biopsy. PCR and restriction enzyme analysis was used to detect the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. A total of 9 cases of SMA I were identified during this 10-year period. The incidence of SMA I in Estonia is 1 in 14,400 live births, which is similar to the result from Hungary but lower than average incidence in the world. Only one of the patients was female. Typical SMN1 gene deletion was found in all cases.

  2. Predominant anthropogenic sources and rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in southern Ontario recorded by peat cores from three bogs: comparison with natural "background" values (past 8000 years).

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Shotyk, William

    2003-12-01

    Peat cores from three bogs in southern Ontario provide a complete, quantitative record of net rates of atmospheric Hg accumulation since pre-industrial times. For comparison with modern values, a peat core extending back 8000 years was used to quantify the natural variations in Hg fluxes for this region, and their dependence on climatic change and land use history. The net mercury accumulation rates were separated into "natural" and "excess" components by comparing the Hg/Br ratios of modern samples with the long-term, pre-anthropogenic average Hg/Br. The average background mercury accumulation rate during the pre-anthropogenic period (from 5700 years BC to 1470 AD) was 1.4 +/- 1.0 microg m(-2) per year (n = 197). The beginning of Hg contamination from anthropogenic sources dates from AD 1475 at the Luther Bog, corresponding to biomass burning for agricultural activities by Native North Americans. During the late 17th and 18th centuries, deposition of anthropogenic Hg was at least equal to that of Hg from natural sources. Anthropogenic inputs of Hg to the bogs have dominated continuously since the beginning of the 19th century. The maximum Hg accumulation rates decrease in the order Sifton Bog, in the City of London, Ontario (141 microg Hg m(-2) per year), Luther Bog in an agricultural region (89 microg Hg m(-2) per year), and Spruce Bog which is in a comparatively remote, forested region (54 microg Hg m(-2) per year). Accurate age dating of recent peat samples using the bomb pulse curve of 14C shows that the maximum rate of atmospheric Hg accumulation occurred during AD 1956 and 1959 at all sites. In these (modern) samples, the Hg concentration profiles resemble those of Pb, an element which is known to be immobile in peat bogs. The correlation between these two metals, together with sulfur, suggests that the predominant anthropogenic source of Hg (and Pb) was coal burning. While Hg accumulation rates have gone into strong decline since the late 1950's, Hg

  3. New Investigations of the Alleged Meteorite from Igast, Estonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, John A.; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a reinvestigation of the object which allegedly fell at Igast, Estonia, in 1855, and which may be the only example of a meteorite with the chemical composition of a tektite. R is concluded that generally quoted opinions of the artificial nature of this object are based on spurious samples, specifically melted brick and quartz basalt porphyry distributed by a Russian collector. Possibly genuine specimens from this observed fall are in the British Museum, the Paris Museum, and perhaps at the University of Dorpat, Estonia. It is recommended that these specimens be re-examined and that a search for similar objects be made.

  4. Stages of litter transformation in bog birch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, T. T.; Avrova, A. F.; Efremov, S. P.; Melent'eva, N. V.

    2009-10-01

    In the litters (peaty, weakly decomposed, and strongly decomposed) of bog birch forests, the biochemical transformation of plant material includes several discrete stages. The best prediction of the decomposition stages is the set of indices characterizing the humus status of the soils: the C/N ratio, (ΣHA + ΣFA)/Cpolysaccharides, and the contents of humic and fulvic acids of fraction 1 in the groups of plant debris of different sizes. The discrimination of the litters according to the level of the biochemical transformation of the organic residues was observed when using the (ΣHA + ΣFA)/Cpolysaccharides ratio, which is 6.3 in the peaty litter and 11.2 and 18.4 in the weakly decomposed and strongly decomposed litters, respectively. The biochemical classification of litters in the bog birch forests is in agreement with the morphological classification of litters.

  5. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    PubMed

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  6. Geochemistry of Telichian (Silurian) K-bentonites in Estonia and Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiipli, T.; Soesoo, A.; Kallaste, T.; Kiipli, E.

    2008-03-01

    In the Telychian section of Estonia and Latvia K-bentonites from 45 volcanic eruptions were discovered. The thickness of K-bentonite interbeds varies from a few millimetres to 20 cm. The sodium component concentration in sanidine phenocrysts measured by XRD ranges from 20 to 48 mol% and was used for establishing correlations. The Ti, Zr, Nb, Th and Sr concentrations and ratios show temporal trends indicating fractional crystallization in magma chambers. The analysis of biotite phenocrysts revealed magnesium and iron rich biotites in bentonites. Synthesis of these geochemical data enabled a classification of bentonites into seven geochemical types, which probably originate from seven different volcanic sources. Isopach schemes indicate ash transport from the west and north-west directions.

  7. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  8. Numerical study of heat transfer characteristics in BOG heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Miller, Franklin; Ni, Zhonghua; Zhi, Xiaoqin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a numerical study of turbulent flow and the heat transfer process in a boil-off liquefied natural gas (BOG) heat exchanger was performed. Finite volume computational fluid dynamics and the k - ω based shear stress transport model were applied to simulate thermal flow of BOG and ethylene glycol in a full-sized 3D tubular heat exchanger. The simulation model has been validated and compared with the engineering specification data from its supplier. In order to investigate thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger, velocity, temperature, heat flux and thermal response were studied under different mass flowrates in the shell-side. The shell-side flow pattern is mostly determined by viscous forces, which lead to a small velocity and low temperature buffer area in the bottom-right corner of the heat exchanger. Changing the shell-side mass flowrate could result in different distributions of the shell-side flow. However, the distribution in the BOG will remain in a relatively stable pattern. Heat flux increases along with the shell-side mass flowrate, but the increase is not linear. The ratio of increased heat flux to the mass flow interval is superior at lower mass flow conditions, and the threshold mass flow for stable working conditions is defined as greater than 0.41 kg/s.

  9. Utilization of bog iron ores as sorbents of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Rzepa, Grzegorz; Bajda, Tomasz; Ratajczak, Tadeusz

    2009-03-15

    Sorption properties of bog iron ores with respect to Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr are evaluated at various pH. Maximum sorption determined in the experiments equals to 97.0, 25.2, 25.5, 55.0mg/g for lead(II), copper(II), zinc(II), and chromium(III), respectively. Chromium(VI) is bound in the amount of up to 10.0mg/g. The values of desorption indicate that most of the metals remain stably bound to the surface of bog iron ores, indicating that the chemisorption process prevails. The metals are sorbed as cations at the pH values from 4 to 9. Within this pH range up to 100% of the initial metal amount is immobilized. 90-100% of Cr(VI) is sorbed at pH between 3 and 5. Such properties, combined with favorable conditions of shallow mining and resultant low costs, may be regarded as an incentive for local utilization of bog iron ores in the environmental protection practice.

  10. Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools: implications for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Poulin, M.; Lavoie, C.; Rochefort, L.; Desrochers, A.; Drolet, B.

    2006-01-01

    1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.

  11. Key plant species and succession patterns associated to past fen-bog transitions - perspective to future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väliranta, Minna; Luoto, Miska; Juutinen, Sari; Korhola, Atte; Tuittila, Eeva-stiina

    2016-04-01

    Minerotrophic fens and ombrotrophic bogs differ in their hydrology, vegetation and carbon dynamics and their geographical distribution seems to be linked to certain climate parameters, such as temperature and effective precipitation. Currently bogs dominate the southern boreal zone but the climate warming with altered temperature and effective precipitation may shift the distribution of bog zone northwards. In this study, we first used plant macrofossil method and radiocarbon analysis to identify and date past fen-bog transitions. These transitions were compared to major Holocene climate phases. Subsequently, palaeoecological data were associated to ecological and environmental data collected along the current fen-bog ecotone in Finland. We identified three successional phases 1) initial minerotrophic fen phase 2) Eriophorum vaginatum-dominated oligotrophic fen phase which was followed by 3) ombrorophic bog phase. Duration of these phases varied but late Holocene timing of fen-bog transition showed some consistency. Based on palaeoecological data 57 % of the modern ecotone peatlands were classified to be in a fen phase, 10 % were in an Eriophorum-dominated phase and 33 % were going through a transition from fen to bog. The study showed that regime shifts are driven by autogenic succession and climate but also fires may efficiently control succession pathways. Our results support the hypothesis that climate change can promote the ombrotrophication process in the southern border of the fen-bog ecotone due to changes in hydrology balance.

  12. Reconnaissance of Colorado Front Range bogs for uranium and other elements

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.E.; Schumann, R.R.; Otton, J.K.

    1987-08-01

    Alpine bogs form along spring-fed valley floors and in steam drainages restricted by moraines, slides, and beaver dams. The bogs are generally young (Holocene) and contain a few tens of centimeters to several meters of peat and organic-rich muck. Organic matter has a great affinity for cations such as uranium; the geochemical enrichment factor between the peats and uraniferous ground water can approach 10,000 to 1. Because the bog sediments are geologically young, the uranium is in gross disequilibrium and has low radioactivity, thus it is undetectable by ground and aerial gamma surveys. Communities that derive a part of their water supplies from drainages containing uraniferous bogs face a potential health threat because the uranium is loosely bound and may easily be remobilized by ground water moving through the bogs. Reconnaissance sampling of bogs was conducted in the Colorado Front Range from the South Park area to the Colorado-Wyoming state line. Several bogs have uranium concentrations of 1000-3000 ppm, but most bogs have uranium concentrations in the 10-100 ppm range. Zinc concentrations of 100-1000 ppm are found in some bogs and many other metallic elements are present in concentrations between 10 and 100 ppm. Concentrations between 100 and 1000 ppm of some of the rare earth elements (e.g., Ce, La, Nd, Yb) were found in the Cripple Creek area.

  13. [Hospital care in Estonia: thoughts on patient privacy].

    PubMed

    Schoenacker, Aline

    2017-03-01

    A student nurse is doing a work placement in a hospital in Estonia. The care techniques are identical to those with which she is familiar. However, the application of concepts of privacy and modesty is somewhat different. A reflexive analysis of the situation ensures no hasty judgements are made and enables her to think about the place of her own representations.

  14. The Russian Diaspora in Latvia and Estonia: Predicting Language Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Artemi

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the language situation in the Russian diaspora in Latvia and Estonia and analyzes these factors that are critical in determining language outcomes for a language community within one country that speaks a majority language of another. Examines the possibility of three outcomes: language maintenance, bilingualism, and language shift in a…

  15. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  16. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  17. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  18. Geochemical evidence for the hydrology of a Tamarack-peat bog, Brimfield Township, Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.P.; Miller, L.A. . Dept. of Geology and Water Resources)

    1992-01-01

    Peat Bogs and wetlands represent unique environmental settings what are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic stresses involving inputs of water and chemicals. This study used geochemical and hydrologic monitoring to determine the inputs and fates of elements of the Kent-Brimfield bog located in Portage County, Ohio. Based on physical and chemical information collected over one year, a model is proposed here describing the hydrologic connection between a bog and shallow ground water surrounding the bog. The chemical composition of precipitation, soil water and ground water in the bog vicinity were monitored for one year. Field measurements included water levels, pH, Eh, alkalinity and temperature. Trace metal content of the peat, the pore waters, soil water and ground waters were determined by GFAA, ICP and LIC methods. This bog was found to function as part of a perched water table aquifer. Water in the upper 3 m of the bog is found to be chemically similar to precipitation, but modified by reactions involving dissolution of mineral matter and biologic processes. The chemistry of water deeper in the bog (> 3m) resembles shallow ground water surrounding the bog, modified by weathering of underlying geologic materials and sulfate reduction. This similarity, along with ground water elevations within and outside of the bog, supports that shallow ground water interacts with, and helps maintain water levels in the upper surface of the bog. From these results, a model is proposed for the seasonal variations in hydrologic processes operating in the wetland and surrounding basin, and describes how wetlands may change seasonally from being influent to effluent systems.

  19. The bog landforms of continental western Canada in relation to climate and permafrost patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, D.H.; Halsey, L.A. ); Zoltai, S.C. )

    1994-02-01

    In continental western Canada, discontinuous permafrost is almost always restricted to ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs). Bogs occur mostly as islands or peninsulas in large, often complex fens or are confined to small basins. Permafrost may be present in extensive peat plateaus (or more locally as palsas) and was preceded by a well-developed layer of Sphagnum that served to insulate the peat and lower the pore water temperatures. Air photo interpretation reveals the occurrence of bogs with five types of surface physiography. Concentrated to the south are bogs without internal patterns that have never had permafrost. Dominating the mid-latitudes are bogs with internal lawns and fens with internal lawns (mostly representing former bogs) that had permafrost lenses in the past that have recently degraded. Concentrated in the northwest are peat plateaus without internal lawns or distinct collapse scars, but with permafrost; dominating in the northernmost area are peat plateaus with extensive permafrost and collapse scars. Relationships are apparent between the current - 1[degrees]C isotherm and the southern occurrence of peat plateaus and between the 0[degrees]C isotherm and the southern edge of bogs and fens with internal lawns. We interpret bogs and fens with internal lawns to represent areas where permafrost degradation is currently occurring at a greater rate than aggradation, seemingly in response to warmer regional climate, although fire frequency may also be of local importance. 54 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  1. Comparisons of soil nitrogen mass balances for an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen in northern Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the N budgets of an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen to quantify the importance of denitrification in peatlands and their watersheds. We also compared the watershed upland mineral soils to bog/fen peat; lagg and transition zone peat to central bog/fen peat; an...

  2. Owner survey of tarsocrural effusion (bog spavin) in Clydesdale horses.

    PubMed

    Weaver, M P; Wilant, L

    2012-03-01

    A postal survey of the owners of Clydesdale horses in the UK and USA was conducted to obtain information on tarsocrural effusion ('bog spavin') as an indicator of osteochondrosis from 935 horses. Additional information requested included details of how this condition was investigated and treated. The reported tarsocrural effusion incidence was 10 per cent. The majority of respondents believed the condition to be of concern to Clydesdale owners, but only a minority were aware of the implications of tarsocrural effusion, suggesting that owner education would be of benefit.

  3. [Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Kur'ina, I V; Preĭs, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established.

  4. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and Arc

  5. Correlation between the morphogenetic types of litter and their properties in bog birch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, T. T.; Efremov, S. P.; Avrova, A. F.

    2010-08-01

    A formalized arrangement of morphogenetic types of litter according to the physicochemical parameters provided their significant grouping in three genetic associations. The litter group (highly decomposed + moderately decomposed) is confined to the tall-grass group of bog birch forests. The rhizomatous (roughly decomposed) litter is formed in the sedge-reed grass bog birch forests. The litter group (peaty + peatified + peat) is associated with the bog-herbaceous-moss group of forest types. The genetic associations of the litters (a) reliably characterize the edaphic conditions of bog birch forests and (b)correspond to formation of the peat of certain ecological groups. We found highly informative the acid-base parameters, the exchangeable cations (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and the total potential acidity, which differentiated the genetic associations of litter practically with 100% probability. The expediency of studying litters under groups of forest types rather than under separate types of bog birch forests was demonstrated.

  6. [Carbon accumulation in soils of forest and bog ecosystems of southern Valdai in the Holocene].

    PubMed

    Minaeva, T Iu; Trofimov, S Ia; Chichagova, O A; Dorofeeva, E I; Sirin, A A; Glushkov, I V; Mikhaĭlov, I D; Kromer, B

    2008-01-01

    Carbon stocks and accumulation rates in humus and peat horizons of the contiguous soil series of forest and bog ecosystems have been studied in the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (CFSBR, Tver region). Upland soil types (soddy podzolic, brown, and white podzolic) have been compared to waterlogged (peaty gley podzolic and peaty gley) and bog soils differing in trophic status, including those of raised, transitional, and lowland bogs. The results show that carbon stocks in mineral soils are many times smaller than in waterlogged soils and an order of magnitude smaller than in bog soils. Mineral and bog soils are characterized by similar rates of carbon accumulation averaged over the entire period of their existence. The highest rate of carbon accumulation has been noted for the soils of waterlogged habitats, although this process may be periodically disturbed by fires and other stress influences.

  7. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  8. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia.

  9. Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, V; Kuokkanen, T; Rämö, J; Lassi, U

    2015-08-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of 100 mg/L synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing humic acids was optimized (achieving 90% CODMn and 80% DOC removal efficiencies), after which real peat bog drainage waters (PBDWs) from three northern Finnish peat bogs were also treated. High pollutant removal efficiencies were achieved: Ptot, TS, and color could be removed completely, while Ntot, CODMn, and DOC/TOC removal efficiencies were in the range of 33-41%, 75-90%, and 62-75%, respectively. Al and Fe performed similarly as the anode material. Large scale experiments (1 m(3)) using cold (T = 10-11 °C) PBDWs were also conducted successfully, with optimal treatment times of 60-120 min (applying current densities of 60-75 A/m(2)). Residual values of Al and Fe (complete removal) were lower than their initial values in the EC-treated PBDWs. Electricity consumption and operational costs in optimum conditions were found to be low and similar for all the waters studied: 0.94 kWh/m(3) and 0.15 €/m(3) for SWW and 0.35-0.70 kWh/m(3) and 0.06-0.12 €/m(3) for the PBDWs (large-scale). Thus, e.g. solar cells could be considered as a power source for this EC application. In conclusion, EC treatment of PBDW containing humic substances was shown to be feasible.

  10. Fate of silicate minerals in a peat bog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Philip C.; Siegel, Donald I.; Hillier, Barbara M.; Glaser, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of silicate weathering in a Minnesota mire indicates that quartz and aluminosilicates rapidly dissolve in anoxic, organic-rich, neutral- pH environments. Vertical profiles of pH, dissolved silicon, and major cations were obtained at a raised bog and a spring fen and compared. Profiles of readily extractable silicon, diatom abundance, ash mineralogy, and silicate surface texture were determined from peat cores collected at each site.In the bog, normally a recharge mound, dissolved silicon increases with depth as pH increases, exceeding the background silicon concentration by a factor of two. Silicate grain surfaces, including quartz, are chemically etched at this location, despite being in contact with pore water at neutral pH with dissolved silicon well above the equilibrium solubility of quartz. The increasing silica concentrations at circum-neutral pH are consistent with a system where silicate solubility is influenced by silica-organic-acid complexes. Silica-organic-acid complexes therefore may be the cause of the almost complete absence of diatoms in decomposed peat and contribute to the formation of silica-depleted underclays commonly found beneath coal.

  11. The verification of GIA in Estonia using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Oja, Tõnis

    2014-05-01

    Estonia is situated at the South-East corner of the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound (PGR) area, thus the impact of ongoing Glacial Isostatic Adjustment could be noticed on accurate geodetic measurements; e.g. in Estonia the uplift rates up to 4 mm/yr have been observed so far. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates derived from (1) the time series of several Estonian GNSS permanent reference stations (CORS), and (2) nation-wide GPS campaigns held in 1997 and 2008. Different methods and software were used to process and analyse GNSS data and time series. Slight discrepancies between the results helped to evaluate the effects of different approaches in data processing. To model the surface displacements and other geodetic quantities in response to the melting of ice sheets the open source software SELEN (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) with several ice models was used. The observed displacements of geodetic points as well as velocity estimates of CORS were compared with the predictions of latest PGR empirical models (e.g. NKG2005LU) and with the results from GIA modelling. In most cases good fit between the observations and models was found within study area. The higher discrepancies appeared in the East and South-East Estonia. Besides noise in aforementioned measurements the reason could be that almost no observed data from study area have been used in compilation of widespread (common, well-known) ice and GIA models. Keywords: GNSS measurements, postglacial rebound, glacial isostatic adjustment, Estonia. References Spada, G., Stocchi, P. (2007). SELEN: A Fortran 90 program for solving the "sea-level equation". Computers & Geosciences, 33:538-562, 2007.

  12. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2012-08-01

    Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development.

  13. Microform-related community patterns of methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs are site specific.

    PubMed

    Juottonen, Heli; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Robinson, Devin; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2015-09-01

    Vegetation and water table are important regulators of methane emission in peatlands. Microform variation encompasses these factors in small-scale topographic gradients of dry hummocks, intermediate lawns and wet hollows. We examined methane production and oxidization among microforms in four boreal bogs that showed more variation of vegetation within a bog with microform than between the bogs. Potential methane production was low and differed among bogs but not consistently with microform. Methane oxidation followed water table position with microform, showing higher rates closer to surface in lawns and hollows than in hummocks. Methanogen community, analysed by mcrA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and dominated by Methanoregulaceae or 'Methanoflorentaceae', varied strongly with bog. The extent of microform-related variation of methanogens depended on the bog. Methanotrophs identified as Methylocystis spp. in pmoA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly showed effect of bog, and microform patterns were stronger within individual bogs. Our results suggest that methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs with seemingly uniform environmental conditions may show strong site-dependent variation. The bog-intrinsic factor may be related to carbon availability but contrary to expectations appears to be unrelated to current surface vegetation, calling attention to the origin of carbon substrates for microbes in bogs.

  14. On Connections Between Weather Types and the Arrival of Migratory Birds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.

    2010-09-01

    fact that Tartu and Kuressaare are located on the same latitude (58°N) and their distance is relatively small (ca 250 km), there are clear differences in the arrival dates of birds. Species that arrive in Estonia before mid-April (early arrivals) reach Kuresaare up to a week earlier compared to Tartu (the earlier the date of arrival, the greater the difference). Later arrivals, however, reach Tartu up to a week earlier than the Estonian Western islands. Analysis of weather types revealed a clear difference in "preferences" of the late and early arrivals. The early arrivals prefer more cyclonic conditions, when the main air flow into Estonia is from the Western or South-Western directions. Late migrants prefer anti-cyclonic conditions when sunny and warm weather conditions prevail with wind from the Southern direction. There also occurred a clear distinction between late and early migrants in the case of "avoidable" weather types. Early migrants clearly avoid the anti-cyclonic weather types and the types in whose case the general direction of air masses is from the North. In the case of late migrants, a clear weather type preference did not occur. But in general they avoid cyclonic conditions with winds from the Western or Northern directions.

  15. The biogeochemistry of an ombrotrophic bog: Evaluation of use as an archive of atmospheric mercury deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.M.; Fitzgerald, W.F.; Damman, A.W.H.

    1998-08-01

    The utility of ombrotrophic bogs as archives of atmospheric mercury deposition was assessed with an investigation in Arlberg Bog, Minnesota, US. Since the use of ombrotrophic bogs as archives depends on the immobility of deposited trace metals, the authors examined the postdepositional transport processes revealed by the solid-phase distributions of mercury and ancillary metals in this bog. They modeled metal speciation in bog pore-waters as a function of pe in order to understand metal behavior in ombrotrophic peat. Specifically, they considered the effect of water movement and resultant shifts in redox potential gradients on metal retention. The results indicate that Hg and Pb are immobile in ombrotrophic peat, so their distribution can be used to determine temporal changes in deposition. To substantiate the deposition estimates determined in this study, they emphasized the importance of confirming the validity of the dating scheme, assessing the degree of horizontal homogeneity in the accumulation record, and providing evidence for retention of Hg based on geochemical modeling. As recorded in Arlberg Bog, historic atmospheric Hg deposition increased gradually after the mid-1800s, peaked between 1950 and 1960, and may have declined thereafter. Preindustrial deposition was about 4 {micro}g/m{sup 2} year and recent deposition about 19 {micro}g/m{sup 2} year. The results of this study indicate that deposition at Arlberg Bog has been influenced by a regional and/or local-scale source.

  16. Zonal Features of Bog and Lake Water Chemistry Along a Transect from Boreal to Arid Landscapes in The South of Western Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakova, Marina N.; Naymushina, Olga S.

    2016-10-01

    Western Siberia is a unique territory where more than 12000 water reservoirs are located. The region is characterized by high bogginess up to 90% in the north. Bog and lake systems are able to accumulate natural and technogenic resources, including trace elements and organic matter. The article presents the results of a surface water chemical composition along a 5-year monitoring. The obtained data allow concluding that dynamics of water chemistry is predetermined by their location in various landscape zones and subordinated to zonal distribution of such major landscape elements as moistening, evaporation, rate of groundwater flow, etc.

  17. Novosphingobium aquaticum sp. nov., isolated from the humic-matter-rich bog lake Grosse Fuchskuhle.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Stefanie P; Bolte, Kathrin; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Kämpfer, Peter; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Glaeser, Jens

    2013-07-01

    A yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative rod, designated FNE08-86(T), was isolated from subsurface water of the humic-matter-rich and almost-neutral north-east basin of the experimentally divided bog lake Grosse Fuchskuhle (Brandenburg, Germany). Analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Novosphingobium rosa IAM 14222(T) (96.3 %). Sequence similarities with all other members of the genus Novosphingobium species were <96 %, but phylogenetic tree construction clearly showed the placement of strain FNE08-86(T) within the genus Novosphingobium. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0, and only a single 2-hydroxy fatty acid, C14 : 0 2-OH, was detected. The polar lipid profile revealed phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine as major compounds, with smaller amounts of sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and several unidentified lipids. In the quinone system ubiquinone Q-10 was predominant and in the polyamine pattern spermidine was predominant. Characterization by genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis indicated that strain FNE08-86(T) represents a novel species of the genus Novosphingobium, for which we propose the name Novosphingobium aquaticum sp. nov. (type strain FNE08-86(T) = DSM 25088(T) = CCM 7983(T)).

  18. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  19. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  20. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Estonia 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mere, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Estonia restored its independence in 1991. The creation of legislation and reorganisation of the educational system was one of the first tasks of the restored Republic of Estonia. The development of the national curriculum for basic and upper secondary schools that provided a framework substituting the previous study modules, and the creation of…

  1. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  2. Belowground carbon turnover in a temperate ombrotrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, Christian; Roulet, Nigel T.; Heitmann, Tobias; Stewart, Heather; Beer, Julia; Lafleur, Peter; Moore, Tim R.

    2007-03-01

    To examine belowground carbon (C) turnover in peatlands, we measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by chamber measurements, estimated respiration by in situ incubations of peat, and in situ production of dissolved carbon (CO2; CH4; and dissolved organic carbon, DOC) by pore water modeling at an ombrotrophic temperate bog. Ecosystem respiration (ER) averaged 205 mmol m-2 d-1 in summer and was related to temperature, but not water table position, and in situ rates of heterotrophic respiration in the unsaturated zone were also temperature-dependent, with Q10 = 5.0 - 6.4. In the saturated zone, concentrations of 0.1 - 2.5 mmol L-1 (CO2), 0 to 0.6 mmol L-1 (CH4), and <10 - 120 mg L-1 (DOC) were recorded. Turnover was dominated by DOC unrelated to respiration, which ranged from <0.5 to 7 mmol m-2 d-1 and amounted on average to < 1% of ER. Peat decomposition constants kd were 0.060 yr-1 to 0.034 yr-1 in the unsaturated and <0.002 yr-1 in the saturated zone. Monthly averages of CH4 fluxes ranged from 0 to 1.6 mmol m-2 d-1 and were higher than modeled diffusive fluxes when threshold concentrations for CH4 ebullition were recorded closer to the peatland surface. Our results suggest that the saturated zone is of little relevance to ER in this dry temperate bog and that mobilization of DOC is a potentially more relevant process. Temperature is a more important control on ER than water table position because most of the ER is generated close to the peatland surface. Concurrent, moderate increases in temperature and soil moisture are thus likely to increase losses of CO2 from ER and of CH4 from this type of peatland.

  3. Peat bogs in northern Alberta, Canada reveal decades of declining atmospheric Pb contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William; Appleby, Peter G.; Bicalho, Beatriz; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Grant-Weaver, Iain; Krachler, Michael; Magnan, Gabriel; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Shannon, Bob; Bellen, Simon; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Peat cores were collected from six bogs in northern Alberta to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of Pb, a valuable tracer of human activities. In each profile, the maximum Pb enrichment is found well below the surface. Radiometric age dating using three independent approaches (14C measurements of plant macrofossils combined with the atmospheric bomb pulse curve, plus 210Pb confirmed using the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am) showed that Pb contamination has been in decline for decades. Today, the surface layers of these bogs are comparable in composition to the "cleanest" peat samples ever found in the Northern Hemisphere, from a Swiss bog ~ 6000 to 9000 years old. The lack of contemporary Pb contamination in the Alberta bogs is testimony to successful international efforts of the past decades to reduce anthropogenic emissions of this potentially toxic metal to the atmosphere.

  4. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2016-01-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts that large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales, and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of

  5. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2015-10-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of blanket

  6. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  7. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  8. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes on the Bakchar bog in warm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil S.; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Aleksander V.; Glagolev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Data terrain-atmosphere fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide overseen for measurement campaign Plotnikovo-2014 on the bog's Flux-NIES automatic complex (N56°51.29' E82° 50.91') in the warn season. Six vegetative groups on the bog's surface were taken in comparison. Improvement precise method used to determinate the sensitivity for the gases analyzers and calculating of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes measured by automated chamber-based technique.

  9. Persistent versus transient tree encroachment of temperate peat bogs: effects of climate warming and drought events.

    PubMed

    Heijmans, Monique M P D; van der Knaap, Yasmijn A M; Holmgren, Milena; Limpens, Juul

    2013-07-01

    Peatlands store approximately 30% of global soil carbon, most in moss-dominated bogs. Future climatic changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and warming, are expected to affect peat bog vegetation composition and thereby its long-term carbon sequestration capacity. Theoretical work suggests that an episode of rapid environmental change is more likely to trigger transitions to alternative ecosystem states than a gradual, but equally large, change in conditions. We used a dynamic vegetation model to explore the impacts of drought events and increased temperature on vegetation composition of temperate peat bogs. We analyzed the consequences of six patterns of summer drought events combined with five temperature scenarios to test whether an open peat bog dominated by moss (Sphagnum) could shift to a tree-dominated state. Unexpectedly, neither a gradual decrease in the amount of summer precipitation nor the occurrence of a number of extremely dry summers in a row could shift the moss-dominated peat bog permanently into a tree-dominated peat bog. The increase in tree biomass during drought events was unable to trigger positive feedbacks that keep the ecosystem in a tree-dominated state after a return to previous 'normal' rainfall conditions. In contrast, temperature increases from 1 °C onward already shifted peat bogs into tree-dominated ecosystems. In our simulations, drought events facilitated tree establishment, but temperature determined how much tree biomass could develop. Our results suggest that under current climatic conditions, peat bog vegetation is rather resilient to drought events, but very sensitive to temperature increases, indicating that future warming is likely to trigger persistent vegetation shifts.

  10. Mobility of trace metals in pore waters of two Central European peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra

    2008-05-15

    Vertical peat profiles can only be used as archives of past changes in pollution levels if atmogenic elements are immobile after their burial. For mobile elements, similar pore-water concentrations can be expected at different peat depths. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Cd were determined in surface bog water and bog pore water 40 cm below surface in two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic. Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ) is an upland bog located in an industrial area, Cervene blato (CB) is a lowland bog located in a rural area. Metal concentrations were monitored seasonally over 3 years (2002--2005) at both sites. Higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd and lower concentrations of Mn, Fe and Co were found at the less polluted CB compared to VJJ. No clear-cut seasonality was observed in metal concentrations in bog waters, despite seasonal differences in industrial emission rates of pollutants (more coal burning in winter than in summer). This contrasts with an earlier observation of distinct seasonality in sulfate concentration and isotope composition in these stagnating bog waters. Peat substrate 40 cm below current bog surface represented pre-industrial low-pollution environment, yet pore waters at such depths contained the same metal concentrations as surface waters. The only exception was Pb, whose concentration in water solutes increased with increasing depth. Lack of vertical stratification in pore-water contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co indicated vertical mobility of these metals.

  11. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems.

  12. Financing Estonia's unemployment insurance system: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Paas, T; Scannell, N J

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, favorable media coverage of the glowing employment situation in the United States has been the norm. History, for one, won't permit us, however, to become complacent with what appears on the books to be a rosy economic picture for the nation. Moreover, the mounting recognition that the U.S. economy is inextricably tied to those of other nations--large and small--serves to keep us vigilant. This paper allows us a comparative exploration of the employment conditions in Estonia and the problems and prospects of financing its unemployment insurance program.

  13. Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Hower, J.C.; Lis, G.; Hatch, J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Kukersite samples from Estonia and Iowa were analyzed for elemental composition, functional group distribution, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios. The elemental and hydrogen isotope values, together with other analytical data, suggest a higher thermal maturity for the Iowa kukersite. The wide carbon isotopic range of 9.3??? among kukersites, with unusually negative ??13C values reaching -33.2???, indicates isotopically variable carbon sources for production of biomass, and thus major paleoceanographic differences between the environments supporting biosynthesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs in the Austrian part of the Bohemian Forest (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Werner E.; Schlosser, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler (“G-Vac”) and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10–60 individuals per m²) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m². Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists. PMID:24039517

  15. Spatial distribution and seasonal changes of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) in a Western Balkan peat bog.

    PubMed

    Vilenica, Marina; Brigić, Andreja; Kerovec, Mladen; Gottstein, Sanja; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2016-01-01

    Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages) in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii), while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata) some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats.

  16. Spatial distribution and seasonal changes of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) in a Western Balkan peat bog

    PubMed Central

    Vilenica, Marina; Brigić, Andreja; Kerovec, Mladen; Gottstein, Sanja; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages) in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii), while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata) some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats. PMID:28138280

  17. Anthropogenic degradation of mountainous raised bogs. Case study of the Polish Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Publications on the human impact on peat bogs pay a lot of attention to peat erosion, peat burning and changes in the physical and chemical properties of peat deposits that indicate pollution in the environment, but a more detailed analysis of current changes in the peat bog relief as a result of peat deposit extraction and drying is omitted. Compared to other areas of the world, the level of knowledge on anthropogenic changes in the relief of peat bogs in some areas of Poland may be considered advanced. This applies not only to peat bogs in northern Poland but also southern Poland, where peat bogs in the Carpathians and the Sudetes are also found. The best analyzed peat bogs in southern Poland are the raised bogs in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Basin (Western Carpathians) and in valleys in the Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Both areas are impacted by deep precipitation shadow. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to assess the rate of shrinkage in the surface area of peat domes in the mentioned areas, (2) to describe the rate of growth in the surface area of older and younger post-peat areas, (3) to explain current changes in peat bogs morphology, (4) to explain changes in water retention in peat deposit, (5) to separate phases in peat bogs relief changes. With that in mind, the direction and rate of change of landforms typical of younger post-peat areas, such as peat extraction scarps, post-extraction hollows, drainage systems including ditches and regulated stream channels, were analyzed. A special emphasis was placed on the period of time when the restoration of such areas has taken place. The paper is based on an analysis of maps produced over the last 230 years as well as on aerial photographs taken since 1965 and on LiDAR data. Fieldwork included the geomorphological and hydrographic mapping of specified landforms within peat bogs using GPS methods. In period prior to human activity peat domes were larger than today and were surrounded by lagg fens and were

  18. The growth of permafrost-free bogs at the southern margin of permafrost, 1947-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, W. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Connon, R.; Chasmer, L.

    2013-12-01

    In the high-Boreal region of NW Canada, permafrost occurs predominantly in the form of tree-covered peat plateaus within a permafrost-free and treeless terrain dominated by flat bogs. This region is experiencing unprecedented rates of thaw. Over the last several decades, such thaw has significantly expanded the permafrost-free, treeless terrain at the expense of the plateaus. This rapid change in land-cover has raised concerns over its impact on northern water resources, since remotely sensed data and ground observations indicate that the two major land-covers in this region have very different hydrological functions. Peat plateaus have a limited capacity to store water, a relatively large snowmelt water supply and hydraulic gradients that direct excess water into adjacent permafrost-free wetlands. As such, the plateaus function primarily as runoff generators. Plateaus also obstruct and redirect water movement in adjacent wetlands since the open water surfaces of the latter occupy an elevation below the permafrost table. By contrast, bogs are primarily water storage features since they are surrounded by raised permafrost and therefore less able to exchange surface and near-surface flows with the basin drainage network. Accurate estimate of the permafrost and permafrost-free areas is needed for accurate predictions of basin runoff and storage. This study examines the perimeter-area characteristics of bogs and permafrost plateaus, using fractal geometry as a basis for quantifying these properties. Image analyses are applied to aerial photographs and satellite imagery of Scotty Creek, NWT over the period 1947-2010. Preliminary analyses suggest that the expanding bogs and shrinking permafrost plateaus behave as fractals, meaning that their perimeter-area characteristics can be described by simple power equations. The area-frequency characteristics of bogs and plateaus have a hyperbolic distribution with relatively few large bogs and plateaus and numerous small ones

  19. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  20. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I.

    1995-11-01

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  1. Isotopic evidence for nitrogen mobility in peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Stepanova, Marketa; Jackova, Ivana; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, R. Kelman; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Komarek, Arnost

    2014-05-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) input may reduce carbon (C) storage in peat. Under low atmospheric deposition, most N is bound in the moss layer. Under high N inputs, Sphagnum is not able to prevent penetration of dissolved N to deeper peat. Nitrogen may become available to the roots of invading vascular plants. The concurrent oxygenation of deeper peat layers, along with higher supply of labile organic C, may enhance microbial decomposition and lead to peat thinning. The resulting higher emissions of greenhouse gases may accelerate global warming. Seepage of N to deeper peat has never been quantified. Here we present evidence for post-depositional mobility of atmogenic N in peat, based on natural-abundance N isotope ratios. We conducted a reciprocal peat transplant experiment between two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe), differing in anthropogenic N inputs. The northern site VJ received as much as 33 kg N ha-1 yr-1 via spruce canopy throughfall. The southern site was less polluted (17.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Isotope signatures of living moss differed between the two sites (δ15N of -3‰ and -7‰ at VJ and CB, respectively). After 18 months, an isotope mass balance was constructed. In the CB-to-VJ transplant, a significant portion of original CB nitrogen (98-31%) was removed and replaced by nitrogen of the host site throughout the top 10 cm of the profile. Nitrogen, deposited at VJ, was immobilized in imported CB peat that was up to 20 years old. Additionally, we compared N concentration and N accumulation rates in 210Pb-dated peat profiles with well-constrained data on historical atmospheric N pollution. Nationwide N emissions peaked in 1990, while VJ exhibited the highest N content in peat that formed in 1930. This de-coupling of N inputs and N retention in peat might be interpreted as a result of translocation of dissolved pollutant N downcore, corroborating our δ15N results at VJ and CB. Data from a variety of peat bogs along pollution

  2. The hydrology of natural and artificial bog pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Turner, Ed; McKenzie, Rebecca; Baird, Andy; Billett, Mike; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Dooling, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    Twelve bog pools were monitored over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the Cross Lochs blanket peatland in the Flow Country of northern Scotland. Six pools were located in a natural pool complex while the other six were in an adjacent area where the peat had been ditched in the 1970s. The ditches had been subsequently dammed with peat in 2002 resulting in dozens of artificial pools along each ditch, with one pool upslope of each dam. The natural pools ranged in area from 15 m2 to 850 m2, while the artificial pools are a more uniform size at c.3 - 4 m2. Following a dry first summer, water levels in the 12 pools were lower throughout the subsequent winter and spring than they were in proceeding years showing strong inter-annual variability in pool levels even for winter months. Over the three year study, water level fluctuations in the natural pools were very different to those in the artificial pools. The natural pools showed subdued responses to rainfall and, after rainfall, slow falls in water level dominated by evaporation; the hydraulic conductivity of the peat was very low at depths of 30 and 50 cm below the peat surface around the pools (median values of 2.49 × 10-5 and 1.09 × 10-5 cm s-1 respectively). The artificial pools had much larger monthly interquartile ranges of water levels and a greater rise and fall of pool water level in response to each individual rainfall event compared with the natural pools. Thus the biogeochemistry and carbon cycling processes that occur within the natural pools is not likely to be replicated in the artificial pools as their hydrological behaviour is quite different. Slope position was a factor in terms of hydrological response of pools with those further downslope having higher relative water levels for longer periods of time compared to upslope pools. Thus we anticipate that local biogeochemical processes in and around bog pools may be impacted by slope position and by whether they are natural pools or artificial pools

  3. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužienė, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Kerėplis, Rėkyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes.

  4. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  5. Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

  6. Hydrologic conditions in the Klatt Bog area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Klatt Bog is a 2.3 sq mi wetland in Anchorage, Alaska which provides habitat for many wildlife species but also offers potential sites for residential, commercial, and agricultural developments. Precipitation, the main source of water for the area, averages 15 in/yr; during the 1983 study period, precipitation was 12.16 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration, considered to be the major component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 inches. Surface runoff and groundwater outflow during 1983 are estimated to be 2.8 and < 0.2 inches, respectively. During summer, most of the runoff is derived from groundwater discharge near the upgradient eastern edge of the wetland. The wetland 's aquifer system is composed of fibrous peat which overlies a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay. The aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation and inflow of groundwater from upland areas east of the wetland. During 1983 the water table was at or within 3 ft of land surface in most areas and its seasonal fluctuation was < 2 feet. Water collected from four shallow observation wells, two ponds, and two sites on a stream had concentrations of dissolved iron ranging from 2,300 to 6,100 micrograms/L. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Peat Bogs as Hotspots for Organoarsenical Formation and Persistence.

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian; Rothwell, James J

    2016-04-19

    Peatlands have received significant atmospheric inputs of As and S since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, but the effect of S deposition on the fate of As is largely unknown. It may encompass the formation of As sulfides and organosulfur-bound As, or the indirect stimulation of As biotransformation processes, which are presently not considered as important As immobilization pathways in wetlands. To investigate the immobilization mechanisms of anthropogenically derived As in peatlands subjected to long-term atmospheric pollution, we explored the solid-phase speciation of As, Fe, and S in English peat bogs by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, we analyzed the speciation of As in pore- and streamwaters. Linear combination fits of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data imply that 62-100% (average: 82%) of solid-phase As (Astot: 9-92 mg/kg) was present as organic As(V) and As(III). In agreement with appreciable concentrations of organoarsenicals in surface waters (pH: 4.0-4.4, Eh: 165-190 mV, average Astot: 1.5-129 μg/L), our findings reveal extensive biotransformation of atmospheric As and the enrichment of organoarsenicals in the peat, suggesting that the importance of organometal(loid)s in wetlands subjected to prolonged air pollution is higher than previously assumed.

  8. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Xun; Yang, Hang-Yu; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yue; Li, Teng; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Zhang, Bo-Lin

    2015-11-04

    Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12-16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%-31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  9. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gael; Sonke, Jeroen E; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1,500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1,100 μg kg(-1), with the maxima between 840 and 1,100 μg kg(-1). A chronological framework was established using radiometric (210)Pb and (14)C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1,300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m(-2)y(-1) (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 μg m(-2)y(-1) between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records.

  10. Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): Implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pittman, Shannon E.; King, T.L.; Faurby, S.; Dorcas, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture-recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007. We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult turtles in 2007. We found a constant adult survival of 0. 893 (SE = 0. 018, 95% confidence interval, 0. 853-0. 924) between 1992 and 2007. Using 18 microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic status of this population with five other bog turtle populations. The target population displayed allelic richness (4. 8 ?? 0. 5) and observed heterozygosity (0. 619 ?? 0. 064) within the range of the other bog turtle populations. Coalescent analysis of population growth rate, effective population size, and timing of population structuring event also indicated the genetics of the target population were comparable to the other populations studied. Estimates of effective population size were a proportion of the census size in all populations except the target population, in which the effective population size was larger than the census size (30 turtles vs. 11 turtles). We attribute the high genetic diversity in the target population to the presence of multiple generations of old turtles. This study illustrates that the demographic status of populations of long-lived species may not be reflected genetically if a decline occurred recently. Consequently, the genetic integrity of populations of long-lived animals experiencing rapid demographic bottlenecks may be preserved through conservation efforts effective in addressing demographic problems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Consequences of marginal drainage from a raised bog and understanding the hydrogeological dynamics as a basis for restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Shane; Johnston, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Raised bogs in Ireland have long been exploited for local fuel utilisation. The drainage associated with such activities alters the hydrological regime of the bog as consolidation of the peat substrate results in significant water loss and subsidence of the bog. Undisturbed raised bog environments are typically characterised by distinct ecological systems, or ecotopes, which are controlled by the relationship between surface slopes, flow path lengths and drainage conditions. Shrinkage of the main peat profile, or catotelm, invariably alters these conditions, changes of which significantly damage ecotopes of conservational value. Clara Bog, Ireland, is one of western Europe's largest remaining raised bogs and on which much hydroecological research has been conducted since the early 1990's. Though a relatively intact raised bog, it has been extensively damaged in the past with the construction of a road through the centre of the bog known to have resulted in subsidence of 9-10m. However, the western tract of Clara Bog, Clara Bog West, has also subsided significantly since the early 1990's due to on-going peat cutting activities on the bogs margins. Current research now indicates that the bog is not an isolated hydrological entity, as generally perceived of bogs, but rather that Clara Bog West is intrinsically linked to the regional groundwater table, which appears to provide a significant ‘support' function to the bog. Hydrogeological monitoring and analysis has shown that water losses are not simply a result of lateral seepage of water through the peat profile at the bogs margins. Measurements of flow rates and electrical conductivity in drains bordering the bog indicate that little water is discharging laterally through the peat profile. However, piezometric head levels in mineral subsoil underlying the bog and close to the margins of the bog have decreased by 0.3 to 0.5m and 0.4 to 1.0m respectively since the early 1990s and it is believed that this is a result

  12. Improving the terrestial gravity dataset in South-Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, T.; Gruno, A.; Bloom, A.; Mäekivi, E.; Ellmann, A.; All, T.; Jürgenson, H.; Michelson, M.

    2009-04-01

    The only available gravity dataset covering the whole of Estonia has been observed from 1949 to 1958. This historic dataset has been used as a main input source for many applications including the geoid determination, the realization of the height system, the geological mapping. However, some recent studies have been indicated remarkable systematic biases in the dataset. For instance, a comparison of modern gravity control points with the historic data revealed unreasonable discrepancies in a large region in South-Estonia. However, the distribution of the gravity control was scarce, which did not allow to fully assess the quality of the historic data in the study area. In 2008 a pilot project was called out as a cooperation between Estonian Land Board, Geological Survey of Estonia, Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian University of Life Sciences to densify the detected problematic area (about 2000 km2) with new and reliable gravity data. Field work was carried out in October and November 2008, whereas GPS RTK and relative Scintrex gravimeter CG5 were used for precise positioning and gravity determinations, respectively. Altogether more than 140 new points were determined along the roads. Despite bad weather conditions and unstable observation base of the gravimeter (mostly on the bank of the road), uncertainty better than ±0.1 mGal (1 mGal = 10-5 m/s2) was estimated from the adjustment of gravimeter's readings. The separate gravity dataset of the Estonian Geological Survey were also incorporated into the gravity database of the project for further analysis. Those data were collected within several geological mapping projects in 1981-2007 and contain the data with uncertainty better than ±0.25 mGal. After the collection of new gravity data, a Kriging with proper variogram modeling was applied to form the Bouguer anomaly grids of the historic and the new datasets. The comparison of the resulting grids revealed biases up to -4 mGal at certain regions

  13. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  14. Estimating methane production rates in bogs and landfills by deuterium enrichment of pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.I.; Chanton, J.P.; Glaser, P.H.; Chasar, L.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Raised bogs and municipal waste landfills harbor large populations of methanogens within their domed deposits of anoxic organic matter. Although the methane emissions from these sites have been estimated by various methods, limited data exist on the activity of the methanogens at depth. We therefore analyzed the stable isotopic signature of the pore waters in two raised bogs from northern Minnesota to identify depth intervals in the peat profile where methanogenic metabolism occurs. Methanogenesis enriched the deuterium (2H) content of the deep peat pore waters by as much as +11% (Vienna Standard Mean Sea Water), which compares to a much greater enrichment factor of +70% in leachate from New York City's Fresh Kills landfill. The bog pore waters were isotopically dated by tritium (3H) to be about 35 years old at 1.5 m depth, whereas the landfill leachate was estimated as ~ 17 years old from Darcy flow calculations. According to an isotopic mass balance the observed deuterium enrichment indicates that about 1.2 g of CH4m-3 d-1 were produced within the deeper peat, compared to about 2.8 g CH4 m-3 d-1 in the landfill. The values for methane production in the bog peat are substantially higher than the flux rates measured at the surface of the bogs or at the landfill, indicating that deeper methane production may be much higher than was previously assumed.

  15. Content and binding forms of heavy metals, aluminium and phosphorus in bog iron ores from Poland.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, Danuta; Brümmer, Gerhard W; Sommer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Bog iron ores are widespread in Polish wetland soils used as meadows or pastures. They are suspected to contain high concentrations of heavy metals, which are precipitated together with Fe along a redox gradient. Therefore, soils with bog iron ore might be important sources for a heavy metal transfer from meadow plants into the food chain. However, this transfer depends on the different binding forms of heavy metals. The binding forms were quantified by sequential extraction analysis of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb) as well as Al and P on 13 representative samples of bog iron ores from central and southwestern Poland. Our results showed total contents of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb not to exceed the natural values for sandy soils from Poland. Only the total Mn was slightly higher. The highest contents of all heavy metals have been obtained in iron oxide fractions V (occluded in noncrystalline and poorly crystalline Fe oxides) and VI (occluded in crystalline Fe oxides). The results show a distinct relationship between the content of Fe and the quantity of Zn and Pb as well P. Water soluble as well as plant available fractions were below the detection limit in most cases. From this we concluded bog iron ores not to be an actual, important source of heavy metals in the food chain. However, a remobilization of heavy metals might occur due to any reduction of iron oxides in bog iron ores, for example, by rising groundwater levels.

  16. Source characterisation of atmospheric platinum group element deposition into an ombrotrophic peat bog.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Sebastien; Hemond, Harold F; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2004-04-01

    Platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium and osmium were found to be enriched relative to their expected natural concentrations in peat samples from Thoreau's Bog, an ombrotrophic peat bog in Concord, Massachusetts. The source of osmium into the bog was determined from its isotopic composition (187Os/188Os). Osmium is composed of 4% lithogenic osmium from atmospheric soil dust, 41% of anthropogenic osmium and 55% of osmium from a non-lithogenic, non anthropogenic source, with rain being a likely candidate for the latter. Significant anthropogenic and rain contributions are also expected for iridium. In contrast, platinum, palladium and rhodium are almost exclusively anthropogenic. The larger enrichments of platinum, palladium and rhodium indicate that automobile catalysts are the source of platinum group elements to Thoreau's bog. The bog is located approximately 300 m from a major road and, therefore, the occurrence of platinum elements is evidence for regional dispersion of these metals. The absence of a clear trend following the introduction of catalysts indicates that platinum group elements are not quantitatively conserved in peat with downward leaching and plants playing an important role in the accumulation of platinum group elements.

  17. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    was founded in 1 Tallinn, Estonia. "Estonia was chosen as an experimental for creating a general automatized planning and directing ,2 The first...Lielupe, and the Venta . The republic is, hovever, poorly supplied 4ith mineral deposits. The primary mining products are sand and sandstone, gypsum...social system, but had little time to organize o.vlt style institutions %efore the Nazi invasion of June 1941. There was, however, time to plan and

  18. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women.

  19. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Estonia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  20. Environmental monitoring in peat bog areas by change detection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich; Mildes, Wiebke

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing image analysis systems and geographic information systems (GIS) show great promise for the integration of a wide variety of spatial information supporting tasks such as urban and regional planning, natural resource management, agricultural studies and topographic or thematic mapping. Current and future remote sensing programs are based on a variety of sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation on a global scale. GIS offer efficient tools for handling, manipulating, analyzing and presenting spatial data that are required for sensible decision making in various areas. The Environmental Monitoring project may serve as a convincing example of the operational use of integrated GIS/remote sensing technologies. The overall goal of the project is to assess the capabilities of satellite remote sensing for the analysis of land use changes, especially in moor areas. These areas are recognized as areas crucial to the mission of the Department of Environment and, therefore, to be placed under an extended level of protection. It is of critical importance, however, to have accurate and current information about the ecological and economic state of these sensitive areas. In selected pasture and moor areas, methods for multisensor data fusion have being developed and tested. The results of this testing show which techniques are useful for pasture and moor monitoring at an operational level. A hierarchical method is used for extracting bog land classes with respect to the environmental protection goals. A highly accurate classification of the following classes was accomplished: deciduous- and mixed forest, coniferous forest, water, very wet areas, meadowland/farmland with vegetation, meadowland/farmland with partly vegetation, meadowland/ farmland without vegetation, peat quarrying with maximum of 50% vegetation, de- and regeneration stages. In addition, a change detection analysis is performed in comparison with the existing

  1. Hydrologic conditions in Connors Bog Area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Connors Bog is a wetland in Anchorage, Alaska, which provides a habitat for many wildlife species and is a popular area for driving off-road vehicles. A landfill, and residential and commercial developments are present in areas which were once wetland. The main source of water is precipitation, which averages about 15 in/yr. Estimates of evapotranspiration, which is the main component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 in/yr. Minor amounts of groundwater and surface runoff flow into the area from the northeast and southwest and flow out of the area to the northwest and south. Within the wetland, water in peat and sand is unconfined and becomes more mineralized with depth. A leachate beneath and near an abandoned landfill is characterized by concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, and total organics that are higher than those of the area 's natural water. The maximum lateral extent of detectable contamination in 1984 was < 500 ft from the landfill 's edge. Water in glacial deposits that underlie a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay is confined. A well completed in this confined aquifer yielded water that had a low concentration of dissolved solids, 150 mg/L. The potentiometric surface of this aquifer was about 20 ft lower than the water table during 1984. Connors Lake occupies a depression that extends below adjacent groundwater levels. The 40-acre lake has a maximum depth of about 9 ft and a low rate of biological production. The quality of water in the lake has not been adversely impacted by nearby residential development or landfill operations. Lake levels appear to be influenced by precipitation and adjacent groundwater levels. (Author 's abstract)

  2. The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Zachow, Christin; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria.

  3. 77 FR 2970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Elba BOG Compressor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Elba BOG Compressor Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues; Southern LNG Company, L.L... involving construction and operation of facilities by Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (SLNG) in Chatham County... (BOG) compression facilities at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) marine terminal on Elba Island...

  4. BOG: R-package for Bacterium and virus analysis of Orthologous Groups

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jincheol; Taslim, Cenny; Lin, Shili

    2015-01-01

    BOG (Bacterium and virus analysis of Orthologous Groups) is a package for identifying groups of differentially regulated genes in the light of gene functions for various virus and bacteria genomes. It is designed to identify Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) that are enriched among genes that have gone through significant changes under different conditions. This would contribute to the detection of pathogens, an important scientific research area of relevance in uncovering bioterrorism, among others. Particular statistical analyses include hypergeometric, Mann–Whitney rank sum, and gene set enrichment. Results from the analyses are organized and presented in tabular and graphical forms for ease of understanding and dissemination of results. BOG is implemented as an R-package, which is available from CRAN or can be downloaded from http://www.stat.osu.edu/~statgen/SOFTWARE/BOG/. PMID:26106460

  5. BOG: R-package for Bacterium and virus analysis of Orthologous Groups.

    PubMed

    Park, Jincheol; Taslim, Cenny; Lin, Shili

    2015-01-01

    BOG (Bacterium and virus analysis of Orthologous Groups) is a package for identifying groups of differentially regulated genes in the light of gene functions for various virus and bacteria genomes. It is designed to identify Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) that are enriched among genes that have gone through significant changes under different conditions. This would contribute to the detection of pathogens, an important scientific research area of relevance in uncovering bioterrorism, among others. Particular statistical analyses include hypergeometric, Mann-Whitney rank sum, and gene set enrichment. Results from the analyses are organized and presented in tabular and graphical forms for ease of understanding and dissemination of results. BOG is implemented as an R-package, which is available from CRAN or can be downloaded from http://www.stat.osu.edu/~statgen/SOFTWARE/BOG/.

  6. Titanium in ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses from various peat bogs of Germany and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Kempter, Heike; Frenzel, Burkhard

    2008-03-25

    Titanium concentrations and Ti inventories (total Ti in the sample) in living Sphagnum mosses from the surfaces of eight ombrotrophic peat bogs of five different regions of Germany and Belgium were studied over a period of two years (1995-7). Six to ten peat moss samples with a given surface area (100 cm2) and length (5 cm) were collected at different sites in the peat bogs studied several times (every six weeks to three months) during a year. Variability of Ti concentrations and inventories were determined within each peat bog for the species S. magellanicum, S. rubellum, S. papillosum, and S. cuspidatum, for the microhabitats 'lawn', 'slope' and 'hollow', as well as for the studied peat bogs of different regions and for each season. Likewise, Ti concentration values were determined for the moss plant segments: 'capitulum', 'living green' and 'dead brown'. Ti concentrations and inventories were found to be highly variable, even in one species of the same peat bog and at the same time. Moreover, median Ti concentrations and inventories of different species and microhabitats were quite similar to one another. As a result, we suggest that more productive species might be able to accumulate more Ti onto their bigger surface areas than the less productive ones. Besides, Ti particles might be transported downwards with the water and accumulated by the mosses over a longer time period than only one year. To reliably specify the variations in the geochemistry of peat mosses on the peat bog surface the annual production of each collected Sphagnum sample has to be exactly known and samples of equal ages and time periods they were exposed to atmospheric deposition have to be studied.

  7. Holocene Carbon Accumulation Rates in the SPRUCE Bog Prior to Warming and Elevated CO2 Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Iversen, C. M.; Phillips, J. R.; Brice, D. J.; Hanson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment warming and elevated CO2 treatments are being applied to an ombrotrophic spruce bog: the S1 Bog (S1) at Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. To provide a historical context for recent and expected experimentally-induced changes in the bog's belowground carbon balance, we reconstructed historical carbon accumulation rates in peat using radiocarbon from 19 peat cores collected from randomly distributed SPRUCE plots. This unusually high number of cores allows us to assess spatial variability in age-depth profiles and accumulation rates across the SPRUCE study area within S1. This data, along with recent C flux measurements, show that the bog has been accumulating carbon for at least 12,0000 years and has continued to be a sink for atmospheric carbon of approximately 150 g C m-2 yr-1 in recent decades. Early Holocene accumulation rates are similar to those reported for other northern peatlands (approximately 25 g C m-2 yr-1), but apparent carbon accumulation decreased substantially around 3,000 years ago (to 5-15 g C m-2 yr-1) and stayed low until the last century. This decrease is considerably larger than that reported for other peatlands and is therefore unlikely to result only from cooling during the Holocene or bog succession. Although no charcoal has been found in peat at this site, evidence from a neighboring bog indicates a considerable amount of peat formed during this period was consumed by fire and it is possible that smoldering fires consumed peat, resulting in low apparent accumulation rates. Past droughts may have also contributed to observed trends by lowering the acrotelm/catotelm boundary, allowing for enhanced aerobic peat decomposition. This work provides important background information on spatial variability and carbon biogeochemistry that will aid in interpretation of climate change simulation experiments at S1.

  8. The core microbiome bonds the Alpine bog vegetation to a transkingdom metacommunity.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Bog ecosystems fulfil important functions in Earth's carbon and water turnover. While plant communities and their keystone species Sphagnum have been well studied, less is known about the microbial communities associated with them. To study our hypothesis that bog plants share an essential core of their microbiome despite their different phylogenetic origins, we analysed four plant community plots with 24 bryophytes, vascular plants and lichen species in two Alpine bogs in Austria by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing followed by bioinformatic analyses. The overall bog microbiome was classified into 32 microbial phyla, while Proteobacteria (30.8%), Verrucomicrobia (20.3%) and Planctomycetes (15.1%) belonged to the most abundant groups. Interestingly, the archaeal phylum Euryarcheota represented 7.2% of total microbial abundance. However, a high portion of micro-organisms remained unassigned at phylum and class level, respectively. The core microbiome of the bog vegetation contained 177 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (150 526 seq.) and contributed to 49.5% of the total microbial abundance. Only a minor portion of associated core micro-organisms was host specific for examined plant groups (5.9-11.6%). Using our new approach to analyse plant-microbial communities in an integral framework of ecosystem, vegetation and microbiome, we demonstrated that bog vegetation harboured a core microbiome that is shared between plants and lichens over the whole ecosystem and formed a transkingdom metacommunity. All micro- and macro-organisms are connected to keystone Sphagnum mosses via set of microbial species, for example Burkholderia bryophila which was found associated with a wide spectrum of host plants and is known for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction.

  9. Water table related variations in the abundance of intact archaeal membrane lipids in a Swedish peat bog.

    PubMed

    Weijers, Johan W H; Schouten, Stefan; van der Linden, Marjolein; van Geel, Bas; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2004-10-01

    The presence and distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), lipids that constitute the membranes of Archaea, have been investigated in a 50-cm long core from a Swedish peat bog. In the acrotelm, the periodically water saturated and thus oxic upper layer of the peat bog, only minor amounts of GDGTs were found. These amounts increase considerably in the catotelm, the continuously water saturated and consequently anoxic lower layer of the peat bog. Based on earlier analyses of GDGTs in different settings and on 16S rDNA results from literature, these lipids are likely derived from methanogenic Archaea. Crenarchaeol, previously only found in marine settings and in fresh water lakes, has also been found in this peat bog. Contrary to the other GDGTs, crenarchaeol concentrations remain relatively constant throughout the peat core, suggesting that they are produced by Crenarchaeota thriving in the oxic part of the peat bog and possibly also in the anoxic part.

  10. A new anoplocephalid cestode from the southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi.

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Eckerlin, Ralph P

    2009-06-01

    A new cestode species, Anoplocephaloides bulmeri n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), is described from the southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi (Baird) from Virginia. The general morphology of A. bulmeri strongly suggests that it belongs to the monophyletic Anoplocephaloides Baer 1923 s. str. It differs unequivocally from the other species of Anoplocephaloides s. str. by the distribution of testes in the poral part of the proglottid and also by the number of testes and the maximum length of the cirrus sac and seminal receptacle. Anoplocephaloides bulmeri most closely resembles Anoplocephaloides kontrimavichusi Rausch, 1976, a host-specific parasite of the northern bog lemming, Synaptomys borealis (Richardson).

  11. Spectral reflectance patterns and temporal dynamics of common understory types in hemi-boreal forests in Järvselja, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge about spectral properties and seasonal dynamics of understory layers in boreal forests currently holds several gaps. This introduces severe uncertainties while modelling the carbon balance of this ecosystem, which is expected to be prone to major shifts with climate change in the future. In this work the seasonal reflectance dynamics in European hemi-boreal forests are studied. The data for this study was collected at Järvselja Training and Experimental Forestry District (Estonia, 27.26°E 58.30°N). Measurements were taken in three different stands. The silver birch (Betula Pendula Roth) stand grows on typical brown gley-soil and its understory vegetation is dominated by a mixture of several grass species. The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand grows on a bog with understory vegetation composed of sparse labrador tea, cotton grass, and a continuous Sphagnum moss layer. The third stand, Norway spruce (Picea abies), grows on a Gleyi Ferric Podzol site with understory vegetation either partially missing or consisting of mosses such as Hylocomium splendens or Pleurozium schreberi [1]. The sampling design was similar to the study by Rautiainen et al. [3] in northern European boreal forests. At each study site, a 100 m long permanent transect was marked with flags. In addition, four intensive study plots (1 m × 1 m) were marked next to the transects at 20 m intervals. The field campaign lasted from May to September 2013. For each site the fractional cover of understory and understory spectra were estimated ten times i.e. every 2 to 3 weeks. Results from Järvselja forest were compared with the seasonal profiles from boreal forests in Hyytiälä, Finland [2]. References [1] A. Kuusk, M. Lang, J. Kuusk, T. Lükk, T. Nilson, M. Mõttus, M. Rautiainen, and A. Eenmäe, "Database of optical and structural data for validation of radiative transfer models", Technical Report, September 2009 [2] M. Rautiainen, M. Mõttus, J. Heiskanen, A. Akujärvi, T. Majasalmi

  12. Interactions between Nitrogen Fixation and Methane Cycling in Northern Minnesota Peat Bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M. J.; Gaby, J. C.; Lin, X.; Morton, P. L.; Kostka, J. E.; Glass, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's surface, yet store a third of soil carbon. Increasing global temperatures have the potential to change peatlands from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. N is a limiting nutrient in oligotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands and biological N2 fixation likely supplies a significant but unknown fraction of N inputs. Moreover, environmental controls on diazotrophic community composition in N-limited peatlands are poorly constrained. Thus, improved understanding of feedbacks between the CH4 and N cycles is critical for predicting future changes to CH4 flux from peat bogs. We coupled measurements of N2 fixation activity measured by the acetylene (C2H2) reduction assay (ARA) with molecular analyses of expression and diversity of nifH genes encoding the molybdenum (Mo)-containing nitrogenase from two peat bogs in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA. The top 10 cm of peat was sampled from the high CH4 flux S1 bog and the low CH4 flux Zim bog in April and June 2014. Despite similar N concentrations in the top 10 cm of both bogs (0.5-1.0 μM NO2-+NO3- and 2-3 μM NH4+), the S1 bog displayed variable ARA activity (1-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1) whereas the Zim bog had consistently low ARA activity (<1 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Highest ARA activity was measured in June from S1 bog hollows with higher moisture content incubated without O2 in the light (20-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Dissolved Fe (1-25 μM) was higher in hollow vs. hummock samples, and at S1 vs. Zim bog, while dissolved V (4-14 nM) was consistently higher than Mo (1-4 nM), suggesting that alternative V or Fe-containing nitrogenases might be present in these bogs. In contrast, Cu, an essential micronutrient for aerobic methanotrophs, was higher in hummocks (25-48 nM) than hollows (6-17 nM). The facultative methanotroph Methylocella was the dominant diazotroph in the S1 bog based on high throughput next generation sequencing of nifH cDNA amplicons. Given previous

  13. Significant nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation in Patagonian ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Horn, Marcus A; Borken, Werner

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) nutrition in pristine peatlands relies on the natural input of inorganic N through atmospheric deposition or biological dinitrogen (N2 ) fixation. However, N2 fixation and its significance for N cycling, plant productivity, and peat buildup are mostly associated with the presence of Sphagnum mosses. Here, we report high nonsymbiotic N2 -fixation rates in two pristine Patagonian bogs with diversified vegetation and natural N deposition. Nonsymbiotic N2 fixation was measured in samples from 0 to 10, 10 to 20, and 40 to 50 cm depth using the (15) N2 assay as well as the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). The ARA considerably underestimated N2 fixation and can thus not be recommended for peatland studies. Based on the (15) N2 assay, high nonsymbiotic N2 -fixation rates of 0.3-1.4 μmol N2  g(-1)  day(-1) were found down to 50 cm under micro-oxic conditions (2 vol.%) in samples from plots covered by Sphagnum magellanicum or by vascular cushion plants, latter characterized by dense and deep aerenchyma roots. Peat N concentrations point to greater potential of nonsymbiotic N2 fixation under cushion plants, likely because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds and oxic conditions in the rhizosphere. In the Sphagnum plots, high N2 fixation below 10 cm depth rather reflects the potential during dry periods or low water level when oxygen penetrates the top peat layer and triggers peat mineralization. Natural abundance of the (15) N isotope of live Sphagnum (5.6 δ‰) from 0 to 10 cm points to solely N uptake from atmospheric deposition and nonsymbiotic N2 fixation. A mean (15) N signature of -0.7 δ‰ of peat from the cushion plant plots indicates additional N supply from N mineralization. Our findings suggest that nonsymbiotic N2 fixation overcomes N deficiency in different vegetation communities and has great significance for N cycling and peat accumulation in pristine peatlands.

  14. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The openness of the coast to the winds and storm waves has an important part in changing aeolian coastal landscapes as well as anthropogenic factor. The aeolian coastal landscapes are probably the most dynamic areas. Occurrence of aeolian coastal landscapes in Estonia is limited. They consist of sandy beaches, sandy beach ridges and dunes. The coastal ecosystems are strongly affected by their topography, based on the character of deposits and moisture conditions. The majority of their ecosystems are quite close to the specific natural habitat. These ecosystems are represented in the list of the European Union Habitats (Natura 2000). In recent decades human influence has changed the landscape over time in different activities (recreation, trampling, off-road driving) and their intensities, which has led to destruction or degradation of various habitats. Previously coastal landscapes were used for forestry and pasture. Nowadays one of the most serious threats to open landscape is afforestation. This study examines the relationships between landscape components during last decades. Trying to find out how much aeolian coastal landscapes are influenced by natural processes or human activities. The results are based on cartographic analysis, fieldwork data. The method of landscape complex profile was used. The profiles show a cross-sections of landforms and interrelationships between landscape components, most frequently describing the relations between soils and vegetation. In each sample point the mechanical composition of sediments, vegetation cover and soil is determined. Results show that changes in landscapes are induced by their own development as well as changes in environmental factors and human activities. Larger changes are due to increase of coastal processes activity. These processes can be observed in sandy beaches, which are easily transformed by waves. Higher sea levels during storm surges are reaching older beach formation, causing erosion and creating

  15. Hydrological instability of a Baltic raised bog during the last 1000 years in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Galka, Mariusz; Pawlyta, Jacek; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Goslar, Tomasz; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, Grażyna; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

    2010-05-01

    Our aim was to reconstruct the palaeohydrological of a Baltic raised bog located in northern Poland over the last 1000 years. We used several proxies: testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, pollen and carbon stable isotopes to reconstruct the bog surface wetness. We analysed two replicated monoliths collected from the same bog at high temporal resolution. We obtained a reliable chronology for both monoliths based on radiocarbon and lead 210 dating. We compared the inferred water table depth changes obtained from the quantitative reconstruction based on the testate amoebae transfer function with inference from plant remains and carbon isotopic composition of Sphagnum stems for both monoliths. Our data provide new insight on human impact on the hydrology of Baltic raised bogs and the sensitivity of these peatlands to various disturbances. We show an increasing hydrological instability of the studied peatland concomitant with the gradually increasing human impact over the landscape since the Medieval Period. However, climatic change also played an important role during the Little Ice Age period that overlapped with the anthropogenic disturbance. This palaeoenvironmental data provides useful baseline data for peatland management and restoration in Northern Poland and more generally illustrate the value of high-resolution multiproxy studies as tool for both palaeoenvironmental studies and current management.

  16. Ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina bays: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    Shrub bogs of the Southeast occur in areas of poorly developed internal drainage that typically but not always have highly developed organic or peat soils. Pocosins and Carolina bays are types or subclasses of shrub bogs on the coastal plains of the Carolinas and Georgia. They share roughly the same distribution patterns, soil types, floral and faunal species composition and other community attributes, but differ in geological formation. Carolina bays may contain pocosin as well as other communities, but are defined more by their unique elliptical shape and geomorphometry. The pocosin community is largely defined by its vegetation, a combination of a dense shrub understory and a sparser canopy. The community is part of a complex successional sequence of communities (sedge bogs, savannas, cedar bogs, and bay forests) that may be controlled by such factors as fire, hydroperiod, soil type, and peat depth. Pocosins and Carolina bays harbor a number of animal groups and may be locally important in their ecology. Although few species are endemic to these habitats, they may provide important refuges for a number of species. These communities are simultaneously among the least understood and most rapidly disappearing habitats of the Southeast. Forestry and agricultural clearage are current impacts.

  17. Role and Responsibility of Board of Governors [BOG] in Ensuring Educational Quality in Colleges & Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents in brief the need and importance of effective, imaginative and responsible governing boards in colleges and universities, so as to ensure educational quality. BOG should engage fruitfully with the principal and activities in college/ university. UGC, AICTE have now prescribed creation of effective boards for both government and…

  18. Lake or bog? Reconstructing baseline ecological conditions for the protected Galápagos Sphagnum peatbogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Emily E. D.; Froyd, Cynthia A.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper documents the first 10,000 year old plant macrofossil record of vegetation changes on the central island of Santa Cruz, providing information on Sphagnum bog vegetation patterns, local extinction of key taxa, and temporal successions in the Galápagos humid highlands. Vegetation change is reconstructed through examination of Holocene sedimentary sequences obtained from three Sphagnum bogs located within volcanic caldera forming the high elevation central ridge system of Santa Cruz Island. Results indicate that these specialized Sphagnum bog ecosystems are dynamic and have undergone considerable changes in vegetation composition, transitioning from diverse hygrophilous herbs and submerged aquatic ecosystems to drier Sphagnum/Pteridium bog systems, during the last 10,000 cal yr BP. Additionally a new aquatic genus previously undocumented on the islands, Elatine, was discovered at two of the study sites, but it is now extinct on the archipelago. Some of the observed vegetation successions may have been driven by climatic shifts occurring within the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Other drivers including anthropogenic change are also considered significant over the last hundred years, placing strain on this naturally dynamic system. This study helps reveal patterns of change in the humid highlands over the last 10,000 cal yr BP regarding vegetation variability, climatic shifts, the historical influence of fire, tortoise disturbance, and recent anthropogenic impacts on the island.

  19. Spatial structure and persistence of methanogen populations in humic bog lakes.

    PubMed

    Milferstedt, Kim; Youngblut, Nicholas D; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2010-06-01

    Patterns of diversity within methanogenic archaea in humic bog lakes are quantified over time and space to determine the roles that spatial isolation and seasonal mixing play in structuring microbial populations. The protein encoding gene mcrA is used as a molecular marker for the detection of fine-scale differences between methanogens in four dimictic bog lakes in which the water column is mixed twice a year and one meromictic lake that is permanently stratified. Although similar sequences are observed in each bog lake, each lake has its own characteristic set of persisting sequence types, indicating that methanogen populations are delimited either by low migration between the anaerobic hypolimnia or by lake-specific selection. The meromictic lake is differentiated from all other lakes and contains sequences with a higher degree of microdiversity than the dimictic lakes. By relating the structure of diversity to the depth of each bog lake, we propose the hypothesis that the deeper parts of the water column favor microdiversification of methanogens, whereas the periodically disturbed water column of shallower dimictic lakes promote genetically more diverse methanogen communities.

  20. Methanogen communities and Bacteria along an ecohydrological gradient in a northern raised bog complex.

    PubMed

    Juottonen, Heli; Galand, Pierre E; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Laine, Jukka; Fritze, Hannu; Yrjälä, Kim

    2005-10-01

    Mires forming an ecohydrological gradient from nutrient-rich, groundwater-fed mesotrophic and oligotrophic fens to a nutrient-poor ombrotrophic bog were studied by comparing potential methane (CH(4)) production and methanogenic microbial communities. Methane production was measured from different depths of anoxic peat and methanogen communities were detected by detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of clone libraries, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Potential CH(4) production changed along the ecohydrological gradient with the fens displaying much higher production than the ombrotrophic bog. Methanogen diversity also decreased along the gradient. The two fens had very similar diversity of methanogenic methyl-coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA), but in the upper layer of the bog the methanogen diversity was strikingly lower, and only one type of mcrA sequence was retrieved. It was related to the Fen cluster, a group of novel methanogenic sequences found earlier in Finnish mires. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the fens fell into at least nine phyla, but only four phyla were retrieved from the bog. The most common bacterial groups were Deltaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Acidobacteria.

  1. Dibasic Ammonium Phosphate Application Enhances Aromatic Compound Concentration in Bog Bilberry Syrup Wine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Yang; Li, Yi-Qing; Li, Teng; Yang, Hang-Yu; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Bo-Lin; Zhu, Bao-Qing

    2016-12-29

    A nitrogen deficiency always causes bog bilberry syrup wine to have a poor sensory feature. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen source addition on volatile compounds during bog bilberry syrup wine fermentation. The syrup was supplemented with 60, 90, 120 or 150 mg/L dibasic ammonium phosphate (DAP) before fermentation. Results showed that an increase of DAP amounts accelerated fermentation rate, increased alcohol content, and decreased sugar level. Total phenol and total flavonoid content were also enhanced with the increase of DAP amounts. A total of 91 volatile compounds were detected in the wine and their concentrations were significantly enhanced with the increase of DAP. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, levo-2,3-butanediol, 2-phenylethanol, meso-2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid exhibited a significant increase of their odor activity value (OAV) with the increase of DAP amounts. Bog bilberry syrup wine possessed fruity, fatty, and caramel flavors as its major aroma, whereas a balsamic note was the least present. The increase of DAP amounts significantly improved the global aroma attributes, thereby indicating that DAP supplementation could promote wine fermentation performance and enhance the sensory quality of bog bilberry syrup wine.

  2. Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Odlind, Viveca; Irs, Alar; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-12-01

    Aims of the study were to compare the paediatric outpatient antibiotic use in two countries with low overall antibiotic consumption and antibacterial resistance levels - Sweden and Estonia - and to describe the adherence to Estonian treatment guideline. All prescriptions for systemic antibiotics for children less than 18 years during 2007 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and Estonian Health Insurance Fund database were identified to conduct a descriptive drug utilisation study. The total paediatric antibiotic use was 616 and 353 per 1000 in Estonia and Sweden, respectively. The greatest between country differences occurred in the age group 2 to 6 years -Estonian children received 1184 and Swedish children 528 prescriptions per 1000. Extended spectrum penicillin amoxicillin (189 per 1000) or its combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor (81 per 1000) and a newer macrolide clarithromycin (127 per 1000) were prescribed most often in Estonia whereas narrow spectrum penicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin (169 per 1000) and older generation macrolide erythromycin (21 per 1000) predominated in Sweden. For acute bronchitis, 17 different antibiotics (most commonly clarithromycin) were prescribed in Estonia despite the guideline recommendation not to use antibiotics. The higher rate of antibiotic use especially of extended spectrum antibiotics in Estonia compared to Sweden emphasizes the need for national activities to promote appropriate use of antibiotics while treating children, even when the overall antibiotic consumption is low.

  3. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  4. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  5. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  6. Small is beautiful: why microtopography should be included in bog hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Willemijn; van der Ploeg, Martine; Oosterwoud, Marieke; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Witte, Jan-Philip

    2014-05-01

    Microtopography can have a large effect on flow processes at the soil surface and the composition of soil water. In peat areas, microtopography is shaped by differences in species, the growth rate and transpiration of the vegetation, and the amount of water flowing from higher areas. Microtopography is often represented by a roughness parameter in hillslope hydrological models. In areas without a strong topographical gradient however, microtopography may be underestimated when accumulated in a single parameter, especially in the presence of shallow groundwater systems. In this study, we review the intricate relationships between microtopography, surface runoff, and ecohydrology in systems featuring shallow water tables. In an analogy to surface runoff, the hydrology of a raised bog can be described as a combination of open water flow on a saturated medium, instead of the traditional acrotelm-catotelm concept that only acknowledges the saturated medium. We explored water flow through the microtopography of a raised bog with a simple conceptual model that accounts explicitly for microtopographic features and the changing flow directions these may cause. With this approach we were able to investigate the activation of fast flow paths on different areas of the bog as a function of their wetness level and bog-specific morphological features, such as hummocks and hollows. Our type of approach could be used to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall-runoff responses on raised bogs. In addition, similar approaches could be used to investigate how various runoff regimes affect the mixing of water with different chemical signatures, another driver of variations of the occurrence of plant species.

  7. Environmental controls of greenhouse gas release in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-01-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain greenhouse gas release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  8. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  9. Abortion in the framework of family planning in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, H

    1997-01-01

    A post-independence (1992-93) decree issued by the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs permits abortion on request up to 12 weeks of gestation and, on medical grounds, up to 20 weeks. According to reports received by the Estonian Medical Statistical Bureau, the 1994 abortion rate was 53.8/1000 women of reproductive age. Among women under 20 years of age, the abortion rate declined from 55.5/1000 in 1992 to 41.5/1000 in 1994. Only mini-abortions and abortions performed for medical reasons are free of charge; women with health insurance pay 50% of the cost of most procedures. Funds from abortion fees are used to subsidize contraception for full-time students, women in the first postpartum year, and women who had an induced abortion in the past three months. All other women must pay the full price of contraception. In 1994, only 234 out of every 1000 fertile women were using effective forms of contraception (IUDs and hormonal methods). However, the birth rate has been declining rapidly since 1990 and the rate of natural increase became negative in 1993 (-4.0). The fact that abortion but not contraception is subsidized has facilitated reliance on abortion as a family planning method. Recommended, to reduce the abortion rate and improve the family planning situation in Estonia, are improved contraceptive counseling, including pre- and post-abortion services, and school-based sex education.

  10. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices.

  11. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  12. Isotopic evolution of atmospheric Pb from metallurgical processing in Flin Flon, Manitoba: Retrospective analysis using peat cores from bogs.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, W; Rausch, N; Outridge, P M; Krachler, M

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric Pb deposition was reconstructed using peat cores from bogs in the vicinity of Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, home to a zinc refinery and copper smelter. The Sask Lake (SL4-1) core was collected 85 km NW of Flin Flon and Kotyk Lake (KOL) 30 km NE. The distribution of Sr and U show that both profiles are predominantly minerotrophic (ie groundwater-fed), but the Pb concentration profile shows that Pb was received exclusively from the atmosphere. Graphs of (208)Pb/(206)Pb against (206)Pb/(207)Pb document atmospheric Pb contamination dating from the early to mid-1800's, well before the start of metallurgical processing (in 1930) and attributable to long-range atmospheric transport from other regions of North America. Industrial activities at Flin Flon clearly affected the concentrations, enrichment factor (calculated using Sc), and accumulation rates of Pb, but it is the similarity in isotopic composition, and contrast with crustal values ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ca. 1.20 to 1.22) which makes the connection to the Flin Flon ores. The KOL samples dating from 1925-1976 CE have a (206)Pb/(207)Pb of 1.032 ± 0.002 (n = 11) which approach the values for the Flin Flon ores ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.008). But even at SL4-1, the peat samples dating from 1925-1976 CE have a (206)Pb/(207)Pb of 1.061 ± 0.022 (n = 18) which is well below the corresponding ratio of Canadian leaded gasoline ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = ca. 1.15). The SL4-1 site too, therefore, was clearly impacted by Pb from mining and metallurgy, despite the distance (88 km) from Flin Flon and being predominantly upwind. These two bogs not only provide the chronology of atmospheric Pb deposition for the past decades, but suggest that the extent of contamination may have been underestimated by previous studies.

  13. Prevalence of MS in south Estonia. Evidence of a new border of the Fennoscandian focus.

    PubMed

    Gross, K; Kokk, A; Kaasik, A E

    1993-10-01

    A population-based study of MS was carried out in South Estonia in 1988-1989. Cases were identified from the Tartu University Hospital archives where all MS cases in South Estonia are diagnosed, from all neurologists and nursing homes of the region, and from the local Multiple Sclerosis Society. The prevalence in South Estonia is 51 per 100,000, for native Estonians 55, for Russians 29, for other nationalities 42 per 100,000. The prevalence rate in different counties was demonstrated as low as 31 per 100,000 in the County of Tartu, to 72 per 100,000 in Pôlva County; 55% of patients have retired because of their handicap and only 2 patients (1%) were living in nursing homes.

  14. High genotypic diversity found among population of Phytophthora infestans collected in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Runno-Paurson, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Joutsjoki, Tiina; Hannukkala, Asko

    2016-03-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most important diseases of potato worldwide. This is the first study characterising Estonian P. infestans population using the SSR marker genotyping method. 70 P. infestans isolates collected during the growing season in 2004 from eight potato fields in three different regions of Estonia were characterised with nine polymorphic SSR markers. A1 and A2 mating type isolates were detected from every studied field indicating the high potential for sexual reproduction, which raises the genotypic diversity in P. infestans population. Results revealed highly diverse P. infestans population in Estonia resembling the Northern European populations. Most of the multilocus genotypes were detected only once among the collected isolates. Subpopulations collected from different geographical regions of Estonia showed no differentiation from each other but instead formed one highly diverse group.

  15. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  16. 15-ky Peat Paleo-Monsoon Reconstructions from Lipid Biomarker Contents of Three Bogs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Zheng, Y.; Meyers, P. A.; Xie, S.

    2007-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions based on lipid biomarkers from peat bogs are relatively uncommon, although this approach has been widely applied to lake sediments where it yields important histories of climate-related changes in types of vegetation and organic matter preservation. We describe stratigraphic patterns in peat lipid biomarker distributions extracted from three well-dated peat cores. One core is from the Dingnan bog on the border of Guangdong and Jiangxi Provinces of southeastern China. A second core is from the Zoige-Hongyuan bog, which is on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau of west China on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau. The third peat core is from a shallow lake that is the source of the Hani River in Jiling Province of northeastern China. The combination of the three locations provides a broad regional history of the evolution of monsoon-influenced climate in China from the late-glacial through the Holocene. The start of peat accumulation in these locations at about 15 ka indicates the onset of wetter post-glacial climate. A period of warmer climate corresponding to the Holocene Optimum between 9 ka to 5 ka is evident in greater alterations of n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols and in the appearance of biomarkers diagnostic of greater microbial activity. Changes in local precipitation that raised the water level of the Zoige-Hongyuan bog are indicated by increases in the proportions of C23 and C25 n- alkanes that are mainly derived from submerged/floating plants and by conversion of the Dingnan bog to a lake. Alternations in submergent and emergent plant n-alkane proxies reveal millennial scale rises and falls of the water level in these bogs, thereby reflecting variations in East Asian and Indian Ocean monsoon precipitation during the Holocene. These events correlate well with cold-dry events recorded in same regions by other climatic proxies. Our results reflect Holocene instability in the Asian monsoon system and indicate that millennial

  17. Factors affecting the sorption of cesium in a nutrient-poor boreal bog.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Virtanen, S; Lempinen, J; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-09-01

    (135)Cs is among the most important radionuclides in the long-term safety assessments of spent nuclear fuel, due to its long half-life of 2.3 My and large inventory in spent nuclear fuel. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behavior of radiocesium ((134)Cs) in the surface moss, peat, gyttja, and clay layers of 7-m-deep profiles taken from a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of radiocesium increased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, with a geometric mean of 3200 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the bottom clay layer and the lowest in the 0.5-1.0 m peat layer (50 L/kg DW). The maximum sorption in all studied layers was observed at a pH between 7 and 9.5. The in situ Kd values of (133)Cs in surface Sphagnum moss, peat and gyttja samples were one order of magnitude higher than the Kd values obtained using the batch method. The highest in situ Kd values (9040 L/kg DW) were recorded for the surface moss layer. The sterilization of fresh surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay samples decreased the sorption of radiocesium by 38%, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Rhodococcus and Burkholderia isolated from the bog were found to remove radiocesium from the solution under laboratory conditions. The highest biosorption was observed for Paenibacillus sp. V0-1-LW and Pseudomonas sp. PS-0-L isolates. When isolated bacteria were added to sterilized bog samples, the removal of radiocesium from the solution increased by an average of 50% compared to the removal recorded for pure sterilized peat. Our results demonstrate that the sorption of radiocesium in the bog environment is dependent on pH and the type of the bog layer and that common environmental bacteria prevailing in the bog can remove cesium from the solution phase.

  18. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

  19. Tracing decadal environmental change in ombrotrophic bogs using diatoms from herbarium collections and transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Poulíčková, Aloisie; Hájková, Petra; Kintrová, Kateřina; Bat'ková, Romana; Czudková, Markéta; Hájek, Michal

    2013-08-01

    Central European mountain bogs, among the most valuable and threatened of habitats, were exposed to intensive human impact during the 20th century. We reconstructed the subrecent water chemistry and water-table depths using diatom based transfer functions calibrated from modern sampling. Herbarium Sphagnum specimens collected during the period 1918-1998 were used as a source of historic diatom samples. We classified samples into hummocks and hollows according to the identity of dominant Sphagnum species, to reduce bias caused by uneven sampling of particular microhabitats. Our results provide clear evidence for bog pollution by grazing during the period 1918-1947 and by undocumented aerial liming in the early 90-ies. We advocate use of herbarized epibryon as a source of information on subrecent conditions in recently polluted mires.

  20. Seasonal changes of microbial communities in two shallow peat bog lakes.

    PubMed

    Lew, Sylwia; Koblížek, Michal; Lew, Marcin; Medová, Hana; Glińska-Lewczuk, Katarzyna; Owsianny, Paweł Michał

    2015-03-01

    Peat bog lakes represent important ecosystems in temperate and boreal zones. We investigated the seasonal dynamics of the microbial community in two small peat bog lakes, Kuźnik Olsowy and Kuźnik Bagienny, located in western Poland. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, in addition to a substantial number of archaea. An infrared epifluorescence analysis demonstrated that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) constituted a significant fraction of bacterial plankton (1-19%). All the bacterial groups exhibited large seasonal changes whose course differed between the studied lakes. While chlorophyll had its maximum during winter or early summer, AAPs peaked in summer, when the growth of this group was stimulated by higher irradiance and elevated water temperatures.

  1. Investigation of gas exchange processes in peat bog ecosystems by means of innovative Raman gas spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Torsten; Keiner, Robert; Michalzik, Beate; Fischer, Bernhard; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-02-05

    Highly sensitive Raman gas spectroscopy is introduced for simultaneous real time analysis of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and N(2) in order to elucidate the dynamics of greenhouse gases evolving from climate-sensitive ecosystems. The concentrations and fluxes of this suite of biogenic gases were quantified in the head space of a water-saturated, raised peat bog ecotron. The intact peat bog, exhibiting various degradation stages of peat and sphagnum moss, was exposed to various light regimes in order to determine important ecosystem parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate of the sphagnum as well as the extent of soil and plant respiration. Miniaturized Raman gas spectroscopy was proven to be an extremely versatile analytical technique that allows for onsite multigas analysis in high temporal resolution. Therefore it is an urgently needed tool for elucidation of complex biochemical processes especially in climate-sensitive ecosystems and consequently for the estimation of climate-relevant gas budgets.

  2. Influence of peat-bog fire on physical properties of peat-mull soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabryla, J.; Lipka, K.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years in Poland disseminated the curse of grassland (either peat meadows) burning. Peat-bogs drained long time ago, where peat-mull soils occur are subjected on fire in particular, because they are often dried. After burned peat remain pits various depth and land irregularity. The aim of the work is morphological characteristics of soil profiles and comparison of chosen physical properties of peat-mull soils on former fire and adjacent area. Research was carried out on the mid-forest peat-bog Wielkie Bloto in Puszcza Niepolomicka. The method used in the work is routinely accepted in soil science. The results show that values of ash content, density and moisture are higher than the ones for soils of adjacent areas. In top stratum of post fire soils bulk density is lower in comparison with upper layers of adjacent soils. Contractility of soils degraded by fire is lower than for soils of adjacent areas.

  3. Functional Diversity of Boreal Bog Plant Species Decreases Seasonal Variation of Ecosystem Carbon Sink Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korrensalo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Species diversity has been found to decrease the temporal variance of productivity of a plant community, and diversity in species responses to environmental factors seems to make a plant community more stable in changing conditions. Boreal bogs are nutrient poor peatland ecosystems where the number of plant species is low but the species differ greatly in their growth form. In here we aim to assess the role of the variation in photosynthesis between species for the temporal variation in ecosystem carbon sink function. To quantify the photosynthetic properties and their seasonal variation for different bog plant species we measured photosynthetic parameters and stress-inducing chlorophyll fluorescence of vascular plant and Sphagnum moss species in a boreal bog over a growing season. We estimated monthly gross photosynthesis (PG) of the whole study site based on species level light response curves and leaf area development. The estimated PG was further compared with a gross primary production (GPP) estimate measured by eddy covariance (EC) technique. The sum of upscaled PG estimates agreed well with the GPP estimate measured by the EC technique. The contributions of the species and species groups to the ecosystem level PG changed over the growing season. The sharp mid-summer peak in sedge PG was balanced by more stable PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna. Species abundance rather than differences in photosynthetic properties between species and growth forms determined the most productive plants on the ecosystem scale. Sphagna had lower photosynthesis and clorophyll fluorescence than vascular plants but were more productive on the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season due to their high areal coverage. These results show that the diversity of growth forms stabilizes the seasonal variation of the ecosystem level PG in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem. This may increase the resilience of the ecosystem to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

  5. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  6. E-Learning as Innovation: Exploring Innovativeness of the VET Teachers' Community in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Kruusvall, Juri; Umarik, Meril

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the acceptance of e-learning by teachers of vocational secondary and professional higher education institutions (hereafter: VET teachers) in Estonia has been analysed. The analysis is based on questionnaire study, carried out in 2007. The theoretical framework of the article has been inspired by Everett Rogers' innovation…

  7. An Examination of the Flynn Effect in the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, William

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn Effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia from Scale B of the National Intelligence Test using both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. Secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students were analyzed, using both classical test theory (CTT)…

  8. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  9. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12–15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013. PMID:27813471

  10. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  11. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  12. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  13. Exploring the Role of Migrants in Transnational Occupational Learning Processes in Estonia-Finland Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenius, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of migrants in cross-border learning in occupational contexts. The research data included 78 semi-structured and 20 life-course interviews with people who had migrated from Estonia to Finland or who were transmigrating between these countries. The interview data were analysed qualitatively through a…

  14. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  15. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-10-27

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12-15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013.

  16. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  17. Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cats in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Must, Kärt; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2015-10-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in humans has not declined, in contrast to many other countries. The reasons for this are unknown. Domestic cats are important hosts in the epidemiology of the parasite, but information on local feline T. gondii infections has been lacking. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with seropositivity in cats in Estonia. Surplus from blood samples that had been collected for unrelated diagnostic purposes from 306 pet cats and 184 shelter cats were analyzed for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies by using a direct agglutination test. Two questionnaires were designed to reveal relevant risk factors for seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Estonia was 60.8%. Older age, outdoor access, hunting, living outside the city in the countryside, and not being a purebred cat were among the risk factors associated with seropositivity. T. gondii is highly prevalent in domestic cats in Estonia. This suggests that the environment has been contaminated with T. gondii. Seropositivity indicates previous oocyst shedding, and most of the cats had outdoor access. The increase in T. gondii seroprevalence with age indicates acquired infections, and most of the risk factors were lifestyle-related. Cat owners could diminish the risk of T. gondii infection and also limit the spread of the parasite by not allowing their cats to roam free.

  18. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  19. The Professional Foreign Language Teacher in Estonia: Students' and Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia as a typical country in transition is going through major changes in educational thinking. Global and European educational trends, together with local changes, the most important being a new state system, have resulted in changes in the concept of professional foreign language (FL) teaching. Common ground among various…

  20. Cost and cost-effectiveness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Estonia and Russia.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kliiman, Kai; Centis, Rosella; Khurieva, Nina; Jakobowiak, Wieslaw; Danilovits, Manfred; Peremitin, Genadi; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-07-01

    Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled on treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in 2001 and 2002 with cohorts treated in previous years. Costs were assessed from a health system perspective in 2003 US$; effects were measured as cures, deaths averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Cure rates when WHO guidelines were followed were 61% (90 out of 149) in Estonia and 76% (76 out of 100) in Tomsk Oblast, with a cost per patient treated of US$8,974 and US$10,088, respectively. Before WHO guidelines were followed, cure rates were 52% in Estonia and 15% in Tomsk Oblast; the cost per patient treated was US$4,729 and US$2,282, respectively. Drugs and hospitalisation accounted for 69-90% of total costs. The cost per DALY averted by treatment following WHO guidelines was US$579 (range US$297-US$902) in Estonia and US$429 (range US$302-US$546) in Tomsk Oblast. Treatment of patients with MDR-TB can be cost-effective, but requires substantial additional investment in tuberculosis control in priority countries.

  1. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  2. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  3. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  4. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  5. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  6. [Detection of representatives of the Planctomycetes in Sphagnum peat bogs by molecular and cultivation methods].

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaia, I S; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

    2006-01-01

    By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH), it has been shown that members of the phylum Planctomycetes represent a numerically significant bacterial group in boreal Sphagnum peat bogs. The population size of planctomycetes in oxic layers of the peat bog profile was in the range of 0.4-2.0 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, comprising 4 to 13% of the total bacterial cell number. A novel effective approach that combined a traditional cultivation technique with FISH-mediated monitoring of the target organism during the isolation procedure has been developed for the isolation of planctomycetes. Using this approach, we succeeded in isolating several peat-inhabiting planctomycetes in a pure culture. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from two of these isolates, strains A10 and MPL7, showed that they belonged to the planctomycete lineages defined by the genera Gemmata and Planctomyces, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains A10 and MPL7 and the phylogenetically closest organisms, namely, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Planctomyces limnophilus, was only 90%. These results suggest that the indigenous planctomycetes inhabiting Sphagnum peat bogs are so far unknown organisms.

  7. Carbon balance of a European mountain bog at contrasting stages of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Estelle; Epron, Daniel; Siegenthaler, Andy; Gilbert, Daniel; Buttler, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured in a cutover bog of the Jura Mountains (France) together with biotic and abiotic variables for two entire vegetation periods in order to compare the carbon balance of the bog at three stages of regeneration. Among all factors, air temperature and vegetation index (including leaf area of vascular plants, bryophyte density and bryophyte desiccation) were the two main determinants of ecosystem respiration and gross photosynthesis at light saturation. During 2004 and 2005, the vegetated plots acted as carbon sinks. Net carbon exchange ranged between 67 and 166 g C m(-2) yr(-1) for the Eriophorum-dominated plots and between 93 and 183 g C m(-2) yr(-1) for the Sphagnum-dominated plots. The bare peat plots represented a net carbon source (between -19 and -32 g C m(-2) yr(-1)). Methane fluxes accounted for a very small part of the total carbon efflux (< 2%). The recovery of vegetation in our naturally regenerating bog was beneficial for the carbon sequestration after the relatively short period of 20 yr.

  8. Evaluating cumulative effects of disturbance on the hydrologic function of bogs, fens, and mires

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Few quantitative studies have been done on the hydrology of fens, bogs, and mires and, consequently, any predictions of the cumulative impacts of disturbances on their hydrologic functions is extremely difficult. Bogs and fens are, in a sense, hydrobiologic systems, and any evaluation of cumulative impacts on them will have to consider the complicated interactions, barely understood, among the wetland hydrology, water chemistry, and biota, and place the effect of individual wetland impacts within the context of the cumulative impacts contributed to the watershed from other geomorphic areas and land uses. It is difficult to evaluate the potential cumulative impacts on wetland hydrology because geologic settings of wetlands are often complex and the methods used to measure wetland stream flow, ground-water flow, and evapotranspiration are inexact. Their very scale makes it difficult to quantify the hydrologic function accurately. The paper reviews current understanding of the hydrologic function of bogs, fens, and mires at different scales and in different physiographic settings, and presents hypotheses on potential cumulative impacts on the hydrologic function that might occur with multiple disturbances.

  9. Nest-site characteristics of Glyptemys muhlenbergii (Bog Turtle) in New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappalorti, Robert T.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Farrell, Ray F.; Torocco, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Nest-site selection can affect both the survival and fitness of female turtles and their offspring. In many turtle species, the nest environment determines the thermal regime during incubation, length of incubation period, sex ratio of the hatchlings, and exposure to predators and other forms of mortality for both mothers and their offspring. Between 1974 and 2012, we collected detailed data on habitat variables at 66 Glyptemys muhlenbergii (Bog Turtle) nests in 9 different bogs, fens, and wetland complexes in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The nests had a mean elevation above the substrate of 8.2 cm, and many were shallow and located in raised tussocks of grass or sedges. Females covered most nests, but we also observed partially or completely uncovered eggs. Some females deposited eggs in communal nests; we found 4 nests with 2 separate clutches, and 2 nests with 3 clutches. Principal component analysis confirmed the importance of cover and vegetation to nest-site selection in this species. Availability of open, shade-free, wet nesting areas is an important habitat requirement for Bog Turtles.

  10. The morphology of peat bog surfaces on Hermansenøya, NW Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    This article analyses the surface morphology of the arctic peat bogs occurring on Hermansenøya, a small island in the Forlandsundet, NW Svalbard. Six small, shallow peat bogs on the island show different microrelief features formed by ice-segregation as well as thermokarst and thermo-erosion processes. On the peat bogs the following forms have been identified: aggradational, associated with the growth of different types of ground ice (frost peat mounds, peat plateaus, polygonal peat plateaus, networks of ice-wedge polygons); and degradational, associated with thermokarst (symmetrically developed residual peat mounds and the furrows in between) and thermo-erosion (channels of niveo-fluvial streams). Some importance can also be attributed to aeolian processes, i.e. snow drifting from the tops of convex relief features for aggradational forms. Lack of insulating snow cover significantly increases frost penetration depth, promoting cryosuction and/or ice growth at the base of a frozen core. The oldest preserved forms and structures, frost peat mounds with an ice-peat core and ice-wedge polygons, developed during climatic cooling at the turn of the Subboreal and Subatlantic (c. 3.0-2.5 ka BP). Thermokarst mounds are younger, associated with warmer periods after the Little Ice Age (the warmer 1920s). Channels of niveo-fluvial streams are being shaped today.

  11. Biological N2-Fixation Increases with Peatland Age and Decreases with N Deposition in Bogs of Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, H.; Popma, J. M.; Dynarski, K. A.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most terrestrial ecosystems are thought be limited primarily by nitrogen, including boreal peatlands located in pristine regions. Bogs receive nutrients solely from atmospheric deposition. Because of the historically low rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Alberta, Canada, the Sphagnum mosses that dominate bog ground cover in this region have formed relationships with diazotrophs in order to meet their nitrogen needs, making biological N2- fixation the dominant input of new nitrogen to these bogs. The process of N2-fixation is highly variable and is governed by a number of environmental factors. In Alberta, one factor is water availability, as these bogs occur in some of the driest climates in which peatlands are known to exist. More recent factors with the potential to greatly alter N2-fixation dynamics include increasing nitrogen deposition associated with the growing oil sands mining operations and wildfires increasing in frequency and severity with global climate change. To determine the potential importance of N2-fixation to the overall peatland nitrogen balance under current and future conditions, we incubated the moss Sphagnum fuscum, using the acetylene reduction assay calibrated with 15N2, from 3 bogs representing ages of 3, 13, and 30 years since fire. Each bog was fertilized 8 times throughout the growing season with 0, 10, and 20 kg N/ha/yr. N2-fixation rates were measured 5 times at each site throughout the summer of 2013 to account for variation due to season and weather. Mean rates of N2-fixation increased with bog age, with higher rates in the 30 year old bog (36.90 × 8.38) and subsequently lower rates in the 13 yr (25.08 × 5.63) and 3 yr (11.58 × 6.33) old bogs. As expected, we saw decreasing rates of N2-fixation in the 10 (16.96 × 5.39) and 20 kg N/ha/yr treatments (3.35 × 1.34), as compared to water-only controls (47.62 × 12.18). These results indicate that N2-fixation supplies abundant N to support net primary productivity for bogs

  12. Late Holocene palaeoclimate variability: The significance of bog pine dendrochronology related to peat stratigraphy. The Puścizna Wielka raised bog case study (Orawa - Nowy Targ Basin, Polish Inner Carpathians)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krąpiec, Marek; Margielewski, Włodzimierz; Korzeń, Katarzyna; Szychowska-Krąpiec, Elżbieta; Nalepka, Dorota; Łajczak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The results of dendrochronological and palynological analyses of subfossil pine trees occurring in the peat deposits of the Puścizna Wielka raised bog (Polish Carpathians, Southern Poland) - the only site with numerous subfossil pine trees in the mountainous regions of Central Europe presently known - indicate that the majority of the tree populations grew in the peat bog during the periods ca 5415-3940 cal BP and 3050-2560 cal BP. Several forestless episodes, dated to 5245-5155 cal BP, 4525-4395 cal BP and 3940-3050 cal BP, were preceded by tree dying-off phases caused by an extreme periodical increase in humidity and general climate cooling trends. These events are documented based on analyses of pollen and non-pollen palynomorph assemblages, dendrochronological analyses of the trees, as well as numerous radiocarbon datings of the sediment horizons occurring within the peat bog profile. The phases of germinations, and, in turn, of tree and shrub invasions of the peat bog areas have been closely connected to drying and occasional warming of the regional climate. The last of the forestless periods began about 2600 years ago and continued up to the very recent times. Currently, as a result of desiccation of the peat bog and the lowering of the groundwater level (due to improved water drainage system), pine trees have returned the peat bog again. These results demonstrate that studies of subfossil bog-pine trees are quite effective in documenting and reconstructing periods of humidity fluctuation that occurred within the Carpathian region over the last several millennia.

  13. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  14. Towards a conceptual model of hydrological change on an abandoned cutover bog, Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Seters, Tim E.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2002-07-01

    Cutover bogs do not return to functional peatland ecosystems after abandonment because re-establishment of peat-forming mosses is poor. This paper presents a conceptual model of bog disturbance caused by peat harvesting (1942-1972), and the hydrological evolution that occurred after abandonment (1973-1998). Two adjacent bogs of similar size and origin, one harvested and the other essentially undisturbed, provide the basis for understanding what changes occurred. The model is based on historical trends evident from previous surveys of land-use, bog ecology and resource mapping; and from recent hydrological and ecological data that characterize the current condition. Water balance data and historical information suggest that runoff increased and evapotranspiration decreased following drainage, but tended towards pre-disturbance levels following abandonment, as vegetation recolonized the surface and drainage became less efficient over time. Dewatering of soil pores after drainage caused shrinkage and oxidation of the peat and surface subsidence of approximately 80 cm over 57 years. Comparisons with a nearby natural bog suggest that bulk density in the upper 50 cm of cutover peat increased from 0·07 to 0·13 g cm-3, specific yield declined from 0·14 to 0·07, water table fluctuations were 67% greater, and mean saturated hydraulic conductivity declined from 4·1 × 10-5 to 1·3 × 10-5 cm s-1. More than 25 years after abandonment, Sphagnum mosses were distributed over broad areas but covered less than 15% of the surface. Areas with good Sphagnum regeneration (>10% cover) were strongly correlated with high water tables (mean -22 cm), especially in zones of seasonal groundwater discharge, artefacts of the extraction history. Forest cover expanded from 5 to 20% of the study area following abandonment. The effect of forest growth (transpiration and interception) and drainage on lowering water levels eventually will be countered by slower water movement through the

  15. Impact of catchment degree on peat properties in peat deposits of eutrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Golubina, O. A.; Rodikova, A. V.; Shinkeeva, N. A.; Bubina, A. B.

    2010-05-01

    Fundamental works of many investigators show that according to the biophysical properties peat deposit (PD) is divided into 2 layers: active and inert. It is interesting to analyze the supposed changes in PD of eutrophic bog according to different data (physical, chemical and biological). The researches were carried out at two plots of one bog (points 1 and 2, positions 56° 21' NL, 84° 47' EL, Russia, Siberia). Agricultural afforestation (pine planting) was made at one of them (point 2) 60 years ago. Now this plot is absolutely identical in ground cover to 1 point, but other conditions are significantly changed. In spring bog water level is at the depth of 20cm at 2 point (at 1 point it is near water face), it lows up to 53 cm during summer time (at 1 point - up to 37 cm). According to redox conditions zone of anoxic-oxic conditions reaches meter depth at 2 points. PDs don't significantly differ in activity of ammonifiers but in activity of cellulose-lytic aerobic microflora it follows that it is more active at 2 point in PD active layer. In spite of good aeration, more favorable conditions were created also for anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microflora in PD of 2 point in comparison with 1 one. Activity analysis of denitrifying agents and microflora of other physiological groups also showed high activity of biota at the plot with afforestation amelioration. This fact was confirmed by high coefficient of mineralization. Time of drainage effect created by afforestation amelioration influenced group composition of peat organic matter which builds up PD of examined plots. According to fractional and group composition data fracture of hard-to-hydrolyze organic matters decreased during the process of microflora activating at the plot with afforestation amelioration but FA content increased. Fractional composition of nitrogen showed that content of mineral nitrogen compounds definitely increased. Thus, 60 years of surface drainage influenced composition change of peat

  16. Photosynthetic properties of boreal bog plant species and their contribution to ecosystem level carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korrensalo, Aino; Hájek, Tomas; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal bogs have a low number of plant species, but a large diversity of growth forms. This heterogeneity might explain the seasonally less varying photosynthetic productivity of these ecosystems compared to peatlands with vegetation consisting of fewer growth forms. The differences in photosynthetic properties within bog species and phases of growing season has not been comprehensively studied. Also the role of different plant species for the ecosystem level carbon (C) sink function is insufficiently known. We quantified the seasonal variation of photosynthetic properties in bog plant species and assessed how this variation accounts for the temporal variation in the ecosystem C sink. Photosynthetic light response of 11 vascular plant and 8 Sphagnum moss species was measured monthly over the growing season of 2013. Based on the species' light response parameters, leaf area development and areal coverage, we estimated the ecosystem level gross photosynthesis rate (PG) over the growing season. The level of upscaled PG was verified by comparing it to the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) estimate calculated based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Although photosynthetic parameters differed within plant species and months, these differences were of less importance than expected for the variation in ecosystem level C sink. The most productive plant species at the ecosystem scale were not those with the highest maximum potential photosynthesis per unit of leaf area (Pmax), but those having the largest areal coverage. Sphagnum mosses had 35% smaller Pmax than vascular plants, but had higher photosynthesis at the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season. The contribution of the bog plant species to the ecosystem level PG differed over the growing season. The seasonal variation in ecosystem C sink was mainly controlled by phenology. Sedge PG had a sharp mid-summer peak, but the PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna remained rather stable over the growing season

  17. The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate - A European initiative for practical peat bog and climate protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Geerd; Tänzer, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate (EFMK) is an initiative by different local communities, environmental protection NGOs, agricultural services, and partners from the peat and other industries in Lower Saxony (Germany). The Centre aims to integrate practical peat bog conservation with a focus on green house gas emission after drainage and after water logging activities. Together with our partners we want to break new ground to protect the remaining bogs in the region. Sphagnum mosses will be produced in paludiculture on-site in cooperation with the local peat industry to provide economic and ecologic alternatives for peat products used in horticulture business. Land-use changes are needed in the region and will be stimulated in cooperation with agricultural services via compensation money transfers from environmental protection funds. On a global scale the ideas of Carbon Credit System have to be discussed to protect the peat bogs for climate protection issues. Environmental education is an important pillar of the EFMK. The local society is invited to explore the unique ecosystem and to participate in peat bog protection activities. Future generations will be taught to understand that the health of our peat bogs is interrelated with the health of the local and global climate. Besides extracurricular classes for schools the centre will provide infrastructure for Master and PhD students, as well for senior researchers for applied research in the surrounding moor. International partners in the scientific and practical fields of peat bog ecology, renaturation, green house gas emissions from peat bogs, and environmental policy are invited to participate in the European Competence Center for Moor and Climate.

  18. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands.

  19. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  20. Could Poor Fens BE More Sensitive than Bogs to Elevated N Deposition in the Oil Sands Region of Northern Alberta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs and fens cover 29% of the 140,000 km2 Oil Sands Administrative Area (OSAA) in northern Alberta, a region characterized by quite low background N deposition (1-2 kg/ha/yr). However, development of the oil sands resource has led to increasing emission of nitrogen oxides, which are then returned to regional ecosystems as elevated atmospheric N deposition. Given the nutrient deficient nature of bogs and poor fens, elevated N deposition from oil sands development could potentially affect peatland ecosystem structure and function. To evaluate the ecosystem-level effects of N deposition, since 2011, we have experimentally applied N to a bog and a poor fen near Mariana Lakes, Alberta, located far enough from the OSAA to be unaffected by oil sands emissions. Treatments include simulated rainfall equivalent to N deposition of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg/ha/yr, plus control plots receiving no added water (3 replicate plots per site per N treatment). Concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3- N, and DON at the top of the peatland water table did not increase with increasing N deposition, averaging 0.61, 0.09, and 1.07 mg/L, respectively, in the bog, and 0.53, 0.10, and 0.81 mg/L, respectively, in the poor fen. Ericaceous shrub abundance increased with increasing N deposition in both the bog and the poor fen, although plot-scale greenness (hand-held spectral measurement of the Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE) index) increased with N deposition in the poor fen, but not in the bog. Segmented regression indicated that in the poor fen, at N deposition above 14-16 kg/ha/yr, total microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass in the top 5 cm of peat increased with N deposition, with no effect at lower N deposition. No effect of N deposition on microbial, bacterial, or fungal biomass was observed at 5-10 cm in the poor fen, or at either 0-5 or 5-10 cm in the bog. In the poor fen, microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass increased with NDRE, but the effect was not significant in the bog

  1. Transmitted drug resistance is still low in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Huik, Kristi; Pauskar, Merit; Ustina, Valentina; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Krispin, Tõnu; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-03-01

    The presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in treatment-naive HIV-1-positive subjects is of concern, especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union in which the number of subjects exposed to antiretrovirals (ARV) has exponentially increased during the past decade. We assessed the rate of TDR among newly diagnosed subjects in Estonia in 2010 and compared it to that in 2008. The study included 325 subjects (87% of all subjects tested HIV positive from January 1 to December 31, 2010). Of the 244 sequenced viral genomic RNA in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region 214 were CRF06_cpx, nine were subtype A1, three (one each) were subtype B and subtype C, CRF02_AG, and CRF03_AB; 15 viruses remained unclassified as putative recombinant forms between CRF06_cpx and subtype A1. HIV-1 TDR mutations in 2010 and 2008 (n=145) occurred at similar frequency in 4.5% (95% CI 2.45; 7.98) and 5.5% (95% CI 1.8; 9.24) of the patients, respectively. In 2010, 2.5% (6/244) of the sequences harbored nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (K103N and K101E), 1.6% (4/244) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) (M41L, M184I, and K219E), and 0.4% (1/244) protease inhibitor (PI) (V82A) mutations. Our findings indicate that in spite of the increased consumption of ARVs the rate of TDR in Estonia has remained unchanged over the past 3 years. Similar stabilizing or even decreasing trends have been described in Western Europe and North America albeit at higher levels and in different socioeconomic backgrounds.

  2. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Winden, Julia F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P.; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs. PMID:22768100

  3. Spatial variation in rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in a boreal bog

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlson, M.; Oekland, R.H.

    1998-12-01

    Although previous studies hint at the occurrence of substantial spatial variation in the accumulation rates of C and N in bogs, the extent to which rates may vary on high-resolution spatial and temporal scales is not known. A main reason for the lack of knowledge is that it is problematic to determine the precise age of peat at a given depth. The authors determined rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the uppermost decimeters of a bog ecosystem using the pine method, which enables accurate dating of surface peat layers. They combined accumulation data with numerical and geostatistical analyses of the recent vegetation to establish the relationship between bog vegetation and rate of peat accumulation. Use of a laser technique for spatial positioning of 151 age-determined peat cores within a 20 x 20 m plot made it possible to give the first tine-scaled account of spatial and temporal variation in rates of mass, carbon, and nitrogen accumulation during the last century. Rates of C and N accumulation were highly variable at all spatial scales studied. For example, after {approximately}125 yr of peat growth, C and N accumulation varied by factors of five and four, respectively, from 25 to 125 g/dm{sup 2} for C, and from 0.7 to 2.6 g/dm{sup 2} for N. It takes 40 yr of peat accumulation before significant amounts of C are lost through decay. Hummocks built up by Sphagnum fuscum and S. rubellum were able to maintain average rates of C accumulation that exceed 2 g{center_dot}dm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot} yr{sup {minus}1} during 50 yr of growth. The authors argue that data on spatial variation in rates of C accumulation are necessary to understand the role of boreal peatlands in the greenhouse effect and global climate.

  4. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: a mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    van Winden, Julia F; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs.

  5. Vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition lead to a weaker carbon sink in an ombrotrophic bog.

    PubMed

    Larmola, Tuula; Bubier, Jill L; Kobyljanec, Christine; Basiliko, Nathan; Juutinen, Sari; Humphreys, Elyn; Preston, Michael; Moore, Tim R

    2013-12-01

    To study vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition on carbon sequestration capacity, we investigated vegetation and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada in plots that had been fertilized with nitrogen (N) or with N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net CO2 exchange were measured weekly during May-September 2011 using climate-controlled chambers. A substrate-induced respiration technique was used to determine the functional ability of the microbial community. The highest N and NPK additions were associated with 40% less net CO2 uptake than the control. In the NPK additions, a diminished C sink potential was due to a 20-30% increase in ecosystem respiration, while gross photosynthesis rates did not change as greater vascular plant biomass compensated for the decrease in Sphagnum mosses. In the highest N-only treatment, small reductions in gross photosynthesis and no change in ecosystem respiration led to the reduced C sink. Substrate-induced microbial respiration was significantly higher in all levels of NPK additions compared with control. The temperature sensitivity of respiration in the plots was lower with increasing cumulative N load, suggesting more labile sources of respired CO2 . The weaker C sink potential could be explained by changes in nutrient availability, higher woody : foliar ratio, moss loss, and enhanced decomposition. Stronger responses to NPK fertilization than to N-only fertilization for both shrub biomass production and decomposition suggest that the bog ecosystem is N-P/K colimited rather than N-limited. Negative effects of further N-only deposition were indicated by delayed spring CO2 uptake. In contrast to forests, increased wood formation and surface litter accumulation in bogs seem to reduce the C sink potential owing to the loss of peat-forming Sphagnum.

  6. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jill L; Smith, Rose; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim R; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash

    2011-10-01

    Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We measured photosynthesis, foliar chemistry and leaf morphology in three ericaceous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtilloides, Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada, with a background deposition of 0.8 g N m(-2) a(-1). While biomass and chlorophyll concentrations increased in the highest nutrient treatment for C. calyculata, we found no change in the rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), carboxylation (V(cmax)), or SLA with nutrient (N with and without PK) addition, with the exception of a weak positive correlation between foliar N and A(max) for C. calyculata, and higher V(cmax) in L. groenlandicum with low nutrient addition. We found negative correlations between photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and foliar N, accompanied by a species-specific increase in one or more amino acids, which may be a sign of excess N availability and/or a mechanism to reduce ammonium (NH(4)) toxicity. We also observed a decrease in foliar soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, essential minerals for plant growth, but no change in polyamines, indicators of physiological stress under conditions of high N accumulation. These results suggest that plants adapted to low-nutrient environments do not shift their resource allocation to photosynthetic processes, even after reaching N sufficiency, but instead store the excess N in organic compounds for future use. In the long term, bog species may not be able to take advantage of elevated nutrients, resulting in them being replaced by species that are better adapted to a higher nutrient environment.

  7. Bog blueberry anthocyanins alleviate photoaging in ultraviolet-B irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Young; Lim, Soon Sung; Kim, Sun Ju; Choi, Jung-Suk; Park, Jinseu; Ju, Sung Mi; Han, Seoung Jun; Kang, Il-Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2009-06-01

    Fruits of bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) are rich in anthocyanins that contribute pigmentation. Anthocyanins have received much attention as agents with potentials preventing chronic diseases. This study investigated the capacity of anthocyanin-rich extract from bog blueberry (ATH-BBe) to inhibit photoaging in UV-B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. BBe anthocyanins were detected as cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin3-glucoside. ATH-BBe attenuated UV-B-induced toxicity accompanying reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the resultant DNA damage responsible for activation of p53 and Bad. Preincubation of ATH-BBe markedly suppressed collagen degradation via blunting production of collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Additionally, ATH-BBe enhanced UV-B-downregulated procollagen expression at transcriptional levels. We next attempted to explore whether ATH-BBe mitigated the MMP-promoted collagen degradation through blocking nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and MAPK-signaling cascades. UV-B radiation enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, which was reversed by treatment with ATH-BBe. The UV-B irradiation rapidly activated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK-1)-signaling cascades of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), whereas ATH-BBe hampered phosphorylation of c-Jun, p53, and signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 (STAT-1) linked to these MAPK signaling pathways. ATH-BBe diminished UV-B augmented-release of inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. These results demonstrate that ATH-BBe dampens UV-B-triggered collagen destruction and inflammatory responses through modulating NF-kappaB-responsive and MAPK-dependent pathways. Therefore, anthocyanins from edible bog blueberry may be protective against UV-induced skin photoaging.

  8. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  9. Impact of environmental factors on dissolved organic carbon concentrations in German bogs under grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands cover about 5% of Germany's land area. Agricultural use combined with drainage increases the greenhouse gas emissions and alters the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the soil- and groundwater of these ecosystems. Cycling of DOC is influenced by a complex interaction of environmental factors such as peat characteristics, groundwater level, meteorological conditions, pH-value and ionic strength. Reasons for elevated DOC concentrations are debated in literature, but only a few studies on the dynamic of DOC in raised bogs in Germany have been conducted so far. In Germany, raised bogs are mainly used as grassland. Therefore, five grassland study sites and one natural reference have been selected. The bog "Ahlenmoor" has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. There, three study sites represent different land use intensities with a corresponding groundwater table (intensive grassland, extensive grassland, natural reference). The bog relict "Großes Moor" is characterised by a shallow amorphous peat layer, which is partly mixed with sand. There, three sites in an extensive grassland were chosen to study the effects of soil carbon concentrations (9 to 48 %) and groundwater levels. At each site, nine suction plates (three replicates in each depth) and three tensiometers were installed in 15, 30 and 60 cm. Soil water was sampled fortnightly from June 2011 to December 2012 and analysed for electrical conductivity, pH-value and DOC concentration. Compared to most literature values, DOC concentrations at our study sites were very high (on average, 197 to 55 mg/L). At the "Ahlenmoor", an increase in agricultural intensity and a lower groundwater table increases both the DOC concentrations and their variability in the soil water in order intensive grassland > extensive grassland > natural site. Surprisingly, soil carbon concentration and groundwater table gradients as investigated in the "Großes Moor" did only lead to minor differences in the

  10. Preliminary stable isotope results from the Mohos peat bog, East-Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Futó, István; Hubay, Katalin; Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László; Braun, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    This work provides preliminary results of an isotope investigation carried out on a peat core drilled in the ombrotrophic Mohos peat bog, Ciomadul Mountain, (46°8'3.60"N, 25°54'19.43"E, 1050 m.a.s.l.), East Carpathians, Romania. The Ciomadul is a single dacitic volcano with two craters: the younger Saint Ana and the older Mohos which is a peat bog, and surrounded by a number of individual lava domes as well as a narrow volcaniclastic ring plain volcano. A 10 m long peat core has been taken previously, and is available for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. It is known from our previous work (Hubay et al., 2015) that it covers a period from 11.500 cal year B.P. to present. The peat bog is composed mainly of Sphagnum, which has a direct relationship with the environment, making it suitable for examine the changes in the surrounding circumstances. Isotopic analysis of the prepared cellulose from Sphagnum moss has the attribute to provide such high resolution quantitative estimates of the past climate and there is no such climate studies in this area where the past climate investigations based on oxygen isotope analysis of the Sphagnum. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analysis were carried out on the hemicellulose samples, which were chemically prepared for 14C dating and taken from every 30 cm of the 10 m long peat core. The oxygen isotope composition of the precipitation can be revealed from the δ18O values of the prepared cellulose samples, since, while carbon isotope ratio tells more about the wet and dry periods of the past. Studying both oxygen and carbon isotope signatures, slight fluctuations can be seen during the Holocene like some of the six periods of significant climate changes can be seen in this resolution during the time periods of 9000-8000, 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600-150 cal yr B.P. Additionally, the late Pleistocene - early Holocene environmental changes can be clearly observed as Pleistocene peat samples have

  11. Historical peat loss explains limited short-term response of drained blanket bogs to rewetting.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Rowe, Edwin; Reed, David; Ruffino, Lucia; Jones, Peter; Dolan, Rachel; Buckingham, Helen; Norris, David; Astbury, Shaun; Evans, Chris D

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the short-term impacts of ditch blocking on water table depth and vegetation community structure in a historically drained blanket bog. A chronosequence approach was used to compare vegetation near ditches blocked 5 years, 4 years and 1 year prior to the study with vegetation near unblocked ditches. Plots adjacent to and 3 m away from 70 ditches within an area of blanket bog were assessed for floristic composition, aeration depth using steel bars, and topography using LiDAR data. No changes in aeration depth or vegetation parameters were detected as a function of ditch-blocking, time since blocking, or distance from the ditch, with the exception of non-Sphagnum bryophytes which had lower cover in quadrats adjacent to ditches that had been blocked for 5 years. Analysis of LiDAR data and the observed proximity of the water table to the peat surface led us to conclude that the subdued ecosystem responses to ditch-blocking were the result of historical peat subsidence within a 4-5 m zone either side of each ditch, which had effectively lowered the peat surface to the new, ditch-influenced water table. We estimate that this process led to the loss of around 500,000 m(3) peat within the 38 km(2) study area following drainage, due to a combination of oxidation and compaction. Assuming that 50% of the volume loss was due to oxidation, this amounts to a carbon loss of 11,000 Mg C over this area, i.e. 3 Mg C ha(-1). The apparent 'self-rewetting' of blanket bogs in the decades following drainage has implications for their restoration as it suggests that there may not be large quantities of dry peat left to rewet, and that there is a risk of inundation (potentially leading to high methane emissions) along subsided ditch lines. Many peatland processes are likely to be maintained in drained blanket bog, including support of typical peatland vegetation, but infilling of lost peat and recovery of original C stocks are likely to take longer than is

  12. Unexpected DNA-fingerprinting pattern in a deep peat bog: evidence for methanotrophs at the bottom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, P.; Rossi, P.; Huon, S.; Eilrich, B.; Casati, S.

    2003-04-01

    With the goal of a better understanding of the fate of methane in the deep layers of peat bogs, we analysed the microbial 16S rDNA gene pool and measured the stable carbon isotope composition of bulk peat of a deep (6 m) peat bog profile (Etang de la Gruyère, Switzerland). Both Bacterial and Archaean communities were assessed using respectively TTGE (Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis) and SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism), with fragments of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA gene. The "relative diversity" shown in the TTGE AND SSCP gel patterns is presented using indices and band numbers per sample (Simpson evenness). PCA was calculated on the basis of the intensities of all bands found in the TTGE and SSCP fingerprinting profiles. These DNA fingerprinting patterns reveal the presence of a structured microbial community throughout the whole depth profile. Clear differences can be observed between the communities found in the near surface layers and those found at depth. Surprisingly, for both Archaean and Bacterial communities, the deepest samples display a high similarity level with those found in the first 20 centimeters. The δ13C values of the peat are relatively constant from the surface of the bog down to a depth of 5 m (values between 25.5 ppm and 26.5 ppm). Below 5 m the values decrease considerably with depth ( 28.5 ppm). As a working hypothesis to explain the two observations, we consider the possibility of the presence of methanotrophs in the deepest parts of the bogs. The electron acceptors needed for methane oxidation could be derived from lateral advection of less reducing groundwater. However, available pore water analyses suggest that neither molecular oxygen, nor sulfate or nitrate are present. One possible oxidising agent would be trivalent iron (solid or colloidal). Indeed are the iron concentrations in the deeper pore waters are elevated. Such deep methanotrophic microbial community could be similar to those found near

  13. Eddy covariance measurements of greenhouse gases from a restored and rewetted raised bog ecosystem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Christen, A.; Black, T. A.; Johnson, M. S.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Merkens, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Wetlands act as a major long-term storage of carbon by sequestrating carbon-dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Meanwhile, they can emit significant amounts of methane (CH4) due to anaerobic microbial decomposition. The Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA) is recognized as one of Canada's largest undeveloped natural areas retained within an urban area. Historically, it has been substantially reduced in size and degraded by peat mining and agriculture. Since 2005, the bog has been declared a conservancy area, and the restoration efforts in BBECA focus on rewetting the disturbed ecosystems to promote a transition back to a raised bog. A pilot study measured CH4, CO2 and N2O exchanges in 2014 and concluded to monitor CO2, CH4 fluxes continuously. From the perspective of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, CO2 sequestered in bog needs to be protected and additional CO2 and CH4 emissions due to land-cover change need to be reduced by wise management. In this study, we measured the growing-season (June-September) fluxes of CO2 and CH4 exchange using eddy covariance (EC). A floating platform with an EC system for both CO2 (closed-path) and CH4 (open-path) began operation in June 2015. During the growing-season, gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) averaged 5.87 g C m-2 day-1 and 2.02 g C m-2 day-1, respectively. The magnitude of GEP and Re were lower than in previous studies of pristine northern peatlands. The daily average CH4 emission was 0.99 (±1.14) g C m-2 day-1 and it was higher than in most previous studies. We also characterized how environmental factors affected the seasonal dynamics of these exchanges in this disturbed peatland. Our measurements showed that soil temperature and soil water content were major drivers of seasonal changes of GHG fluxes. The daily average GHG warming potential (GWP) of the emissions in the growing seasons (from CO2 and CH4

  14. 137Cs in fungal sporocarps in relation to vegetation in a bog, pine swamp and forest along a transect.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Rosén, K; Dahlberg, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the relative importance of vegetation and fungi for radiocesium uptake and biological retention in adjacent bog, pine swamp, and forest. The measurements for (137)Cs activity concentration in sporocarps (i.e. fruitbodies of fungi) and vegetation along a bog to forest transect were combined with complementary published data to calculate estimates. Aboveground vegetation comprised 17.7% of the total fallout-derived radiocesium in the system in bog, 16.5% in pine swamp, and 40.6% in forest. In fungal sporocarps grown along a gradient, (137)Cs activity comprised <0.001% of the total radiocesium for peat bog, <0.02% for pine swamp, and 0.11% for forest. Total (137)Cs activity in sporocarps increased along the gradient due to increased production of sporocarps in the presence of trees from 0.006 (bog), 0.097 (pine swamp) and 0.67 (forest) g dwt m(-2). Based on calculation of the total vegetation biomass and through relationships between fungal biomass in sporocarps and as mycelia in soil, the total (137)Cs activity located in fungi was estimated as 0.1% in bog, 2% in pine swamp, and 11% in forest. An analysis of the time-dependency of (137)Cs in the sporocarps in forest between 1990 and 2011 suggested an ecological half-life for (137)Cs between 8 and 13 years. Although fungi comprised a relatively small fraction of the total radiocesium in the systems, its activity decreased slowly with time, and ecological residence time for (137)Cs in sporocarps of fungi was long, suggesting they will continue to contribute to the accumulation and cycling of this radionuclide in forest.

  15. Estonia at the Threshold of the Fourth Decade of the AIDS Era in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000–2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU–non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners. PMID:21142588

  16. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  17. Onychomycosis caused by Onychocola canadensis: the first report in Estonia and lessons to learn.

    PubMed

    Järv, Helle

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of onychomycosis caused by Onychocola canadensis in Estonia. We believe that the number of nail infections caused by this fungus is underestimated due to the current diagnostic algorithm of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. The need to define categories and criteria for 'proven' and 'probable' non-dermatophyte mold infections to promote more extensive studies in the future is also discussed.

  18. Estonia at the threshold of the fourth decade of the AIDS era in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000-2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU-non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners.

  19. Survey of the Presence of Toxocara spp. Eggs in Dog Feces in Tartu, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-03-01

    Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples.

  20. High-resolution Record of Holocene Climate, Vegetation, and Fire from a Raised Peat Bog, Prince Edward Island, Canadian Maritimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, M. C.; Chan, K.; Ponsford, L.; Carroll, J.; Magnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Raised peat bogs receive all precipitation and nutrients from the atmosphere and are thus widely used archives for information on past environments and climates. In this paper we provide high-resolution multi-proxy data from a raised bog from northeastern Prince Edward Island, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. We studied testate amoeba (a proxy for water table depth), macrocharcoal (a proxy for local-scale fire), peat humification (a proxy for decomposition), plant macrofossils (indicative of local-scale vegetation), and organic matter content (yielding carbon accumulation rates) from a 5.5 m long core lifted from the center of Baltic Bog. Eleven AMS radiocarbon dates show that peat accumulation began before 9000 cal yr BP and continued almost uninterrupted until the present. The macrofossil data show that a transition from a sedge-dominated fen to a sphagnum-dominated bog occurred around 8000 cal yr BP, and sphagnum remained dominant in the bog throughout most of the Holocene. A testate amoeba-based reconstruction of water table depth indicates that conditions were drier during the early Holocene (~8000 to 5000 cal yr BP) and became gradually wetter into the late Holocene. In addition, a number of higher frequency shifts in precipitation are inferred throughout the Holocene on the basis of the testate amoeba and humification results. The macrocharcoal evidence indicates fire—probably in the surrounding forest—was relatively more common during the early Holocene, perhaps due to drier climate conditions. A large influx of charcoal at around 2000 cal yr BP suggests the presence of one or more major fires at this time, and a concurrent decrease in the rate of peat accumulation indicates the fire may have affected the bog itself. The data from Baltic Bog is broadly comparable to other proxy data (in particular pollen studies) from the Canadian Maritimes. This work is important because it: 1) helps us better understand the role of hydroclimatic

  1. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  2. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  3. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  4. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  5. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage.

  6. [High abundance of planctomycetes in anoxic layers of a Sphagnum peat bog].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A O; Dedysh, S N

    2006-01-01

    The depth distribution of planctomycete abundance has been examined in six different sites of the Sphagnum peat bog in Bakchar, Tomsk oblast, Russia. In situ hybridization of peat with the fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes PLA46 and PLA886, reported to be group-specific for representatives of the phylum Planctomycetes, revealed two distinct population maxima of these bacteria in all of the profiles examined. The first population maximum was detected in the uppermost, oxic layer of the bog profile, while the second maximum was located at a depth of 30 cm below the water table level. The population sizes of planctomycetes in the uppermost layer and at a depth of 30 cm were of the same order of magnitude and comprised 0.5-1.5 x 10(7) and 0.4-0.7 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, respectively. Only 25-30% of the total number of planctomycete cells in the anoxic layer could be detected if the probe PLA886, whose target specificity is restricted to taxonomically characterized aerobic planctomycetes of the genera Gemmata, Planctomyces, Pirellula, and Isosphaera, was used alone. Other planctomycete cells in this layer were detected only with the probe PLA46, which possesses a much wider scope. This suggests the affiliation of these organisms with a yet undescribed phylogenetic subgroup within the Planctomycetes.

  7. Near-neutral carbon dioxide balance at a seminatural, temperate bog ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2016-02-01

    The majority of peatlands in the temperate zone is subjected to drainage and agricultural land use and have been found to be anthropogenic emission hot spots for greenhouse gases. At the same time, many peatlands receive increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by intensive agricultural practices. Here we provide eddy covariance measurements determining net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange at a protected but moderately drained ombrotrophic bog in Northwestern Germany over three consecutive years. The region is dominated by intensive agricultural land use with total (wet and dry) atmospheric N deposition being about 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The investigated peat bog was a small net CO2 sink during all three years ranging from -9 to -73 g C m-2 yr-1. We found temperature- and light-dependent ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary production, respectively, but only weak correlations to water table depths despite large interannual and seasonal variability. Significant short-term effects of atmospheric N deposition on CO2 flux components could not be observed, as the primary controlling factors for N deposition and C sequestration, i.e., fertilization of adjacent fields as well as temperature and light availability, respectively, exceeded potential interactions between the two.

  8. Functioning of microbial complexes in aerated layers of a highmoor peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchenko, A. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Stepanov, A. L.; Polyanskaya, L. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring was carried out using the luminescent-microscopic method of the abundance parameters of different groups of microorganisms in a monolith and in the mixed layers of a highmoor peat bog (oligotrophic residual-eutrophic peat soil) in a year-long model experiment. The increase of the aeration as a result of mixing of the layers enhanced the activity of the soil fungi. This was attested to by the following changes: the increase of the fungal mycelium length by 6 times and of the fungal biomass by 4 times and the double decrease of the fraction of spores in the fungal complex. The response of the fungal complex to mixing was different in the different layers of the peat bog. The maximal effect was observed in the T1 layer and the minimal one in the T2 layer. The emission of CO2 in the mixed samples was 1.5-2 times higher than that from the undisturbed peat samples. In contrast with the fungi, the bacteria and actinomycetes were not affected by the aeration of the highmoor layers.

  9. Heat transport in the Red Lake Bog, Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, J.M.; Siegel, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Voss, C.I.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation on the processes controlling heat transport in peat under a large bog in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. For 2 years, starting in July 1998, we recorded temperature at 12 depth intervals from 0 to 400 cm within a vertical peat profile at the crest of the bog at sub-daily intervals. We also recorded air temperature 1 m above the peat surface. We calculate a peat thermal conductivity of 0.5 W m-1 ??C-1 and model vertical heat transport through the peat using the SUTRA model. The model was calibrated to the first year of data, and then evaluated against the second year of collected heat data. The model results suggest that advective pore-water flow is not necessary to transport heat within the peat profile and most of the heat is transferred by thermal conduction alone in these waterlogged soils. In the spring season, a zero-curtain effect controls the transport of heat through shallow depths of the peat. Changes in local climate and the resulting changes in thermal transport still may cause non-linear feedbacks in methane emissions related to the generation of methane deeper within the peat profile as regional temperatures increase. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mapping raised bogs with an iterative one-class classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Benjamin; Roscher, Ribana; Stenzel, Stefanie; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Waske, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover maps are one of the most commonly used remote sensing products. In many applications the user only requires a map of one particular class of interest, e.g. a specific vegetation type or an invasive species. One-class classifiers are appealing alternatives to common supervised classifiers because they can be trained with labeled training data of the class of interest only. However, training an accurate one-class classification (OCC) model is challenging, particularly when facing a large image, a small class and few training samples. To tackle these problems we propose an iterative OCC approach. The presented approach uses a biased Support Vector Machine as core classifier. In an iterative pre-classification step a large part of the pixels not belonging to the class of interest is classified. The remaining data is classified by a final classifier with a novel model and threshold selection approach. The specific objective of our study is the classification of raised bogs in a study site in southeast Germany, using multi-seasonal RapidEye data and a small number of training sample. Results demonstrate that the iterative OCC outperforms other state of the art one-class classifiers and approaches for model selection. The study highlights the potential of the proposed approach for an efficient and improved mapping of small classes such as raised bogs. Overall the proposed approach constitutes a feasible approach and useful modification of a regular one-class classifier.

  11. Multi-omics of Permafrost, Active Layer and Thermokarst Bog Soil Microbiomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P.; Mackelprang, Rachel; David, Maude; McFarland, Jack; Blazewicz, Steven J.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Turetsky, Merritt; McGuire, A. David; Shah, Manesh B.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Lee, Lang Ho; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Jansson, Janet K.

    2015-03-04

    Over 20% of Earth’s terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, if thawed may represent the largest future transfer of C from the biosphere to the atmosphere 1. This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbial activity in intact, let alone in thawing permafrost. Molecular approaches have recently revealed the identities and functional gene composition of microorganisms in some permafrost soils 2-4 and a rapid shift in functional gene composition during short-term thaw experiments 3. However, the fate of permafrost C depends on climatic, hydrologic, and microbial responses to thaw at decadal scales 5, 6. Here the combination of several molecular “omics” approaches enabled us to determine the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community, including several draft genomes of novel species, their functional potential and activity in soils representing different states of thaw: intact permafrost, seasonally thawed active layer and thermokarst bog. The multi-omics strategy revealed a good correlation of process rates to omics data for dominant processes, such as methanogenesis in the bog, as well as novel survival strategies for potentially active microbes in permafrost.

  12. Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P; Mackelprang, Rachel; David, Maude M; McFarland, Jack; Blazewicz, Steven J; Harden, Jennifer; Turetsky, Merritt R; McGuire, A David; Shah, Manesh B; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Lee, Lang Ho; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Jansson, Janet K

    2015-05-14

    Over 20% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, once thawed, may represent the largest future transfer of carbon from the biosphere to the atmosphere. This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbial activity in intact, let alone in thawing, permafrost. Molecular approaches have recently revealed the identities and functional gene composition of microorganisms in some permafrost soils and a rapid shift in functional gene composition during short-term thaw experiments. However, the fate of permafrost carbon depends on climatic, hydrological and microbial responses to thaw at decadal scales. Here we use the combination of several molecular 'omics' approaches to determine the phylogenetic composition of the microbial communities, including several draft genomes of novel species, their functional potential and activity in soils representing different states of thaw: intact permafrost, seasonally thawed active layer and thermokarst bog. The multi-omics strategy reveals a good correlation of process rates to omics data for dominant processes, such as methanogenesis in the bog, as well as novel survival strategies for potentially active microbes in permafrost.

  13. Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P.; Mackelprang, Rachel; David, Maude M.; McFarland, Jack; Blazewicz, Steven J.; Harden, Jennifer; Turetsky, Merritt R.; McGuire, A. David; Shah, Manesh B.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Lee, Lang Ho; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Jansson, Janet K.

    2015-05-01

    Over 20% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, once thawed, may represent the largest future transfer of carbon from the biosphere to the atmosphere. This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbial activity in intact, let alone in thawing, permafrost. Molecular approaches have recently revealed the identities and functional gene composition of microorganisms in some permafrost soils and a rapid shift in functional gene composition during short-term thaw experiments. However, the fate of permafrost carbon depends on climatic, hydrological and microbial responses to thaw at decadal scales. Here we use the combination of several molecular `omics' approaches to determine the phylogenetic composition of the microbial communities, including several draft genomes of novel species, their functional potential and activity in soils representing different states of thaw: intact permafrost, seasonally thawed active layer and thermokarst bog. The multi-omics strategy reveals a good correlation of process rates to omics data for dominant processes, such as methanogenesis in the bog, as well as novel survival strategies for potentially active microbes in permafrost.

  14. Hounsfield Units ranges in CT-scans of bog bodies and mummies.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Mummification processes, either artificial or natural, preserve the tissues from postmortem decay, but change them from their original state. In this study we provided the first comprehensive set of Hounsfield Unit (HU) ranges specific for tissues mummified under different environmental conditions (peat bog, cold-dry and hot-dry environment). We also analyzed the impact of different museal preservation techniques on the HU ranges, as e.g. in the Tollund Man and Grauballe Man, two bog bodies from Denmark. The HU results for mummies were compared with HU results from forensic cases, cremated and inhumated ancient human skeletal remains, and fossil animal bones. Knowledge of the typical HU range for the different tissues in mummies may help to avoid misinterpretation of increased or reduced radiodensity as evidence of paleopathological conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the practical benefit of using our re-defined HU ranges by showing the improved results of 3D visualization from automatic segmentation in an Inca mummy from Mount Llullaillaco.

  15. Zero methane emission bogs: extreme rhizosphere oxygenation by cushion plants in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Christian; Pancotto, Veronica A; Elzenga, Josephus T M; Visser, Eric J W; Grootjans, Ab P; Pol, Arjan; Iturraspe, Rodolfo; Roelofs, Jan G M; Smolders, Alfons J P

    2011-04-01

    • Vascular wetland plants may substantially increase methane emissions by producing root exudates and easily degradable litter, and by providing a low-resistance diffusion pathway via their aerenchyma. However, model studies have indicated that vascular plants can reduce methane emission when soil oxygen demand is exceeded by oxygen released from roots. Here, we tested whether these conditions occur in bogs dominated by cushion plants. • Root-methane interactions were studied by comparing methane emissions, stock and oxygen availability in depth profiles below lawns of either cushion plants or Sphagnum mosses in Patagonia. • Cushion plants, Astelia pumila and Donatia fascicularis, formed extensive root systems up to 120 cm in depth. The cold soil (< 10°C) and highly decomposed peat resulted in low microbial activity and oxygen consumption. In cushion plant lawns, high soil oxygen coincided with high root densities, but methane emissions were absent. In Sphagnum lawns, methane emissions were substantial. High methane concentrations were only found in soils without cushion plant roots. • This first methane study in Patagonian bog vegetation reveals lower emissions than expected. We conclude that cushion plants are capable of reducing methane emission on an ecosystem scale by thorough soil and methane oxidation.

  16. Mid- and late Holocene human impact recorded by the Coltrondo peat bog (NE Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segnana, Michela; Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Martino, Matteo; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Peat bogs are ideal archives for the study of environmental changes, whether these are natural or human induced. Indeed, receiving water and nutrients exclusively from dry and wet atmospheric depositions, they are among the most suitable matrices for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The present study is focused on the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps, where we sampled the Coltrondo peat bog, in the Comelico area (ca. 1800 m a.s.l.) The knowledge of the human history in this area is rather scarce: the only pieces of archaeological evidence found in this area dates back to the Mesolithic and the absence of later archaeological finds makes it difficult to reconstruct the human settlement in the valley. With the main aim to obtain information about the human settlement in that area we selected a multi-proxy approach, combining the study of biotic and abiotic sedimentary components archived in the 7900 years-peat bog record. Pollen analysis is performed along the core registering human impacts on the area from ca. 2500 cal BP, when land-use changes are well evidenced by the presence of human-related pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), as well as by the increase in micro-charcoal particles. Periods of increased human impact are recorded at the end of the Middle Ages and later, at the end of the 19th century. The analysis of trace elements, such as lead, is performed by means of ICP-MS technique and its enrichment factor (EF) is calculated. A first slight increase of Pb EF during Roman Times is possibly related to mining activities carried out by the Romans. Mining activities carried out in the area are registered during the Middle Ages, while the advent of the industrialization in the 20th century is marked by the highest EF values registered on the top of the core. To help and support the interpretation of geochemical data, lead isotopes ratios are also measured using ICP-MS to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic sources of lead. The 206Pb/207Pb

  17. Development of a high resolution modeling tool for prediction of waterflows through complex mires: Example of the Mukhrino bog complex in West Siberian middle Taiga Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarov, Evgeny A.; Schmitz, Oliver; Bleuten, Wladimir

    2015-04-01

    Water flow through peat bogs differ substantially from mineral soil landscapes. Permeability of the peatlayers decrease dramatically with depth within the permanently watersaturated peat layers (Catotelm), whereas the 10-60 cm thick superficial layer (Acrotelm) has a very high conductivity. Water flows predominantly in this acrotelm layer where an open structure of stems of mosses and few plants hardly limit water flow. By omitting this superficial flow infrastructures in many places block the waterflow. Moreover, the different bog types within a complex bog have different hydrological conductivities. Without considering the typical water-flow of bogs the construction of roads and platforms for oil and gas production threatens downhill mire ecosystems by partly drainage. The objective of our study was to develop a modeling tool which can be used to predict quantitatively spatially distributed water-flow of a bog complex. A part of the extensive bog complex "Mukhrino bog complex" located at the left bank of Irtysh river near the West Siberian town Khanty-Mansiysk' was chosen as modeling area. Water discharge from this bog catchment occurs by "waterfalls" at the East margin where a scarp with ca. 8 m elevation difference has been developed by backward erosion into the bog by the Mukhrino river. From field observations it was proven that no discharge of groundwater occurred at the margin of the bog catchment area. We used PCRaster-MODFLOW as modeling environment. The model area size was 3.8 km2, cell size 5 m and the model included 3 Acrotelm layers and 3 Catotelm layers. Thickness of Acrotelm and Catotelm have been measured by coring in transects. Input data of rain, snow have been recorded in the study area. Evapotranspiration was measured with small lysimeters and crop factors for different land unit types (open water, raised bog, patterned bog, poor fens) were elaborated by water balance modeling (1-D). Land unit types have been mapped by supervised classification

  18. The updated clinical guideline development process in Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne; Habicht, Jarno; Mathiesen, Mari; Starkopf, Joel

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the tools available to improve the quality of health care. However, it may be difficult for countries to develop their own national guidelines "from scratch" because of limitations in time, expertise, and financial resources. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), in collaboration with other stakeholders, has launched a national effort to develop and implement evidence-based clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care. Although the first EHIF handbook for preparing guidelines was published in 2004, there has been wide variation in the format and quality of guidelines prepared by medical specialty societies, EHIF, and other organizations in Estonia. An additional challenge to guideline development in Estonia is that it is a country with limited human resources. Therefore, revision of the Estonian guideline process was aimed at developing an efficient method for adapting current high-quality guidelines to the Estonian setting without compromising their quality. In 2010, a comprehensive assessment of guideline development in Estonia was made by the World Health Organization, EHIF, the Medical Faculty at the University of Tartu, and selected national and international experts in an effort to streamline and harmonize the principles and processes of guideline development in Estonia. This study summarizes the evaluation of and revisions to the process. Estonia has made substantial changes in its processes of clinical practice guideline development and implementation as part of an overall program aiming for systematic quality improvement in health care. This experience may be relevant to other small or resource-limited countries.

  19. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  20. A Holocene record of climate, vegetation change and peat bog development, east Otago, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    1999-05-01

    A Holocene record of pollen, macrofossils, testate amoebae and peat humification is presented from a small montane bog. Sediment accumulation began before 9000 yr BP, but peat growth not until ca. 7000 BP. From 12 000 to 7000 yr BP, a shrub-grassland dominated under a dry climate, with increasing conifer forest and tall scrub from ca. 9600 yr BP. At 7000 yr BP a dense montane-subalpine low conifer forest established under a moist, cool climatic regime. Between 7000 and 700 yr BP the bog surface was shrubby, tending to be dry but with highly variable surface wetness. The catchment was affected by major fire at least four times between 4000 and 1000 yr BP. Both fire and bog surface wetness may have been linked to ENSO-caused variations in rainfall. Cooler, cloudier winters and disturbance by fire promoted the expansion of the broadleaf tree Nothofagus menziesii between 4000 yr BP and 1300 yr BP at the expense of the previous conifer forest-scrub vegetation. Polynesian fires (ca. 700 yr BP) reduced the vegetation to tussock grassland and bracken. Deforestation did not markedly affect the hydrology of the site. European pastoralism since ad 1860 has increased run-off and rising water tables in the bog have led to a Sphagnum-dominated cover.

  1. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    PubMed

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents <1 to 18.3 % of the total bacteria. The vertical distribution of AAPs confirmed their presence in the upper parts of the water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Chromobacterium subtsugae MWU12-2387 Isolated from a Wild Cranberry Bog in Truro, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Vöing, Kristin; Harrison, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromobacterium subtsugae MWU12-2387 was isolated from the rhizosphere of cranberry plants. While it is unknown what environmental role these bacteria play in bog soils, they hold potential as biological control agents against nematodes and insect pests. Potential virulence genes were identified, including the violacein synthesis pathway, siderophores, and several chitinases. PMID:28336605

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Chromobacterium subtsugae MWU12-2387 Isolated from a Wild Cranberry Bog in Truro, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Vöing, Kristin; Harrison, Alisha; Soby, Scott D

    2017-03-23

    Chromobacterium subtsugae MWU12-2387 was isolated from the rhizosphere of cranberry plants. While it is unknown what environmental role these bacteria play in bog soils, they hold potential as biological control agents against nematodes and insect pests. Potential virulence genes were identified, including the violacein synthesis pathway, siderophores, and several chitinases.

  4. Ecophysiological mechanisms characterising fen and bog species: focus on variations in nitrogen uptake traits under different soil-water pH.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Nakamura, Motoka

    2012-04-01

    Although the productivity and nitrogen (N)-use traits of mire plants differ dramatically between fens and bogs, soil N richness does not necessarily differ, whereas the soil-water pH is distinctly lower in bogs than in fens. The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying these relations are unclear. To assess the relative availability of N forms in relation to soil-water pH, we focused on the net N uptake rate per unit root weight (NNUR), glutamine synthetase activity and nitrate reductase activity, and performed reciprocal transplant experiments with the seedlings of fen (Carex lyngbyei) and bog (C. middendorffii) sedge species in intact habitat sites. The soil-water pH was clearly lower at the bog site, but the NH(4) (+), NO(3) (-) or dissolved organic-N concentrations did not differ between the fen and bog sites. The activity of both enzymes for inorganic-N assimilation did not differ among the sites and species. However, the fen species grown at bog sites showed a drastic decrease in the NNUR, suggesting a suppression of organic-N uptake. The bog species showed no NNUR difference between the sites. These results indicate that inorganic-N availability does not differ between the two habitats, but organic-N availability is lowered in a low-pH bog, particularly in the case of fen species. Therefore, the relative availability of N forms shows species-specific variations that depend on the differences in the soil-water pH of root zone, even at similar N richness, which would play a key role in plant distribution strategies in relation to the fen-bog gradient.

  5. Comparisons of soil nitrogen mass balances for an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen in northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brian H; Jicha, Terri M; Lehto, LaRae L P; Elonen, Colleen M; Sebestyen, Stephen D; Kolka, Randall K

    2016-04-15

    We compared nitrogen (N) storage and flux in soils from an ombrotrophic bog with that of a minerotrophic fen to quantify the differences in N cycling between these two peatlands types in northern Minnesota (USA). Precipitation, atmospheric deposition, and bog and fen outflows were analyzed for nitrogen species. Upland and peatland soil samples were analyzed for N content, and for ambient (DN) and potential (DEA) denitrification rates. Annual atmospheric deposition was: 0.88-3.07kg NH4(+)ha(-1)y(-1); 1.37-1.42kg NO3(-)ha(-1)y(-1); 2.79-4.69kg TNha(-1)y(-1). Annual N outflows were: bog-0.01-0.04kg NH4(+)ha(-1)y(-1), NO3(-) 0.01-0.06kgha(-1)y(-1), and TN 0.11-0.69kgha(-1)y(-1); fen-NH4(+) 0.01-0.16kgha(-1)y(-1), NO3(-) 0.29-0.48kgha(-1)y(-1), and TN 1.14-1.61kgha(-1)y(-1). Soil N content depended on location within the bog or fen, and on soil depth. DN and DEA rates were low throughout the uplands and peatlands, and were correlated with atmospheric N deposition, soil N storage, and N outflow. DEA was significantly greater than DN indicating C or N limitation of the denitrification process. We highlight differences between the bog and fen, between the upland mineral soils and peat, and the importance of biogeochemical hotspots within the peatlands. We point out the importance of organic N storage, as a source of N for denitrification, and propose a plausible link between organic N storage, denitrification and N export from peatlands. Finally, we considered the interactions of microbial metabolism with nutrient availability and stoichiometry, and how N dynamics might be affected by climate change in peatland ecosystems.

  6. Peat bog records of dust deposition over the last 2000 years in the Dolomites (NE Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poto, Luisa; Segnana, Michela; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Zaccone, Claudio; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of dust composition and fluxes is crucial to help to understand climate variability and climate changes. Dust fluctuations, linked to changes in dry and wet depositions, can indicate more humid or arid conditions, changes in temperature, vegetation cover and wind regimes. Peatlands are unique terrestrial archives that can capture changes in atmospheric deposition over time. Among them, ombrotrophic environments are hydrologically isolated from the surrounding landscapes receiving all the nutrients from precipitation and wind, with no influence from streams and groundwater. In recent decades biological and chemical proxies from peat bogs were extensively used to trace past climate changes, and rare earth elements (REE) in particular have been developed as inorganic geochemical proxies of mineral dust input in the atmosphere that plays an important role in the marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycle as source for both major and trace elements. Dust deposition in the Italian Alps during the last 2000 years is estimated from the geochemical signature of two ombrotrophic peatlands. The first bog is located in Danta di Cadore (Belluno province, 1400 m a.s.l.), the second one in Coltrondo (Belluno province, 1800 m a.s.l.): they both allow us to have new insights into climate variability in the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps. The REE and the lithogenic elements concentration, as well as the lead isotopic composition were determined by CRC-ICP-QMS along the first meter of each core. For both the archives chronology is based upon independent 14C and 210Pb measurements. Changes in REE concentration through the bogs were related with those of lithogenic elements in order to test the immobility of the REE. Moreover peat humification degree was used to evaluate the hydroclimatic conditions of the bogs and Pb isotopic signature were used to trace dust deposited at Danta di Cadore and Coltrondo bogs and to discriminate natural from anthropogenic source

  7. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  8. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  9. Small scale controls of greenhouse gas release under elevated N deposition rates in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-06-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain nitrous oxide release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  10. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine.

  11. Modeling regional groundwater flow in a peat bog complex in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, KLaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important ecohydrological systems and contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. They function as carbon sinks through CO2-sequestration but also emit methane depending i.a. on the prevailing hydrological structures. Knowledge of their hydrology including exchange between the groundwater and surface water domain is thus necessary to understand wetland environments and to determine their vulnerability to climate changes. The impact of proposed wetter conditions on wetland hydrological homeostastis in northern bogs is uncertain to this date. Elevated water tables due to changing hydrological flow patterns may affect the characteristics of wetlands as a carbon reservoir. Modeling approaches allow quantifying and qualifying of these flow patterns on a longer time scale. Luther Bog is located in Southern Ontario. The ombotrophic bog to poor fen is partially bordered by Luther Lake which inundates the area since its creation in 1952. In this study the interaction between the wetland and the adjacent lake is modeled using the fully-integrated HydroGeoSphere model. A transient three-dimensional groundwater mode is set up for a small catchment with the lake level implemented as a constant-head boundary condition. Hydraulic properties of the peat were estimated executing bail tests on multilevel piezometers at different sites within the wetland. The first hypothesis is that the wet conditions in the runoff network keep the water table in the wetland high over a specific transition zone. The Second is that there may be a reversal of flow directions over the hydrological year, due to varying boundary conditions, e.g. evapotranspiration and precipitation. First results indicate that exchange rates may be very slow. This is supported by manual measurements of little hydraulic gradients and little topographic gradients. The results also show a seasonal effect in flow directions in both, the groundwater and the surface water domain. The model will be tested

  12. The role of common upland vegetation on gaseous carbon cycling on UK blanket peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred

    2010-05-01

    The most important control upon the carbon dynamics of any peatland is vegetation. However there is a gap in the literature with respect to comparative, in-situ studies of common upland vegetation types on peat bogs from a carbon cycling perspective. Where studies exist they tend to be narrowly focused (i.e. on one or two species or a small geographical area) or are laboratory manipulation studies. This study set out to compare gaseous CO2 exchange, in situ, across a broad (geographic) range of sites dominated by differing, common, upland vegetation types. The vegetation types studied were; Calluna vulgaris, Sphagnum spp., Eriophorum (E. angustifolium + E. vaginatum), Molinia caerulea and areas revegetated with a lawn grass mixture that was used for restoration (Festuca spp, Deschampsia spp. and Agrostis spp.).The primary aim of the study was to assess the carbon cycling potential of the common upland vegetation types, in order to produce clearer evidence as to which upland species produce the most efficient carbon sinks. The study was carried out in the South Pennines and Peak District of England. All readings were taken from upland-blanket peat bogs, as this type of bog accounts for 87% of the UK's peatlands, and therefore the results of this study can have the widest possible applicability to the rest of the UK's peat reserves. NEE and NER measurements were taken with a PP Systems EMG-4 infra-red gas analyzer. PAR and air temperature readings were taken along side water table and soil pore water samples from every site. Each site was visited monthly for at least 12 months and between 3-9 replicates were recorded per site. The results of this study will deal with the effects vegetation has on NER, GPP and NEE, focusing on which vegetation types make the most efficient gaseous carbon sinks. Moreover the effect of vegetation on water table levels and water quality will be discussed. Finally a consideration of how the age of Calluna vulgaris affects the parameters

  13. Soil data for a thermokarst bog and the surrounding permafrost plateau forest, located at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jones, Miriam C.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McGeehin, John P.

    2017-01-19

    Peatlands play an important role in boreal ecosystems, storing a large amount of soil organic carbon. In northern ecosystems, collapse-scar bogs (also known as thermokarst bogs) often form as the result of ground subsidence following permafrost thaw. To examine how ecosystem carbon balance changes with the loss of permafrost, we measured carbon and nitrogen storage within a thermokarst bog and the surrounding forest, which continues to have permafrost. These sites are a part of the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and are located within Interior Alaska. Here, we report on methods used for core collection analysis as well as the cores’ physical, chemical, and descriptive properties.

  14. Oxygen-Isotopic Variability Across the 8.2ka Cold Event in an Ombrotrophic Peat bog on the Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. J.; Hughes, P. D.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Loader, N. J.; Barber, K. E.

    2005-12-01

    Ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) peatlands are well established as sources of proxy-climate information through the Holocene (Aaby, 1974; Barber, 1981; Barber et al., 1994, 1998; Hughes et al., 2000; Charman, 2002). Over the past decade, innovative methodological developments have resulted in the production of multi-proxy records where co-registered signals are used to establish the response of bogs to climatic forcing (Blundell & Barber, 2005, Langdon & Barber, in press; Hughes et al., in press). These techniques have utilised changes in the relative abundance of bog taxa, combined with knowledge of their ecology and the degree of decomposition of the peat, to infer the nature of past environmental changes. Despite the success of this methodology, there remains a need for an approach that is better able to quantify the magnitude of observed climatic changes and which is directly comparable with records from lakes, ice cores and marine sediments. Analysis of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in the cellulose of Sphagnum moss offers additional environmentally-sensitive proxies with which to reconstruct isotopic variations in source water (palaeo-precipitation), and hence changes in climate and atmospheric circulation. Sphagnum moss is particularly suited to isotopic analysis by virtue of the comparatively simple pathway that leads from precipitation to cellulose synthesis. We present an oxygen-isotope time series developed from a 2m section of a peat core from Newfoundland (latitude, 49°.150 N, longitude, 53°.583 W). The location of the site on the North east coast of the island makes it particularly sensitive to the atmospheric impact of changes in the nature of the Inner Labrador current, thought to be the conduit that carried the meltwater plume from the Lake Agassiz megaflood (e.g. Keigwin, et al., 2005). The results will be compared with existing multi-proxy data on plant macrofossils, peat humification and testate amoebae derived from the same core

  15. A new species of mermithid (Nematoda) in chironomids eclosing from a northern Minnesota bog.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2008-12-01

    Hydromermis haggardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of chironomid imagos eclosing from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota in June and July 2007. The species is distinguished from the other 27 described members of the genus by the subventral mouth, tulip shape to anterior end of esophagus, colorless vesicular trophosome, single nonbifurcated spicule, short body lengths of both males and females, structure of the S-shaped vagina, decrease in body width at vulva, brevity of postparasitic stage, and the greater development of a posterior ventral protractor muscle in the males. An anomalous adult male bearing large oval structures in the posterior testis is reported. Evidence is presented for the developmental interaction of the new species with Lanceimermis palustris Johnson and Kleve, 2004.

  16. Climate-growth relationships for bog-grown black spruce in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, K.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana) tree-ring chronologies were derived for three bogs in northern Minnesota. Standard chronologies were highly intercorrelated (0.72 to 0.87). The ring-width variability attributable to a common signal ranged from 38.6 to 56.8 percent which is large for closed canopy eastern forests. These chronologies exhibited great serial correlation, therefore all chronologies were autoregressively modelled prior to climatic analyses. Each chronology was compared to monthly temperature and precipitation data from a nearby weather station. Strengths of linear relationships were measured by the product-moment correlation coefficient. May and August temperatures from the previous year and March precipitation of the current year were significantly correlated with ring-width indices. These data suggest that tree-ring chronologies from mid-continental peatlands may be a valuable, though presently ignored, source of paleoclimatic data.

  17. Dynamics of biochemical processes and redox conditions in geochemically linked landscapes of oligotrophic bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The biological activity in oligotrophic peatlands at the margins of the Vasyugan Mire has been studied. It is shown found that differently directed biochemical processes manifest themselves in the entire peat profile down to the underlying mineral substrate. Their activity is highly variable. It is argued that the notion about active and inert layers in peat soils is only applicable for the description of their water regime. The degree of the biochemical activity is specified by the physical soil properties. As a result of the biochemical processes, a micromosaic aerobic-anaerobic medium is developed under the surface waterlogged layer of peat deposits. This layer contains the gas phase, including oxygen. It is concluded that the organic and mineral parts of peat bogs represent a single functional system of a genetic peat profile with a clear record of the history of its development.

  18. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils.

  19. Effects of bryophytes on succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog

    SciTech Connect

    Glime, J.M.; Wetzel, R.G.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    The alkaline eastern marsh of Lawrence Lake, a marl lake in southwestern Michigan, was sampled by randomly placed line transects to determine the bryophyte cover and corresponding vascular plant zones. Cluster analysis indicated three distinct bryophyte zones which correspond with the recognized vascular plant zones. Mosses occupied over 50% of the surface in some areas. Invasion of Sphagnum, vertical zonation of the mosses on hummocks, zonation with distance from the lake, the abundance of non-Sphagnum moss hummocks, and the ability of the non-Sphagnum species to lower the pH of marsh water during laboratory incubations are evidence that non-Sphagnum mosses facilitate succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog.

  20. Deciphering the environmental and landscape evolution of Sierra Nevada (S Iberia) from bog archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Alix, Antonio; Toney, Jaime L.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Ramos-Román, Maria J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Ruano, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Sierra Nevada is the southernmost mountain range in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the highest in Europe. Its geomorphology was the result of Pleistocene glaciations that carved out depressions, valleys and cirques at high elevations in the metamorphic basement. Depressions gave rise to lakes and wetlands during the Holocene. Geophysical and organic geochemical analyses of biomarkers (n-alkanes) and bulk sediment (C and N ratio and isotopes) from two high elevation bogs (locally called "Borreguiles"): Borreguiles de la Virgen (BdlV) and Borreguiles de la Caldera (BdlC), have allowed us to track the hydrological evolution of the area and its relationship to climatic fluctuations of the western Mediterranean during the Holocene. Most of the bogs of this area resulted from the natural evolution of former small lakes. The records are 56 cm and 169 cm long, respectively. Geophysical data suggest that we recovered the whole sedimentary record from BdlC; however, there are some post-glacial sediments remaining below the BdlV core that we could not recover due to hard-ground conditions. During the early and middle Holocene, aquatic conditions predominated in BdlV compared to the most recent part of the record (low C/N values and high proportion of aquatic plants (Paq) deduced from the n-alkanes) suggesting a lake environment whose water level gradually decreased until ˜5.5 cal ky BP. This aridity trend is also observed in nearby records such as at Laguna de Río Seco (LdRS), a result of the African Humid Period demise. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes were higher during this interval, which might suggest more algae activity, in agreement with the highest concentrations of the algae Pediastrum in the area. There is an important development of terrestrial plants, a real bog stage (C/N higher than 20, high TOC, lower Paq) in both records from ˜5.5 to 3.5-3.0 cal ky BP. Those hydrological changes in the landscape might be related to a possible change in the source of

  1. Insights into functional bacterial diversity and its effects on Alpine bog ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Moser, Daniel; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria are important for the growth and health of their host, but little is known about its functional diversity and impact on ecosystem functioning. We studied bacterial nitrogen fixation and methane oxidation from indicator Sphagnum mosses in Alpine bogs to test a hypothesis that the plant microbiome contained different functional patterns depending on their functions within the ecosystem. A high abundance and diversity of nitrogenase genes were detected, mostly specific for each Sphagnum. In contrast, methanotrophs formed highly similar patterns despite a high abundance and diversity of methane monooxygenase genes. Our hypothesis was supported by these contrasting functional patterns together with the result that the Sphagnum sporophyte contained a high proportion of specific diazotrophs (45.5%) but no potential methanotrophs. While essential for plant growth under nutrient-limited conditions, nitrogen-fixing bacteria were highly specific and transferred with the sporophyte unlike the ubiquitous methanotrophs which are important for the climate-relevant ecosystem itself.

  2. Effect of selected metal ions on the photocatalytic degradation of bog lake water natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Luis A Tercero; ter Haseborg, Eike; Weber, Matthias; Karle, Elly; Peschke, Rafael; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report the photocatalytic degradation of natural organic matter from a bog lake (Lake Hohloh, Black Forest, Germany) in the presence of 0, 5, and 10 μmol L(-1) of added Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(3+). The reactions were followed by size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon detection (SEC-DOC) and by measurements of low molecular weight organic acids. Addition of Cu(2+) had the largest effect of all four studied metals, leading to a retardation in the molecular size changes in NOM: degradation of the larger molecular weight fraction was inhibited leading to reduced production of smaller molecular weight metabolites. Similarly, addition of Cu(2+) reduced the production of formic and oxalic acids, and reduced the bioavailability of the partially degraded NOM.

  3. The Wonderful World of Wetlands (WWW): Bogs, fens, marshes and swamps and their global environmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, W.

    2012-04-01

    Bogs, fens, marshes, and swamps are waterlogged ecosystems where organic soils form and peat accumulates. These are remarkably diverse ecosystems and represent an important component of the biodiversity found on Earth. Their geochemical function is dominated by their predominately anoxic condition which has some important consequences. Best known as reservoirs and reactors for a significant part of our surface freshwater resources, and impacting their chemical composition in remarkable ways, they also have a significant influence on the atmosphere, removing CO2 and adding CH4. The contemporary view during the past centuries was that these were wastelands in need of improving by drainage. Today, however, in some circles at least, the remaining wetlands are valued ecosystems, and the soils they contain archives of climate change, human history and atmospheric pollution.

  4. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  5. Amber bearing deposit in SW Saaremaa, Estonia - sedimentary environment and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Triine; Ots, Mirja; Rosentau, Alar

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes a deposit of natural amber found form Estonia. Finds of natural amber are important in the context of the Bronze Age archaeology, because the amount of Bronze Age archaeological amber found in Estonia is very small. Most of the amber is from the Late Bronze Age and is mainly discovered from the fortified settlements in Saaremaa, some also from burials of the same time. Now, the discovery of the deposit of natural amber in the island of Saaremaa makes us reconsider the general opinion that all archaeological amber items found in Estonia have been imported. The aim of this study is to clarify the origin and age of the natural amber using scientific methods. A layer of buried organic matter (BOM) containing pieces of natural amber was discovered in Holocene coastal plain on Sõrve peninsula, island of Saaremaa. The BOM layer is buried under ca 90 cm-thick sandy coastal deposits and consists of remains of coastal plants and pieces of driftwood. Palaeogeographic reconstructions and sediment composition indicate that the layer was deposited in the coastal zone and buried quickly by sandy marine sediments. According to radiocarbon dating of the seeds of Polygonum lapathifolium the formation of the BOM layer remained in the Late Bronze Age (2480 ± 30 14C yr BP). Amber finds have been characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and isotope analysis of light elements (H and C) - both are referring to Baltic amber. Therefore it is probable that amber was transported to Saaremaa within organic matter from the Latvian-Lithuanian coastal zone where secondary Baltic amber deposits are widely known.

  6. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  7. Ecohydrology by thinking outside the bog: Shifting paradigms in an era of shifting peatland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, James; Moore, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Large shifts in vegetation distributions are occurring worldwide and at unprecedented rates. The most extreme of these regime shifts are expected to occur at ecosystem boundaries of both semi-arid and semi-humid landscapes. Despite extensive hydrological research on the interactions between water and semi-arid ecosystems, research in peatlands on the wet end of ecosystem continuum has been "bogged down" (pun fully intended) by the traditional conceptual models (paradigms?) of peatland hydrology and ecology. The consequences of this "thinking" are large given that northern peatlands provide important global and regional ecosystem services (carbon storage, water storage, and biodiversity). This is especially true because peatlands face increases in the severity, areal extent, and frequency of climate-mediated (e.g., wildfire, drought) and land-use change (e.g., drainage, flooding, and mining) disturbances placing the future security of these critical ecosystem services in doubt. We use the word doubt because while numerical modelling studies predict peatland regime shifts and the demise of global peat stocks, there is growing evidence that peatlands are self-regulating ecosystems dominated by negative ecohydrological feedbacks that stabilize the aforementioned ecosystem services through high ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This raises several important hydrological questions? "Is there field evidence of peatland regime shifts? If so, what are the potential impacts of these shifts on water resources and watershed management? If not, are researchers actually looking in the right places (or times)? In this presentation we explore the need for a "thinking outside the bog" in order to understand the ecohydrological consequences of transformative landscape change caused by peatland regime shifts. With reference to over two decades of field research, recent advances with our Peatland Hydrological Impacts model and recent research examining primary peat formation, we

  8. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  9. Atmospheric Mercury Transfer to Peat Bogs Dominated by Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition.

    PubMed

    Enrico, Maxime; Roux, Gaël Le; Marusczak, Nicolas; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Claustres, Adrien; Fu, Xuewu; Sun, Ruoyu; Sonke, Jeroen E

    2016-03-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the dominant form of mercury in the atmosphere. Its conversion into oxidized gaseous and particulate forms is thought to drive atmospheric mercury wet deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, where it can be subsequently transformed into toxic methylmercury. The contribution of mercury dry deposition is however largely unconstrained. Here we examine mercury mass balance and mercury stable isotope composition in a peat bog ecosystem. We find that isotope signatures of living sphagnum moss (Δ(199)Hg = -0.11 ± 0.09‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.03 ± 0.02‰, 1σ) and recently accumulated peat (Δ(199)Hg = -0.22 ± 0.06‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.00 ± 0.04‰, 1σ) are characteristic of GEM (Δ(199)Hg = -0.17 ± 0.07‰, Δ(200)Hg = -0.05 ± 0.02‰, 1σ), and differs from wet deposition (Δ(199)Hg = 0.73 ± 0.15‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.21 ± 0.04‰, 1σ). Sphagnum covered during three years by transparent and opaque surfaces, which eliminate wet deposition, continue to accumulate Hg. Sphagnum Hg isotope signatures indicate accumulation to take place by GEM dry deposition, and indicate little photochemical re-emission. We estimate that atmospheric mercury deposition to the peat bog surface is dominated by GEM dry deposition (79%) rather than wet deposition (21%). Consequently, peat deposits are potential records of past atmospheric GEM concentrations and isotopic composition.

  10. Carbon balance of a boreal bog during a year with an exceptionally dry summer

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, J.; Silvola, J.; Schulman, L.; Walden, J.; Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Northern peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores, and they show large spatial and temporal variation in the atmospheric exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. Thus, annual carbon balance must be studied in detail in order to predict the climatic responses of these ecosystems. Closed-chamber methods were used to study CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in hollow, Sphagnum angustifolium lawn. S. fuscum lawn, and hummock microsites within an ombrotrophic S. fuscum bog. Micrometeorological tower measurements were used as a reference for the CH{sub 3} efflux from the bog. Low precipitation during May--August in 1994 and a warm July--August period caused the water table to drop by more than 15 cm below the peat surface in the hollows and to 48 cm below the surface in high hummocks. Increased annual total respiration exceeded gross production and resulted in a net C loss of 4--157 g/m{sup 2} in the different microsites. Drought probably caused irreversible desiccation in some lawns of S. angustifolium and S. balticum and in S. fuscum in the hummocks, while S. balticum growing in hollows retained its moisture and even increased its photosynthetic capacity during the July--August period. Seasonal (12 May--4 October) CH{sub 4} emissions ranged from 2 g CH{sub 4}-C/m{sup 2} in drier S. fuscum hummocks and lawns to 7 and 14 g/m{sup 2} in wetter S. angustifolium-S. balticum lawns and hollows, respectively.

  11. Nutrient resorption of two evergreen shrubs in response to long‑term fertilization in a bog.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Murphy, Meaghan T; Moore, Tim R

    2014-02-01

    Plant resorption of multiple nutrients during leaf senescence has been established but stoichiometric changes among N, P and K during resorption and after fertilization are poorly understood. We anticipated that increased N supply would lead to further P limitation or co-limitation with N or K [i.e. P-(co)limitation], decrease N resorption and increase P and K resorption, while P and K addition would decrease P and K resorption and increase N resorption. Furthermore, Ca would accumulate while Mg would be resorbed during leaf senescence, irrespective of fertilization. We investigated the effect of N, P and K addition on resorption in two evergreen shrubs (Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada. In general, N addition caused further P-(co)limitation, increased P and K resorption efficiency but did not affect N resorption. P and K addition did not shift the system to N limitation and affect K resorption, but reduced P resorption proficiency. C. calyculata resorbed both Ca and Mg while R. groenlandicum resorbed neither. C. calyculata showed a higher resorption than R. groenlandicum, suggesting it is better adapted to nutrient deficiency than R. groenlandicum. Resorption during leaf senescence decreased N:P, N:K and K:P ratios. The limited response of N and K and the response of P resorption to fertilization reflect the stoichiometric coupling of nutrient cycling, which varies among the two shrub species; changes in species composition may affect nutrient cycling in bogs.

  12. Sorption of radioiodide in an acidic, nutrient-poor boreal bog: insights into the microbial impact.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-05-01

    Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behaviour of iodide and the microbial impact on iodide sorption in the surface moss, subsurface peat, gyttja, and clay layers of a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of iodide decreased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, 4800 L/Kg dry weight (DW) (geometric mean), were observed in the fresh surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay (geometric mean 90 mL/g DW). In the surface moss, peat and gyttja layers, which have a high organic matter content (on average 97%), maximum sorption was observed at a pH between ∼ 4 and 5 and in the clay layer at pH 2. The Kd values were significantly lower in sterilized samples, being 20-fold lower than the values found for the unsterilized samples. In addition, the recolonization of sterilized samples with a microbial population from the fresh samples restored the sorption capacity of surface moss, peat and gyttja samples, indicating that the decrease in the sorption was due to the destruction of microbes and supporting the hypothesis that microbes are necessary for the incorporation of iodide into the organic matter. Anoxic conditions reduced the sorption of iodide in fresh, untreated samples, similarly to the effect of sterilization, which supports the hypothesis that iodide is oxidized into I2/HIO before incorporation into the organic matter. Furthermore, the Kd values positively correlated with peroxidase activity in surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja layers at +20 °C, and with the bacterial cell counts obtained from plate count agar at +4 °C. Our results demonstrate the importance of viable microbes for the sorption of iodide in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH.

  13. Mercury deposition in ombrotrophic bogs in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Atlantic region surveillance report number EPS-5-AR-98-4

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, L.A.; Matthews, S.L.

    1998-12-31

    A study was conducted to determine historical atmospheric mercury deposition patterns in the Maritime Provinces. Investigators measured mercury concentrations in peat cores from five ombrotrophic bogs in Kejimkujik, Fundy, Kouchibougouac, and Cape Breton Highlands national parks and in East Baltic Bog, Prince Edward Island. Results presented and discussed include deposition rates calculated using lead-210 date estimates, temporal trends in mercury concentrations, and spatial patterns of mercury deposition.

  14. Optimization of UA of heat exchangers and BOG compressor exit pressure of LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2015-12-01

    Boil-off gas (BOG) generation and its handling are important issues in Liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain because of economic, environment and safety reasons. Several variants of reliquefaction systems of BOG have been proposed by researchers. Thermodynamic analyses help to configure them and size their components for improving performance. In this paper, exergy analysis of reliquefaction system based on nitrogen-driven reverse Brayton cycle is carried out through simulation using Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a process simulator and the effects of heat exchanger size with and without related pressure drop and BOG compressor exit pressure are evaluated. Nondimensionalization of parameters with respect to the BOG load allows one to scale up or down the design. The process heat exchanger (PHX) requires much higher surface area than that of BOG condenser and it helps to reduce the quantity of methane vented out to atmosphere. As pressure drop destroys exergy, optimum UA of PHX decreases for highest system performance if pressure drop is taken into account. Again, for fixed sizes of heat exchangers, as there is a range of discharge pressures of BOG compressor at which the loss of methane in vent minimizes, the designer should consider choosing the pressure at lower value.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms.

  16. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  17. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  18. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture.

  19. Composition of the essential oil of the Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Gretchushnikova, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Wild Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja shoots were collected from four localities of Estonia. Essential oils, isolated from dried samples by simultaneous distillation and extraction, were analysed using GC-FID and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The yields of oils were in the range 0.14-0.87%. A total of 72 constituents, accounting for over 95% of the total oil yield, were identified. The major components in the all four oils studied were palustrol (15.9-53.5%), ledol (11.8-18.3%), γ-terpineol (0-31.2%), p-cymene (0.1-13.9%), lepalone (0.7-6.5%), lepalol (1.0-6.5%) and cyclocolorenone (1.0-6.4%). Two different chemotypes of R. tomentosum were found in Estonia and one of them was rich in palustrol (41.0-53.5%) and ledol (14.6-18.3%). The second chemotype, for the first time, was rich in γ-terpineol (24.7-31.2%) and contained less of palustrol (15.9-16.7%) and ledol (11.8-12.8%), but more p-cymene (12.5-13.9%). Also, γ-terpineol was identified for the first time in the oils of R. tomentosum.

  20. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  1. Beyond Words: Dance and Movement Sessions with Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodgame, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    This article details an experimental project in Estonian schools, using therapeutic dance and movement as a basis to explore beyond the boundaries of language in supporting young people to develop their creative expression. The author visited three residential schools in different areas of Estonia in September 2006 to lead sessions with groups of…

  2. Motivation for Obtaining the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karner, Anita; Kukemelk, Hasso; Herdlein, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This is essentially a qualitative study, a fact-finding activity to gather, analyze, and interpret evidence of student motivation in completing the terminal degree in Estonia. It uses a variety of interpretive research methodologies appropriate for a phenomenological approach. Thirteen doctoral candidates who defended their doctoral thesis…

  3. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  4. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before.

  5. Sociocultural Aspects of Russian-Speaking Parents' Choice of Language of Instruction for Their Children in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Raija Pini; Ferrin, Scott Ellis; Hite, Steven J.; Hilton, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to identify sociocultural variables that influence whether Russian-speaking parents living in Estonia choose Russian, Estonian, or bilingual (Russian and Estonian) instruction for their children. To examine which sociocultural variables are related to parents' choice of language of instruction, 346…

  6. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  7. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  8. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  9. Tracing of ca 800 yr old mining activity in peat bog using Pb elemental concentrations and isotope compositions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, S.; Carignan, J.; Ploquin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sixty sites of slags have been documented on the Mont-Lozère in southern France. The petrographic analysis shows that slags are metallurgical wastes (800 to 850 yr BP) which certainly result from smelting activity for lead and silver extraction (Ploquin et al., 2001). The aims of this study are: 1) to trace the source of Pb ores which supplied the smelting sites, by using the Pb isotopic composition of several surrounding Pb deposits, 2) to evaluate the actual pollution caused by these slags, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of soils, water and vegetation, and 3) to document the pollution history of the region, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of peat bog cores collected in the neighbourhood of the historical smelting sites. The lead isotopic composition of galena collected in most surrounding ores is very similar to that of different slag samples. On the other hand, the high precision of the results allowed us to select the mineralised areas which were probably the ore sources. The Pb isotopic composition of slags is even more homogeneous: 208/206 Pb: 2.092±0.002; 206/207 Pb: 1.179±0.001; 208/204 Pb: 38.663±0.025; 207/204 Pb: 15.665±0.006; 206/204 Pb: 18.476±0.023, and will allow source tracing in the environment. The "Narses Mortes" peat bog, around which two smelting sites have been reported, is strongly minerotrophic and contains 8 to 60% ash. A 1.40 m core have been retrieved and divided into 58 individual samples. Minerotrophic peat bog records both atmospheric deposition, soils leaching and the grounwater influence. The measured metal concentrations are normalised to Al contents of peat bog samples and the metal/Al ratios are compared to that of the Mont-Lozère granite: relative excess in metal concentrations are found in peat bog samples. An increasing excess of most metals (Pb, Zn, Cd...) was measured for surface samples, from 55 cm depth to the top of the core (23 cm depth). This profil might be attributed to atmospheric

  10. CO2 fluxes at northern fens and bogs have opposite responses to inter-annual fluctuations in water table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Desai, Ankur R.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Sonnentag, Oliver; Mackay, D. Scott; Barr, Alan G.; van der Kamp, Garth

    2010-10-01

    This study compares eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes at six northern temperate and boreal peatland sites in Canada and the northern United States of America, representing both bogs and fens. The two peatland types had opposite responses of gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) to inter-annual fluctuations in water table level. At fens, wetter conditions were correlated with lower GEP and ER, while at bogs wetter conditions were correlated with higher GEP and ER. We hypothesize that these contrasting responses are due to differences in the relative contributions of vascular plants and mosses. The coherence of our results between sites representing a range of average environmental conditions indicates ecosystem-scale differences in resilience to hydrological changes that should be taken into account when considering the future of peatland ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration under changing environmental conditions.

  11. Overriding control of methane flux temporal variability by water table dynamics in a Southern Hemisphere, raised bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Campbell, D. I.; Roulet, N. T.; Clearwater, M. J.; Schipper, L. A.

    2015-05-01

    There are still large uncertainties in peatland methane flux dynamics and insufficient understanding of how biogeochemical processes scale to ecosystems. New Zealand bogs differ from Northern Hemisphere ombrotrophic systems in climatic setting, hydrology, and dominant vegetation, offering an opportunity to evaluate our knowledge of peatland methane biogeochemistry gained primarily from northern bogs and fens. We report eddy covariance methane fluxes from a raised bog in New Zealand over 2.5 years. Annual total methane flux in 2012 was 29.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, whereas during a year with a severe drought (2013) it was 20.6 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, both high compared to Northern Hemisphere bogs and fens. Drier conditions led to a decrease in fluxes from ~100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 to ~20 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, and subsequent slow recovery of flux after postdrought water table rise. Water table depth regulated the temperature sensitivity of methane fluxes, and this sensitivity was greatest when the water table was within 100 mm of the surface, corresponding to the shallow rooting zone of the dominant vegetation. A correlation between daytime CO2 uptake and methane fluxes emerged during times with shallow water tables, suggesting that controls on methane production were critical in determining fluxes, more so than oxidation. Water table recession through this shallow zone led to increasing methane fluxes, whereas changes in temperature during these periods were not correlated. Models of methane fluxes should consider drought-induced lags in seasonal flux recovery that depend on drought characteristics and location of the critical zone for methane production.

  12. Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmed-Ogly, K. V.; Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Reshetko, M. V.; Nalivajko, N. G.; Vlasova, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round.

  13. Low impact of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange of a Northern-Norwegian blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Magnus; Bjerke, J. W.; Drake, B. G.; Engelsen, O.; Hansen, G. H.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Powell, T. L.; Silvennoinen, H.; Sottocornola, M.; Tømmervik, H.; Weldon, S.; Rasse, D. P.

    2015-02-01

    Northern peatlands hold large amounts of organic carbon (C) in their soils and are as such important in a climate change context. Blanket bogs, i.e. nutrient-poor peatlands restricted to maritime climates, may be extra vulnerable to global warming since they require a positive water balance to sustain their moss dominated vegetation and C sink functioning. This study presents a 4.5 year record of land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from the Andøya blanket bog in northern Norway. Compared with other peatlands, the Andøya peatland exhibited low flux rates, related to the low productivity of the dominating moss and lichen communities and the maritime settings that attenuated seasonal temperature variations. It was observed that under periods of high vapour pressure deficit, net ecosystem exchange was reduced, which was mainly caused by a decrease in gross primary production. However, no persistent effects of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange dynamics were observed, indicating that under present conditions and within the range of observed meteorological conditions the Andøya blanket bog retained its C uptake function. Continued monitoring of these ecosystem types is essential in order to detect possible effects of a changing climate.

  14. The microbial impact on the sorption behaviour of selenite in an acidic, nutrient-poor boreal bog.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-09-01

    (79)Se is among the most important long lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel and selenite, SeO3(2-), is its typical form in intermediate redox potential. The sorption behaviour of selenite and the bacterial impact on the selenite sorption in a 7-m-deep profile of a nutrient-poor boreal bog was studied using batch sorption experiments. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of selenite decreased as a function of sampling depth and highest Kd values, 6600 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay at 1700 L/kg DW. The overall maximum sorption was observed at pH between 3 and 4 and the Kd values were significantly higher in unsterilized compared to sterilized samples. The removal of selenite from solution by Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia sp., Rhodococcus sp. and Paenibacillus sp. strains isolated from the bog was affected by incubation temperature and time. In addition, the incubation of sterilized surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja samples with added bacteria effectively removed selenite from the solution and on average 65% of selenite was removed when Pseudomonas sp. or Burkholderia sp. strains were used. Our results demonstrate the important role of bacteria for the removal of selenite from the solution phase in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH.

  15. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia.

  16. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Vlašínová, Helena; Neděla, Vilem; Đorđević, Biljana; Havel, Ladislav

    2016-10-25

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media. The media on which the highest number of early-precotyledonary/cotyledonary somatic embryos was formed was supplemented with 121 μM abscisic acid (ABA) and with 6 % maltose. In the end of maturation experiments, different abnormalities in formation of somatic embryos were observed. For visualization and identification of abnormalities in meristem development during proliferation and maturation processes, the environmental scanning electron microscope was used. In comparison to the classical light microscope, the non-commercial environmental scanning electron microscope AQUASEM II has been found as a very useful tool for the quick recognition of apical meristem disruption and abnormal development. To our knowledge, this is the first report discussing somatic embryogenesis in bog pine. Based on this observation, the cultivation procedure could be enhanced and the method for SE of bog pine optimized.

  17. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  18. Effects of Nutrient Addition on Belowground Stoichiometry and Microbial Activity in an Ombrotrophic Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsonneault, A. J.; Moore, T. R.; Roulet, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    Ombrotrophic bogs are both nutrient-poor systems and important carbon (C) sinks yet there remains a dearth of information on the stoichiometry of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), an important determinant of substrate quality for microorganisms, in these systems. In this study, we quantified the C, N, P, and K concentrations and stoichiometric ratios of both soil organic matter (SOM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as microbial extracellular enzyme activity from 0 - 10cm depth in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada. Though trends in C:N, C:P, and C:K between SOM and DOM seem to follow one another, preliminary results indicate that the stoichiometric ratios of DOM were at least an order of magnitude smaller than those of DOM suggesting that nutrient fertilization impacts the quality of DOM as a microbial substrate to a greater degree than SOM. C:N decreased with greater nitrogen addition but C:P and C:K increased; the magnitude of that increase being smaller in NPK treatments relative to N-only treatments suggesting co-limitation by P and/or K. This is further supported by the increase in activity of both the C-cycling enzyme, β-D-glucosidase (bdG), and the P-cycling enzyme, phosphatase (Phos), with greater nitrogen addition; particularly in NPK-treatments for bdG and N-only treatments for Phos. The activity of the N-cycling enzyme, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and the C-cycling enzyme, phenol oxidase, with greater N-addition suggests a decreased need to breakdown organic nitrogen to meet microbial N-requirements in the former and N-inhibition in the latter consistent with findings in the literature. Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of nutrients impact both microbial substrate quality as well as the activity of microbial enzymes that are key in the decomposition process which may ultimately decrease the ability of peatlands to sequester carbon.

  19. No limits to peat bog growth? Transport and thermodynamic constraints on anaerobic organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, C.; Julia, B.; Siems, M.

    2009-05-01

    methanogenesis decreasing to 0 near a critical Gibbs free energy of about -27 KJ mol-1. The results thus suggest that, even in absence of inorganic electron acceptors, respiration rates in peat bogs are likely higher near the redox interface to the atmosphere due to lower respiration endproduct concentrations. Similar effects ensue when rates of transport are elevated or pools of CO2 and CH4 are eliminated. With decomposition being constrained, peat bog growth may occur longer than previously thought.

  20. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is

  1. North American ultra-distal tephrochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; Hughes, P.; Mallon, G.; Amesbury, M.; Charman, D.; Street-Perrott, A.; Loader, N.; Woodman-Ralph, J.; Mauquoy, D.; Daley, T.; Booth, R.

    2011-12-01

    PRECIP (Palaeo-REconstruction of ocean-atmosphere Coupling In Peat) is a multi-proxy project examining the influences of Gulf Stream and Labrador Current variations on Holocene raised bogs along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. The project aims to reconstruct the influences of such climate drivers at multi-decadal timescales, thus enabling the testing of hypotheses relating to ocean-atmosphere coupling of Thermohaline Circulation (THC) and terrestrial responses (e.g. the '8.2 ka' event). A valuable geochronological tool for this task is tephrochronology which utilises far-travelled volcanic ash (microtephra: < ca.100 μm) as precise synchronous horizons or isochrons between depositional archives. One project site (Nordan's Pond Bog, Newfoundland) has been found to contain up to 12 rhyolitic microtephra layers throughout a continuous ca. 9000-year profile. The nearest volcanic sources are Iceland and Jan Mayan, ca. 2500 km to the north-east of Newfoundland. However, geochemical analysis reveals that the ash isochrons have little affinity with these sources and are instead primarily of North American provenance transported by Westerlies from Alaska and the Pacific Mountain System ca. 5000 km to the west. Two layers of particularly high shard concentration (> 600 shards/cm3) are estimated by the age model to occur at ca. 7500 14C cal. yrs BP and ca. 1200 14C cal. yrs BP (ca. AD 800), and are the correct period and geochemistry for correlation with the widespread Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) (7627±150 Greenland GISP2 ice core yrs BP) and White River Ash (Mount Churchill, Alaska) eruptions respectively. Other sources for prominent sequence isochrons are Mount St Helens (Washington), Mount Augustine (Alaska) and Mount Aniakchak (Alaska). The tephrochronological potential of other sites in the region is anticipated to be just as promising and should therefore provide the opportunity for the development of a new Holocene tephrostratigraphic framework for north

  2. Characterization of Groundwater Flow Processes in the Cedar Creek Watershed and the Cedarburg Bog in Southeastern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. P.; Han, W. S.; Feinstein, D.; Hart, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the geology and groundwater flow of the bog as well as the surrounding area, notably the Cedar Creek Watershed, a HUC (Hydrologic Unit Code) 12 watershed. The watershed is approximately 330 km2, and borders the sub-continental divide separating the Mississippi River Basin from the Great Lakes Basin. The Cedar Creek watershed is composed of mostly agricultural and urban land with a significant stress of groundwater withdrawal for both irrigation and residential use. This watershed has importance due to the contribution to both the Milwaukee River and Lake Michigan, and is integral in the study of regional groundwater flow of Southeastern Wisconsin. Furthermore, the Cedarburg Bog, located in the northeast corner of the Cedar Creek Watershed preserves diverse ecology and is recognized by the U.S. Department of Interior as a National Landmark. Groundwater is the primary driver for the diverse and unique ecology that is contained within the bog. Within the Cedar Creek Watershed, well data and glacial geology maps (Mickelson and Syverson, 1997) were integrated to develop a 3-dimensional subsurface map and watershed-scale groundwater flow model using the LAK3 and the SFR2 package to simulate surface water-aquifer interactions. The model includes 10 zones of the glacial sediments and the weathered and consolidated Silurian Dolomite bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters were calibrated with 203 head targets using universal parameter estimation code (PEST). Then, a series of future climate scenarios, developed by the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impact, were implemented to the USGS Soil-Water-Balance Code (SWB) to identify variations in recharge. The simulated recharge scenarios were adopted to predict the response of groundwater resources in the watershed and the Cedarburg Bog. Preliminary results produced from the MODFLOW model indicate the bog is acting as a recharge zone under current recharge

  3. Fine-scale horizontal and vertical micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae along a narrow Fen/Bog gradient.

    PubMed

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Mitchell, Edward A D; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    The ecology of peatland testate amoebae is well studied along broad gradient from very wet (pool) to dry (hummock) micro-sites where testate amoebae are often found to respond primarily to the depth to water table (DWT). Much less is known on their responses to finer-scale gradients, and nothing is known of their possible response to phenolic compounds, which play a key role in carbon storage in peatlands. We studied the vertical (0-3, 3-6, and 6-9 cm sampling depths) micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae in the same microhabitat (Sphagnum fallax lawn) along a narrow ecological gradient between a poor fen with an almost flat and homogeneous Sphagnum carpet (fen) and a "young bog" (bog) with more marked micro-topography and mosaic of poor fen and bog vegetation. We analyzed the relationships between the testate amoeba data and three sets of variables (1) "chemical" (pH, Eh potential, and conductivity), (2) "physical" (water temperature, altitude, i.e., Sphagnum mat micro-topography, and DWT), and (3) phenolic compounds in/from Sphagnum (water-soluble and primarily bound phenolics) as well as the habitat (fen/bog) and the sampling depth. Testate amoeba Shannon H' diversity, equitability J of communities, and total density peaked in lower parts of Sphagnum, but the patterns differed between the fen and bog micro-sites. Redundancy analyses revealed that testate amoeba communities differed significantly in relation to Eh, conductivity, water temperature, altitude, water-soluble phenolics, habitat, and sampling depth, but not to DWT, pH, or primarily bound phenolics. The sensitivity of testate amoebae to weak environmental gradients makes them particularly good integrators of micro-environmental variations and has implications for their use in paleoecology and environmental monitoring. The correlation between testate amoeba communities and the concentration of water-soluble phenolic suggests direct (e.g., physiological) and/or indirect (e.g., through impact on

  4. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013).

  5. Heuristic numerical and analytical models of the hydrologic controls over vertical solute transport in a domed peat bog, Jura Mountains, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Siegel, Donald I.; Shotyk, William; Steinmann, Philipp; Pfunder, Gabriele

    2002-04-01

    We report the results of numerical and analytical simulations to test the hypothesis that downward vertical flow of porewater from the crests of domed alpine and kettle bogs controls vertical porewater distributions of major solutes such as Ca and Mg. The domed Etang de la Gruère bog (EGr), Switzerland, characterized by a vertical downward gradient of 0·04 and stratified layers of peat, is chosen as a field site for the model calibration and evaluation. The middle 4-m section of the 6·5 m thick bog peat is heavily humified and has a hydraulic conductivity of 10-5·6 cm s-1. Above and below, peat is less humified with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-3 cm s-1. Heuristic finite difference simulations, using Visual MODFLOW, of the bog hydraulics show that the higher conductivity peat at the bog base is critical to create the observed deep, local flow cells that substantively recharge porewater.Model results and Peclet number calculations show that before 7000 14C yr BP diffusion of solutes from underlying mineral soils controlled the vertical distribution of porewater chemistry. From 7000 to 1250 14C BP the porewater chemistry was probably controlled by both upward diffusion and downward advection, and after 1250 14C yr BP porewater chemistry was probably controlled by downward advection. Concentrations of conservative major solutes in the porewaters of alpine, ombrotrophic bogs are the net effect of both downward vertical porewater movement and upward vertical diffusion, the magnitudes of which are delicately poised to the configuration of the bog water table over time and subsurface peat stratigraphy.

  6. Combined molecular ecological and confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis of peat bog methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    Upton, M; Hill, B; Edwards, C; Saunders, J R; Ritchie, D A; Lloyd, D

    2000-12-15

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy, using fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16S rRNA of different physiological groups of methanogens, was used to identify which methanogenic genera were present and to describe their in situ spatial locations in samples taken at different depths from blanket peat bog cores. Total bacterial DNA was also extracted and purified from the samples and used as template for amplification of 16S rRNA and regions of methyl CoM reductase-encoding genes using the polymerase chain reaction, as well as for oligonucleotide hybridisation experiments. These techniques, used in concert, demonstrated that methanogens of several physiological groups were present in highest numbers in the mid regions of 25 cm deep peat cores. Some discrepancies were apparent in the findings of the microscopic and molecular methods, though these may be partially accounted for by the different sensitivities of the techniques employed. The combined approaches used in this study gave an insight into the diversity and distribution of methanogens in peat environments not possible using molecular ecological methods alone.

  7. Ecosystem Phenology from Eddy-covariance Measurements: Spring Photosynthesis in a Cool Temperate Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, P.; Moore, T. R.; Poon, D.; Seaquist, J.

    2005-12-01

    The onset and increase of spring photosynthetic flux of carbon dioxide is an important attribute of the carbon budget of northern ecosystems and we used eddy-covariance measurements from March to May over 5 years at the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog to establish the important controls. The onset of ecosystem photosynthesis (day-of-year from 86 to 101) was associated with the disappearance on the snow cover and there is evidence that photosynthesis can continue after a thin new snowfall. The growth of photosynthesis during the spring period was partially associated with light (daily photosynthetically active radiation) but primarily with temperature, with the strongest correlation being observed with peat temperature at a depth of 5 and 10 cm, except in one year in which there was a long snow cover. The vegetation comprises mosses, which are able to photosynthesize very early, evergreen shrubs, which appear dependent on soil warming, and deciduous shrubs, which leaf-out only in late spring. We observed changes in shrub leaf colour from brown to green and concomitant increases in foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations during the spring in this "evergreen" system. We analyzed MODIS images for periods of overlap of tower and satellite data and found a generally strong correlation, though the infrequent satellite measurements were unable to pick out the onset and timing of rapid growth of photosynthesis in this ecosystem.

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Burnt Fly Bog, Marlboro Township, NJ, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area at the Burnt Fly Bog Superfund Site. It addresses contaminated soil present on the three remaining contaminated areas on the Site, including the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Northerly Wetlands; Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Tar Patch Area; Backfilling the excavated area in the Northerly Wetland and reestablishing wetlands; Backfilling the excavated area in the Tar Patch Area and creating wetlands; Provision of additional security fencing around the Westerly Wetlands, and the recording of a Deed Notice for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area; Monitoring of surface water and sediment in the Westerly Wetlands, surface water and sediment in the existing sedimentation basin located in the Downstream Area, and surface water, sediment and, if necessary, biota in Burnt Fly Brook; and Biological sampling in the Westerly Wetlands.

  9. Mycobacterium minnesotense sp. nov., a photochromogenic bacterium isolated from sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Geoffrey D; Krivogorsky, Bogdana; Fordice, Daniel; Welch, Jacqueline B; Dahl, John L

    2013-01-01

    Several intermediate-growing, photochromogenic bacteria were isolated from sphagnum peat bogs in northern Minnesota, USA. Acid-fast staining and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed these environmental isolates in the genus Mycobacterium, and colony morphologies and PCR restriction analysis patterns of the isolates were similar. Partial sequences of hsp65 and dnaJ1 from these isolates showed that Mycobacterium arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T) was the closest mycobacterial relative, and common biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities existed between the isolates and M. arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T). However, compared to nonchromogenic M. arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T), the environmental isolates were photochromogenic, had a different mycolic acid profile and had reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity in liquid culture. The data reported here support the conclusion that the isolates are representatives of a novel mycobacterial species, for which the name Mycobacterium minnesotense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DL49(T) (=DSM 45633(T) = JCM 17932(T) = NCCB 100399(T)).

  10. Atmospheric methane sources - Alaskan tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Grice, S. S.; Bartlett, K. B.; Sebacher, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux measurements from Alaska tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh were obtained at field sites ranging from Prudhoe Bay on the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Alaskan Range south of Fairbanks during August 1984. In the tundra, average CH4 emission rates varied from 4.9 mg CH4 per sq m per day (moist tundra) to 119 mg CH4 per sq m per day (waterlogged tundra). Fluxes averaged 40 mg CH4 per sq m per day from wet tussock meadows in the Brooks Range and 289 mg Ch4 per sq m per day from an alpine fen in the Alaskan Range. The boreal marsh had an average CH4 emission rate of 106 mg CH4 per sq m per day. Significant emissions were detected in tundra areas where peat temperatures were as low as 4 C, and permafrost was only 25 cm below the ground surface. Emission rates from the 17 sites sampled were found to be logarithmically related to water levels at the sites. Extrapolation of the data to an estimate of the total annual CH4 emission from all arctic and boreal wetlands suggests that these ecosystems are a major source of atmospheric CH4 and could account for up to 23 percent of global CH4 emissions from wetlands.

  11. Variation in methane production pathways associated with permafrost decomposition in collapse scar bogs of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, James L.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the distribution of methanogenic pathways at permafrost collapse scar bogs to test the hypothesis that microbial respiration and methane production are stimulated by the input of organic matter associated with permafrost degradation and collapse. An alternative hypothesis is that recently assimilated carbon produced by the fen-like vegetation (Carex, Eriophorum) growing in open water moats formed by the collapsing edge of these features stimulates microbial respiration. We found that CO2 reduction was the dominant pathway for methanogenesis within the Sphagnum areas that dominate the surface cover of these features, but relatively more acetate fermentation occurred near collapse scar moats. Methane emission and net CO2 uptake were correlated. Both were elevated in collapse scar moats and then decreased along a transect from the moats toward the center Sphagnum-dominated areas. There also appeared to be a shift toward relatively more acetate fermentation in deeper samples associated with increasing cation (calcium and magnesium) concentrations. Our results indicate that organic inputs from permafrost degradation alone do not appear to stimulate acetate fermentation. Permafrost decomposition provides conditions along the collapsing edge that are conducive to colonization by fen-like vegetation that stimulates acetate fermentation and increases methane production and emission rates.

  12. Methanoregula boonei gen. nov., sp. nov., an acidiphilic methanogen isolated from an acidic peat bog.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, Suzanna L; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Ward, Rebekah J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H

    2011-01-01

    A novel acidiphilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, designated strain 6A8(T), was isolated from an acidic (pH 4.0-4.5) and ombrotrophic (rain-fed) bog located near Ithaca, NY, USA. Cultures were dimorphic, containing thin rods (0.2-0.3 μm in diameter and 0.8-3.0 μm long) and irregular cocci (0.2-0.8 μm in diameter). The culture utilized H(2)/CO(2) to produce methane but did not utilize formate, acetate, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, butanol or trimethylamine. Optimal growth conditions were near pH 5.1 and 35 °C. The culture grew in basal medium containing as little as 0.43 mM Na(+) and growth was inhibited completely by 50 mM NaCl. To our knowledge, strain 6A8(T) is one of the most acidiphilic (lowest pH optimum) and salt-sensitive methanogens in pure culture. Acetate, coenzyme M, vitamins and yeast extract were required for growth. It is proposed that a new genus and species be established for this organism, Methanoregula boonei gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Methanoregula boonei is 6A8(T) (=DSM 21154(T) =JCM 14090(T)).

  13. Export of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Today, nearly all peatlands in Germany are drained for agriculture, forestry and peat cutting. The export of dissolved organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) may be important for the overall C and N balances and affects downstream ecosystems. While drainage generally increases solute losses, there is nearly no C and N export data of raised bogs in Germany which can be used to evaluate both the impact of drainage associated with intensive land use and the re-wetting of peat cutting sites. In the "Ahlenmoor" (North-Western Germany), four sampling points were chosen. Three sampling points represent a deeply drained intensively used grassland at various scales ranging from a drainage pipe (DP, 0.08 ha) and a drainage ditch (DD, 6.8 ha) to a collector ditch (CD, 20 ha). The fourth sampling point (RW) is a former peat cutting site (23 ha) re-wetted 10 years ago. At this site, polder technique was used to establish water tables at the soil surface. Sampling and discharge measurements were conducted bi-weekly from June 2011 to June 2013. Water table levels were recorded with automatic pressure sensors, and rating curves between discharge and water levels were used to calculate continuous discharge values. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO42-), pH, electric conductivity (EC) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The discharge did not vary strongly between the sampling points and was slightly lower in the second year. Concentrations of all measured solutes were higher at the intensive grassland (DP, DD and CD) than at the re-wetted site. Surprisingly, SUVA showed no difference between all sites, while the DOC to DON ratio was narrower at DP, DD and CD than at RW. This indicates an export of more degraded dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the drained area. At the grassland sites, no statistical differences were found between the three scales

  14. Optimisation strategies introduced for CR at health care centres in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Kalle; Vladimirov, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, starting from 2001, conventional film-screen radiography has been rapidly replaced by digital (mostly by computed radiography, CR) techniques in Estonia. New strategies for optimisation and quality assurance for digital radiography have been introduced by the DIMOND III and SENTINEL partners recently. It includes consideration to diagnostic requirements of a given clinical situation, but also objectivation and standardisation of image quality, e.g. using CDRAD test phantom, and constancy testing. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of an automatic exposure control (AEC) at different sensitivities when used with the Fujifilm CR system. Image quality, using threshold contrast-detail detectability (TCDD) and signal-to-noise ratio squared related to dose (SNR2/D), was also investigated for different sensitivities and tube potential values for this combination. Based on the image evaluation data, optimum speed modes for the organ programme settings have been proposed.

  15. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  16. Cryptosporidiosis – an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic transmission from calves to humans. Conclusion Cryptosporidiosis presents an occupational risk to people with cattle contact, and may also be a risk to the human population in general. Thus increased public and medical awareness is warranted. PMID:24902957

  17. Composition of essential oil of aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Sepp, Janne; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati; Arak, Elmar; Raal, Ain

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.) growing wild in Estonia, were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. Forty-four components were identified, representing over 90% of the total oil. Nine compounds have not been mentioned in the literature before. The principal biologically active compounds in C. suaveolens oils were (Z)-en-yne-dicycloether (17.0-40.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (19.5-32.2%), geranyl isovaleriate (8.4-18.4%), palmitic acid (0.3-9.4%) and myrcene (1.1-7.9%). The investigation seems to approve the benefit of using aerial parts of pineapple weed as the substitute for flowers.

  18. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    PubMed

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected.

  19. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  20. Assessment of potential hazards during the process of house building in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, Sergei; Lang, Iina; Rjazanov, Vladislav; Muzyka, Vladimir; Tuulik, Viiu; Vitak, Anu

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate new working conditions in the construction industry in Estonia. Three construction sites were investigated: a dwelling house at the stage of renovation, a warehouse at the stage of excavation and preparation work, and a hotel, where we examined the working conditions of the finishers. Microclimate: air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined at every workplace. Full-shift personal exposure measurements of dust and gas exposure were performed among 97 construction workers in breathing zone air. The concentration of lead in the air was analysed by AAS. Vapours of benzene, styrene and toluene concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The noise level was measured with the help of the sound-level meter at every workplace. All microclimatic indices were sometimes below or above exposure standards for indoor work. High levels of airborne dust and increased concentrations of lead were observed during repair work. Low concentrations of organic solvents in the air were determined when using paints and some synthetic substances. The noise level exceeded the permitted limit when an excavator and powerful electric appliances were used. A questionnaire determined the prevalence of subjectively experienced musculoskeletal strain in 30% of workers. The working conditions in the construction industry in Estonia are approaching European level. However, it is necessary to improve working conditions permanently by the use of new harmless materials, personal protective equipment, and through influencing worker health by permanent education and medical watch. We consider that questionnaires are very important in the control of the work environment, in subjective health assessments, and as a source of useful proposals to improve working conditions.

  1. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  2. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-04-05

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  3. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Estonia: an estimate based on rheumatology patients' database.

    PubMed

    Otsa, K; Tammaru, M; Vorobjov, S; Esko, M; Pärsik, E; Lang, K

    2013-04-01

    Sound epidemiological data are a basic requirement for decision making on the allocation of health care resources. Unfortunately, this is not the case in Estonia, where the paucity of epidemiological data has impeded health care planning for rheumatic conditions. The current paper presents the first effort to explore the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Estonia. Electronic databases of all rheumatology units of Harju County, three national and one private, were searched for the records of RA (ICD-10 diagnoses M05 and M06.0) patients who had visited a rheumatologist during 2006 or 2007. Prevalence of RA was calculated for the age 20 years and older and for subsets according to age and gender, using the numbers from the patients' database in the numerator and the corresponding population numbers in the denominator. The total number of prevalent RA cases was 1,897, of which 85 % (n = 1,605) were women. The overall crude period prevalence 2006-2007 of RA in Harju County for the age group 20 years and older was 0.46 %. RA prevalence for both sexes increased with age until the age of 70-79 years and decreased subsequently. Prevalence of RA was significantly higher for women compared with men in all age groups. The prevalence of RA among women and men 20 years and older was 0.70 % (6.68-7.37) and 0.16 % (1.42, 1.79), respectively. Age-standardized (European population) prevalence rate was 0.44 %. The results are concordant with epidemiological data on RA prevalence derived recently in other European countries.

  4. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  5. Brief communication: Two and three-dimensional analysis of bone mass and microstructure in a bog body from the Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Arndt F; Kummer, Tobias; Marshall, Robert P; Bauerochse, Andreas; Jopp, Eilin; Pueschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Human remains from peat bogs, called "bog bodies," have yielded valuable insights into human history because of their excellent preservation of soft tissue. On the other hand, the acidic environment of the peat leads to an extensive demineralization of skeletal elements, complicating their analysis. We studied the skeleton of the bog body "Moora" dated to approximately 650 B.C. Nondestructive evaluation of the bone was made using contact X-rays, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) analysis, multislice computed tomography (CT) and high resolution micro computed tomography (microCT) imaging. Two thousand seven hundred years in the acidic environment of the bog led to a loss of 92.7% of bone mineral density. Despite this demineralization and in contrast to other bog bodies, the spatial structure of the bones of "Moora" is exceptionally well preserved. We found Harris lines and were able to obtain the first three-dimensional data on the trabecular microstructure of the bone of a young woman from the early Iron Age.

  6. Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 μmol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 μmol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2

  7. Vegetation drives belowground biogeochemical gradients and C accumulation in an ombrotrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Galka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Peat decomposition and C accumulation is determined by hydrology and climate and by concomitant changes in vegetation and changes in the quality of carbon inputs. Especially changes from moss dominated to vascular plant dominated vegetation affect belowground biogeochemistry and decomposition, as Sphagnum mosses provide refractory, nutrient poor litter, while vascular plants produce more labile litter and may have aerenchymatic rooting systems. In-site variability in moisture and vegetation, e.g. hummock-hollow structures, lawns, and medium scale surface topography, could thus cause large differences in decomposition and C accumulation within a site. In order to understand within-site variability and to see how C accumulation, common decomposition indices, and major biogeochemical parameters in the pore waters are affected by site specific conditions and vegetation, we investigated a moisture-vegetation gradient along a 800 m transect in an oceanic, ombrotrophic bog in Southern Patagonia. Along the transect, conditions changed from wet, Sphagnum dominated (S. magellanicum), to intermediate drier and wetter with Sphagnum/shrubs mixtures, sedges and rushes to more wind exposed, dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). We hypothesized that under arenchymatic vascular plants, decomposition is enhanced and C accumulation is decreased. Vegetation development was elucidated by plant macrofossils and carbon accumulation was attributed to the respective vegetation. The transect demonstrated a high variability of depth records within the bog. At the two most contrasting sites, the uppermost 1 meter persistently dominated by either Sphagnum magellanicum or Astelia pumila had accumulated over 2400 or 4200 years, respectively. Accordingly, the peat under cushion plants was much more decomposed, with C/N ratios of 20-50 compared to C/N ratios of 40-80 under Sphagnum patches. Mixed sites in between had C/N ratios of 30-90, depending on plant community, and

  8. Variations of 18O/ 16O in plants from temperate peat bogs (Switzerland): implications for paleoclimatic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménot-Combes, Guillemette; Burns, Stephen J.; Leuenberger, Markus

    2002-09-01

    Despite the great potential of peat bogs as climatic archives, to date only few studies have focused on the climatic controls on cellulose isotopic composition in modern bog plants. This study attempts to calibrate plant-climate relationships by sampling a set of modern plant species (both vascular plants and mosses) and bog surface waters along an altitude transect in Switzerland. Isotopic analyses of water samples show that the δ 18O-values of surface bog waters follow the trend of precipitation despite significant scatter in the data set. Detailed sampling of surface waters within one bog shows that δ 18O-values vary widely and are closely related to the micro-topography of the bog surface. More enriched 18O/ 16O ratios in water samples collected from small raised hummocks than the ones collected from hollows are documented in both horizontal and vertical profiles. A δ 18O-δD plot indicates that the process leading to the isotopic enrichment of the uppermost surface waters is evaporation, greater above Sphagnum covered hummocks than above open pools. To investigate the implications of such high variability of source water for plant α-cellulose δ 18O-values, a detailed study of both surface water and α-cellulose δ 18O-values within one site is conducted. The large δ 18O variability observed in surface waters is found to be considerably smoothed in α-cellulose (by a factor of 5-10 depending on the plant species). This indicates that the water used by plant photosynthetic processes reflects the isotopic composition of the average annual precipitation. This points to a source water level for plants of a few decimeters where the variations are smaller than at the air-water interface. The response of the α-cellulose δ 18O to the environmental gradient along the altitude transect varies considerably from species to species. For most of the species studied, the δ 18O-values decrease with altitude, following the trends of δ 18O-values in precipitation and

  9. Transient modelling of water-table variation in a floodplain wetland, Narborough Bog, Leicestershire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the application of a transient three-dimensional groundwater model to simulate water flux through a floodplain wetland, Narborough Bog, in Central England. The results of a programme of water-table monitoring are summarised to indicate the extent of water-table fluctuation, and experiments to determine hydraulic flow parameters are detailed. Hydraulic conductivities of deposits are highly variable; observations were in the range 1.16 × 10 -3-4.63 × 10 -2 cm s -1 for herbaceous peat, 1.16 10 -4 cm s -1 for wood peat, and 9.14 × 10 -6-3.36 × 10 -8 cm s -1 for silty clay. A three-layer groundwater model of the wetland is developed using MODFLOW from these initial values, and with stratigraphic data obtained by hand augering. The model is calibrated using data for two periods of recharge from precipitation by adjusting specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity within prescribed limits. The accuracy of the model is then assessed by comparing daily model predictions of water-table response to potential evapotranspiration at specific monitoring points. Model, results demonstrate the importance of variation in hydraulic characteristics with depth in wetlands, thus emphasizing the dependence of water-table response upon water-table position, and preceding moisture conditions. The resulting water-table configuration reflects the balance between horizontal and lateral water flow through the wetland, and its relationship to river stage. The success of the stratigraphic representation is considered and its general applicability evaluated. Finally, the use of the calibrated model for local hydrological management is considered, and the effects on the wetland water budget of varying river stage by specified amounts are examined.

  10. Hydrological responses to managed burning and grazing in an upland blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Gareth D.; Worrall, Fred; Clark, Emma; Fraser, Evan D. G.

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThe management of the UK uplands by rotational burning and grazing is a widespread practice that aims to control the development of vegetation in order to create suitable habitats for grouse and sheep. By modifying the above ground biomass it is possible that above and/or below ground hydrological regimes may be altered. This study investigates the effect burning has on various hydrological parameters of an upland blanket bog. The study was conducted on a long-term experimental site examining different combinations of managed burning and grazing intensities. The study has found that: Although depth to water table shows strong seasonal trends, the shallowest water tables were found on those sites that were burnt every 20 years and grazed by sheep. The deepest water tables were found on those sites that had never been burnt. In the year following a managed burn, water tables on those sites that were burnt were significantly shallower than before the burn. Hydraulic conductivity, as determined by dipwell slug tests, was found to be significantly lower on those plots that were burnt every 20 years. Runoff occurrence was recorded and occurred at a significantly greater frequency on those sites that had recently been burnt. By using antecedent weather conditions, significant parameters were found that could be used to model runoff generation. This paper demonstrates how the use of managed burning in upland settings can affect various hydrological responses of the peatland. These variations in hydrological response will have important consequences on DOC export through changes in water table and the partitioning of precipitation into runoff.

  11. Modeling seasonal to annual carbon balance of Mer Bleue Bog, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolking, Steve; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Bubier, Jill L.; Crill, Patrick M.

    2002-07-01

    Northern peatlands contain enormous quantities of organic carbon within a few meters of the atmosphere and play a significant role in the planetary carbon balance. We have developed a new, process-oriented model of the contemporary carbon balance of northern peatlands, the Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS). Components of PCARS are (1) vascular and nonvascular plant photosynthesis and respiration, net aboveground and belowground production, and litterfall; (2) aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of peat; (3) production, oxidation, and emission of methane; and (4) dissolved organic carbon loss with drainage water. PCARS has an hourly time step and requires air and soil temperatures, incoming radiation, water table depth, and horizontal drainage as drivers. Simulations predict a complete peatland C balance for one season to several years. A 3-year simulation was conducted for Mer Bleue Bog, near Ottawa, Ontario, and results were compared with multiyear eddy covariance tower CO2 flux and ancillary measurements from the site. Seasonal patterns and the general magnitude of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 were similar for PCARS and the tower data, though PCARS was generally biased toward net ecosystem respiration (i.e., carbon loss). Gross photosynthesis rates (calculated directly in PCARS, empirically inferred from tower data) were in good accord, so the discrepancy between model and measurement was likely related to autotrophic and/or heterotrophic respiration. Modeled and measured methane emission rates were quite low. PCARS has been designed to link with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) land surface model and a global climate model (GCM) to examine climate-peatland carbon feedbacks at regional scales in future analyses.

  12. Responses of Bog Vegetation and CO2 Exchange to Experimental N and PK Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juutinen, S.; Bubier, J. L.; Shrestha, P.; Smith, R.; Moore, T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to alter the structure and functioning of nutrient poor wetland ecosystems. It is important to quantify the effect of N input on ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration in these globally important C storages. We address this issue at the temperate Mer Bleue bog, ON, Canada. After 6 years of experimental fertilization, we saw that high N deposition can change mixed Sphagnum and dwarf shrub dominated communities to taller and denser dwarf shrub communities that are losing moss cover, and which might have even lower net C uptake. Now, after 8 years of fertilization and with new treatments we quantify the relationship between the plant community structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange. Three levels of N fertilization were applied with or without phosphorus and potassium (PK) into triplicate plots. We measured light saturated net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), and its components ecosystem respiration and gross photosynthesis using clear and dark chambers (May-August). Vegetation characteristics were quantified by measuring foliage cover (LAI), amount of woody and foliar biomass, and abundance of moss species (point interception technique), moss growth (cranked wires) and green area of vascular leaves and moss. Addition of PK fertilizer did not alter NEE or its components relative to the control. The 8-year low N addition alone and with PK, and the 4-year fertilization with high N levels resulted in the highest net ecosystem CO2 uptake relative to the control. The ecosystem respiration increased with increasing N input rate. All levels of N fertilization resulted in higher gross photosynthesis than the control, but there was no increasing trend with increasing N input. Vascular foliage increased, while moss cover drastically decreased with increasing levels of N fertilization. At the highest level of N (and PK) addition woody biomass increased at the expense of leaf increment. Dependencies of ecosystem CO2 exchange on the

  13. Paenibacillus frigoriresistens sp. nov., a novel psychrotroph isolated from a peat bog in Heilongjiang, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ming, Hong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Feng, Hui-Gen; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-08-01

    A novel cold-resistant bacterium, designated YIM 016(T), was isolated from a peat bog sample collected from Mohe County, Heilongjiang Province, Northern China and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, motile and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence clearly revealed that strain YIM 016(T) is a member of the genus Paenibacillus. The strain is closely related to Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050(T), Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051(T) and Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138(T) with similarities of 99.0 %, 97.0 % and 96.3 %, respectively. Meanwhile, the low DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain YIM 016(T) and its closely related phylogenetic neighbours demonstrated that this isolate represents a new genomic species in the genus Paenibacillus. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic tests showed that growth of strain YIM 016(T) occurred at 4-37 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5 % (w/v). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. The whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose, galactose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 016(T) was 51.7 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain YIM 016(T) could be clearly distinguished from other species of the genus Paenibacillus. It is therefore concluded that strain YIM 016(T) represents a novel species in the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus frigoriresistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 016(T) (= CCTCC AB 2011150(T) = JCM 18141(T)).

  14. Bog bilberry anthocyanin extract improves motor functional recovery by multifaceted effects in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Chuan; Rong, Wei; Jing, Hao; Hu, Xing; Liu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Liang; Wei, Feng; Liu, Zhongjun

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficiency of bog bilberry anthocyanin extract (BBAE) treatment starting 1 d after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The BBAE contained cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside and malvidin-3-glucoside. SCI models were induced using the weight-drop method in Sprague-Dawley rats and additionally with sham group (laminectomy only). The animals were divided into four groups: vehicle-treated group; 10 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; 20 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; sham group. BBAE-treated or vehicle-treated group was administered orally at one day after SCI and then daily for 8 weeks. Locomotor functional recovery was assessed during the 8 weeks post operation period by performing a Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score test. At the end of study, the animals were killed, and 1.5 cm segments of spinal cord encompassing the injury site were removed for immunohistochemistry, histopathological and western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP, aggrecan, neurocan and NeuN was used to assess the degree of astrocytic glial scar formation and neuron survival. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β was used to evaluate the anti-inflammation effect of BBAE. To evaluate its inhibition effect on the astrocytes, we performed the MTT assay and immunohistochemistry for Ki67 in vitro. Results show that the BBAE-treated animals showed significantly better locomotor functional recovery, neuron death and smaller glial scar formation after spinal cord injury in vivo. In addition, BBAE administration could inhibit astrocyte proliferation in vivo and vitro. Therefore, BBAE may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for SCI.

  15. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  17. Spatio-temporal natural and anthropogenic environmental variability during the last 1500yrs in an ombrotrophic bog (East Belgium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Allan, Mohammed; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Gerrienne, Philippe; Streel, Maurice; Luthers, Cédric; Hindrycks, Marie-Noëlle; Wastiaux, Cécile; Leclercq, Louis

    2010-05-01

    Peatlands cover ca. 3 % of the Earth's surface and provide crucial continental archives for deciphering past climatic changes and anthropogenic impacts on decadal to millennial timescales. Numerous studies have demonstrated that peat bogs are excellent archives to investigate past environmental and ecological changes during the Holocene. Studies which focus on intra-site variability at high resolution are rare however, despite their potential to provide constraints on the reliability of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and the influence of micro-scale variability. Such variability must be taken into account in any peatland restoration process linked with recent environmental changes, particularly human-derived impact such as peat cutting, drainage and tree cultivation. Four 1m-long Wardenaar monoliths were retrieved from the Misten bog (Hautes-Fagnes, East Belgium). The cores were investigated using chronological (radiocarbon AMS dating of plant macrofossils, 210Pb age modelling), biological (macrofossils, pollen content, testate amoebae), organic (humification level) and geochemical proxies (major and trace geochemistry, Nd and Pb isotopes). The aims of this research were to: (1) to assess whether the bog vegetation and other environmental indicators have changed simultaneously in time and space, (2) identify the most sensitive palaeoenvironmental indicator(s) and (3) assess to what extent variation in peat accumulation rates affects the record of each proxy. Preliminary interpretations show great variability (up to 50%) in peat development on a decimetre depth-scale as assessed by the variation in peat palynological and macrofossils zones from one core to another. In addition, our recent high-resolution records of environmental change have high applied palaeoecological value since they can be used to inform conservation management (‘natural' changes in the composition of the peat forming vegetation and the range of water table depth variability over a

  18. Ombrotrophic peat bogs are not suited as natural archives to investigate the historical atmospheric deposition of perfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Thuens, Sabine; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-17

    As ombrotrophic peat bogs receive only atmospheric input of contaminants, they have been identified as suitable natural archives for investigating historical depositions of airborne pollutants. To elucidate their suitability for determining the historical atmospheric contamination with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), two peat cores were sampled at Mer Bleue, a bog located close to Ottawa, Canada. Peat cores were segmented, dried, and analyzed in duplicate for 25 PFASs (5 perfluororalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), 7 perfluororalkyl sulfonamido substances). Peat samples were extracted by ultrasonication, cleaned up using a QuEChERS method, and PFASs were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Twelve PFCAs and PFSAs were detected regularly in peat samples with perfluorooctane sulfonate (85-655 ng kg(-1)), perfluorooctanoate (150-390 ng kg(-1)), and perfluorononanoate (45-320 ng kg(-1)) at highest concentrations. Because of post depositional relocation processes within the peat cores, true or unbiased deposition fluxes (i.e., not affected by post depositional changes) could not be calculated. Apparent or biased deposition rates (i.e., affected by post depositional changes) were lower than measured/calculated deposition rates for similar urban or near-urban sites. Compared to PFAS production, PFAS concentration and deposition maxima were shifted about 30 years toward the past and some analytes were detected even in the oldest segments from the beginning of the 20th century. This was attributed to PFAS mobility in the peat profile. Considerable differences were observed between both peat cores and different PFASs. Overall, this study demonstrates that ombrotrophic bogs are not suited natural archives to provide authentic and reliable temporal trend data of historical atmospheric PFAS deposition.

  19. [Analysis of genetic structure and differentiation of the bog and dry land populations of Pinus sibirica du tour based on nuclear microsatellite loci].

    PubMed

    Oreshkova, N V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Pimenov, A V; Efremov, S P

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the population structure of the bog and dry land populations of the Siberian pine Pinus sibirica (P. sibrica) in Western Siberia using nuclear genome markers. Six pairs of nuclear microsatellite loci were used for this analysis. We detected 30 allelic variants in 120 individuals of four populations of P. Sibirica. We established that the studied populations differ by genetic structure. The most essential differences were identified between the Siberian pine population from oligotrophic bog and the group of populations from dry land within eutrophic bogs and near settlements P. sibirica forest (F(ST) = 0.019; D(N) = 0.053). We estimated that diversification of the West Siberian populations of P. sibirica exceeded 2.4% (F(ST) = 0.024), based on an analysis of SSR markers.

  20. Risk for Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among Non-Injecting Female Partners of Injection Drug Users in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Kals, M; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Rüütel, K; Des Jarlais, D C

    2013-03-01

    The HIV epidemic in Estonia, as with other eastern European countries, is currently concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners could serve as a potential bridge in an expanding epidemic. We applied HIV transmission modelling to data collected from non-IDU/IDU heterosexual couples in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia to estimate HIV risk from IDUs to their sex partners based on self-reported sexual behaviors shared by the couple. IDUs and their current main non-injecting sex partners were recruited for an interviewer-administered survey and HIV testing. Bernoulli modelling techniques were applied to estimate the risk of HIV transmission (incidence) among HIV negative non-injecting female partners of male IDUs. The estimated HIV incidence in this population of non-injecting women with only main sexual partners in the last 6 months ranged from 3.24 to 4.94 HIV seroconversions per 100 person years depending on the value used in the models for the per act transmission rate during acute stage infection. Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners are at high risk for HIV and could serve as a potential bridge to a more generalized epidemic. Whether this might lead to an expansion of the HIV epidemic beyond core groups in Estonia or other Eastern European countries warrants closer study.

  1. Modeling CH4 and CO2 cycling using porewater stable isotopes in a thermokarst bog, interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Blazewicz, S.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Methane emitted from wetlands represents the end product of various microbial processes operating within anaerobic wetland soils. Determining the rate at which these microbial reactions occur is challenging, making it difficult to gain a mechanistic understanding of the factors and conditions that influence microbial rates and ultimately methane emissions. One approach for estimating in-situ reaction rates involves tracking the time evolution of porewater concentrations and stable carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2. Microbes preferentially use isotopically light carbon substrates, which causes the carbon product pool to become isotopically lighter and the carbon substrate pool become isotopically heavier. Different microbial biochemical pathways fractionate carbon to different extents, allowing for differentiation between microbial reactions. This is a powerful approach to estimate in-situ rates, but, as we show in our presentation, it is possible for different combinations of reaction rates to provide equally good fits to the evolution of these data. The solution is non-unique and depends on the set of considered reactions. We used two different reaction network models on a set of porewater data collected from a thermokarst bog at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) outside of Fairbanks, AK to estimate in-situ microbial reaction rates during the summer season. Both models included methane production, methane oxidation and fermentation/respiration, but only one model included homoacetogenesis. We found that both reaction networks explained the evolution of dissolved gas concentrations and stable carbon isotope data, but predicted rates that differed from each other by up to a factor of six. The methane production rates estimated by the model that included homoacetogenesis aligned better with measured rates of methane emission. Despite differences in the magnitude of modeled rates, results from the two models told a similar story about the spatial and temporal

  2. Soil data for a collapse-scar bog chronosequence in Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2012-01-01

    Peatlands in the northern permafrost region store large amounts of organic carbon, most of which is currently stored in frozen peat deposits. Recent warming at high-latitudes has accelerated permafrost thaw in peatlands, which will likely result in the loss of soil organic carbon from previously frozen peat deposits to the atmosphere. Here, we report soil organic carbon inventories, soil physical data, and field descriptions from a collapse-scar bog chronosequence located in a peatland ecosystem at Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska.

  3. Holocene Landscape Dynamics in the Ammer Rv. Catchment (Bavarian Alps) - Influence of extreme weather events and land use on soil erosion using peat bogs as geoarchives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Manthe, Pierre; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation and the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by erosion events significantly influence soils and fertility as parts of the ecosystem services and play an important role with regard to global carbon dynamics. Soil erosion is strongly correlated with anthropogenic land use since the Neolithic Revolution around 8.000 BP. Likewise the effect of extreme weather events on soil erosion is of great interest with regard to the recent climate change debate, predicting a strong increase of extreme weather events. Aim of this study is the reconstruction of the Holocene landscape dynamic as influenced by land use and climate conditions. In this study peat bogs containing layers of colluvial sediments directly correlated to soil erosion were used as geoarchives for landscape dynamics. A temporal classification of extreme erosion events was established by dating organic material via 14C within both, colluvial layers as well as their direct peat surroundings. Detection and characterization of peat bogs containing colluvial sediments was based on geomorphological mapping, the application of geophysical methods (ERT - electrical resistivity tomography, GPR - ground penetrating radar) and core soundings. Laboratory analysis included the analysis of particle sizes and the content of organic material. We investigated 16 peat bogs following the altitudinal gradient of the Ammer River from alpine and subalpine towards lowland environments. A deposition of colluvial material could be detected in 4 peat bogs, all situated in the lower parts of the catchment. The minerogenic entry into peat bogs occurred throughout the Holocene as revealed by radiocarbon dating. A distinct cluster of erosional events e.g. during the little ice age could not be detected. Therefore, soil erosion dynamics and the appearance of colluvial sediments within peat bogs must rather be regarded as an effect of land use, actually farming and crop cultivation, or small-scale morphodynamic like

  4. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  5. A preliminary classification of wetland plant communities in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1973-01-01

    A classification of wetland plant communities was developed for a study area in north-central Minnesota in order to analyze data on waterfowl use of habitat that were gathered by radio telemetry. The classification employs features of several earlier classifications in addition to new classes for bogs and lakeshore communities. Brief descriptions are given for each community, and the important plant species are listed. Discriminant function analysis was used for 40 plant species. Seventy-five percent of the stands studied were classified correctly by this technique. Average probabilities of assignment to communities were calculated and helped to identify distinct and poorly defined communities as well as the relationship among communities.

  6. [Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum from the soil of a Sphagnum peat bog].

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, E V; Bulygina, E S; Spiridonova, E M; Turova, T P; Kravchenko, I K

    2007-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum in the soils of acidic raised Sphagnum bogs is revealed for the first time. Three Azospirillum strains, B2, B21, and B22, were isolated as a component of methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures, whereas attempts to isolate them directly from peat samples have failed. The results of comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes, DNA-DNA hybridization, and the analysis of the sequences of the functional genes encoding nitrogenase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase reveal that all the newly obtained strains can be classified as Azospirillum lipoferum. Yet, unlike A. lipoferum. the isolates do not require biotin and utilize sucrose, inositol, and glycerol for growth. The cell morphology of strain B2 differs from that of the type strain and strains B21 and B22. The results obtained indicate the variability of morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties in closely related Azospirillum strains and suggest the existence of metabolic relationships between methanotrophic bacteria and the representatives of the genus Azospirillum under peat bog conditions.

  7. Holocene vegetation and climate change recorded in alpine bog sediments from the Borreguiles de la Virgen, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Anderson, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution pollen and magnetic susceptibility (MS) analyses have been carried out on a sediment core taken from a high-elevation alpine bog area located in Sierra Nevada, southern Spain. The earliest part of the record, from 8200 to about 7000 cal yr BP, is characterized by the highest abundance of arboreal pollen and Pediastrum, indicating the warmest and wettest conditions in the area at that time. The pollen record shows a progressive aridification since 7000 cal yr BP that occurred in two steps, first shown by a decrease in Pinus, replaced by Poaceae from 7000 to 4600 cal yr BP and then by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Amaranthaceae from 4600 to 1200 cal yr BP. Pediastrum also decreased progressively and totally disappeared at ca. 3000 yr ago. The progressive aridification is punctuated by periodically enhanced drought at ca. 6500, 5200 and 4000 cal yr BP that coincide in timing and duration with well-known dry events in the Mediterranean and other areas. Since 1200 cal yr BP, several changes are observed in the vegetation that probably indicate the high-impact of humans in the Sierra Nevada, with pasturing leading to nutrient enrichment and eutrophication of the bog, Pinus reforestation and Olea cultivation at lower elevations.

  8. Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs and fens.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Carl P; Gauci, Vincent; Watson, Jonathan S; Blake, Stephen; Beerling, David J

    2011-12-01

    Wetlands were the largest source of atmospheric methane (CH(4) ) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the sensitivity of this source to exceptionally low atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2) ]) at the time has not been examined experimentally. We tested the hypothesis that LGM atmospheric [CO(2) ] reduced CH(4) emissions as a consequence of decreased photosynthate allocation to the rhizosphere. We exposed minerotrophic fen and ombrotrophic bog peatland mesocosms to simulated LGM (c. 200 ppm) or ambient (c. 400 ppm) [CO(2) ] over 21 months (n = 8 per treatment) and measured gaseous CH(4) flux, pore water dissolved CH(4) and volatile fatty acid (VFA; an indicator of plant carbon supply to the rhizosphere) concentrations. Cumulative CH(4) flux from fen mesocosms was suppressed by 29% (P < 0.05) and rhizosphere pore water [CH(4) ] by c. 50% (P < 0.01) in the LGM [CO(2) ], variables that remained unaffected in bog mesocosms. VFA analysis indicated that changes in plant root exudates were not the driving mechanism behind these results. Our data suggest that the LGM [CO(2) ] suppression of wetland CH(4) emissions is contingent on trophic status. The heterogeneous response may be attributable to differences in species assemblage that influence the dominant CH(4) production pathway, rhizosphere supplemented photosynthesis and CH(4) oxidation.

  9. Retention of As and Sb in ombrotrophic peat bogs: records of As, Sb, and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites

    SciTech Connect

    Joanna M. Cloy; John G. Farmer; Margaret C. Graham; Angus B. MacKenzie

    2009-03-15

    Possible postdepositional As migration in ombrotrophic peat bogs was investigated by comparing depth profiles of As with those of Sb and Pb, two elements considered to be essentially immobile in peat, and those of redox-sensitive, potentially mobile nutrient elements such as Mn, Fe, P, and S in {sup 210}Pb-dated cores from four Scottish bogs. Concentration profiles of As were similar to those of Sb and Pb rather than these other elements, indicating that As is bound strongly to organic matter and is relatively immobile in ombrotrophic peat. Historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition during the industrial and postindustrial periods were derived, site-specific maxima (up to 1.55, 1.33, and 45 mg m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively) occurring between the late 1890s and 1960s, reflecting emissions from diverse sources such as mining and smelting, coal combustion, and also, in the case of Pb, exhaust emissions from the use of leaded gasoline. Since the mid-1980s, fluxes of Pb decreased (4-7 fold) more rapidly than those of As and Sb (2-3 fold), attributable to both the gradual elimination of leaded gasoline and recent new sources of the latter elements. Relative trends in derived anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition largely agreed with other Scottish peat and moss archive records, direct measurements of deposition, and UK emissions, i.e., four different types of data source. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-04

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  11. Contrasting species-environment relationships in communities of testate amoebae, bryophytes and vascular plants along the fen-bog gradient.

    PubMed

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; van der Knaap, Willem O; Gabka, Maciej; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2010-04-01

    We studied the vegetation, testate amoebae and abiotic variables (depth of the water table, pH, electrical conductivity, Ca and Mg concentrations of water extracted from mosses) along the bog to extremely rich fen gradient in sub-alpine peatlands of the Upper Engadine (Swiss Alps). Testate amoeba diversity was correlated to that of mosses but not of vascular plants. Diversity peaked in rich fen for testate amoebae and in extremely rich fen for mosses, while for testate amoebae and mosses it was lowest in bog but for vascular plants in extremely rich fen. Multiple factor and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed a stronger correlation of testate amoebae than of vegetation to water table and hydrochemical variables and relatively strong correlation between testate amoeba and moss community data. In RDA, hydrochemical variables explained a higher proportion of the testate amoeba and moss data than water table depth. Abiotic variables explained a higher percentage of the species data for testate amoebae (30.3% or 19.5% for binary data) than for mosses (13.4%) and vascular plants (10%). These results show that (1) vascular plant, moss and testate amoeba communities respond differently to ecological gradients in peatlands and (2) testate amoebae are more strongly related than vascular plants to the abiotic factors at the mire surface. These differences are related to vertical trophic gradients and associated niche differentiation.

  12. Storage and behavior of As, Sb, Pb, and Cu in ombrotrophic peat bogs under contrasting water table conditions.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, James J; Taylor, Kevin G; Chenery, Simon R N; Cundy, Andrew B; Evans, Martin G; Allott, Timothy E H

    2010-11-15

    Concentration depth profiles and inventories of solid-phase As, Sb, Pb, and Cu were determined in ²¹⁰Pb-dated cores from an ombrotrophic peat bog in northwest England. Cores were collected from the peat dome and adjacent to an eroding gully. Down-core distributions of As, Sb, Pb, and Cu in the dome core are almost identical. The water table is close to the dome surface with only short-term draw-down. Under these conditions, As, Sb, Pb, and Cu are immobile, allowing the reconstruction of trends in historical contaminant deposition. The peak in atmospheric deposition of As, Sb, Pb, and Cu (4.59, 2.78, 147, and 26.7 mg m⁻² y⁻¹, respectively) occurred during the late 19th century. Stable Pb isotope ratios reveal that Pb deposition during this period was from indigenous and foreign sources. The mean water table is much lower at the gully edge, and there are pronounced interannual fluctuations. These conditions have not affected the integrity of the Pb and Cu records but have caused postdepositional mobilization and redistribution of As and Sb. Cumulative inventories show significant loss of As and Sb at the gully edge site. Long-term water table draw-down in ombrotrophic peat bogs has the potential to alter the geochemistry and fate of previously deposited As and Sb.

  13. Historical accumulation rates of mercury in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs over the past 2000 years.

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Anderson, Peter; Cloy, Joanna M; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Cook, Gordon T

    2009-10-15

    The historical accumulation rates of mercury resulting from atmospheric deposition to four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs, Turclossie Moss (northeast Scotland), Flanders Moss (west-central), Red Moss of Balerno (east-central) and Carsegowan Moss (southwest), were determined via analysis of (210)Pb- and (14)C-dated cores up to 2000 years old. Average pre-industrial rates of mercury accumulation of 4.5 and 3.7 microg m(-2) y(-1) were obtained for Flanders Moss (A.D. 1-1800) and Red Moss of Balerno (A.D. 800-1800), respectively. Thereafter, mercury accumulation rates increased to typical maximum values of 51, 61, 77 and 85 microg m(-2) y(-1), recorded at different times possibly reflecting local/regional influences during the first 70 years of the 20th century, at the four sites (TM, FM, RM, CM), before declining to a mean value of 27+/-15 microg m(-2) y(-1) during the late 1990s/early 2000s. Comparison of such trends for mercury with those for lead and arsenic in the cores and also with direct data for the declining UK emissions of these three elements since 1970 suggested that a substantial proportion of the mercury deposited at these sites over the past few decades originated from outwith the UK, with contributions to wet and dry deposition arising from long-range transport of mercury released by sources such as combustion of coal. Confidence in the chronological reliability of these core-derived trends in absolute and relative accumulation of mercury, at least since the 19th century, was provided by the excellent agreement between the corresponding detailed and characteristic temporal trends in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotopic ratio of lead in the (210)Pb-dated Turclossie Moss core and those in archival Scottish Sphagnum moss samples of known date of collection. The possibility of some longer-term loss of volatile mercury released from diagenetically altered older peat cannot, however, be excluded by the findings of this study.

  14. Methane production and oxidation patterns along a hydrological gradient in Luther Bog, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Methane emissions from natural peatlands contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric CH4. In the northern hemisphere, where climate models predict rising temperatures and precipitation rates, these emissions are likely to rise. So far, little is known about the change of processes of methane production and oxidation, which influence the total amount of methane emissions, in peatland soils under warmer and wetter climate conditions. Our work focuses on anaerobic CH4 production and aerobic CH4 oxidation processes along a hydrological gradient in an ombotrophic bog in Ontario, Canada that was induced by creation of a reservoir in 1952. Along this transect, four sites were established differing in hydrologic conditions and vegetation patterns. We examined depth profiles of CO2 and CH4 concentrations and delta 13C isotope ratios in the peat using silicon samplers, dialysis chambers and multi-level piezometers. Chamber flux measurements were used to determine carbon fluxes. Isotope mass balances were calculated based on 13C isotope ratios and concentration profiles. By this approach the contribution of anaerobic CH4 and CO2 production to the total ER flux and the amount of oxidised CH4 can be determined. In addition meteorological data, soil temperatures, moisture and water table levels were recorded. By raising data at different sites and dates and with the help of the additionally recorded parameters, we will be able to make predictions about changing CH4 production and oxidation processes due to changing climate conditions. Preliminary results show that CH4 concentrations in the soil profile are higher at the sites which are exposed to stronger water table fluctuations, whereas CO2 concentration levels are lower at these sites. At all sites, CO2 concentrations in the peat are increasing but CH4 profiles are fairly stable. Moreover, isotopic signatures of 13CH4 indicate that the importance of the production pathway changes with depth from acetoclastic

  15. Seasonal Oxygen Dynamics in a Thermokarst Bog in Interior Alaska: Implications for Rates of Methane Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Moorberg, C.; Wong, A.; Waldrop, M. P.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and wetlands represent the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere. However, much of the methane generated in anoxic wetlands never gets emitted to the atmosphere; up to >90% of generated methane can get oxidized to carbon dioxide. Thus, oxidation is an important methane sink and changes in the rate of methane oxidation can affect wetland methane emissions. Most methane is aerobically oxidized at oxic-anoxic interfaces where rates of oxidation strongly depend on methane and oxygen concentrations. In wetlands, oxygen is often the limiting substrate. To improve understanding of belowground oxygen dynamics and its impact on methane oxidation, we deployed two planar optical oxygen sensors in a thermokarst bog in interior Alaska. Previous work at this site indicated that, similar to other sites, rates of methane oxidation decrease over the growing season. We used the sensors to track spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentrations over the growing season. We coupled these in-situ oxygen measurements with periodic oxygen injection experiments performed against the sensor to quantify belowground rates of oxygen consumption. We found that over the season, the thickness of the oxygenated water layer at the peatland surface decreased. Previous research has indicated that in sphagnum-dominated peatlands, like the one studied here, rates of methane oxidation are highest at or slightly below the water table. It is in these saturated but oxygenated locations that both methane and oxygen are available. Thus, a seasonal reduction in the thickness of the oxygenated water layer could restrict methane oxidation. The decrease in thickness of the oxygenated layer coincided with an increase in the rate of oxygen consumption during our oxygen injection experiments. The increase in oxygen consumption was not explained by temperature; we infer it was due to an increase in substrate availability for oxygen consuming reactions and

  16. Evidence for Multiple Holocene Marine Impact Events: Ejecta in a Bog Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D. H.; Courty, M.; Breger, D.; Costa, S.; Gerard-Little, P.; Burckle, L.; Pekar, S.

    2006-12-01

    In a core from Tamarack Pond (a former bog) in the Hudson Highlands of New York, we found two layers containing marine microfossils. Because carbon rich sediments can be bioturbated over 20 cm depths, we give the layer thicknesses as 20 cm. The first layer is at 332-354 cm depth. It contains a radiolarian with a splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal. It also contains a benthonic foraminiferal fossil. The second layer is at 432-454 cm depth. The second layer contains a degraded radiolarian fossil, a silicate with a splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal, a carbon rich spherule containing Fe-Cr-Ni metal, and a grain of titanomagnetite with multiple craters. It also contains organic matter with Sn in it. As Tamarack Pond is quite far from the ocean, the marine fossils in the cores are unlikely to be windblown debris of Holocene age. A benthonic foraminifera is particularly unlikely to be blown by the wind. This conclusion is strengthened by the observation that the splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal occurs in chondritic relative abundances with Fe>Cr>Ni. In grains with a thick layer of splashed metal, the Ni is sufficiently abundant to produce 3 distinct Ni peaks in the X-ray analysis. Such a high abundance of Ni coupled with chondritic relative abundances suggests that the Fe-Cr- Ni splash is derived from the vaporization of an extraterrestrial impactor. If we assume that the sedimentation rate of the Tamarack Pond core is the same as that of a previously dated core from nearby Sutherland Pond, the two layers have an uncorrected C-14 age of around 900-1200 B.C. for the layer at 332-354 cm and 2100 to 2400 B.C. for the layer at 432-454 cm. Both ages have a rough correspondence with times of climate downturn recorded in tree ring data (1159 and 2354 B.C.). These climate downturns cannot be explained by volcanic eruptions and are proposed to be cosmogenic in origin[1]. The older layer also corresponds in components to a previously studied circa 2350 B.C. impact ejecta

  17. Atmospheric trace metal inputs in the Misten bog (East Belgium): Special attention to sampling techniques and site-spatial variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Mohammed; Fagel, Nathalie; de Vleeschouwer, François; Mattielli, Nadine; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Le Roux, Gaël.

    2010-05-01

    Peat bogs have a great potential to record anthropogenic inputs via their constituting mosses, because they draw their nutrients only from the atmosphere. These atmospheric inputs can be studied thanks to geochemical characteristics such as trace metal concentrations. Coupling lead isotopes to elemental geochemistry allows one to decipher between natural (erosion of rocks) and anthropogenic (pollution due to industrial development, vehicles...) inputs. The purpose of our work was to study the pollution history of trace metals in the region of Misten (Belgium) at a local and a regional level, and to place modern industrial pollution in this region in a wider historical perspective. Four peat cores (01W, 04W, 05W and 06W) were collected in 2008 in the Misten bog (Hautes-Fagnes plateau, E-Belgium) and studied for their trace metal and lead isotopic signatures. Analyses were accompanied by coupled 210Pb-14C age models in order to estimate the mercury and lead accumulation rates in each core and compare them to other European records. The Hg record was compared to the various anthropogenic sources as determined by Pb isotopes. The Hg concentration profiles resemble those of Pb, an element known to be immobile in peatlands. The correlation between these two metals suggests a predominant anthropogenic source of Hg (and Pb). In the W06 core, low and stable Hg accumulation rates (0.9-3.1 μg m-2 yr-1) are found in the lower layers (503-1823AD). High Hg accumulation rates are found in the surface and sub-surface layers (post-1823AD) and peak at 123.3 μg m-2 yr-1 (1969AD). In 01W, the lead enrichment factor (Pb E.F.) coupled with the continuous drop in 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb isotopic ratios since 539 AD until 1973AD indicates the growing importance of the non-radiogenic Pb released from anthropogenic activities. The highest concentrations of Pb (613-662 µg g-1) have been found near the surface of the bog dated between 1902 and 1954AD. The Pb E.F. also

  18. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  19. Posttraumatic Stress among Not-Exposed Traumatically Bereaved Relatives after the MS Estonia Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Pohlkamp, Lilian; Öhlén, Joakim; Sandberg, Jonas; Brandänge, Kristina; Gustavsson, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions in bereaved individuals following loss in disaster who were not directly exposed to disaster. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of PTS up to three years after losing relatives in the MS Estonia ferry disaster, one of the worst maritime disasters in modern times. Methods Seven postal surveys were sent out over three years post-disaster. The respondents were invited and added consecutively during the three years and 938 relatives participated in one or more of the surveys, representing 89% of the MS Estonia’s Swedish victims. The survey included the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to measure PTS. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze PTS over time. Results The majority of bereaved individuals had high levels of PTS. At three years post-loss, 62% of the respondents scored above the recommended cut-off value on the IES. Over time, PTS symptoms declined, but initially high symptoms of PTS were associated with a slower recovery rate. Conclusion The present finding suggests that being an indirectly-exposed disaster-bereaved close-relative can lead to very high levels of PTS which are sustained for several years. PMID:27893756

  20. Cyclic sedimentation pattern in Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarse, Leili

    2015-03-01

    A sediment core from Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia, 1077 cm in length and covering 10,500 calibrated years, was examined using loss-on-ignition, grain-size distribution and AMS 14C dating to reconstruct depositional dynamics. The studied core, recovered from the northern part of the lake, shows a cyclic pattern of organic and mineral matter concentration with cycle durations of 100-400 years. Cyclicity is displayed better in sediments laid down between 9,200 and 5,600 cal BP. Within two time windows (5,600-5,100 cal BP and from 1,200 cal BP to the present), sediment composition changed drastically on account of a high and fluctuating mineral matter content, obviously driven by different factors. Little Ice Age cooling is characterised by the highest proportion of mineral matter, and the Medieval Warm Period is typified by high organic matter content. The cyclic change of organic and mineral matter has been related to climate dynamics, most likely an alternation of wet and dry conditions, changes in the water level of the lake and differences in bioproduction

  1. Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society

    PubMed Central

    Aral, S O; Lawrence, J S St; Uusküla, A

    2006-01-01

    Background It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. Objectives To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. Methods In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Results Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Conclusion Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology. PMID:16807288

  2. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2016-09-26

    Objective: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. Method: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. Conclusion: A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability.

  4. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  5. Measurement of community empowerment in three community programs in Rapla (Estonia).

    PubMed

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-03-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality's decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community's priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  6. Content of phenolic compounds in aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Püssa, Tõnu; Sepp, Janne; Malmiste, Birgit; Arak, Elmar

    2011-08-01

    The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and coumarins in the aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.), growing wild in Estonia, was determined chromato-spectrophotometrically, and individual polyphenols were quantified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The total content of polyphenols was rather similar in flowers (9.1-11.5%) and in whole aerial parts (8.4-10.9%) of pineapple weed. The upper one-third (1/3) and upper two-thirds (2/3) of the aerial parts contained more flavonoids (0.15 - 0.20%) than the flowers (0.12%). The content of coumarins showed no significant difference between the flowers and the upper 1/3 and 2/3 of the aerial parts. The main polyphenols in the flowers were dicaffeoylquinic acids (202-380 mkg/mL), chlorogenic acids (75-185 mkg/mL), and ferulic acid glycoside (61-124 mkg/mL). Also found were quercetin galactoside, apigenin acetylglucoside, malonylapigenin glucoside, as well as luteolin, quercetin and apigenin glycosides.

  7. Comparison of dust sampling methods in Estonia and Sweden--a field study.

    PubMed

    Berg, P; Jaakmees, V; Bodin, L

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, ri = 0.81 (Pearson's intra-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESM and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial inter-method difference. We therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, our findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situations will be needed.

  8. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  9. Palaeomagnetism of Middle Ordovician Carbonate Sequence, Vaivara Sinimäed Area, Northeast Estonia, Baltica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, Jüri; Preeden, Ulla; JÕeleht, Argo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Mertanen, Satu

    2016-10-01

    The hill range of Vaivara Sinimäed in northeast Estonia consists of several narrow east- to northeast-trending glaciotectonic fold structures. The folds include tilted (dips 4-75°) Middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian) layered carbonate strata that were studied by mineralogical, palaeomagnetic, and rock magnetic methods in order to specify the postsedimentational history of the area and to obtain a better control over the palaeogeographic position of Baltica during the Ordovician. Mineralogical studies revealed that (titano)magnetite, hematite, and goethite are carriers of magnetization. Based on data from 5 sites that positively passed a DC tilt test, a south-easterly downward directed component A ( D ref = 154.6°± 15.3°, I ref = 60.9°± 9.7°) was identified. The component is carried by (titano)magnetite, dates to the Middle Ordovician ( Plat = 17.9°, Plon = 47.3°, K = 46.7, A95 = 11.3°), and places Baltica at mid-southerly latitudes. Observations suggest that in sites that do not pass the tilt test, the glaciotectonic event has caused some rotation of blocks around their vertical axis.

  10. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia.

  11. Biomonitoring of aquatic sediments from Estonia with a fish liver cell line (PLHC-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Huuskonen, S.; Ritola, O.; Koponen, K.; Lindstroem-Seppae, P.; Tuvikene, A.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments were collected from lake Vorstjaerv and River Narva, Estonia, and extracted with dichloromethane. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to the extracts of the dry sediments. Cytotoxicity (total protein content) and CYP1A inducibility (EROD activity) was detected in the exposed cells. The contents of selected PAHs in the R. Narva sediments were also analyzed. The sediments collected from R. Narva were more toxic and caused higher EROD induction in the cells than the sediments from L. Vortsjaerv. The sediments collected from the northern part of the L. Vortsjaerv showed cytotoxicity. The sediments collected from the southern part of L. Vortsjaerv showed slight induction in EROD activity. In R. Narva, the most toxic sediments were collected downstream from the city of Narva and the Baltic Thermal Power Plant. At sublethal level of the sediment concentrations, also the highest EROD activities were seen at these downstream sites. At the sites heavily polluted with PAHs, also the EROD activities were high. The correlation between the PAH contents and EROD activities was not so evident when the sediments contained less PAHs. The PLHC-1 cells could serve as a sensitive method for screening cytotoxic and enzyme-inducing effects of the sediment extracts. This helps in evaluating the potential hazard of the compounds bound in the sediments for aquatic life. Further, the PLHC-1 cells can be used in comparing the properties of the sediments collected from different lakes and rivers.

  12. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  13. Comparison of dust sampling methods in Estonia and Sweden -- A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, P.; Jaakmees, V.; Bodin, L.

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, r{sub i} = 0.91 (Pearson's intro-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESm and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial intermethod difference. The authors therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, the findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situation will be needed.

  14. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and microbial processing of organic matter in northern bogs and fens reveals a common P limitation among peatland types

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared C, N, and P concentrations in atmospheric deposition, runoff, and soil standing stocks with microbial respiration (DHA) and ecoenzyme activity (EEA) in an ombrotrophic bog (S2) and a minerotrophic fen (S3) to investigate the environmental drivers of biogeochemical cyc...

  15. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  16. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation

  17. HSPF Modeling of a Forested Headwater in North-Central Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, J.; Nieber, J. L.; Sebestyen, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) model is a conceptual based model, in contrast to the alternative grid-based hydrologic models. In its application, the HSPF model has been applied almost exclusively to watersheds scales larger than HUC 14. We applied the HSPF model to a small forested watershed located at the Marcell experimental forest in north-central Minnesota. The watershed has an area of 9.7 hectares and is one of six experimental watersheds managed by the U.S. Forest Service. These experimental watersheds have been in operation since 1955. While some of the experimental watersheds have experienced environmental disturbance (e.g., clear-cutting), the S2 watershed has been in continuous forested condition for the last century. The S2 watershed is composed of forested upland hillslopes that connect to a raised bog area. The forest is aspen (Populus sp.) and birch (Betula papyrifera) on uplands and spruce (Picea mariana) on a 3.2 ha central bog. The upland soils are composed of a shallow sandy loam overlying clay loam which impedes vertical water movement. Water input to the peatland is either from direct precipitation or from the upland hillslopes. Water flux from the bog is either through ET, groundwater seepage losses, or surface discharge to a stream network. Streamflow is measured at a v-notch weir. Within the watershed two upland hillslopes have been isolated to monitor surface runoff and subsurface flow since the 1980's. The HSPF model was applied to the watershed using precipitation and other meteorological data collected within the watershed or nearby on the Experimental Forest. The model representation of the watershed included one element for the upland hillslope area, and one element for the bog area. Daily flows from water years 1991 to 1995 were used to calibrate the model. An equal period of time was used to validate the model from 1996 to 2000. Nash-Sutcliffe values were very good for both calibration and validation. Calibration

  18. Geochemical and mineralogical composition of bog iron ore as a resource for prehistoric iron production - A case study of the Widawa catchment area in Eastern Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelemann, Michael; Bebermeier, Wiebke; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Spreading from the Near East in the declining Bronze Age from the 2nd millennium BCE onwards, the technique of iron smelting reached Eastern Silesia, Poland, in approximately the 2nd century BCE (pre-Roman Iron Age). At this time the region of the Widawa catchment area was inhabited by the Przeworsk culture. While the older moraine landscape of the study area lacks ores from geological rock formations, bog iron ores were relatively widespread and, due to their comparatively easy accessibility, were commonly exploited for early iron production. In this poster the mineralogical and elemental composition of local bog iron ore deposits and iron slag finds, as a by-product of the smelting process, are investigated. The crystalline mineralogical composition of local bog iron ores is dominated by quartz (SiO2) and goethite (α FeO(OH)), in contrast to slag samples in which fayalite (Fe2SiO4), wüstite (FeO) and quartz, with traces of goethite, represent the main minerals. Ores and slags are both characterized by notable hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) contents. Analyzed bog iron ore samples show iron contents of up to 64.9 mass% Fe2O3 (45.4 mass% Fe), whereas the iron contents of bloomery slags vary between 48.7 and 72.0 mass% FeO (37.9 and 56.0 mass% Fe). A principal component analysis of the element contents, which were quantified by portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (p-ED-XRF), indicates local variations in the elemental composition. Our results show that bog iron ores are relatively widely distributed with spatially varying iron contents along the Widawa floodplain but present-day formation conditions (e.g. different ground-water levels) are negatively affected by modern land-use practices, such as agriculture and melioration measures.

  19. Microbial community structure and activity linked to contrasting biogeochemical gradients in bog and fen environments of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Green, S; Tfaily, M M; Prakash, O; Konstantinidis, K T; Corbett, J E; Chanton, J P; Cooper, W T; Kostka, J E

    2012-10-01

    The abundances, compositions, and activities of microbial communities were investigated at bog and fen sites in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of northwestern Minnesota. These sites contrast in the reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the presence or absence of groundwater inputs. Microbial community composition was characterized using pyrosequencing and clone library construction of phylogenetic marker genes. Microbial distribution patterns were linked to pH, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratios, optical properties of DOM, and activities of laccase and peroxidase enzymes. Both bacterial and archaeal richness and rRNA gene abundance were >2 times higher on average in the fen than in the bog, in agreement with a higher pH, labile DOM content, and enhanced enzyme activities in the fen. Fungi were equivalent to an average of 1.4% of total prokaryotes in gene abundance assayed by quantitative PCR. Results revealed statistically distinct spatial patterns between bacterial and fungal communities. Fungal distribution did not covary with pH and DOM optical properties and was vertically stratified, with a prevalence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota near the surface and much higher representation of Zygomycota in the subsurface. In contrast, bacterial community composition largely varied between environments, with the bog dominated by Acidobacteria (61% of total sequences), while the Firmicutes (52%) dominated in the fen. Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales showed a much higher relative abundance in the bog, in contrast to the dominance of diverse hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the fen. This is the first quantitative and compositional analysis of three microbial domains in peatlands and demonstrates that the microbial abundance, diversity, and activity parallel with the pronounced differences in environmental variables between bog and fen sites.

  20. Expanding Sloping bog Systems Under a Continental Climate in South-Central Alaska: Possible Causes and Carbon-Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, J.; Yu, Z.; Jones, M. C.; Booth, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    Boreal peatlands play a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle, as they have accumulated up to about a third of the global soil carbon during the Holocene. Whilst numerous peat-based paleoecological records have been published on boreal Canadian and Siberian peatlands, there are few detailed C accumulation history studies on Alaskan peatlands. Here we report our field observations and preliminary data along several transects from a sloping (blanket) bog complex in the Susitna Valley of south-central Alaska and discuss possible causes for their occurrence in this continental setting and for their recent expansion. We observed, in the field and from satellite images, the presence of extensive peatland complexes in the Susitna River watershed, including both minerotrophic and ombrotrophic peatlands. Six peat cores were collected from a vast (> 1 km2) sloping bog complex (with pH from 3.92 to 4.46), located at ~ 450 m altitude and ~ 120 km NW of Talkeetna. These cores show a clayey, thick (15-30 cm thick) tephra layer at ~ 60 cm below the peatland surface that is attributable to the Hayes volcano eruptions at 4.4-3.6 cal ka. Preliminary macrofossil analyses along these cores indicate a transition from eutrophic conditions before the tephra, to mesotrophic/oligotrophic conditions after the tephra. We suggest that the tephra layer may have modified hydrology and chemistry of the site and facilitated the development of a nutrient-poor system. Active paludification (i.e., lateral expansion) was also observed at the margins of these peatland complexes, suggesting ideal hydroclimatic conditions for peat accumulation at the present. Given that the modern climatic envelope of peatland distribution indicates that ombrotrophic mires (e.g., raised and blanket bogs) usually occur under higher mean annual precipitation than what is measured in the study region, we suggest that the hydroclimatic regime of these peatlands is determined by a complex interaction among local substrate

  1. The American cranberry: first insights into the whole genome of a species adapted to bog habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is one of only three widely-cultivated fruit crops native to North America- the other two are blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and native grape (Vitis spp.) such as Vitis labrusca L. In terms of taxonomy, cranberries are in the core Ericales, an order fo...

  2. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff.

  3. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  4. High potential of nitrogen fixation in pristine, ombrotrophic bogs in Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Horn, Marcus A.; Bahamonde Aguilar, Nelson A.; Borken, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) input in pristine peatlands occurs via natural input of inorganic N through atmospheric deposition or biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation. However, N2 fixation is to date mostly attributed to bacteria and algae associated to Sphagnum and its contribution to plant productivity and peat buildup has been often underestimated in previous studies. Based on net N storage, exceptionally low N deposition, and high abundance of vascular plants at pristine peatlands in Southern Patagonia, we hypothesized that there must be a high potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation not limited to the occurrence of Sphagnum. To this end, we chose two ombrotrophic bogs with spots that are dominated either by Sphagnum or by vascular, cushion-forming plants and sampled peat from different depths for incubation with 15N2 to determine N2 fixation potentials. Moreover, we analyzed 15N2 fixation by a nodule-forming, endemic conifer inhabiting the peatlands. Results from 15N2 uptake were compared to the conventional approach to study N2 fixation by the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Using 15N2 as a tracer, high non-symbiotic N2 fixation rates of 0.3-1.4 μmol N g-1 d-1 were found down to 50 cm under micro-oxic conditions (2 vol.%) in samples from both plots either covered by Sphagnum magellanicum or by vascular cushion plants. Peat N concentrations suggested a higher potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation under cushion plants, likely because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds as substrates and oxic conditions in the rhizosphere. In the Sphagnum plots, high N2 fixation below 10 cm depth would rather reflect a potential fixation that may switch on during periods of low water levels when oxygen penetrates deeper into the peat. 15N natural abundance of live Sphagnum from 0-10 cm pointed to N uptake solely from atmospheric deposition and non-symbiotic N2 fixation. 15N signatures of peat from the cushion plant plots indicated additional N supply from N

  5. Forest responses to late Holocene climate change in north-central Wisconsin: a high- resolution study from Hell's Kitchen Lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M. A.; Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Minckley, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Forest dynamics at centennial to millennial timescales can be identified using paleoecological records with high spatial, temporal, and taxonomic resolution. These dynamics are linked to climate changes by comparing the paleoecological records with independent paleoclimate records of complementary sensitivity and temporal resolution. We analyzed plant macrofossils at contiguous 1cm intervals (representing 5 to 35 yr/cm) from late Holocene sediments of Hell's Kitchen Lake (3 ha) in north-central Wisconsin. Most of the plant macrofossils derive from trees growing on the slopes directly adjacent to the lake, and were identified to the species. We also analyzed pollen at an approximately100 year resolution to provide a regionally integrated record of forest composition. We then compared the macrofossil and pollen records with independent records of climate change in the region, particularly paleohydrological records from kettle bogs. The most notable feature of the late Holocene record occurs between 2300-2000 cal yr BP. During this period yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) macrofossils first appear in the record, along with a corresponding increase in pollen percentages. Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) macrofossils and pollen also show a marked increase at this time. These changes coincide with a major transition towards wetter conditions recorded in the testate amoebae record of Hornet Bog (~200km northwest) and in a number of other kettle bog records from the region. Directly following this transition, tamarack (Larix laricina) and Sphagnum macrofossils at Hell's Kitchen Lake increase dramatically, likely representing the initiation of bog-mat growth along the southwest margin of the lake during the wet period. . We are continuing our high-resolution sampling downcore at Hell's Kitchen Lake. This will permit us to examine additional ecologic and climatic events in the early and mid-Holocene.

  6. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of

  7. Bacillus acidicola sp. nov., a novel mesophilic, acidophilic species isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Albert, Richard A; Archambault, Julieta; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Tindall, Brian J; Matheny, Mike

    2005-09-01

    A mesophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacterium, strain 105-2(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog in Wisconsin, USA. Strain 105-2(T) has 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T) of 97.4 and 97.8%, respectively. The primary lipoquinone is MK-7 and the major fatty acids are 15:0 iso, 15:0 anteiso and 17:0 anteiso. The predominant polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and a glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was found to be 43.2 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular analyses identified strain 105-2(T) as a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus acidicola is proposed. The type strain is 105-2(T) (=DSM 14745(T)=ATCC BAA-366(T)=NRRL B-23453(T)).

  8. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs.

  9. CH4 production via CO2 reduction in a temperate bog - A source of (C-13)-depleted CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdown, J. M.; Quay, P. D.; King, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports measurements, taken over two annual cycles, of the flux and delta(C-13) of CH4 released from an acidic peat bog located in the foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington state, U.S. Measurements of the rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis and CO2 reduction in peat soil, using (C-14)-labeled acetate and sodium bicarbonate, show that acetate was not an important CH4 precursor and that CO2 reduction could account for all of the CH4 production. The in situ kinetic isotope effect for CO2 reduction, calculated using the delta-(C-13) of soil water CO2 and CH4 flux, was 0.932 +/- 0.007.

  10. [Decline of Activity and Shifts in the Methanotrophic Community Structure of an Ombrotrophic Peat Bog after Wildfire].

    PubMed

    Danilova, O V; Belova, S E; Kulichevskaya, I S; Dedysh, S N

    2015-01-01

    This study examined potential disturbances of methanotrophic communities playing a key role in reducing methane emissions from the peat bog Tasin Borskoye, Vladimir oblast, Russia as a result of the 2007 wildfire. The potential activity of the methane-oxidizing filter in the burned peatland site and the abundance of indigenous methanotrophic bacteria were significantly reduced in comparison to the undisturbed site. Molecular analysis of methanotrophic community structure by means of PCR amplification and cloning of the pmoAgene encoding particulate methane monooxygenase revealed the replacement of typical peat-inhabiting, acidophilic type II methanotrophic bacteria with type I methanotrophs, which are less active in acidic environments. In summary, both the structure and the activity of the methane-oxidizing filter in burned peatland sites underwent significant changes, which were clearly pronounced even after 7 years of the natural ecosystem recovery. These results point to the long-term character of the disturbances caused by wildfire in peatlands.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-02

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals.

  12. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  13. 84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, BRONZE DOUBLE DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Are Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  15. The spatial and temporal relationships between CO2 and CH4 exchange in a temperate ombrotrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the relationships between CO2 and CH4 fluxes across space and time at a temperate ombrotrophic bog in Canada to assess the coupling between plant production and CH4 emissions. Based on periodic manual chamber measurements, we show that maximum net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEEmax) was a good predictor of the spatial variations in CH4 flux among the wetter Eriophorum and lawn sites (r2 = 0.61-0.88), but not the drier hummock sites (r2 = 0.04-0.49). Also, we observed large interannual variability in the NEEmax-CH4 relationship at the Eriophorum and lawn sites, with a smaller regression slope in 2010 that had a seasonal mean water table 8 cm lower than in 2009. Results of cross-correlation of instantaneous gross ecosystem production (GEP) and CH4 flux from autochambers show a moderate relationship (σ = -0.31) in the Eriophorum community at a lag of 9-12 h, suggesting a rapid turnover of recent photosynthate for methanogenesis. On the other hand, we found in two Maianthemum-dominated chambers that the temperature-independent residuals of daily mean CH4 flux lagged behind GEP by 18-26 days at the seasonal scale. The lagged correlations between GEP and CH4 flux by month were particularly strong in the late growing season in the Eriophorum and Maianthemum/Ledum communities. Our results suggest the presence of spatial and temporal coupling of plant production and CH4 emissions in this bog, whose strength varies with species composition, water table position, and plant phenology.

  16. Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time.

  17. Geochemical Evidence for Periods of Increased Mineral Dust Deposition in Patagonian Peat Bogs Since the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, H.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Mattielli, N. D.; Vanderstraeten, A.; von Scheffer, C.; Piotrowska, N.; Coronato, A.; Le Roux, G.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust plays an important role in the earth's climate system, influencing atmospheric parameters such as cloud condensation as well as biogeochemical cycles, affecting atmospheric CO2 levels. Antarctic ice core records show that mineral dust deposition has varied in the Southern Hemisphere over glacial-interglacial stages, suggesting major changes in atmospheric circulation. Nevertheless, to make predictions for the near future possible, a better understanding of atmospheric dust load and transport variability in the recent past, is essential. Ombrotrophic peat bogs have proven to provide excellent records of atmospheric dust deposition for the Holocene as their accumulation rates are higher than any other archive. Hence two ombrotrophic peat bogs, located southwest (Karukinka) and southeast (Harberton) on Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, were sampled to investigate dust-palaeoclimatic interactions in southern South America since the last deglaciation. Here we present a detailed geochemical (major, trace elements and Nd isotopes) record for both sites. The base of the peat sequences in Karukinka and Harberton were dated by 14C at ca. 8,000 cal yr BP and ca. 16,500 cal yr BP, respectively. The distribution of trace elemental (Sc, REE) concentrations within the cores indicates, besides tephra layers, episodes of increased mineral dust deposition at Harberton and Karukinka. The glacial-interglacial transition can be observed in the Harberton record (at ca. 11,500 cal yr BP), marked by a drop in the dust flux from 102 g/m2/yr to 10 g/m2/yr. The most significant episode of mineral dust deposition at Karukinka is concentrated around 1,600 cal yr BP with a maximum dust flux of 108 g/m2/yr. Its neodymium isotopic signature of -1 suggests crustal admixing, compared to the ɛNd values of ˜2, for both tephra layers.

  18. Diversity and community structure of Archaea inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting plants from an acidic bog.

    PubMed

    Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H; Thies, Janice E

    2010-05-01

    Plant root exudates increase nutrient availability and influence microbial communities including archaeal members. We examined the archaeal community inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting vascular plants, Dulichium arundinaceum and Sarracenia purpurea, from an acidic bog in upstate NY. Multiple archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries showed that methanogenic Archaea were dominant in the rhizoplane of both plants. In addition, the community structure (evenness) of the rhizoplane was found markedly different from the bulk peat. The archaeal community in peat from the same site has been found dominated by the E2 group, meanwhile the rhizoplane communities on both plants were co-dominated by Methanosarcinaceae (MS), rice cluster (RC)-I, and E2. Complementary T-RFLP analysis confirmed the difference between bulk peat and rhizoplane, and further characterized the dominance pattern of MS, RC-I, and E2. In the rhizoplane, MS was dominant on both plants although as a less variable fraction in S. purpurea. RC-I was significantly more abundant than E2 on S. purpurea, while the opposite was observed on D. arundinaceum, suggesting a plant-specific enrichment. Also, the statistical analyses of T-RFLP data showed that although both plants overlap in their community structure, factors such as plant type, patch location, and time could explain nearly a third of the variability in the dataset. Other factors such as water table, plant replicate, and root depth had a low contribution to the observed variance. The results of this study illustrate the general effects of roots and the specific effects of plant types on their nearby archaeal communities which in bog-inhabiting plants were mainly composed by methanogenic groups.

  19. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  20. Multi-scale hydroclimate reconstruction using co-located lake and bog records from Maine and comparison with other records from the Northeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, C.; Shuman, B. N.; Booth, R.; Jackson, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary lake-level records and ombrotrophic bog water-table depth records both document hydrologic variability over the Holocene. Lake level records have long temporal length (10,000+ years) and fidelity in preserving low-frequency trends and centennial to millennial length events. Hydrologic reconstructions based on peatland testate amoebae assemblage composition are sensitive to moisture variability at interannual to multidecadal time scales and precipitation on the bog surface is the sole moisture input. However, bog records are generally not as long as lake level records and bog development processes can confound centennial to millennial trends. In this study we present and combine new reconstructions from Giles Pond, Aurora, Maine, USA and Caribou Bog, Old Town, ME USA. The lake-level record from Giles Pond extends a network of lake-level records from southern New England that show an orbitally driven long-term trend toward wetter conditions punctuated by low-water phases in the mid- to late-Holocene that each lasted 100 to 400+ years. Some of these low lake level events appear to be synchronous across multiple sites in New England (Newby, et al. 2014 GRL). Preliminary data from Giles Pond suggest that some of these events extended all the way to Maine. Thus, there were New England-wide dry periods within the last 5000 years that lasted more than 100 years. These long low stands are unlike anything observed during the historical period and the interannual to decadal variability during these low stands is poorly understood. This leads to challenges in understanding the modern and future implications of the lake-level record alone. The Caribou Bog record also builds on a network of peatland water-table reconstructions from the Northeast, and contributes higher-resolution hydroclimate information that adds interannual to multidecadal texture to the centennial to millennial variability of the Giles Pond record. Our multiproxy approach allows us to use the

  1. Countrywide Forest Biomass Estimates from PALSAR L-Band Backscatter to Improve Greenhouse Gas Inventory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesk, A.; Voormansik, K.; Luud, Aarne; Renne, M.; Zalite, K.; Noorma, M.; Reinart, A.

    2013-08-01

    Accurately estimated forest biomass and its distribution is a key parameter for forest inventories, vegetation modeling and understanding the global carbon cycle. It is also required by the United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a comprehensive analysis on estimates of terrestrial carbon fluxes for climate change reports. To improve the understanding of the carbon balance in Estonia, where forests cover over half of the land, a methodology has been worked out to map the changes in the forest biomass in yearly basis using satellite and forest inventory data. To assess the above-ground biomass in temperate deciduous, coniferous and mixed forest of Estonia, measurements and imagery from dual polarimetric L-band SAR (Synthetic Aperature Radar) and optical remote sensing satellites were used. A country-specific model allows easily regenerating the forest biomass estimations with the newest satellite data and producing up-to-date biomass maps that can be used to assist the national inventory reporting under the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol.

  2. Lessons from European population genetic databases: comparing the law in Estonia, Iceland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susan M C; Helgason, Hördur Helgi; Kaye, Jane; Nõmper, Ants; Wendel, Lotta

    2005-06-01

    The advent of large-scale, population genetic databases (PGDs) in several countries around the world marks a significant development in human DNA banking and genetic research. The European countries that have led the way in the development of PGDs are Iceland, Sweden, Estonia and the U.K. In legal terms, the emergence of PGDs has been far from straightforward as such projects pose a range of difficult and complex issues for the law to address. This article canvasses the current law in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden and the U.K. on four fundamental issues of principle pertaining to PGDs, in order to illustrate the difficulties that have emerged around PGDs, highlight key areas of legal concern, and shed light on possible ways forward. It compares and contrasts the differing legal positions and lawmakers' responses to date in these four European countries that have established PGDs or are seeking to do so. The four fundamental issues examined are: (1) consent, especially for secondary research purposes; (2) ownership of biological samples, data and databases; (3) the rights of certain third parties to gain access to, and to use, PGD biological samples and data; and (4) benefit sharing, including the provision of feedback and genetic counselling to participants. This analysis may offer some guidance for policymakers in other jurisdictions where PGDs have been proposed or are being established.

  3. Re-vegetation processes in cutaway peat production fields in Estonia in relation to peat quality and water regime.

    PubMed

    Orru, Mall; Ots, Katri; Orru, Hans

    2016-12-01

    Eighty-one cutaway peat production fields with a total area of about 9000 ha exist and were studied in Estonia in 2005-2015. Only a very small number of the fields (seven) have been restored-either afforested or used for growing berries. The re-vegetation of Estonian cutaway peat production fields is mainly the result of natural processes, which are generally very slow due to an unfavourable water regime or a too thin remaining peat layer. The fields are mostly covered by cotton grass and birches. Often sparse vegetation covers 15-20% of a peat field, but some fields have turned into heaths or grasslands with plant coverage up to 60%. However, due to changes in environmental (mainly hydrological) conditions and peat characteristics (mainly peat type), these areas can also be new niches for several species. A number of moss species new to or rare in Estonia, e.g. Pohlia elongata, Ephemerum serratum, Campylopus introflexus and Bryum oblongum, were recorded.

  4. Overlapping Democracies, Europe's Democratic Deficit, and National Education Policy: Estonia's School Leaders as Heirs to a Soviet Legacy or as Agents of Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Eleven years after Estonia regained independence, its government sought admission to the European Union and NATO, which pressured the country to act on issues related to the Holocaust and in particular to adopt a Holocaust education day in schools. The policy, though adopted, was deeply unpopular within the country, leading to the dilemma of…

  5. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  6. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  7. Organic control on shoreface stacking patterns: bogged down in the mire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, P.J.; Shanley, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    In ever-wet climates, raised mires that are elevated several metres above flood levels can cover significant portions of coastal plains. Because peat accumulation may keep pace with moderate rates of base-level rise, the development of raised mires may reduce the areal extent of marine transgressions. Thick, low-ash coals are present immediately landward of many vertically stacked shoreface parasequences in Cretaceous strata of the Western Interior of North America. We suggest that these coals formed in raised mires that stabilized shorelines for long periods of time. -from Authors

  8. Long term effects of forest fires to soil C content and soil CO_{2} efflux in hemiboreal Scots pine forests of Estonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Metslaid, Marek; Orumaa, Argo; Parro, Kristi; Jõgiste, Kalev; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Egle

    2016-04-01

    Fire is the primary process which organizes the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome and influences energy flows and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon (C) cycle. Especially the soil organic matter pool in boreal forests is an important C storage with a long C turnover time, but fire frequencies that are expected to increase with changing climate, can change that. We compared the initial recovery of C pools and CO2 efflux following fire disturbances in Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris L.) stands with different time since fire. The study areas are located in hemiboreal vegetation zone, in northwestern Estonia, in Vihterpalu. Six areas (with extensive fires 200 ha and more) were chosen for study: fire in a year 1837, 1940, 1951, 1982, 1997, and 2008. In all areas we are dealing with stand replacing fires where all (or almost all) of the stand was destroyed by fire. On every area we established three permanent sample plots. Soil respiration was measured manually from all sample plots (measuring interval of two - three weeks). Manual chamber measurements are performed on 5 collars (north - south orientated and the distance between collars is 5 m) at each sample plot from May till November 2015. To characterize the soil C and N content and fine root biomass at the sites, 5 soil cores (0.5 m long and 0.05 m in diameter) were taken from each sample plot. Our results show that forest fire has a substantial effect on the C content in the top soil layer, but not in the humus layer and in mineral soil layers. Soil respiration showed similar chronological response to the time since the forest fire indicating that substantial proportion of the respiration was originating from the very top of the soil. Soil respiration values were lowest on the area where the fire was in a year 2008 and the respiration values followed also seasonal pattern being highest in August and lowest in May and November. The CO2 effluxes were lowest on newly burned area through

  9. Health assessment for Burnt Fly Bog National Priorities List Site, Marlboro, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980504997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-24

    The Burnt Fly Bog site, a National Priorities List site, is located near Marlboro, Monmouth County, New Jersey in the fringe area of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. The major contaminants at the site are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead. Both of these contaminants have been found in all environmental media at the site. Exposure to contaminants may occur from contact with soil, sediment, water, air, or biota from the site. In order to protect the public health, access to contaminated areas should not be permitted except for properly-protected remedial workers. Because of the potential for ground-water contamination, private well owners surrounding the site should be advised to connect to the public water system. In addition, the consumption of game animals, berries, fish, and other biota from Burnt Fly Bog should be discouraged unless it can be determined that they are free of contamination.

  10. [Genetic variation and differentiation of peat-bog and dry-meadow populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra in the highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Pirko, Ia V

    2002-09-01

    Based on electrophoretic analysis of 21 isozyme loci controlling 10 enzyme systems, the intra- and inter-population variation was studied in two peat-bog and three dry-meadow populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra from the highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians. In the studied samples (a total of 164 trees), on average 62% of the studied genes were polymorphic; the mean heterozygosity was 21.3%. The dry-meadow populations differed from the peat-bog populations by allele and genotype diversity and by heterozygosity although the indices characterizing population heterogeneity (Fst and Gst) were small (0.027 and 0.032, respectively). Nei's genetic distances between the populations ranged of 0.011 to 0.032 with the mean of 0.018.

  11. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 balance in two hemi-boreal forests in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Two eddy towers, one in the mixed Norway spruce - Silver birch forest in Liispõllu (58°16'N 27°16'E tower height 20 m) and another one in Scots pine forest in Soontaga (58°01'N 26°04'E; 36 m) both located in southern Estonia - were equipped with CO2/H2O analyzer for mixing ratio of CO2 (Licor 7200 Li-Cor Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) and 3-D ultrasonic anemometer for wind measurements (Gill Windmaster Pro; Solent, Lymington, UK) and used for measurement of carbon dioxide balance and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In Liispõllu, the studies were conducted in Auguat and September 2011 above the forest canopies and at 1.5 m above the soil surface.. In Soontaga, measurements lasted from April to October 2012. The data acquisition system consists of the LI-7550 Analyzer Interface Unit, 3G wireless router and analog-to-digital converter that were used to record turbulence and scalar signals. Signals from the sensor and anemometer were recorded 20 times sec-1. The eddy fluxes were averaged over 30 minute time intervals. The flux calculations and corrections of were done using EddyPro program. In addition, soil respiration was measured with automatic chambers in Liispõllu and with closed chambers in Soontaga twice a month from April to October 2011 and 2012. In both study areas around the towers, soil physical and chemical parameters in 3 depths, biomass of trees and understory species, C sequestration in biomass and litter decay has been measured. In Soontaga pine forest the average monthly CO2 flux varied from -59.2 to -388.8 mg m-2 h-1 showing a regular seasonal temperature-related variation. CO2 flux from lowered in spring and summer as plants consume the gas through photosynthesis and days are longer, and rise during the autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay and when also the daytime is shorter. The average monthly flux over the analyzed period was -246.5 mg m-2 h-1. In consequence, the CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere was highest in June. In Liisp

  12. Species Identification of Archaeological Skin Objects from Danish Bogs: Comparison between Mass Spectrometry-Based Peptide Sequencing and Microscopy-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Sarret, Mathilde; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC – AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029. PMID:25260035

  13. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs: comparison between mass spectrometry-based peptide sequencing and microscopy-based methods.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Sarret, Mathilde; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC - AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029.

  14. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2014-03-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture) on wet bog sites and an assessment of the climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over more than two years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled in high time resolution using automatically monitored climate data. Measured and modelled values fit very well together (R2 between 0.88 and 0.98). Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7 ± 112.7 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to different weather conditions, water level and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The yearly CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0 g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to zero. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB at the rewetted sites was between -183.8 ± 126.9 and 51.6 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 and at the Sphagnum cultivating site -114.1 ± 48.1 and -75.3 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1

  16. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen quantity and quality at natural, drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    5 % of Germany's land area is covered with peatlands. Due to the large carbon and nitrogen stocks, changes in peatland hydrology for agricultural use have a huge impact on C and N cycling in the peatland and on the export to the atmosphere and adjacent ecosystems. Nonetheless, only a few studies focussed on the impact of drainage and re-wetting on C and N cycling in German raised bogs. Four study sites in the "Ahlenmoor" near Cuxhaven (Northwestern Germany) were chosen. This bog has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. The sites represent a gradient of the groundwater level combined with land use differences (intensive and extensive grassland, natural site, re-wetted peat-cutting area). The mean annual groundwater level decreases from the natural and re-wetted sites (near surface) to the extensive grassland (30 cm below surface) and, finally, the intensive grassland (56 cm). The "Peeper" technique (dialysis sampler) was used to measure soil water chemistry in a high spatial resolution. At each site, three peepers (0-60 cm, 12 chambers each) collected soil water samples via diffusion. Monthly sampling was conducted from February 2012 till November 2012. The soil water solution was analysed for pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3- and SUVA(280). Samples taken in November 2012 were additionally analysed for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O. Average DOC concentrations ranged from 211 to 41 mg/L and decreased in order intensive > extensive grassland > re-wetted = natural site. After 10 years of restoration, the re-wetted and the natural site show similar DOC concentrations. Average SUVA(280) values of 3.7 to 3.3 L/(mg m) were higher at the grassland sites than at the re-wetted and the natural site. This indicates a distinct increase in aromaticity of DOC in grassland sites as a result of more intense humification of the upper peat layer. In contrast to mineral soils, SUVA(280) remained constant with depth at our sites

  17. A Record of Moisture History in Hawaii since the Arrival of Humans Inferred from Testate Amoebae and Cladocera Fossils Preserved in Bog Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, K.; Kim, S. H.; Hotchkiss, S.

    2015-12-01

    Around AD 800, Polynesians arrived on the Hawaiian Islands where they expanded and intensified distinct agricultural practices in the islands' wet and dry regions. Dryland farming productivity in particular would have been sensitive to atmospheric rearrangements of the ENSO and PDO systems that affect rainfall in Hawaii. The few detailed terrestrial paleoclimate records in Hawaii are mainly derived from vegetation proxies (e.g. pollen, seeds, fruits, and plant biomarkers) which are heavily influenced by widespread landscape modification following human arrival. Here we present initial results of an independent paleomoisture proxy: fossil remains of moisture-sensitive testate amoebae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda) and cladocera (water fleas) preserved in continuous bog sediments on Kohala Volcano uplsope of the ancient Kohala agricultural field system, one of the largest dryland field systems in Hawaii. Hydrologic conditions inferred from testate amoebae and cladoceran fossil assemblages correlate with observed decadal moisture regimes in Hawaii and state changes of the PDO system during the last century. Testate ameoabe and cladoceran fossils in older sediments reveal an alternating history of very wet, lake-forming conditions on the bog surface to periods when bog soils were much drier than today's, demonstrating that this method can be paired with vegetation proxies to provide a better understanding of hydroclimate variability in prehistoric Hawaii.

  18. Holocene vegetation and climate change in southern New Zealand: linkages between forest composition and quantitative surface moisture reconstructions from an ombrogenous bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McGlone, Matt S.; Charman, Dan J.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a Holocene pollen record from an ombrotrophic bog in Southland, New Zealand, together with multiproxy data (testate amoebae, peat humification and plant macrofossils) from the same core to establish an independent semiquantitative record of peatland surface moisture. Linkages between reconstructed peatland surface moisture and regional forest composition are investigated using redundancy analysis of the forest pollen data constrained with predicted bog water-table depths. Over 32% of the pollen data variance can be explained by surface moisture changes in the bog, suggesting a common cause of water-table and regional vegetation change. Water tables were higher during the early to mid-Holocene when the forest was dominated by podocarp taxa. Water tables lowered after about 3300 cal. yr BP coevally with the expansion of Nothofagus species, culminating with the dominance of Nothofagus subgenus Fuscospora in the past 1200 cal. yr BP. This is in apparent opposition to the warm/dry to cool/wet trend suggested by subjective interpretation of pollen data alone, from this and other studies. We suggest that during the late Holocene, drier summers associated with shifts in solar insolation caused reduced surface wetness and summer humidity, which together with a trend to cooler winters, apparently favoured the regeneration of Nothofagus species.

  19. Effects of short-term drying and irrigation on electron flow in mesocosms of a northern bog and an alpine fen.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Marianna; McKnight, Diane M; Blodau, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Methane emissions and element mobility in wetlands are controlled by soil moisture and redox conditions. We manipulated soil moisture by weekly drying and irrigation of mesocosms of peat from a bog and iron and sulfur rich fen. Water table changed more strongly in the decomposed fen peat ( approximately 11 cm) than in the fibric bog peat ( approximately 5 cm), where impacts on redox processes were larger due to larger change in air filled porosity. Methanogenesis was partly decoupled from acetogenesis and acetate accumulated up to 5.6 mmol L(-1) in the fen peat after sulfate was depleted. Irrigation and drying led to rapid redox-cycles with sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, nitrate, and methane being produced and consumed on the scale of days, contributing substantially to the total electron flow and suggesting short-term resilience of the microbial community to intermittent aeration. Anaerobic CO2 production was partly balanced by methanogenesis (0-34%), acetate fermentation (0-86%), and sulfate reduction (1-30%) in the bog peat. In the fen peat unknown electron acceptors and aerenchymatic oxygen influx apparently drove respiration. The results suggest that regular rainfall and subsequent drying may lead to local oxidation-reduction cycles that substantially influence electron flow in electron acceptor poor wetlands.

  20. Disappearance of Relict Permafrost in Boreal North America: Effects on Peatland Carbon Storage and Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, M. R.; Wieder, R. K.; Vitt, D. H.; Evans, R. J.; Scott, K. D.

    2007-01-01

    Boreal peatlands in Canada have harbored relict permafrost since the Little Ice Age due to the strong insulating properties of peat. Ongoing climate change has triggered widespread degradation of localized permafrost in peatlands across continental Canada. Here, we explore the influence of differing permafrost regimes (bogs with no surface permafrost, localized permafrost features with surface permafrost, and internal lawns representing areas of permafrost degradation) on rates of peat accumulation at the southernmost limit of permafrost in continental Canada. Net organic matter accumulation generally was greater in unfrozen bogs and internal lawns than in the permafrost landforms, suggesting that surface permafrost inhibits peat accumulation and that degradation of surface permafrost stimulates net carbon storage in peatlands. To determine whether differences in substrate quality across permafrost regimes control trace gas emissions to the atmosphere, we used a reciprocal transplant study to experimentally evaluate environmental versus substrate controls on carbon emissions from bog, internal lawn, and permafrost peat. Emissions of CO{sub 2} were highest from peat incubated in the localized permafrost feature, suggesting that slow organic matter accumulation rates are due, at least in part, to rapid decomposition in surface permafrost peat. Emissions of CH{sub 4} were greatest from peat incubated in the internal lawn, regardless of peat type. Localized permafrost features in peatlands represent relict surface permafrost in disequilibrium with the current climate of boreal North America, and therefore are extremely sensitive to ongoing and future climate change. Our results suggest that the loss of surface permafrost in peatlands increases net carbon storage as peat, though in terms of radiative forcing, increased CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere will partially or even completely offset this enhanced peatland carbon sink for at least 70 years following

  1. Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Survival from breast cancer remains lower in Estonia than in most other European countries. More advanced stage and larger tumors that have impact on survival may be a result of delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of delayed presentation among breast cancer patients in Estonia. Methods The study population included women with primary breast cancer diagnosed in Estonia in 2008–2010. All data were collected using structured personal interviews carried out by trained nurses in the hospital setting. Only patients with self-discovered symptoms were included in this analysis. Patient delay was measured as time elapsing from symptom self-discovery to first medical consultation. The effect of different factors on the likelihood of prolonged delay (>90 days) was evaluated using logistic regression. Results Among 703 eligible patients, median patient delay was 16 days (interquartile range 5–54 days). Seventeen percent of the patients had their first medical consultation more than three months after self-detection of symptoms. In multivariate analysis, the risk of prolonged delay was significantly associated with age 65 years and over (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.23–4.20), current smoking (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.21–3.61), symptoms other than painless breast lump or breast pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08–3.16), no history of mammograms (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13–2.95), having received no information on breast cancer during past year (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05–2.99), and previous benign breast problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01–2.67). Non-significant risk increase was seen with lower education. Conclusions This study provides evidence that factors associated with delayed presentation of breast cancer in Eastern Europe are similar to those observed in Western countries. The results suggest that educational messages to general population should aim at increasing awareness of “non-lump” symptoms of breast cancer and

  2. Isolation and identification of methanogen-specific DNA from blanket bog peat by PCR amplification and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hales, B A; Edwards, C; Ritchie, D A; Hall, G; Pickup, R W; Saunders, J R

    1996-02-01

    The presence of methanogenic bacteria was assessed in peat and soil cores taken from upland moors. The sampling area was largely covered by blanket bog peat together with small areas of red-brown limestone and peaty gley. A 30-cm-deep core of each soil type was taken, and DNA was extracted from 5-cm transverse sections. Purified DNA was subjected to PCR amplification with primers IAf and 1100Ar, which specifically amplify 1.1 kb of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene, and ME1 and ME2, which were designed to amplify a 0.75-kb region of the alpha-subunit gene for methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Amplification with both primer pairs was obtained only with DNA extracted from the two deepest sections of the blanket bog peat core. This is consistent with the notion that anaerobiosis is required for activity and survival of the methanogen population. PCR products from both amplifications were cloned, and the resulting transformants were screened with specific oligonucleotide probes internal to the MCR or archaeal 16S rRNA PCR product. Plasmid DNA was extracted from probe-positive clones of both types and the insert was sequenced. The DNA sequences of 8 MCR clones were identical, as were those of 16 of the 17 16S rRNA clones. One clone showed marked variation from the remainder in specific regions of the sequence. From a comparison of these two different 16S rRNA sequences, an oligonucleotide was synthesized that was 100% homologous to a sequence region of the first 16 clones but had six mismatches with the variant. This probe was used to screen primary populations of PCR clones, and all of those that were probe negative were checked for the presence of inserts, which were then sequenced. By using this strategy, further novel methanogen 16S rRNA variants were identified and analyzed. The sequences recovered from the peat formed two clusters on the end of long branches within the methanogen radiation that are distinct from each other. These cannot be placed directly with sequences

  3. Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.; King, K. M.; Chipanshi, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. The flux measurements were made using micrometeorological techniques. They provide the first nondisturbing, larger-scale CO2 flux measurements for this ecosystem and are the first to integrate the exchange over the whole 24 hours of the day. Continuous concentration measurements by infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) and spot flask samples were taken over the period July 1 to July 29. Afternoon CO2 values were only 5 to 7 parts per million by volume (ppmv) lower than measurements over the same period at Canadian background monitoring stations. This suggested that there was little draw-down by local photosynthetic sinks. CO2 fluxes were measured at 8 and 18 m by Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods, respectively. The methods produced comparable results on averaged data but often diverged considerably on individual half-hour results. Fluxes were small. Daytime values averaged to -0.068 mg/sq m/s by eddy correlation and -0.077 mg/sq m/s by Bowen ratio over the period June 25 to July 28 (negative denotes downward flux), while at night, flux densities were +0.062 mg/sq m/s and +0.085 mg/sq m/s. Integration of the mean diurnal curve gave a net flux of -1.7 g/sq m/d. Comparable data for this type of ecosystem were not found. However, Coyne and Kelley (1975), measuring near Barrow, Alaska, over wet meadow tundra dominated by sedges and grasses, found net fluxes of -7.2 g/sq m/d. Typical net CO2 fluxes from other active temperature ecosystems have been found to be -10 to -20 g/sq m/d (Monteith, 1976). Mean half hourly fluxes were almost constant at +0.06 mg/sq m/s through the nighttime hours. About one half-hour after sunrise the flux reversed direction. Uptake peaked about 0900 eastern daylight time (EDT) and then gradually declined but remained downward until near sunset

  4. Hydrological and ecological indicators of natural regimes of the North-Western Siberian Wetlands (Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakova, M. V.; Kouraev, A. V.; Zakharova, E. A.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Zemtsov, V. A.; Mognard, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Siberian Plain is the most bogged region of the world - in some parts up to 70-80% of its territory is covered by bogs. For the last 10 thousand years wetland areas of Western Siberia have been extending their territories, acting as a terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon on our planet. Two contrasting processes are actually occurring in the Southern and Northern parts of the region. In the south, there is a progressive swamping which leads to forest death. In the north, there is a thermokarst activity or thawing permafrost in palsas of sub-arctic zone of Western Siberia. In this work we analyse the hydrological and ecological indicators which characterize natural conditions of the North-Western Siberian Wetlands (watershed of Pur, Taz and Nadym rivers). These three rivers have total watershed of 243 000 km2 and discharge of 76 km3/year. They originate on the northern slopes of Sibirskiye uvaly ridge and flow to the Ob' bay and then to the Kara sea in the Arctic. Flat relief and the presence of permafrost lead to development of various forms of water objects and wetlands, such as river systems, flooded zones, lakes and bogs. We present the results of systematization and classification of landscape patterns, as well as study of variability of hydrological processes in the study region at different temporal (from multi-year to seasonal) and spatial (from local to regional) scales through a multidisciplinary approach based on in situ and remote sensing data. Various sources of satellite Earth observations, such as radar altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, ENVISAT), radiometry (SMMR, SSM/I), optical data (Landsat) and space gravimetry data (GRACE) are used in combination with the in situ observations and the recent field studies done in the August 2008. This research has been done in the framework of the Russian-French cooperation GDRI "CAR-WET-SIB" and French ANR "IMPACT-Boreal" project.

  5. Holocene palaeohydrological history of the Tǎul Muced peat bog (Northern Carpathians, Romania) based on testate amoebae (Protozoa) and plant macrofossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmin Diaconu, Andrei; Feurdean, Angelica; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Tanţǎu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past local vs. regional hydro-climate variability is a priority in climate research. This is because ecosystems and human depend on local climatic conditions and the magnitude of these climate changes is more variable at local and regional rather than at global scales. Ombrotrophic bogs are highly suitable for hydro-climate reconstructions as they are entirely dependent on the water from precipitation. We used stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, testate amoebae (TA) and plant macrofossils on a peat profile from an ombrotrophic bog (Tǎul Muced) located in the Biosphere Reserve of the Rodna National Park Romania. We performed quantitative reconstruction of the depth to water table (DWT) and pH over the last 8000 years in a continental area of CE Europe. We identified six main stages in the development of the bog based on changes in TA assemblages in time. Wet conditions and pH between 2 and 4.5 were recorded between 4600-2750 and 1300-400 cal. yr BP, by the occurrence of Archerella flavum, Amphitrema wrightianum and Hyalosphenia papilio. This was associated to a local vegetation primarily composed of Sphagnum magellanicum and S. angustifolium. Dry stages and pH of 2.5 to 5 were inferred between 7550-4600, 2750-1300 and -50 cal. yr BP, by the dominance of Nebela militaris, Difflugia pulex and Phryganella acropodia. These overall dry conditions were also connected with increased abundance of Eriophorum vaginatum. The period between 400 and -50 cal. yr BP was characterized by a rapid shift from dry to wet conditions on the surface of the bog. Vegetation shifted from Sphagnum magellanicum to Sphagnum russowii dominated community. Our reconstruction remains in relatively good agreement with other palaeohydrological records from Central Eastern Europe. However, it shows contrasting conditions to others particularly with records from NW Europe. The valuable information regarding bog hydrology offered by our record puts an accent on the need of more regional TA

  6. Relationships among the water table depth, water and surface elevations, and the composition of vegetation in a temperate hummocky, ombrogenic, oligotrophic raised shrub bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulet, Nigel; Wilson, Paul; Malhora, Avni

    2016-04-01

    Microtopography, such as hummocks and hollows, pools, ridges and lawns are features that are believed to be a consequence of feedbacks among the local hydrology and the production and decomposition of organic material. To deductively test some of the postulates derived from several theoretical studies of the development of patterning on peatlands, over two consecutive years we examined the spatial and temporal relationships among the hummock - hollow microtopography, water table depths (WTD) and water elevations (WTE) in a raised, ombrotrophic bog (Mer Bleue, Canada) that has extensive and well developed microtopography. In each of two 20 x 20 m plots we measured the surface elevation at more than 1,000 points, the WTDs manually every two to three weeks at 100 wells located on a 2 x 2 m grid, and WTDs continuously at more than 20 sites at adjacent hummocks and hollows. In addition to the physical measurements we also measured the spatial pattern of the vegetation communities. The average difference in elevation between the hummocks and hollows was ~ 0.5 m and as was expected the WTDs were shallower in the hollows than under the hummocks. The spatial variability in WTDs over time was very consistent. We tested the coherence between WTDs and surface elevation and found for a total of 46 spatial surveys over the two years and both plots the slopes from mixed modelled regressions were not significantly different for over 80% of the surveys. The difference in WTEs in adjacent microtopographic features (i.e. water levels referenced to a common datum), which determine the hydraulic gradients between hummocks and hollows, was quite small. The small gradients and the consistent coherence between WTDs and surface elevation suggests there is little lateral movement of water among the microtopographic features. The vegetation analysis showed the plot closer to the center, the apex, of the bog had stronger relationships among WTD-microtopography and vegetation than a plot

  7. The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality: Individual-level evidence from Tartu, Estonia, 1897-1900.

    PubMed

    Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems.

  8. High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Summary The HIV epidemic in Estonia is rapidly expanding, and injection drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group contributing to the expansion. A convenience sample of 159 IDUs visiting syringe-exchange programmes (SEPs) was selected to quantify the association of HIV-risk behaviours and blood-borne infections. A high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody (HBVcore), hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibodies (56, 85.1, 21.3, and 96.2%, respectively) was associated with high-risk injections, unsafe sexual behaviour and alcohol abuse. These findings emphasize the importance of evidence-based secondary prevention among the HIV-infected, especially given the uncertain sustainability of antiretroviral and substance abuse treatments. PMID:17326862

  9. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  10. Heatwave 2003: high summer temperature, rather than experimental fertilization, affects vegetation and CO2 exchange in an alpine bog.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Bragazza, Luca; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus were added experimentally in a bog in the southern Alps. It was hypothesized that alleviating nutrient limitation will increase vascular plant cover. As a consequence, more carbon will be fixed through higher rates of net ecosystem CO(2) exchange (NEE). The vascular cover did increase at the expense of Sphagnum mosses. However, such vegetation changes were largely independent of the treatment and were probably triggered by an exceptional heatwave in summer 2003. Contrary to the tested hypothesis, NEE was unaffected by the nutrient treatments but was strongly influenced by temperature and water-table depth. In particular, ecosystem respiration in the hot summer of 2003 increased dramatically, presumably owing to enhanced heterotrophic respiration in an increased oxic peat layer. At the end of the experiment, the Sphagnum cover decreased significantly in the nitrogen-fertilized treatment at hummock microhabitats. In the long term, this will imply a proportionally greater accumulation of vascular litter, more easily decomposable than the recalcitrant Sphagnum litter. As a result, rates of carbon fixation may decrease because of stimulated respiration.

  11. Scottish peat bog records of atmospheric vanadium deposition over the past 150 years: comparison with other records and emission trends.

    PubMed

    Cloy, Joanna M; Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B

    2011-01-01

    Cores from four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs were used to reconstruct the historical record of atmospheric vanadium (V) deposition in Scotland over the last 150 years. The general similarity of V and Pb concentration profile trends in (210)Pb-dated cores from each of the sites strongly suggested that V, like Pb, is essentially immobile in ombrotrophic peat. After allowance via use of the conservative element Ti for the contribution of soil dust V, the deposition of anthropogenic V was found to be greatest (∼ 1.3 to 2.0 mg m(-2) y(-1)) in the mid-20(th) century before decreasing to 0.1-0.3 mg m(-2) y(-1) in the early years of the 21(st) century. The latter values were in good agreement with directly measured atmospheric V fluxes at nearby sites, a finding also observed in the case of Pb. The decline in peat-core-derived fluxes for both V and Pb from 1970 to 2004, however, was not as large as the decline in official UK emission estimates for the two metals during this period. This, along with an order of magnitude discrepancy between the anthropogenic V/Pb ratios at the peat core surface and the higher values of the ratio for UK emissions in the early 2000s, suggests that the recently revised UK emissions data for V may perhaps still be overestimated and/or that some previously deposited Pb is being resuspended in the atmosphere.

  12. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina A.; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C. A.; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications. PMID:26002894

  13. Andromeda polifolia and Oxycoccus microcarpus as pollution indicators for ombrotrophic bogs in the Western Sudety Mountains (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Klink, Agnieszka; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, N, Ni, Pb and Zn in Andromeda polifolia, Oxycoccus microcarpus and in the peat in which these plants grew were measured in the Western Sudety (Karkonosze and Izerskie Mts., SW Poland). Of both the investigated plant fruit, O. microcarpus harvested from wild populations are commonly used as medicines. Samples from ombrotrophic bogs were investigated within the area influenced by exhausts of the former Black Triangle, one of the most heavily industrialized and polluted areas in Europe. A. polifolia and O. microcarpus growing at the highest elevations contained the highest Cu, Li, Ni, Mn and Zn concentrations and in addition O. microcarpus also contained the highest Cr concentrations. Both the investigated species have wide circumpolar distribution in ombrotrophic mires of the Northern hemisphere. As this type of mires is nourished solely by atmospheric deposition, the increased metal concentrations in A. polifolia and O. microcarpus may be an indication that their habitats receive an atmospheric input of long-range transported pollution. Our investigation proves that both species are able to accumulate elevated metal levels and may be used in the bioindication of the metal status in ombrotrophic mires. Controlling the collection of O. microcarpus fruit for consumption and medicinal purposes is recommended as this species can accumulate increased metal levels. However, further more detailed studies are necessary to verify the inner translocation of metals into fruit.

  14. Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Punctoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida) from alpine bogs of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Minor, Maria A

    2016-03-15

    Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Punctoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida) are described from alpine bogs of the Central Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand. Macrogena hexasetosa sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to M. brevisensilla Ermilov & Minor, 2015, however, it differs from the latter by larger body size, the presence of six pairs of genital setae, notogastral and ano-adanal setae of medium size, setiform rostral setae, narrower tutorial cusps, the absence of antero-ventral teeth on genua I, II and femora II, and by the absence of striae on the subcapitular mentum. Porallozetes badamdorji sp. nov. differs from the type species-P. dispar (Hammer, 1973)-by larger body length, the presence of interlamellar setae, short and clavate bothridial setae, anterior notogastral margin, notogastral setae of medium size, semi-oval dorsophragmata, and by the position of notogastral porose areas A2 posteriorly to A1. Safrobates gerdi sp. nov. differs from the type species-S. miniporus Mahunka, 1989-by larger body size, the presence of setiform rostral setae, and by notogastral setae of medium length. Porallozetes and Safrobates are recorded in New Zealand for the first time. Generic diagnoses for Macrogena, Porallozetes and Safrobates are given.

  15. Chromobacterium vaccinii sp. nov., isolated from native and cultivated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) bogs and irrigation ponds.

    PubMed

    Soby, Scott D; Gadagkar, Sudhindra R; Contreras, Cristina; Caruso, Frank L

    2013-05-01

    A large number of Gram-negative, motile, mesophilic, violacein-producing bacteria were isolated from the soils and roots of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. and Kalmia angustifolia L. plants and from irrigation ponds associated with wild and cultivated cranberry bogs in Massachusetts, USA. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these isolates in a clade with Chromobacterium species, but the specialized environment from which they were isolated, their low genomic DNA relatedness with Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472(T) and C. subtsugae PRAA4-1(T), significant differences in fatty acid composition and colony morphology indicate that the cranberry and Kalmia isolates comprise a separate species of Chromobacterium, for which the name Chromobacterium vaccinii sp. nov. is proposed. Strain MWU205(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2314(T)  = DSM 25150(T)) is proposed as the type strain for the novel species. Phenotypic analysis of 26 independent isolates of C. vaccinii sp. nov. indicates that, despite close geographical and biological proximity, there is considerable metabolic diversity among individuals within the population.

  16. History and environmental impact of mining activity in Celtic Aeduan territory recorded in a peat bog (Morvan, France).

    PubMed

    Monna, F; Petit, C; Guillaumet, J P; Jouffroy-Bapicot, I; Blanchot, C; Dominik, J; Losno, R; Richard, H; Lévêque, J; Chateau, C

    2004-02-01

    The present study aims to document historical mining and smelting activities by means of geochemical and pollen analyses performed in a peat bog core collected around the Bibracte oppidum (Morvan, France), the largest settlement of the great Aeduan Celtic tribe (ca. 180 B.C. to 25 A.D.). The anthropogenic Pb profile indicates local mining operations starting from the Late Bronze Age, ca. cal. 1300 B.C. Lead inputs peaked at the height of Aeduan civilization and then decreased after the Roman conquest of Gaul, when the site was abandoned. Other phases of mining are recognized from the 11th century to modern times. They have all led to modifications in plant cover, probably related in part to forest clearances necessary to supply energy for mining and smelting. Zn, Sb, Cd, and Cu distributions may result from diffusional and biological processes or from the influence of groundwater and underlying mineral soil, precluding their interpretation for historical reconstruction. The abundance of mineral resources, in addition to the strategic location, might explain why early settlers founded the city of Bibracte at that particular place. About 20% of the anthropogenic lead record was accumulated before our era and about 50% before the 18th century, which constitutes a troublesome heritage. Any attempts to develop control strategies in accumulating environments should take into account past human activities in order to not overestimate the impact of contemporary pollution.

  17. Historical records of atmospheric metal deposition along the St. Lawrence Valley (eastern Canada) based on peat bog cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratte, Steve; Mucci, Alfonso; Garneau, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    The recent history of atmospheric As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn deposition and the stable Pb isotope signatures were reconstructed from short cores collected at three peat bogs along the St. Lawrence Valley (SLV). The onset of industrial activity was recorded around 1810-1850 AD. As, Cd, Pb and, to a certain extent, Ni deposition rates reached maxima between 1940 and the early 1970s. Trace metals likely originated from coal-burning and ore smelting between 1850 and 1950 AD, and were replaced thereafter, at least in the case of Pb, by the combustion of leaded gasolines until the mid-1980s. Trace metal contents and accumulation rates were greater in the two cores recovered from the southwestern SLV than further northeast, as expected from their proximity to urban and industrial centers of eastern Canada and the U.S. Mid-West and the direction of the prevalent winds. A rapid decrease in metal accumulation rates since the 1970s suggests that mitigation policies were effective in reducing atmospheric metal emissions. Nevertheless, metal accumulation rates and stable Pb isotope signatures have not yet returned to their pre-industrial values.

  18. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina A; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C A; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications.

  19. Comparison of thunderstorm hours registered by the lightning detection network and human observers in Estonia, 2006-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enno, S. E.

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between the lightning detection network data and human-reported thunderstorms were studied in Estonia during the period of 2006-2011. Estonia is located in northeastern Europe between 57.5° to 59.5° N and 21° to 28.5° E. Numbers of thunderstorm days (TD) and thunderstorm hours (TH) reported by 61 volunteer observers and six meteorological stations were compared to the data of the lightning detection network. Results indicated that the flash data within 9.0 km from the sites of volunteer observers should be used in order to derive TD numbers equal to human observations. Larger radius of 14.7 km was found on the basis of six meteorological stations with probably better quality of thunderstorm observations. Due to data quality issues, the daily and monthly numbers of THs reported by individual observers explained only 12-39 % of variations in the flash counts within 40 km of their observing sites. In contrast, the average TH data of all observers successfully explained 75-86 % of variations in daily and monthly flash counts within 40 km of the observation sites. The main advantage of using the average data of many human observers seems to be that in case of a dense network, the neighboring observers tend to compensate for each other's errors. In general, intense storms close to observing sites were found to be most successfully reported by human observers. The most important conclusion of the study is that although human observations of thunderstorms and automatic lightning observations are very different methods, they generally give similar results.

  20. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  1. The American cranberry: first insights into the whole genome of a species adapted to bog habitat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is one of only three widely-cultivated fruit crops native to North America- the other two are blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and native grape (Vitis spp.). In terms of taxonomy, cranberries are in the core Ericales, an order for which genome sequence data are currently lacking. In addition, cranberries produce a host of important polyphenolic secondary compounds, some of which are beneficial to human health. Whereas next-generation sequencing technology is allowing the advancement of whole-genome sequencing, one major obstacle to the successful assembly from short-read sequence data of complex diploid (and higher ploidy) organisms is heterozygosity. Cranberry has the advantage of being diploid (2n = 2x = 24) and self-fertile. To minimize the issue of heterozygosity, we sequenced the genome of a fifth-generation inbred genotype (F ≥ 0.97) derived from five generations of selfing originating from the cultivar Ben Lear. Results The genome size of V. macrocarpon has been estimated to be about 470 Mb. Genomic sequences were assembled into 229,745 scaffolds representing 420 Mbp (N50 = 4,237 bp) with 20X average coverage. The number of predicted genes was 36,364 and represents 17.7% of the assembled genome. Of the predicted genes, 30,090 were assign