The alpine flea beetle genus Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) is revised. Twenty new species, namely B. chilalla, B. dochula, B. ha, B. nobding, B. thumsila and B. yatongla from Bhutan, B. belousovi, B. cangshanicus, B. kabaki, B. kurbatovi, B. nigrinus, B. sichuanensis a...
Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...
Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...
Remarkable similarities have been found in the pheromonal communication of Phyllotreta vittula Redtenbacher and of Ph. cruciferae Goeze (European population) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In previous European field tests with Ph. cruciferae, only the major male-produced sesquiterpene identified from ...
Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola
Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584
Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael
Abstract Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehni sp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis. PMID:27853400
Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael
Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehnisp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis.
Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi
Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchusaffinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchusatomarius L., 1761, Bruchusloti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinuskergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species.
Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi
Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...
Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia
Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study
Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes scattered literature to determine the patterns in ant host use. Some degr...
This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...
From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...
Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Three brownish colored species and two black species were released at many locations beginn...
The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...
Bukejs, Andris; Nadein, Konstantin
In the current paper the first fossil representatives of leaf-beetles from the subfamily Lamprosomatinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from Upper Eocene Baltic amber: Succinoomorphus warchalowskii gen. et sp. nov., Archelamprosomius balticus gen. et sp. nov., and Archelamprosomius kirejtshuki sp. nov. A key to fossil Lamprosomatinae is provided.
Kölsch, Gregor; Synefiaridou, Dimitra
When symbioses between insects and bacteria are discussed, the origin of a given association is regularly of interest. We examined the evolution of the symbiosis between reed beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) and intracellular symbionts belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. We analyzed the partial sequence of the 16S rRNA to assess the phylogenetic relationships with bacteria we found in other beetle groups (Cerambycidae, Anobiidae, other Chrysomelidae). We discuss the ecology of each association in the context of the phylogenetic analysis. The bacteria in Sagra femorata (Chrysomelidae, Sagrinae) are very closely related to those in the Donaciinae and are located in similar mycetomes. The Sagrinae build a cocoon for pupation like the Donaciinae, in which the bacteria produce the material required for the cocoon. These aspects support the close relationship between Sagrinae and Donaciinae derived in earlier studies and make a common ancestry of the symbioses likely. Using PCR primers specific for fungi, we found Candida sp. in the mycetomes of a cerambycid beetle along with the bacteria. PMID:26466539
Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Jones, Robert W.
Abstract The Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) is a highly speciose family that has been poorly studied at the regional level in Mexico. In the present study, we estimated species richness and diversity in oak-pine forest, Tamaulipan thorny scrub and in tropical deciduous forests in Peregrina Canyon within the Altas Cumbres Protected Area of the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling of Chrysomelidae consisted of five sweep net samples (200 net sweeps) within each of three sites during four sample periods: early dry season, late dry season, early wet season, and late wet season. Species were identified and total numbers per species were recorded for each sample. A total of 2,226 specimens were collected belonging to six subfamilies, 81 genera and 157 species of Chrysomelidae from the study area. Galerucinae was the most abundant subfamily with 1,828 specimens, representing 82.1% of total abundance in the study area. Lower abundance was recorded in Cassidinae (8.5%), Eumolpinae (3.6%), Cryptocephalinae (2.2%), Chrysomelinae (2.2%), and finally Criocerinae (1.3%). The highest species richness was also presented in the subfamily Galerucinae with 49% of the total obtained species followed by Cassidinae (20%), Cryptocephalinae (9.7%), Eumolpinae (9.7%), Chrysomelinae (6.5%) and Criocerinae (5.2%). The most common species were Centralaphthona fulvipennis Jacoby (412 individuals), Centralaphthona diversa (Baly) (248), Margaridisa sp.1 (219), Acallepitrix sp.1 (134), Longitarsus sp.1 (104), Heterispa vinula (Erichson) (91), Epitrix sp.1 (84) and Chaetocnema sp.1 (72). Twenty-two species were doubletons (1.97% of total abundance) and 52 were singletons (2.33%). The estimated overall density value obtained was 0.0037 individuals/m2. The greatest abundance and density of individuals were recorded at the lowest elevation site. However, alpha diversity increased with increasing altitude. Similarity values were less than 50% among the three sites indicating that each site
Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Jones, Robert W
The Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) is a highly speciose family that has been poorly studied at the regional level in Mexico. In the present study, we estimated species richness and diversity in oak-pine forest, Tamaulipan thorny scrub and in tropical deciduous forests in Peregrina Canyon within the Altas Cumbres Protected Area of the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling of Chrysomelidae consisted of five sweep net samples (200 net sweeps) within each of three sites during four sample periods: early dry season, late dry season, early wet season, and late wet season. Species were identified and total numbers per species were recorded for each sample. A total of 2,226 specimens were collected belonging to six subfamilies, 81 genera and 157 species of Chrysomelidae from the study area. Galerucinae was the most abundant subfamily with 1,828 specimens, representing 82.1% of total abundance in the study area. Lower abundance was recorded in Cassidinae (8.5%), Eumolpinae (3.6%), Cryptocephalinae (2.2%), Chrysomelinae (2.2%), and finally Criocerinae (1.3%). The highest species richness was also presented in the subfamily Galerucinae with 49% of the total obtained species followed by Cassidinae (20%), Cryptocephalinae (9.7%), Eumolpinae (9.7%), Chrysomelinae (6.5%) and Criocerinae (5.2%). The most common species were Centralaphthona fulvipennis Jacoby (412 individuals), Centralaphthona diversa (Baly) (248), Margaridisa sp.1 (219), Acallepitrix sp.1 (134), Longitarsus sp.1 (104), Heterispa vinula (Erichson) (91), Epitrix sp.1 (84) and Chaetocnema sp.1 (72). Twenty-two species were doubletons (1.97% of total abundance) and 52 were singletons (2.33%). The estimated overall density value obtained was 0.0037 individuals/m2. The greatest abundance and density of individuals were recorded at the lowest elevation site. However, alpha diversity increased with increasing altitude. Similarity values were less than 50% among the three sites indicating that each site had
Webster, Reginald P.; LeSage, Laurent; DeMerchant, Ian
Abstract Zeugophora varians Crotch and the family Megalopodidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Chrysomelidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, including Acalymma gouldi Barber, Altica knabii Blatchley, Altica rosae Woods, Altica woodsi Isely, Bassareus mammifer (Newman), Chrysolina marginata (Linnaeus), Chrysomela laurentia Brown, Crepidodera violacea Melsheimer, Cryptocephalus venustus Fabricius, Neohaemonia melsheimeri (Lacordaire), Neohaemonia nigricornis (Kirby), Pachybrachis bivittatus (Say), Pachybrachis m-nigrum (Melsheimer), Phyllobrotica limbata (Fabricius), Psylliodes affinis (Paykull), Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), Ophraella communa (LeSage), Ophraella cribrata (LeConte), Ophraella notata (Fabricius), Systena hudsonias (Forster), Tricholochmaea ribicola (Brown), and Tricholochmaea rufosanguinea (Say), which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539900
Simões, Marianna V P; Monné, Marcela L
Immatures of Mesomphalia gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and Mesomphalia turrita (Illiger, 1801) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Mesomphaliini) are described based on specimen collections from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The last-instar larva and pupal exuviae of M. gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and the eggs, first-instar larva, and pupa of M. turrita (Illiger, 1801) are described, photographed and illustrated, with emphasis on chaetotaxy. Additional notes on their biology are presented.
Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra
Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB–endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894
Abstract Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xyp and XYp clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104
A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...
Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...
Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...
Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E
Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations.
Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M
Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata.
Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H
The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.
Germain, Jean-François; Chatot, Catherine; Meusnier, Isabelle; Artige, Emmanuelle; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Cruaud, Astrid
Epitrix species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed mostly on plants from the family Solanaceae and some of them are major pests of potato crops. All Epitrix species are morphologically highly similar, which makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. Identification of species is mostly based on the observation of the genitalia and requires a high level of expertise. Here, we propose a tool to reliably identify all developmental stages of the most economically important Epitrix species feeding on potato in Europe and North America (Epitrix cucumeris, Epitrix similaris, Epitrix tuberis, Epitrix subcrinita and Epitrix hirtipennis). We first sequenced two DNA markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) to test their effectiveness in differentiating among six Epitrix species (126 specimens). Morphospecies of Epitrix were well-differentiated by both DNA barcodes and no mitochondrial introgression was detected. Then, we developed an RFLP-based diagnostic method and showed that unambiguous species discrimination can be achieved by using the sole restriction enzyme TaqI on COI polymerase chain reaction products. The tool proposed here should improve our knowledge about Epitrix species biology, distribution and host range, three capacities that are particularly important in the detection and management of these pest species. Specifically, this tool should help prevent the introduction of E. tuberis and E. subcrinita in Europe and limit the spread of the recently introduced E. cucumeris and E. similaris, with minimal disruption to Solanaceae trade.
Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver
The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process.
Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Marín Armijos, Diego; Peters, Marcell K.; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W.
Background Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic) species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (n = 284–289). Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2) and 469–481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m) had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation. Conclusions/Significance Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons), the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities
Peterson, Merrill A; Larson, Erica L; Brassil, Margaret; Buckingham, Kati J; Juárez, Danielle; Deas, Joseph; Mangloña, Donna; White, Michael A; Maslan, Jonathan; Schweitzer, Andrew; Monsen, Kirsten J
Most species pairs are isolated through the collective action of a suite of barriers. Recent work has shown that cryptic barriers such as conspecific sperm precedence can be quite strong, suggesting that they evolve quickly. However, because the strength of multiple barriers has been formally quantified in very few systems, the relative speed with which conspecific sperm precedence evolves remains unclear. Here, we measure the strength of both conspecific sperm precedence and cryptic non-competitive isolation between the hybridizing sister species, Chrysochus auratus and C. cobaltinus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and compare the strength of those barriers to the strength of other known reproductive barriers in this system. Overall, cryptic barriers in this system are weaker than other barriers, indicating that they have not evolved rapidly. Furthermore, their evolution has been asymmetric. Non-competitive barriers substantially reduce the production of hybrid offspring by C. auratus females but not by C. cobaltinus females. In multiply-mated C. cobaltinus females, heterospecific sperm outcompete conspecific sperm, as evidenced by the fact that heterospecific males sired disproportionately more offspring than predicted from the results for singly-mated females. In C. auratus females, neither sperm type has a competitive advantage. Such asymmetries explain why nearly all F1 hybrids in the field are from crosses between C. cobaltinus females and C. auratus males. We discuss these findings in terms of understanding the cost of mating 'mistakes' in the Chrysochus hybrid zone. In addition, our discovery that 95% confidence intervals for commonly-used isolation statistics can be very wide has important implications for speciation research. Specifically, to avoid biases in the interpretation of such isolation metrics, we suggest that studies should routinely include error estimates in their analyses of reproductive isolation.
Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.
Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587
Onstad, David W; Meinke, Lance J
A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was created to evaluate the use of refuges in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., expressing one or two toxin traits. Hypothetical scenarios and a case study of a corn hybrid pyramided with existing toxins are simulated. In the hypothetical situations, results demonstrated that evolution is generally delayed by pyramids compared with deployment of a single-toxin corn hybrid. However, soil insecticide use in the refuge reduced this delay and quickened the evolution of resistance. Results were sensitive to the degree of male beetle dispersal before mating and to the effectiveness of both toxins in the pyramid. Resistance evolved faster as fecundity increased for survivors of insecticidal corn. Thus, effects on fecundity must be measured to predict which resistance management plans will work well. Evolution of resistance also occurred faster if the survival rate due to exposure to the two toxins was not calculated by multiplication of two independent survival rates (one for each insect gene) but was equivalent to the minimum of the two. Furthermore, when single-trait and pyramided corn hybrids were planted within rootworm-dispersal distance of each other, the toxin traits lost efficacy more quickly than they did in scenarios without single-trait corn. For the case study involving transgenic corn expressing Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, the pyramid delayed evolution longer than a single trait corn hybrid and longer than a sequence of toxins based on at least one resistance-allele frequency remaining below 50%. Results are discussed within the context of a changing transgenic corn marketplace and the landscape dynamics of resistance management.
Geisert, Ryan W; Meinke, Lance J
The frequency of extended diapause in populations of the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was measured in eastern Nebraska. Adult collections were made during late summer in 2008 and 2009 from eight sites each year (seven sites were consistent over years). Eggs were obtained from 12 to 20 females per site and were held on moist soil under appropriate temperature profiles to facilitate egg survival, diapause development, and diapause termination. Percentage egg hatch was recorded after the first and second year for the 2008 and 2009 collections. Additional extended diapause expression was estimated for the 2008 and 2009 collections by counting remaining live eggs after the second-year egg hatch was completed. These data also were used to estimate each site's maximum egg viability. Results collectively indicate that the extended diapause trait was present in all eastern Nebraska populations; however, significant variation in the frequency of extended diapause was observed within and among D. barberi populations (first-year mean percentage egg hatch range: 2008 collections: 4.5-38.6%; 2009 collections: 10.7-42.5%). Geographically, the highest incidence of extended diapause was found along a north-south transect in eastern counties of Nebraska that parallels the Missouri River. In general, the frequency of extended diapause was lower in sites found west of the north-south transect. This study contributes to the knowledge base needed to develop appropriate D. barberi management strategies in Nebraska. These data can be used to pinpoint areas of Nebraska that may have the greatest risk of economic injury in first-year corn (Zea mays L.) when D. barberi densities are high.
Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J
A field study was conducted to increase our understanding of diel activity patterns of Colaspis brunnea (F.) and Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in key crop habitats. Within 24-h periods, C. brunnea was sampled in clover fields (primarily red clover, Trifolium pretense (L.), with some sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, and downy brome, Bromus tectorum (L.)) and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, fields, using a sweep-net, while whole-plant-count sampling was used to monitor C. crinicornis densities in field corn, Zea mays (L.). Sweep-net captures of C. brunnea were significantly greater at night than during the day, suggesting possible vertical movement within the canopy during a 24-h period. Colaspis crinicornis densities on corn plants were fairly constant throughout a 24-h period, but beetle activity (e.g., walking, mating) was significantly greater at night than during the day. Results suggest that both Colaspis species may be exhibiting similar increases in activity at night that facilitates movement from more protected to more exposed areas within a habitat. It is unclear what mechanisms drive this diel pattern, but vegetation architecture and associated interactions with environmental conditions may play a role. Sweep-netting in clover or soybean fields and use of whole-plant-counts in cornfields were effective sampling methods for Colaspis adults. However, because activity and behaviors of Colaspis beetles were influenced by time of day in this study, use of a consistent sampling time within a diel period would be recommended for future population studies or integrated pest management decision-making.
Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R
The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.
Luna, J M; Xue, L
Aggregation behavior of adult western spotted cucumber beetles (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was examined in six snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) fields adjacent to corn fields in western Oregon in 2004-2006. In the 2004 and 2005 studies, sweep net sampling was used to estimate beetle numbers along transect lines running perpendicular to the edges of the bean fields next to sweet corn fields. Beetles were collected from the fields and dissected to determine sex and egg development. Beetles were highly aggregated along the edge of the snap bean field next to the sweet corn, with the highest number of beetles occurring within the first meter next to the edge. Beetles in the aggregation areas were mostly females (average female to male ratio of 8.4 to 1), whereas beetles in the field section away from the edges were mostly male (female to male ratio of 0.6 to 1). Of the females collected in the aggregation areas, an average of 53% contained developing or fully developed eggs. In the 2006 study, beetle densities in the field edges were compared with densities within the fields in 40 bean fields with adjacent corn fields. Linear regression analysis showed that, across fields, nearly two times as many beetles were found in the field borders as in the rest of the field. These data suggest modifying traditional field scouting protocol to include field margins when a bean field is adjacent to or near a sweet corn field. A pest management strategy of only spraying the edges of bean fields containing beetle aggregations shows potential for significant pesticide reduction, as well as reducing risk of economic loss from crops harvested from the highly aggregated areas.
Pimenta, M; De Marco, P
In landscape mosaics, species may use different vegetation types or be restricted to a single vegetation type or land-use feature highlighting the importance of the interaction of species requirements and environmental heterogeneity. In these systems, the determination of the overall pattern of β-diversity can indicate the importance of the environmental heterogeneity on diversity patterns. Here, we evaluate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as habitat quality bioindicators in a system with varying intensities of human impacts and different phyto-physiognomies (from open field to forests). We collected 1117 leaf beetles belonging to 245 species, of which 12 species and 5 genus were considered possible bioindicators based on IndVal measures. Higher species richness was observed in forests and regenerating fields, and habitats with lower species richness included pastures, mines, and veredas. Natural fields, regenerating fields, natural cerrado, and forest had higher values of β-diversity. Bioindicator systems that include not only species richness and abundance but also assemblage composition are needed to allow for a better understanding of Chrysomelidae response to environmental disturbance.
Damaška, Albert; Konstantinov, Alexander
Moss cushions represent an interesting, but poorly understood habitat, which hosts many species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). However, the diversity of moss-inhabiting flea beetles is not well studied, and collecting in tropical and subtropical locations that were not sampled in the past led to the discovery of many new species (Konstantinov et al. 2013). Here, a new species of a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from the genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. 2013 is described and illustrated. This genus is one of the recently described moss-inhabiting flea beetle genera and before this study, only one species was known (Konstantinov et al., 2013). This publication raises the number of flea beetle species that are known to occur in moss cushions around the world to 30, distributed among 15 genera.
Su, Liang; Zhou, Hong-Zhang
This study is focused on the Chinese fauna of the leaf beetle genus Chlamisus Rafinesque, 1815 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and three new species are described, namely C. corollinotatus sp. nov. from Guangxi, and C. lycocephalus sp. nov. and C. varipennatus sp. nov. from Yunnan. The number of the Chinese Chlamisus is thus increased to 66. Twenty-five species are redescribed with the emphasis mainly on the genital morphological characters that are observed and reported for the first time for most species of the genus from China. Color plates and line drawings of general habitus and other detailed structures are also provided. Chinese fauna of the genus is keyed to species. Type specimens of the new species and other materials included in this study are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Luo, Min; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao
Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important biological control agent of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., in China. Development and fecundity of O. communa, and hatch rate of progeny eggs were studied at five photoperiods (8:16, 10:14, 12:12, 14:10, and 16:8 [L:D] h). The highest survival rate of eggs was 92% at the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h, and those of both larvae and pupae were observed at the photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h (85 and 96%). The shortest developmental durations of larvae and pupae were observed at photoperiods of 14:10 and 16:8 (L:D) h. Fecundity was 1,159-1,976 eggs per female from photoperiods of 8:16 to 16:8 (L:D) h. The hatch rates of progeny eggs were 67-92% from photoperiods of 8:16 to 16:8 (L:D) h, and photoperiods did not affect developmental duration of progeny eggs. The intrinsic rate for increase (r), the net reproductive rate (r0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum values at 16:8 (L:D) h (0.2219 d(-1), 721 hatched eggs and 1.2484 d(-1), respectively) and 14:10 (L:D) h (0.2133 d(-1), 605.6 hatched eggs and 1.2378 d(-1), respectively). Their minimum values were observed at the photoperiod of 8:16 (L:D) h, which were 0.1731 d(-1), 212.2 hatched eggs and 0.1890 d(-1), respectively. The shortest T value was 29.7 d at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h and the longest was 31.4 d at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. Our study shows that O. communa could survive and reproduce successfully at different photoperiods, thus may expand its distribution to regions with different photoperiods.
The water primrose flea beetle Altica litigata (family Chrysomelidae) is a known insect pest to several nursery plants due to its aggressive feeding behavior – typically carried out in significant numbers. This aggregate feeding usually results in severe defoliation of their host plant. However, bec...
Lack of syntheses of knowledge on immature stages of insects impedes accurate understanding of their diversity, biology and evolution. In Chrysomelidae, this information gap undermines basic explanations of this lineage’s radiation. Literature describing and discussing known immature stages of cas...
Host range validation, molecular identification, and release and establishment of a Chinese biotype of the Asian leaf beetle Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Criocerinae) for control of Dioscorea bulbifera L. in ...
Dioscorea bulbifera, an Asian vine, is invasive in the southeastern USA. It rarely flowers but propagates from potato-like bulbils formed in leaf axils, which persist into the subsequent growing season. Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto, a foliage-feeding beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Crio...
Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Rice, Marlin E; Hill, John H
To better understand the naturally occurring host range of Bean pod mottle virus (family Comoviridae, genus Comovirus, BPMV) and its principal vector Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), 18 field-collected perennial plant species were tested for the presence of BPMV. By using no-choice assays, we determined the preference of these plants by bean leaf beetle, by measuring their level of herbivory relative to soybean, Glycine max (L.). New food hosts for adult bean leaf beetles include Lespedeza capitata (Michaux), Lotus corniculatus L., Trifolium alexandrinum L., Trifolium ambiguum Bieberstein, and Trifolium incarnatum L. Desmodium illinoense Gray is discovered as a new naturally occurring host for BPMV.
García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L.; Kress, W. John
Abstract The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleia kuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairnia arcuata and Pitcairnia brittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleia kuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleia histrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleia kuprewiczae from Cephaloleia histrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006
Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.; Fukada, M.; Samuelson, A.; Lau, T.
Prior to 2001, seed predation was virtually absent in the endemic Wiliwili Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae: Degener), dominant tree species of lower-elevation Hawaiian dryland forests. The African bruchine chrysomelid Specularius impressithorax (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) was first detected in Hawai'i in 2001 and became established on all main islands within the next two years. The mode of entry for this invasive Erythrina seed predator into Hawai'i is unknown, but likely occurred with the importation of trinket jewelry from Africa containing characteristically brightly-colored Erythrina seeds. The initial establishment of this insect likely occurred on a non-native host, the widely cultivated coral tree E. variegata. Within three years of its first record, S. impressithorax accounted for 77.4% mean seed crop loss in 12 populations of Wiliwili on six main Hawaiian islands. Specularius impressithorax, dispersed through international commerce and established via E. variegata, has become a threat to a unique Hawaiian forest type and may threaten other Erythrina, especially New World representatives.
Boiteau, G; Mccarthy, P C; MacKinley, P D
The flight take-off activity of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was significantly higher at a landscape-protected than at semiexposed and exposed sites in a 2-yr field study. In both years, mean daylight temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were generally similar at all sites, but wind speed was lower at the protected site than at the exposed sites. Results suggest that wind was the limiting abiotic factor for flight take-off at the exposed site. Caged beetles exposed to constant wind speeds of 3.4, 4.7, and 7.0 m/s showed a significant corresponding decrease in number of flight take-off. There was no cumulative effect of wind exposure on the readiness of the beetles to fly, suggesting that wind acts as a physical barrier to flight take-off. It should be possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle flight dispersal by selecting fields most exposed to wind over landscape-protected fields when rotating potato, Solanum tuberosum L., crops.
Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J
The chrysomelid beetle Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurs primarily in the Great Plains region of the United States. Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, but over the last decade, it has become increasingly common in the corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, agroecosystem of southeastern Nebraska. As part of a larger comprehensive project to understand the natural history and pest potential of this species, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the developmental biology, morphological characters of immature stages, and the effect of adult diet on consumption, longevity, and fecundity. Females readily deposited egg clusters in the soil, and percentage egg hatch was high under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were confirmed to be soil-dwelling stages. C. crinicornis has relatively short egg, pupal, and adult stages with the majority of its life cycle spent in the larval stage. Results of choice and no-choice adult feeding experiments indicate that diets of corn or soybean leaves did not significantly affect consumption, longevity, or fecundity of adult C. crinicornis, suggesting that corn and soybean leaves are similarly suitable food sources for adults. The ability to effectively utilize tissues from very different plant families as adult food sources suggests that C. crinicornis is polyphagous in the field.
Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D
The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.
Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc
The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896
Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J.
The chrysomelid beetle Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurs primarily in the Great Plains region of the United States. Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, but over the last decade, it has become increasingly common in the corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, agroecosystem of southeastern Nebraska. As part of a larger comprehensive project to understand the natural history and pest potential of this species, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the developmental biology, morphological characters of immature stages, and the effect of adult diet on consumption, longevity, and fecundity. Females readily deposited egg clusters in the soil, and percentage egg hatch was high under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were confirmed to be soil-dwelling stages. C. crinicornis has relatively short egg, pupal, and adult stages with the majority of its life cycle spent in the larval stage. Results of choice and no-choice adult feeding experiments indicate that diets of corn or soybean leaves did not significantly affect consumption, longevity, or fecundity of adult C. crinicornis, suggesting that corn and soybean leaves are similarly suitable food sources for adults. The ability to effectively utilize tissues from very different plant families as adult food sources suggests that C. crinicornis is polyphagous in the field. PMID:26106090
Johnson, Kevin D; O'Neal, Matthew E; Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Rice, Marlin E
In Iowa, the management of insect pests in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., has been complicated by the arrival of the invasive species soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and occasional outbreaks of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), populations leading to economic losses. Several insecticide programs designed to reduce abundance of the overwintered and first generation C. trifurcata and the incidence of bean pod mottle virus were evaluated over 3 yr (2004-2006) for their impacts on A. glycines populations, at three locations in Iowa (Floyd, Lucas, and Story counties). There was no significant overlap of either overwintered (early May) or the first (early July) generations of C. trifurcata with A. glycines, because aphids were first detected in June and they did not reach economically damaging levels until August, if at all. During this study, insecticides targeting the overwintered population or the first generation of C. trifurcata provided a limited impact on A. glycines populations compared with untreated controls, and they did not prevent economic populations from occurring. Furthermore, the highest populations of A. glycines were frequently observed when a low rate of lambda-cyhalothrin (178 ml/ha) was applied targeting the overwintered population of C. trifurcata. Soybean yields were not protected by any of the insecticide treatments. Our results indicate that the use of either early season foliar or seed-applied insecticides for C. trifurcata management is of limited value for A. glycines management.
Guzik, Joanna; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Bereś, Paweł K.; Drzewiecki, Sławomir; Migula, Paweł
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important pest of maize. The diet of the D. virgifera imago is rich in starch and other polysaccharides present in cereals such as maize. Therefore, knowledge about enzymes involved in digestion of such specific food of this pest seems to be important. The paper shows, for the first time, the activities of main glycolytic enzymes in the midgut of D. virgifera imago: endoglycosidases (α-amylase, cellulase, chitinase, licheninase, laminarinase); exoglycosidases (α- and β-glucosidases, α- and β-galactosidases) and disaccharidases (maltase, isomaltase, sucrase, trehalase, lactase, and cellobiase). Activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and maltase were the highest among assayed endoglycosidases, exoglycosidases, and disaccharidases, respectively. This indicates that in the midgut of D. virgifera imago α-amylase, α-glucosidase and maltase are important enzymes in starch hydrolysis and products of its digestion. These results lead to conclusion that inhibition of most active glycolytic enzymes of D. virgifera imago may be another promising method for chemical control of this pest of maize.
Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Clark, Shawn M; Toledo-Hernández, Victor Hugo; Corona-López, Angélica María; Jones, Robert W
We record 116 genera and 366 species of Chrysomelidae from the state of Morelos, Mexico. This represents an increase of 9.3% in the species richness of these beetles for the state. Also, Morelos is currently the third most diverse state in leaf beetles within Mexico, with 16.78% of total species recorded for the country. The most diverse genera were Calligrapha, Disonycha, Blepharida, Leptinotarsa, Cryptocephalus, Systena, Alagoasa, Diabrotica and Pachybrachis, each with more than eight species. Most of these genera contain large, showy beetles. When the chrysomelid fauna is more fully understood, some of the genera of tiny beetles will likely prove to be more diverse.
Eski, Ardahan; Demir, İsmail; Sezen, Kazım; Demirbağ, Zihni
Use of chemical pesticides in agriculture harms humans, non-target organisms and environments, and causes increase resistance against chemicals. In order to develop an effective bio-pesticide against coleopterans, particularly against Agelastica alni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) which is one of the serious pests of alder leaf and hazelnut, we tested the insecticidal effect of 21 Bacillus isolates against the larvae and adults of the pest. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis-Xd3 (Btt-Xd3) showed the highest insecticidal effect based on screening tests. For toxin protein production and high sporulation of Xd3, the most suitable medium, pH and temperature conditions were determined as nutrient broth medium enriched with salts, pH 7 and 30 °C, respectively. Sporulated Btt-Xd3 in nutrient broth medium enriched with salts transferred to fermentation medium containing soybean flour, glucose and salts. After fermentation, the mixture was dried in a spray dryer, and spore count of the powder product was determined as 1.6 × 10(10) c.f.u. g(-1). Moisture content, suspensibility and wettability of the formulation were determined as 8.3, 86% and 21 s, respectively. Lethal concentrations (LC50) of formulated Btt-Xd3 were determined as 0.15 × 10(5) c.f.u. ml(-1) for larvae at laboratory conditions. LC50 values were also determined as 0.45 × 10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) at the field condition on larval stage. Our results showed that a new bio-pesticide developed from B. thuringiensis tenebrionis (Xd3) (Btt-Xd3) may be valuable as a biological control agent for coleopteran pests.
Balusu, Rammohan R; Fadamiro, Henry Y
The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an introduced pest of cruciferous crops in the southern United States, and arguably the most damaging pest of organic crucifer vegetable production in the region. Studies were conducted in the greenhouse and laboratory to investigate host finding and acceptance preference of M. ochroloma on four commonly grown cruciferous crops: cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata), collards (B. oleracea L. variety acephala), napa cabbage [B. pekinensis (Lour.)], and turnip (B. rapa L.) First, adult beetles were allowed to choose among the four plants in a multiple-choice greenhouse cage experiment and host preference was evaluated by using three parameters: number of beetles on each plant, number of larvae on each plant, and plant damage ratings. The results showed that M. ochroloma adults actively discriminated among the four host plants, with significantly higher numbers recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on cabbage or collards. Significantly higher numbers of larvae also were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage starting on day 10. Similarly, higher damage ratings were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on the remaining two hosts. Results of four-choice olfactometer experiments, which compared attraction of M. ochroloma to headspace volatiles of the four host plants, demonstrated that host preference is mediated primarily by plant volatiles. Both sexes were significantly more attracted to napa cabbage than to the remaining treatments, with turnip being the second most attractive plant. These results confirm that turnip and napa cabbage are two preferred host plants of M. ochroloma, and may support the development of a trap crop system and attractant-based strategies for managing M. ochroloma in crucifer production.
Montemayor, Cecil O; Cave, Ronald D
The predation capacity of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was evaluated at three release rates in field cages containing larvae of the yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål (Coleoptera Chrysomelidae), a pest of organic crucifer (Brassicaceae) crops in the United States. The experiment was conducted twice, in February-March 2009 and in February-March 2010. On the same day as the introduction of 132 first instars of M. ochroloma into the cages, four (= low), 10 (= medium), or 16 (= high) first instars of P. maculiventris were released evenly among six turnip (Brassica rapa L.) plants in cages. Control treatment cages received no predators. In 2009, the mean number of M. ochroloma larvae declined progressively during the first four sampling dates. On the final (seventh) sampling date, the mean numbers of total M. ochroloma in the two higher release-rate treatments were significantly lower than in the low release-rate and control treatments. Overall survivorship of P. maculiventris was 39.1% in the high release-rate treatment. In 2010, the mean number of M ochroloma larvae declined progressively during the first four sampling dates. On the fourth sampling date and the final (ninth) sampling date, there were no significant differences among treatments involving predator releases. The lowest overall survivorship of P. maculiventris (3.1%) was in the high release-rate treatment. Two tentative recommendations for growers emerged from this study: 1) release 10 first instars of P. maculiventris per six plants if the plants are expected to have > or = 7 leaves per plant; or 2) release four first instars of P. maculiventris per six plants if the plants are expected to have < or = 6 leaves per plant.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Rice, Marlin E; Hill, John H
Cerotoma trifurcata Förster (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Bean pod mottle virus (Comoviridae) (BPMV) both can reduce yield and seed quality of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of systemic, seed-applied, and foliar-applied insecticides for the management of this pest complex at three locations in central, northeastern, and northwestern Iowa during 2002-2004. Seed-applied insecticide was evaluated according to a currently recommended management program for Iowa (i.e., insecticide applications that target emerging overwintered beetles, F0, and the first seasonal generation, F1 ). The experimental treatments included seed-applied (thiamethoxam, 0.3-0.5 g [AI] kg(-1)] or clothianidin, 47.32 ml [AI] kg(-1)) and foliar-applied (A-cyhalothrin, 16.83-28.05 g [AI] ha(-1)) or esfenvalerate (43.74-54.69 g [AI] ha(-1)) insecticides. Applications of the foliar insecticides were timed to target F0, F1 or both F0 and F1 populations of C. trifurcata. Our results confirm that insecticides timed at F0 and F1 populations of C. trifurcata can reduce vector populations throughout the growing season, provide limited reduction in virus incidence, and improve both yield and seed coat color. Furthermore, seed-applied insecticides may be the more reliable option for an F0-targeted insecticide if used within this management strategy. An F0-targeted insecticide by itself only gave a yield improvement in one out of eight location-years. However, by adding an F1-targeted insecticide, there was a yield gain of 1.42-1.67 quintal ha(-1), based on contrast comparisons at three location-years.
Agrain, Federico A.; Buffington, Matthew L.; Chaboo, Caroline S.; Chamorro, Maria L.; Schöller, Matthias
Abstract Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes extant literature and analysizes the data for biological patterns. Myrmecophily is more common in the tribe Clytrini than in Cryptocephalini, but not documented for Fulcidacini or the closely-related Lamprosomatinae. Myrmecophilous cryptocephalines (34 species in 14 genera) primarily live among formicine and myrmecines ants as hosts. These two ant lineages are putative sister-groups, with their root-node dated to between 77–90 mya. In the New World tropics, the relatively recent radiation of ants from moist forests to more xeric ecosystems might have propelled the association of cryptocephalines and ant nests. Literature records suggest that the defensive behavioral profile or chemical profile (or both) of these ants has been exploited by cryptocephalines. Another pattern appears to be that specialized natural enemies, especially parasitoid Hymenoptera, exploit cryptocephaline beetles inside the ant nests. With the extant data at hand, based on the minimum age of a fossil larva dated to 45 mya, we can infer that the origin of cryptocephaline myrmecophily could have arisen within the Upper Cretaceous or later. It remains unknown how many times myrmecophily has appeared, or how old is the behavior. This uncertainty is compounded by incongruent hypotheses about the origins of Chrysomelidae and angiosperm-associated lineages of cryptocephalines. Living with ants offers multiple advantages that might have aided the colonization of xeric environments by some cryptocephaline species. PMID:26798319
Hou, Youming; Miao, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhiyong
In southeastern China, the invasion of the nipa palm hispid Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) results in devastating damage to palms. Host plants play an important role in the population increases and outbreaks of O. nipae. O. nipae could not complete its development on the Majestic palm (Ravenea rivularis Jumelle & Perrier), and females did not lay eggs on Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis R. Brown). However, this insect species both completed development and laid eggs on Chinese windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei (Hooker) H. Wendland), Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis Chabaud), and pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii O' Brien). The demographic characteristics of O. nipae reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were compared with an age-stage, two-sex life table. In this study, the developmental periods from egg to adult varied from 42.1 d on Chinese windmill palm to 49.8 d on pygmy date palm. The survivorship from egg to adult on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm was 77.5, 79.4, and 66.7%, respectively. Although the adult longevity and the mean fecundity for individuals reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were not significantly different, there were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase, the finite rate, and the mean generation time among palm species, and the values of intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate were higher for populations reared on Chinese windmill palm and Canary Island date palm (0.0313 and 1.0318 d(-1) and 0.0278 and 1.0282 d(-1), respectively) and lower for populations reared on pygmy date palm (0.0192 and 1.0194 d(-1)). However, mean generation time was shorter on Chinese windmill palm (124.11 d) and Canary Island date palm (129.62 d) and longer on pygmy date palm (166.03 d). Our study indicated that different hosts affected life parameters of O. nipae, with the most
April, Vuyokazi; Robertson, Mark P; Simelane, David O
Multiple releases of insect agents intended to target a single plant pest species could result in competitive interactions that in turn might affect the community structure of the phytophagous insects. Two leaf-feeding biological control agents, Uroplata girardi Pic (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ophiomyia camarae Spencer (Dipetera: Agromyzidae), were released against the weed Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) in South Africa in the 1970s and 2001, respectively. Since the population explosion of O. camarae in 2005, a decline of U. girardi populations had been observed in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) humid coast, leading to speculation that negative interaction may be operating between the agents. The study therefore was conducted to determine the competitive effect of O. camarae on U. girardi. The study showed that 76% of O. camarae larval mines were formed on uninfested (clean) compared with only 24% formed on U. girardi-infested leaves, suggesting that the fly chose to lay more eggs on clean leaves. Almost the same number of U. girardi larval mines was formed on both O. camarae-infested and clean leaves, indicating that U. girardi females in this case oviposited indiscriminately on the two types of leaves. The survival of U. girardi was 53.8% when reared on clean leaves compared with only 14.6% survival on O. camarae-infested leaves. At the end of the sampling period, densities of U. girardi was over two times higher in single-species than in combined-species treatment. Releasing both agents together did not significantly affect O. camarae densities during the sampling period. In the field, O. camarae densities increased rapidly from spring to autumn, whereas those of U. girardi remained consistently low during the same period. The bias toward oviposition on clean leaves in O. camarae enables its larvae to avoid unfavorable encounters with U. girardi larvae, thus enhancing its development and survival. The apparent inability of U. girardi to distinguish between suitable
Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.
The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineensis × E. oleifera) × E. guineensis backcrosses. Females laid their eggs similarly on all breeding populations, with a preference for the E. guineensis La Mé origin. The average hatching rate reached 80% for the La Mé origin as opposed to 28% for the Deli origin. The mortality rates for the larval instars were greater on E. oleifera, on certain backcrosses and on the Deli origin of E. guineensis. Development at the second- and third- larval instars was the most affected, with a mortality rate of three to five times greater than that seen on La Mé. Epidermis and cuticle measurements indicated which breeding populations were suitable or unsuitable for the development of C. lameensis. E. guineensis, with its thin epidermis (12 µm) and cuticle (2 µm), proved to be highly susceptible to C. lameensis attacks. On the other hand, E. oleifera, which is very resistant, exhibited a thicker epidermis (17 µm) and cuticle (4 µm). The breeding populations were thus classified according to the positive or negative influence they exerted on the insect’s egg laying and feeding. RÉSUMÉ. La comestibilité de différents matériels végétaux d’Elaeis sp. présents au Bénin est testée pour Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), important ravageur du palmier à huile en Afrique. Des expérimentations en manchons ont permis de déterminer les capacités d’oviposition des femelles et les taux de mortalité des différents stades de d
Diabroticina is a speciose subtribe of New World Chrysomelidae (Subfamily Galerucinae: Tribe Luperini) that includes pests like corn rootworms, cucumber beetles and bean leaf beetles (e.g. Diabrotica, Acalymma, Cerotoma species). The evolution and spread of pesticide resistance, the European invasio...
Abstract The study of external morphology of the New Caledonian leaf beetle Dematochroma foaensis Jolivet, Verma & Mille (Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae, Colaspoidini) substantiates its new combination into the genus Rhyparida Baly (Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae, Nodinini). The species is redescribed here to highlight characters important for suprageneric diagnosis. This is the second species of Nodinini found in New Caledonia, otherwise rich in species of Colaspoidini, raising questions about the paucity of Rhyparida and this tribe in New Caledonian fauna, when they are dominant in surrounding archipelagoes, and very rich in potential source areas such as Australia and New Guinea. Some alternative explanations for this pattern are advanced, serving as alternative hypotheses until our knowledge on the ecology of these species improves or supported phylogenetic scenarios become available for this group. PMID:22303102
Molecular phylogenetics, systematics and host-plant associations of the Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus) species group (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) with the description of four new species.
Delobel, Alex; Le Ru, Bruno; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Musyoka, Boaz K; Kergoat, Gael J
Bruchidius Schilsky is a large paraphyletic genus of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) which consists of multiple lineages that are usually associated with narrow sets of host-plants. In this study we focus on a group that mostly develops on wattle trees (acacias) belonging to the genus Vachellia Wight & Arn. This group originally included nine species and was designated as the Bruchidius centromaculatus (Allard) species group, but recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that these species belong to a much wider group of species with similar morphologies. For reasons of anteriority we call this enlarged group Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus). Here we review the morphology of species in this group and provide new diagnoses and ecological data for 10 species. The following combinations and synonymies are proposed: Bruchidius tanaensis (Pic, 1921) (= Bruchus tanaensis Pic, 1921) comb. nov. and Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus spadiceus Fåhraeus, 1839) syn. nov. Four new species are also described: B. eminingensis sp. nov., B. gerrardiicola sp. nov., B. glomeratus sp. nov. and B. haladai sp. nov. Finally we carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses on a multi-marker dataset of 59 specimens and 35 species, including 14 species from the group. The resulting trees allow us to confirm the monophyly of the group of interest and provide a more detailed picture of their evolutionary relationships.
Le Ru, Bruno P; Delobel, Alex; György, Zoltán; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Kergoat, Gael J
A small group of six morphologically related seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) belonging to the Conicobruchus genus is reviewed. Species in this group for which host-plants are known feed on various species of Crotalaria (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae). Here we provide diagnoses and a dichotomous key for all six species. The following synonymies are proposed: Conicobruchus cicatricosus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus cicatricosus pallidioripennis Pic, 1941) syn. nov.; Conicobruchus strangulatus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus hargreavesi Pic, 1933) syn. nov. The corresponding Conicobruchus strangulatus species group is hereby designated. New host-plant data are also included, which correspond to the results of recent collections of legume pods in East Africa. In addition we carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses on a representative sampling of Conicobruchus species (including the six species of interest). The latter allow us to assess the monophyly of the group of interest and to unravel their evolutionary relationships. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicate that at least two lineages of Conicobruchus successfully shifted toward Crotalarieae during the course of their diversification.
Kher, S V; Dosdall, L M; Cárcamo, H A
The cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a new invasive insect pest of oat, wheat, and barley in western Canada. Biological control with its principal larval parasitoid, Tetrastichus julis Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is the primary management strategy. However, to implement control successfully, a thorough understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the interactions between these two species is important. We examined the nature of spatial associations and distribution dynamics of O. melanopus and T. julis with reference to host plant nutrients and plant vigor traits using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices. A grid design was used to understand spatial associations between O. melanopus and T. julis. Distributions of O. melanopus and T. julis indicated the presence of significant patches and gaps. Plant nutrient availability and plant vigor varied across the grid in all study years. On a spatial scale, O. melanopus and T. julis represented a tightly coupled system demonstrating the strong density-dependent nature of parasitoid dispersal. Among the factors examined, plant vigor traits significantly influenced field distributions of both O. melanopus and T. julis. Areas across grids with high plant density, greater plant height, and high availability of plant leaves indicated higher establishment of O. melanopus larvae, consequently exhibiting bottom-up effects on T. julis distributions. Maintenance of uniform plant vigor can be a critical aspect in mitigating yield losses from O. melanopus infestation.
Mitra, S; Sarkar, N; Barik, A
The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Tricosane was predominant n-alkane in young and mature leaves, whilst eicosane predominated in senescent leaves. Heneicosanoic acid, palmitic acid and docosanoic acid were the most abundant free fatty acids in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. A. cyanea females showed attraction to 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes compared with young or senescent leaves in a short glass Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. The insects were attracted to a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, comparable with the proportions as present in 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes. A. cyanea also laid eggs on a filter paper moistened with 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes or a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. This finding could provide a basis for monitoring of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.
Evans, Edward W; Carlile, Nolan R; Innes, Matthew B; Pitigala, Nadishan
Scouting at key times in the seasonal development of insect pest populations, as guided by degree-day accumulation, is important for minimizing unwarranted insecticide application. Fields of small grains in northern Utah were censused weekly from 2001 to 2011, to assess infestation by the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and develop degree-day guidelines for measuring cereal leaf beetle abundance at peak egg and larval densities in any given year. Even in years of high overall numbers of cereal leaf beetle, relatively few fields were heavily infested (with 20 or more cereal leaf beetle eggs + larvae per 0.09 m2) at either egg or larval peak density during the growing season. In individual fields, the number of immature cereal leaf beetle (eggs + larvae) at peak larval density was positively related to the number of immature cereal leaf beetles present earlier at peak egg density. Although there was large variation among years in when cereal leaf beetle egg and larval numbers peaked during the season as measured by degree-day accumulation from 1 January, much of this variation was accounted for by the warmth of the early spring before significant egg laying occurred. Hence, degree-day estimates that account for early spring warmth can guide growers in scouting grain fields at peak egg densities to identify fields at high risk of subsequent economic damage from cereal leaf beetle larval feeding. The relatively low incidence of fields heavily infested by cereal leaf beetle in northern Utah emphasizes the benefit that growers can gain by scouting early before applying insecticide treatments.
Højland, Dorte H.; Nauen, Ralf; Foster, Stephen P.; Williamson, Martin S.; Kristensen, Michael
Background Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major early season pest of oilseed rape throughout Europe. Pyrethroids have been used for controlling this pest by foliar application, but in recent years control failures have occurred, particularly in Germany due to the evolution of knock-down resistance (kdr). The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and spread of pyrethroid resistance in CSFB collected in Germany, Denmark and the United Kingdom during 2014. The level of pyrethroid resistance was measured in adult vial tests and linked to the presence of kdr genotypes. Results Although kdr (L1014F) genotypes are present in all three countries, marked differences in pyrethroid efficacy were found in adult vial tests. Whereas Danish CSFB samples were in general susceptible to recommended label rates, those collected in the UK mostly resist such rates to some extent. Moderately resistant and susceptible samples were found in Germany. Interestingly, some of the resistant samples from the UK did not carry the kdr allele, which is in contrast to German CSFB. Pre-treatment with PBO, prior to exposure to λ-cyhalothrin suggested involvement of metabolic resistance in UK samples. Conclusion Danish samples were mostly susceptible with very low resistance ratios, while most other samples showed reduced sensitivity in varying degrees. Likewise, there was a clear difference in the presence of the kdr mutation between the three countries. In the UK, the presence of kdr genotypes did not always correlate well with resistant phenotypes. This appears to be primarily conferred by a yet undisclosed, metabolic-based mechanism. Nevertheless our survey disclosed an alarming trend concerning the incidence and spread of CSFB resistance to pyrethroids, which is likely to have negative impacts on oilseed production in affected regions due to the lack of alternative modes of action for resistance management purposes
Soroka, Juliana J; Grenkow, Larry F; Irvine, R Byron
Field studies were conducted at two locations on the Canadian prairies to investigate use of reduced ratios of insecticide-treated seed in controlling flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Phyllotreta spp.) damage to canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.). Five treatments were evaluated: bare seed control, fungicide-only (0X), and three ratios of insecticide plus fungicide in proportions of all (1X), two thirds (0.67X), or one third (0.33X) of the seeds coated with insecticide. Decreasing treated seed ratios by one third had no consistent deleterious effects on flea beetle damage, seedling growth, plant density, seed yield, or net cash return. Flea beetle injury to seedlings in the 1X treatment was similar to that of seedlings in the 0.67X treatment, with only two exceptions, and it was almost always lower than that of seedlings without insecticide. The 0.33X treatment generally had flea beetle feeding levels between those of the two high and the two noninsecticide treatments. Plant stand and seedling growth rates with 1X and 0.67X treatments were similar and higher than with bare seed or fungicide-alone treatments. Seed yields were inversely proportional to flea beetle feeding levels. Under very heavy flea beetle feeding, seed yields and net cash returns were highest in 1X plots, but when flea beetle feeding pressure was less extreme and canola growing conditions were favorable, 0.67X seed yields and profits from them were comparable to those in 1X treatments. On an economic basis, currently there is no advantage to decreasing the level of insecticide treated canola seed, but other considerations may affect this assessment.
A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...
Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Clark, Shawn M.; Jones, Robert W.
Abstract The study of biodiversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico and its variation within ecological gradients has increased recently, although important areas in the country remain to be explored. We conducted a faunistic inventory and analyzed the elevational and temporal variation of leaf beetle communities in the Sierra de San Carlos, in the state of Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. This is an area with high to extreme priority for conservation, and due to its insular geographical position and to the vegetational communities present, it must be considered as a sky island. We selected seven sample sites distributed in different elevations within three localities, and comprising different vegetational communities. At each site, we randomly delimited 12 sample plots of 400 m2 where sampling was conducted by entomological sweep netting and collecting directly by hand. Sampling was conducted monthly at each plot, for a total of 1,008 samples between February 2013 and January 2014. By the end of the study, we had obtained a total of 3,081 specimens belonging to six subfamilies, 65 genera, and 113 species, with Trichaltica scabricula (Crotch, 1873) being recorded for first time in Mexico. Species richness was less than the values observed at other studies conducted in the same region, which is attributed to differences in the number of plant species and to the insular location of Sierra de San Carlos; however, the higher diversity values suggest a higher quality of natural resources and vegetational communities. No consistent pattern of leaf beetle communities was correlated with elevation, although higher values of species richness and diversity were obtained at the highest elevation site. The seasonal gradient showed that the rainy season is most favorable for leaf beetle communities. We found that species composition was different between sites and months, and also that there exists a significant association between the abundance obtained at each site and
Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Clark, Shawn M; Jones, Robert W
The study of biodiversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico and its variation within ecological gradients has increased recently, although important areas in the country remain to be explored. We conducted a faunistic inventory and analyzed the elevational and temporal variation of leaf beetle communities in the Sierra de San Carlos, in the state of Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. This is an area with high to extreme priority for conservation, and due to its insular geographical position and to the vegetational communities present, it must be considered as a sky island. We selected seven sample sites distributed in different elevations within three localities, and comprising different vegetational communities. At each site, we randomly delimited 12 sample plots of 400 m(2) where sampling was conducted by entomological sweep netting and collecting directly by hand. Sampling was conducted monthly at each plot, for a total of 1,008 samples between February 2013 and January 2014. By the end of the study, we had obtained a total of 3,081 specimens belonging to six subfamilies, 65 genera, and 113 species, with Trichaltica scabricula (Crotch, 1873) being recorded for first time in Mexico. Species richness was less than the values observed at other studies conducted in the same region, which is attributed to differences in the number of plant species and to the insular location of Sierra de San Carlos; however, the higher diversity values suggest a higher quality of natural resources and vegetational communities. No consistent pattern of leaf beetle communities was correlated with elevation, although higher values of species richness and diversity were obtained at the highest elevation site. The seasonal gradient showed that the rainy season is most favorable for leaf beetle communities. We found that species composition was different between sites and months, and also that there exists a significant association between the abundance obtained at each site and particular
Wang, Yinliang; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Hanbo; Ren, Bingzhong
The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 34 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 inotropic receptors  and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, AquaOBP4/C5, AquaCSP7
Influence of soil texture, moisture, and surface cracks on the performance of a root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for Lantana camara (Verbenaceae).
Simelane, David O
Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of soil texture, moisture and surface cracks on adult preference and survival of the root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae Savini and Escalona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a natural enemy of the weed, Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Adult feeding, oviposition preference, and survival of the immature stages of L. bethae were examined at four soil textures (clayey, silty loam, sandy loam, and sandy soil), three soil moisture levels (low, moderate, and high), and two soil surface conditions (with or without surface cracks). Both soil texture and moisture had no influence on leaf feeding and colonization by adult L. bethae. Soil texture had a significant influence on oviposition, with adults preferring to lay on clayey and sandy soils to silty or sandy loam soils. However, survival to adulthood was significantly higher in clayey soils than in other soil textures. There was a tendency for females to deposit more eggs at greater depth in both clayey and sandy soils than in other soil textures. Although oviposition preference and depth of oviposition were not influenced by soil moisture, survival in moderately moist soils was significantly higher than in other moisture levels. Development of immature stages in high soil moisture levels was significantly slower than in other soil moisture levels. There were no variations in the body size of beetles that emerged from different soil textures and moisture levels. Females laid almost three times more eggs on cracked than on noncracked soils. It is predicted that clayey and moderately moist soils will favor the survival of L. bethae, and under these conditions, damage to the roots is likely to be high. This information will aid in the selection of suitable release sites where L. bethae would be most likely to become established.
Bukejs, Andris; Biondi, Maurizio; Alekseev, Vitalii I
Based on six relatively well-preserved specimens from Eocene Baltic amber, Crepidodera tertiotertiaria sp. nov. is described. The new species is illustrated and compared with morphologically similar extant and fossil relatives. It is the third described fossil species of Crepidodera Chevrolat. In addition to the new taxon, new fossil records of C. decolorata Nadein & Perkovsky from Baltic and Bitterfeld amber are presented. A key to species of Crepidodera described from fossil resins is provided, and a checklist of Coleoptera described from Bitterfeld amber is compiled.
Chaboo, Caroline S; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K; Weeks, Andrea
The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|'hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|'hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|'hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes.
Chaboo, Caroline S.; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K.; Weeks, Andrea
Abstract The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San (“Bushmen”) arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called ‘click languages’ in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|’hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|’hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|’hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes. PMID:27006594
Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine
Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583
Nardi, C; Luvizotto, R A; Parra, J R P; Bento, J M S
Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) is an economically important pest of Neotropical cultures and represents a quarantine risk for Neartic and Paleartic Regions. Despite its agricultural importance, few studies have been done on mating behavior and chemical communication, which has delayed the development of behavioral techniques for population management, such as the use of pheromone traps. In this study, we determined 1) the age at first mating; 2) diel rhythm of matings; 3) number of matings over 7 d; 4) the sequence of D. speciosa activities during premating, mating, and postmating; 5) the duration of each activity; and 6) response to male and female conspecific volatiles in Y-tube olfactometer. The first mating occurred between the third and seventh day after adult emergence and the majority of pairs mated on the fourth day after emergence. Pairs of D. speciosa showed a daily rhythm of mating with greater sexual activity between the end of the photophase and the first half of the scotophase. During the 7 d of observation, most pairs mated only once, although 30% mated two, three, or four times. In a Y-tube olfactometer, males were attracted by virgin females as well as by the volatile compounds emitted by females. Neither males nor their volatiles were attractive to either sex. Our observation provide information about mating behavior of D. speciosa, which will be useful in future research in chemical communication, such as identification of the pheromone and development of management techniques for this species using pheromone traps.
Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O
Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.
Magoga, Giulia; Sassi, Davide; Daccordi, Mauro; Leonardi, Carlo; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Regalin, Renato; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Montagna, Matteo
Abstract The Mediterranean Region is one of the world’s biodiversity hot-spots, which is also characterized by high level of endemism. Approximately 2100 species of leaf beetle (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) are known from this area, a number that increases year after year and represents 5/6% of the known species. These features, associated with the urgent need to develop a DNA-based species identification approach for a broad spectrum of leaf beetle species, prompted us to develop a database of nucleotide sequences, with a solid taxonomic background, for all the Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 sensu latu inhabiting the Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean Chrysomelidae Barcoding project, which has started in 2009, involves more than fifty entomologists and molecular biologists from different European countries. Numerous collecting campaigns have been organized during the first seven years of the project, which led to the collection of more than 5000 leaf beetle specimens. In addition, during these collecting campaigns two new allochthonous species for Europe, namely Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986 and Colasposoma dauricum Mannerheim, 1849, were intercepted and some species new to science were discovered (e.g., Pachybrachis sassii Montagna, 2011 and Pachybrachis holerorum Montagna et al., 2013). DNA was extracted from 1006 specimens (~13% of the species inhabiting the Mediterranean region) and a total of 910 cox1 gene sequences were obtained (PCR amplification efficiency of 93.8%). Here we report the list of the barcoded subfamilies, genera and the number of species for which cox1 gene sequences were obtained; the metadata associated with each specimen and a list of problematic species for which marker amplification failed. In addition, the nucleotide divergence within and between species and genera was estimated and values of intraspecific nucleotide divergence greater than the average have been discussed. Cryptocephalus quadripunctatus G. A. Olivier, 1808
Staines, Charles L.; García-Robledo, Carlos
Abstract The species of the Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 are revised. We present a key to the known larvae of Cephaloleia (8 species), a key to the 95 species known to occur in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, and a key to the 138 species known to occur in South America. All identification keys were translated to Spanish. Descriptions for the 214 known species of Cephaloleia as well as illustrations for 212 species are presented. The following species are removed from Cephaloleia: C. bipartita Pic, 1926c is transferred to Hybosispa Weise, 1910; C. minasensis Pic, 1931 and C. viridis Pic, 1931 are transferred to Stenispa Baly, 1858. The following species are described as new: C. abdita sp. n. from Brazil; C. amba sp. n. from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; C. angustacollis sp. n. from Ecuador; C. brevis sp. n. from French Guiana; C. calathae sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. chica sp. n. from Peru; C. conforma sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. crenulata sp. n. from Ecuador; C. gemma sp. n. from Bolivia and Brazil; C. horvitzae sp. n. from French Guiana; C. interrupta sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. kressi sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. lenticula sp. n. from Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Suriname; C. nana sp. n. from Ecuador; C. ochra sp. n. from Ecuador; C. stainesi sp. n. from Costa Rica; and C. susanae sp. n. from Brazil and Ecuador. Cephaloleia simoni Pic, 1934 is treated as Incertae sedis. The larvae of C. erichsonii Baly, 1858 and C. puncticollis Baly, 1885 are described and illustrated. PMID:25197208
Esker, P D; Obrycki, J; Nutter, F W
In 1999 and 2000, yellow sticky cards and sweep net samples were used to document the occurrence of an overwintering adult generation of Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer, corn flea beetle, followed by two distinct populations peaks during the growing season in Iowa Emergence of the overwintering adult generation started in mid-April and continued until early June in both years, with populations as high as 45 +/- 7.9 per 10 sweeps. Periods that ranged from 14 to 32 d were observed in 1999 and 2000 when C. pulicaria was not found following the overwintering generation. The first summer peak of C pulicaria was observed between the end of June into the middle of July, with the highest observed peak at 16.70 +/- 1.42 C. pulicaria per 10 sweeps in cornfields. The second summer peak of C pulicaria was observed between the middle into early September, with populations as high as 27.80 +/- 2.76 C. pulicaria per 10 sweeps. During the growing season, more C. pulicaria were caught on yellow sticky cards originating from soybean borders than from grass borders. There were significantly greater numbers of C. pulicaria on yellow sticky cards located in grass borders adjacent to cornfields at the end of the growing season, compared with yellow sticky cards located within cornfields, indicating the movement of C. pulicaria from the cornfield back into the grass borders at the end of the growing season. In 2000, from August to the end of the corn growing season, significantly more C. pulicaria were found in grass borders than in the cornfields. Based on this new quantitative information, planting time could be altered to avoid the emergence of the overwintering generation of C. pulicaria. In addition, knowledge concerning the seasonalities of the first and second population peaks of C pulicaria during the corn growing season could be used to recommend optimal timing for foliar-applied insecticide applications. This new knowledge concerning the seasonal dynamics of C pulicaria will help to improve management recommendations for Stewart's disease of corn, caused by the bacterium Pantoea stewartii, and that is vectored by C pulicaria.
Spatial dispersion is a main characteristic of insect populations. Dispersion pattern provides useful information for developing effective sampling and scouting programs because it affects sampling accuracy, efficiency, and precision. Insect dispersion, however, is dynamic in space and time and largely dependent upon interactions among insect, plant and environmental factors. This study investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of corn rootworm dispersion at different spatial scales by using the global positioning system, the geographic information system, and geostatistics. Egg dispersion pattern was random or uniform in 8-ha cornfields, but could be aggregated at a smaller scale. Larval dispersion pattern was aggregated regardless of spatial scales used in this study. Soil moisture positively affected corn rootworm egg and larval dispersions. Adult dispersion tended to be aggregated during peak population period and random or uniform early and late in the season and corn plant phenology was a major factor to determine dispersion patterns. The dispersion pattern of root injury by corn rootworm larval feeding was aggregated and the degree of aggregation increased as the root injury increased within the range of root injury observed in microscale study. Between-year relationships in dispersion among eggs, larvae, adult, and environment provided a strategy that could predict potential root damage the subsequent year. The best prediction map for the subsequent year's potential root damage was the dispersion maps of adults during population peaked in the cornfield. The prediction map was used to develop site-specific pest management that can reduce chemical input and increase control efficiency by controlling pests only where management is needed. This study demonstrated the spatio-temporal dynamics of insect population and spatial interactions among insects, plants, and environment.
Beran, Franziska; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Lin, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Yun-Che; Mewis, Inga; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Ulrichs, Christian; Boland, Wilhelm; Hansson, Bill S; Reinecke, Andreas
Aggregations of the striped flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata on their crucifer host plants are mediated by volatiles emitted from feeding males. The male-specific sesquiterpene, (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene (compound A), was shown previously to be physiologically and behaviorally active, but compound A was attractive only when combined with unnaturally high doses of the host plant volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in field trapping experiments. This indicated that our understanding of the chemical communication in this species is incomplete. Another male-specific sesquiterpenoid, (3S,9R,9aS)-3-hydroxy-3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8,9,9a-hexahydro-1H-benzoannulen-2(3H)-one (compound G), has been reported from an American P. striolata population. We confirmed the presence of compound G, and investigated its interaction with compound A and AITC in a P. striolata population in Taiwan. Compound G was attractive to Taiwanese P. striolata in laboratory bioassays, but significantly more beetles were attracted to a blend of compounds A and G. Under the same conditions, P. striolata showed no preference for the blend of A and G combined with a range of doses of AITC over the sesquiterpenoid blend alone. The sesquiterpenoid blend was tested further in field trapping experiments and attracted significantly more beetles than traps baited with compound A and ecologically relevant amounts of AITC. We conclude that A and G are components of the male-specific aggregation pheromone of P. striolata in Taiwan, and that the attractiveness of the pheromone is not reliant on the presence of AITC. Our results further indicate that the male-specific sesquiterpenoid blends differ qualitatively between the Taiwanese and American populations of P. striolata.
Krafsur, E S
Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles.
Lee, Chi-Feng; Bezdĕk, Jan
The genus Morphosphaera Baly, 1861 is revised. Eleven species are considered as valid, including, M. takizawai sp. nov. (Mt. Basor, 90 km N of Gua Musang, Malaysia, W. Kelantan), described from Malaysia and Indonesia. Color photos of habitus and drawings of diagnostic characters from eleven species are presented. The following synonymies are proposed: M. sodalis Chen, 1935 and M. brunnea Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. albipennis Allard, 1889; M. margaritacea Laboissière, 1930, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and M. prava Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. coomani Laboissière, 1930; M. gracilicornis Chen, 1963 is a junior synonym of M. maculicollis Baly, 1861; M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. cincticollis Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. gingkoae Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963, and M. metallescens Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963 are junior synonyms of M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886. The type material of M. impunctata Allard, 1890 from the Philippines was not found and its taxonomic status remains uncertain. Morphosphaera peregrina Weise, 1913 is transferred to the genus Borneola Mohamedsaid, 1998 nov. comb. A neotype is designated for Chrysomela japonica Hornstedt, 1788. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Adorium chrysomeloides Bates, 1866, A. japonicum Baly, 1874, Morphosphaera albipennis Allard, 1889, M. bimaculata Chûjô, 1938, M. caerulea Jacoby, 1896, M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. collaris Laboissière, 1930, M. formosa Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. montivaga Maulik, 1936, M. prava Maulik, 1936, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and Galerucida simplex Weise, 1922.
Lee, Chi-Feng; Beenen, Ron
The genus Taiwanaenidea Kimoto, 1984 is a little-known galerucine genus known only with original description, which lacks illustrations. A number of specimens belonging to this genus are now available for study with effective collection made by Taiwan Chrysomelid Research Team. Two new species, T. cheni Lee and Beenen sp. nov. and T. jungchangi Lee and Beenen sp. nov. are here described. The other two known species, T. collaris Kimoto, 1984 and T. strigosa Kimoto, 1984 are reviewed and illustrations of diagnostic characters are presented. A key to all species of this genus is provided.
Doddala, Prasad R. C.; Minor, Maria A.; Rogers, David J.; Trewick, Steven A.
Eucolaspis Sharp 1886 is a New Zealand native leaf beetle genus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) with poorly described species and a complex taxonomy. Many economically important fruit crops are severely damaged by these beetles. Uncertain species taxonomy of Eucolaspis is leaving any biological research, as well as pest management, tenuous. We used morphometrics, mitochondrial DNA and male genitalia to study phylogenetic and geographic diversity of Eucolaspis in New Zealand. Freshly collected beetles from several locations across their distribution range, as well as identified voucher specimens from major museum collections were examined to test the current classification. We also considered phylogenetic relationships among New Zealand and global Eumolpinae (Coleoptera: Chyrosomelidae). We demonstrate that most of the morphological information used previously to define New Zealand Eucolaspis species is insufficient. At the same time, we show that a combination of morphological and genetic evidence supports the existence of just 3 mainland Eucolaspis lineages (putative species), and not 5 or 15, as previously reported. In addition, there may be another closely related lineage (putative species) on an offshore location (Three Kings Islands, NZ). The cladistic structure among the lineages, conferred through mitochondrial DNA data, was well supported by differences in male genitalia. We found that only a single species (lineage) infests fruit orchards in Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Species-host plant associations vary among different regions. PMID:26600380
Zurek, Daniel B; Gorb, Stanislav N; Voigt, Dagmar
While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment.
Lee, Chi-Feng; Bezděk, Jan
All Taiwanese species formerly classified the genus Phyllobrotica Chevrolat, 1836 are revised. Jolibrotica Lee & Bezděk, gen. n., is described for Phyllobrotica sauteri (Chûjô, 1935) (Taiwan, China: Guangxi) and Phyllobrotica chujoi Kimoto, 1969 (Taiwan). Phyllobrotica shirozui Kimoto, 1969 is transferred to the genus Haplosomoides. All species are redescribed and their diagnostic characters illustrated.
The ability of the biomass crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize) to support larval development for both United States (U.S.) and European populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, suggests an avenue for potential i...
Lemic, Darija; Mikac, Katarina M; Ivkosic, Stephanie A; Bažok, Renata
This study describes the genetics of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in southern Europe during the introduction (1996-2001) and establishment/spread (2002-2011) phases of its invasion. The Diabrotica microsatellite core-set was used to perform traditional population genetics analyses. Our results indicated that during the introduction phase genetic diversity and population genetic structure were lower overall as compared to the establishment/spread phase. Unusually high genetic differentiation was found between the Italy and southern Europe comparisons, including high differentiation between Italian populations separated by a short distance during the establishment/spread phase. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two genetic clusters during the introduction phase and two genetic clusters during the establishment/spread phase. However, bottlenecked populations were only detected during the invasion phase. A small but significant isolation by distance effect was noted in both phases. Serbia was the geographic source of WCR to Croatia and Hungary in the introduction phase, while the United States of America was the possible source of WCR to Italy in 2001. These introductory populations were the subsequent source of individuals sampled during the establishment/spread phase. Repeated introductions and admixture events in southern Europe may have resulted in genetically diverse WCR populations that have attained 83% of all known alleles worldwide.
Interest in the ecological and population genetics of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has grown rapidly in the last few years in North America and Europe. This interest is a result of a number of converging issues related to increasing difficult...
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...
Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...
In behavioral bioassays, the addition of a synthetic feeding stimulant blend improved the efficacy of the insecticide thiamethoxam against neonate western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae. In 4-h bioassays, the concentration of thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality (LC...
Nadein, Konstantin S
The genus Ivalia Jacoby, 1887 is recorded from Australia for the first time with descriptions of three new species, Ivalia reidi sp. nov., Ivalia iridescens sp. nov., and Ivalia lescheni sp. nov., from Queensland and New South Wales. A check-list of 66 species of Ivalia and a key to the Australian species are provided. New replacement names proposed are Ivalia samuelsoni nom. nov. for Ivalia bella (Samuelson, 1966), a secondary homonym of Ivalia bella (Chen, 1934) and Ivalia gruevi nom. nov. for Ivalia castanea (Gruev, 1985a), a secondary homonym of Ivalia castanea (Samuelson, 1966).
Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry
Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.
Shin, Chulwoo; Chaboo, Caroline S.
Abstract Stoiba Spaeth, 1909 is revised with a phylogenetic analysis of 38 adult morphological characters for nine Stoiba species and 11 outgroup species (Mesomphaliini, Ischyrosonychini, and Hemisphaerotini). Four Cuban species of Stoiba were not sampled. Parsimony analysis located the four most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus (CI=0.59, RI=0.78, Steps=83) resolved the monophyly of Stoiba. The monophyly of Stoiba is supported by pale yellow antennae, antennomere VII broader than its length, and rounded basal line of pronotum. An illustrated key to ten species of Stoiba is provided along with a distribution map of 11 species. Stoiba rufa Blake is synonymized with Stoiba swartzii (Thunberg) by a morphological comparison which includes female genitalia. PMID:23129988
Cabrera, Nora; Sosa, Alejandro; Telesnicki, Marta; Julien, Mic
Abstract Kuschelina bergi (Harold, 1881) is being studied to be evaluated as a natural enemy of Phyla nodiflora var. minor (Hook.) N. O’Leary & Múlgura (Verbenaceae), an invasive weed in Australia. Eggs, and 1st and 3rd instar larvae are described and illustrated for the first time. The following characters distinguish Kuschelina bergi: presence of two medial setae in prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, absence of tubercle on sternum I and eight setae in abdominal segment IX. The 3rd instar larvae of Kuschelina bergi resemble Kuschelina gibbitarsa (Say) larvae: the body shape and details of mouthparts are similar, but the morphology of the mandible is different, as is the tarsungulus which has a single seta. Differences between Kuschelina bergi and other known larvae of Oedionychina are discussed. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observation are also presented and discussed. PMID:27006616
Niño, Angie A; Cave, Ronald D
Microtheca ochroloma Stål, the yellowmargined leaf beetle, is one of the most destructive pests of crucifer vegetables on organic farms. Larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister have been observed preying on M. ochroloma, but no studies have evaluated the suitability of M. ochroloma as prey for C. rufilabris or the efficacy of this predator as a biological control agent of the pest. This study quantified the killing rate, developmental time, and survivorship of C. rufilabris when offered eggs and larvae of M. ochroloma at 10, 15, 20, or 25°C. Mean number of prey killed daily increased from 8.4 eggs and 4.0 larvae at 15°C to 18.6 eggs and 10.2 larvae at 25°C. However, predator larvae killed 78% fewer total eggs at 25°C than at 15°C; total number of first-instar prey killed did not vary significantly with temperature. Mean developmental time of predator larvae decreased from 75.5 d at 15°C to 26.6 d at 25°C when they were fed eggs, whereas it decreased from 54.0 d at 15°C to 21.4 d at 25°C when they were fed larvae. Predator survivorship was reduced by 80% at 15°C and no larvae survived at 10°C. We conclude that C. rufilabris can complete development on a diet of eggs of M. ochroloma, but its effectiveness to control M. ochroloma populations will be lessened during cool months, from November to April, when crucifers are produced in Florida and the beetle is actively developing, reproducing, and causing crop damage.
Strnad, S.P.; Bergman, M.K.; Fulton, W.C.
Responses of first-instar western corn rootworm to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ gas gradients were studied in a laboratory test arena. Number of larvae reaching the gas source, number of turns toward and away from the gas source, larval velocity, and number of turns per cm traveled were recorded. Larvae exhibited a positive chemotactic response to CO/sub 2/ but not N/sub 2/ or air. There was no indication that a kinesis of any type was involved because velocities and turning rates were not significantly different among treatments. Results indicate that newly hatched larve may use CO/sub 2/ to locate corn roots.
A new genus (Borinken) and five new species (Borinken elyunque, Distigmoptera chamorrae, Kiskeya elyunque, Ulrica eltoro, and U. iviei) from Puerto Rico are described and illustrated. A key to all Caribbean Monoplatini genera, a key to all Kiskeya species and to Ulrica species of Puerto Rico are pro...
A new genus (Andersonaltica) containing four new species from Central America is described and illustrated. It is compared to Aedmon Clark, Apleuraltica Bechyne, Distigmoptera Blake, Hypolampsis Clark, and Pseudolampsis Horn and a key to identification of these genera is provided...
Müller, Caroline; Hilker, Monika
Studies of multitrophic interactions show that insect faeces may act as a defensive device against predators, as kairomone source for attraction of antagonists and as a significant energy source for micro-organisms. In the present study, we investigated effects of larval faeces from leaf beetles of the subfamiliy Cassidinae towards a generalist predator, the ant Myrmica rubra. Most cassidine larvae collect their faeces together with exuviae as so-called abdominal defensive shields on two movable spines at the posterior tip. The effects of these abdominal shields towards M. rubra were studied in three cassidine species, which feed mono- or oligophagously upon tansy (Chrysanthemum vulgare): Cassida denticollis and C. sanguinosa which possess such faecal shields and, for comparison, C. stigmatica with shields made of exuviae only (=skin shield). Bioassays revealed that larvae with both faecal and skin shields were attacked by the ant M. rubra more often than larvae whose shields had been removed. This attractiveness of shields towards ants contrasts with other studies, which found that abdominal shields of chrysomelid larvae act as defensive mechanisms against generalist predators like ants. To characterize the attractive cues of the shields, we studied possible chemical and physical stimuli. Olfactometer bioassays with M. rubra and chemical analyses revealed that plant-derived volatiles from faecal shields of C. denticollis attracted the ant, whereas odour from skin shields of C. stigmatica did not. Skin shields also emitted volatiles which derived from tansy, but in much lower quantities. Exclusion of contact to surface chemicals of a faecal shield reduced the ants' aggressive behaviour, whereas a change in the moisture content of a faecal shield had no influence. Visual stimuli cannot be ruled out as enhancing the ants' reaction towards faecal shields with their attractive volatiles, and are suggested to play a major role in the ants' response towards skin shields. This novel attractive effect of the abdominal shields of cassidine larvae is discussed, especially with respect to host plant chemistry and possible functions of the shields that might outweigh the negative consequences of the attraction of the predator M. rubra.
Andow, David A; Pueppke, Steven G; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Gassmann, Aaron J; Sappington, Thomas W; Meinke, Lance J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hurley, Terrance M; Hellmich, Richard L; Porter, R Pat
Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting and responding to this resistance has been complicated by a lack of rapid diagnostic bioassays and by regulatory triggers that hinder timely and effective management responses. These failures are of great concern to the scientific and agricultural community. Specific challenges posed by western corn rootworm resistance to Bt maize, and more general concerns around Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose of Bt toxin, have caused uncertainty around current IRM protocols. More than 15 years of experience with IRM has shown that high-dose and refuge-based IRM is not applicable to Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose. Adaptive IRM approaches and pro-active, integrated IRM-pest management strategies are needed and should be in place before release of new technologies that produce less than a high-dose. We suggest changes in IRM strategies to preserve the utility of corn rootworm Bt maize by 1) targeting local resistance management earlier in the sequence of responses to resistance and 2) developing area-wide criteria to address widespread economic losses. We also favor consideration of policies and programs to counteract economic forces that are contributing to rapid resistance evolution.
Esker, P D; Obrycki, J; Nutter, F W
Field studies were conducted in Iowa during 2001 and 2002 to determine the optimal sampling height and orientation for using yellow sticky cards to monitor populations of Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer, the vector of the bacterial pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp, stewartii, the causal organism of Stewart's disease of corn, Zea mays L.. Sticky cards were placed at five different heights (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.90 m) and three orientations (horizontal, vertical, and 30 degree angle) at three locations (Ames, Crawfordsville, and Sutherland) in 2001 and two locations (Crawfordsville and Johnston) in 2002. No statistical differences were observed among the placement combinations for individual sampling periods or for the total number of C. pulicaria captured in 2001. In 2002, the 0.30 m and vertical cards captured significantly (1.1-35 times) more C. pulicaria than any other placement combination during sampling throughout August at both Crawfordsville and Johnston. Also, the cumulative number of C. pulicaria captured by the 0.30 m and vertical cards was significantly higher than all other placement combinations. This information is important in the development of sampling protocols to aid growers in making management decisions. These management decisions include where and when to apply foliar insecticides during the corn growing season to control C. pulicaria populations, thereby reducing the risk for Stewart's disease of corn.
Furth, David G
This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included.
Feeding behavior, feeding intensity and staying behavior of neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae were evaluated in response to synthetic feeding stimulant blends. All of the treatments contained a 3-sugar blend (glucose:fructose:sucrose, 30:4:4 mg per ml) an...
Nowatzki, Timothy M; Niimi, Bradly; Warren, Kelli J; Putnam, Sean; Meinke, Lance J; Gosselin, David C; Harvey, F Edwin; Hunt, Thomas E; Siegfried, Blair D
Field and laboratory studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to determine the feasibility of mass marking western corn rootworm adults, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, with RbCl in the field. Results showed that application of rubidium (Rb) in solution to both the soil (1 g Rb/plant) and whorl (1 g Rb/plant) of corn plants was optimal for labeling western corn rootworm adults during larval development. Development of larvae on Rb-enriched corn with this technique did not significantly influence adult dry weight or survival. Rb was also highly mobile in the plant. Application of Rb to both the soil and the whorl resulted in median Rb concentrations in the roots (5,860 ppm) that were 150-fold greater than concentrations in untreated roots (38 ppm) 5 wk after treatment. Additionally, at least 90% of the beetles that emerged during the first 3 wk were labeled above the baseline Rb concentration (5 ppm dry weight) determined from untreated beetles. Because emergence was 72% complete at this time, a significant proportion of the population had been labeled. Results from laboratory experiments showed that labeled beetles remained distinguishable from unlabeled beetles for up to 4 d postemergence. The ability to efficiently label large numbers of beetles under field conditions and for a defined period with virtually no disruption of the population provides an unparalleled opportunity to conduct mark-recapture experiments for quantifying the short-range, intrafield movement of adult corn rootworms.
This study examines the feasibility of marking Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) by submersion in rabbit or chicken immunoglobulin G (IgG) solution. Duration of immunolabel retention was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in laboratory and field trials with adults, and in the laboratory with ...
World genera of Chlamisini are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. A key for their dentification is provided. A replacement name, Kakita Chamorro-Lacayo and Konstantinov is presented for Ceratochlamys Bokermann which is a junior homonym of Ceratochlamys Habe, 1946 (Mollusca). Chlamisus rousei M...
Many plants subjected to herbivore damage exude latex, a rich source of biochemicals, which play important roles in host plant resistance. Our previous studies showed that fresh latex from Valmaine, a resistant cultivar of romaine lettuce Lactuca sativa L., applied to artificial diet is highly deter...
Hasan, Fazil; Ansari, M Shafiq
Ecotoxic effects of commonly used herbicides i.e. glyphosate, atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor and 2, 4-D were evaluated on the biological and demographic parameters of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on parthenium in laboratory. The herbicides used in the bioassay were within a minimum range of their recommended field dose. In direct toxicity experiment, 2,4-D and alachlor caused the highest mortality of 3rd instars and prolonged the development time. Fecundity and eggs viability were also significantly reduced in all treatments. Indirect toxicity (carryover effect) was evaluated through life table analysis of F1 progenies developed from surviving 3rd instars treated for direct toxicity experiment. Incubation period and overall development time was considerably prolonged in all treatments especially in 2, 4-D treated group. Daily fecundity and population growth parameters were significantly lowest in 2, 4-D treated groups compared to other tested herbicides. A significantly greater number of females were produced in glyphosate treatment than other treatments. Based on the present study, none of the tested herbicide can be classified as safe to Zygogramma bicolorata, while glyphosate was found to be least toxic. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of field recommended dose of glyphosate might be used in integration with Z. bicolorata for effective management of parthenium, however this needs to be conducted under natural field conditions.
Plant polyploidy potentially affects plant-insect interactions; however, its effect on insect fitness remains largely unexplored. Alternanthera philoxeroides is a South American amphibious Amaranthaceae, which invades aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Different morphotypes and cytotypes were identif...
mCry3A is one of only four proteins licensed for commercial use in Diabrotica control. Utilizing a colony of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, selected for resistance to mCry3A, we evaluated how mCry3A resistance was inherited and whether fitness costs were associated wi...
Szűcs, Marianna; Schaffner, Urs; Price, William J; Schwarzländer, Mark
Rapid evolution has rarely been assessed in biological control systems despite the similarity with biological invasions, which are widely used as model systems. We assessed post-introduction climatic adaptation in a population of Longitarsus jacobaeae, a biological control agent of Jacobaea vulgaris, which originated from a low-elevation site in Italy and was introduced in the USA to a high-elevation site (Mt. Hood, Oregon) in the early 1980s. Life-history characteristics of beetle populations from Mt. Hood, from two low-elevation sites in Oregon (Italian origin) and from a high-elevation site from Switzerland were compared in common gardens. The performance of low- and high-elevation populations at a low- and a high-elevation site was evaluated using reciprocal transplants. The results revealed significant changes in aestival diapause and shifts in phenology in the Mt. Hood population, compared with the low-elevation populations. We found increased performance of the Mt. Hood population in its home environment compared with the low-elevation populations that it originated from. The results indicate that the beetles at Mt. Hood have adapted to the cooler conditions by life-history changes that conform to predictions based on theory and the phenology of the cold-adapted Swiss beetles. PMID:23346230
Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1 expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 20...
Furth, David G.
Abstract This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included. PMID:24163579
Lee, Chi-Feng; Bezděk, Jan
Abstract All Taiwanese species formerly classified the genus Phyllobrotica Chevrolat, 1836 are revised. Jolibrotica Lee & Bezděk, gen. n., is described for Phyllobrotica sauteri (Chûjô, 1935) (Taiwan, China: Guangxi) and Phyllobrotica chujoi Kimoto, 1969 (Taiwan). Phyllobrotica shirozui Kimoto, 1969 is transferred to the genus Haplosomoides. All species are redescribed and their diagnostic characters illustrated. PMID:26798315
Lee, Chi-Feng; Bezděk, Jan
Abstract The Taiwanese species of the genus Paridea Baly, 1886, are revised. Two new species, Paridea (Semacia) houjayi sp. n. and P. (S.) kaoi sp. n. are described. Both were confused previously with P. (S.) sexmaculata (Laboissière, 1930) and P. (S.) angulicollis (Motschulsky, 1854) respectively. Paridea (P.) sauteri (Chûjô, 1935) and P. (P.) taiwana (Chûjô, 1935) are removed from synonymy with P. (P.) sinensis Laboissière, 1930. The synonymy of Paraulaca flavipennis Chûjô, 1935 with Paridea (Paridea) testacea Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963 is supported. Paridea (Semacia) nigrimarginata Yang, 1991 is regarded as a junior synonym of P. (S.) angulicollis and excluded from the Taiwan fauna. Lectotypes are designated for Paraulaca costata Chûjô, 1935, P. flavipennis Chûjô, 1935, P. taiwana Chûjô, 1935, Semacia nipponensis Laboissière, 1930, and Paridea sinensis Laboissière, 1930. PMID:24843276
Methyl anthranilate was identified as the active compound in extracts of maize roots that were shown to be repellent to neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae. A bioassay-driven approach was used to isolate the active material from diethyl ether extracts of r...
The effects of maize (Zea mays L.) phenology on establishment and adult emergence of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) as well as plant damage to maize was evaluated in the greenhouse and in field trials in 2001 and 2002. Although neonate western corn rootworm larva...
Soudi, Sh; Moharramipour, S
Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller) is one of the key pests of elm trees all over the world, and survives winter in reproductive diapause in sheltered locations. Seasonal variation of whole body supercooling points (SCPs), LT50 (temperature at which 50% of the test individuals die) and survival rate after exposure to subzero temperatures were determined in field collected adults during October 2008 to May 2009 and October 2009 to May 2010. The SCP of adults decreased significantly from October (median=-13.8°C) to January (median=-20.7°C) in first year, relatively similar results was observed in the second year. The lowest LT50 was observed in overwintering adults collected in January (-16.81°C) in the first year and December (-15.59°C) in the second year. Mortality at -15°C for 24 h was >70% in early autumn in both years whereas it decreased to lower than 45% in early winter, the highest mortality (100%) was observed in adults collected in May in both years. Cold acclimated adults (30 d, 5°C) in November 2008 exhibited significantly higher SCP (-12.21±0.64°C) than nonacclimated adults (-15.57±1.35°C). A 30-d exposure to 5°C caused >20% mortality in November, while <9% mortality was observed in adults collected in December and January 2008. Overwintering adults died upon freezing and the lower lethal temperatures were within the range of SCP, indicating that X. luteola is a freeze intolerant insect.
Baker, Mitchell; Hossain, Kazi; Zabierek, Kristina; Collie, Karyn; Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Whalon, Mark
Cannibalism can have a large effect on population growth and survival in stressful environments, possibly including those created by insecticide use. In this study, we collected Colorado potato beetles from three isolated areas in the northeastern United States known for high levels of resistance to neonicotinoids. We measured resistance to imidacloprid in each of those populations, a laboratory susceptible population, and in hybrids between the three field populations and the laboratory susceptible population. We fed neonates eggs from resistant dams fed either imidacloprid-treated or untreated foliage to determine whether cannibals are exposed to toxins sequestered in eggs. We measured egg cannibalism by hatchlings within the clutch in each population and hybrids, and examined how fecundity and several variables associated with egg development varied among populations and with cannibalism, to see which traits might enhance or reduce cannibalism. Cannibalism varied significantly among populations, accounting for most of the variation in hatching success. Variability in egg development time and hatch rate in the absence of cannibalism in some populations affected rates of cannibalism. Resistance varied significantly among the field populations but was not related to cannibalism. Neonates fed eggs from dams on treated foliage showed signs of intoxication or death. Cannibalism appears to be part of a varying life history strategy in this species, with some populations laying larger and more cannibalistic clutches and the New York population laying smaller clutches with higher hatching success owing to reduced cannibalism.
Females of leaf beetles and many other herbivorous insects lay eggs in coherent batches. Hatchlings emerge more or less simultaneously and often prey on their late-hatching clutchmates. It is not certain, however, whether this synchrony of hatching is a mere by-product of cannibalism or whether an additional synchronizing factor exists. The following simple experiment was aimed at determining the causal relationship between cannibalism and simultaneous larval emergence. Egg clutches of the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula were split into two halves. These halves were either kept as coherent groups in two separate dishes or, alternatively, only one half remained whole, whereas the other one was divided into single eggs, each of which was incubated in a separate dish. Halving of a clutch into coherent groups only slightly disrupted the synchrony of emergence. The consequence of individual isolation was more dramatic. Half-clutches consisting of disconnected solitary eggs required almost twice as much time for complete emergence of all larvae, which was significantly more than cannibalism as a sole synchronizing factor might explain. Moreover, survival rates were the same in coherent half-clutches (in the presence of cannibalism) and among isolated individuals. This group effect and the small contribution of cannibalism suggest the existence of an additional synchronizing factor. Possible mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are discussed.
Lemic, D; Mikac, K M; Bažok, R
Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found.
Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field leading to local loss of eff...
Wangila, David S; Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; French, B Wade; Meinke, Lance J
Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1-expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to characterize the susceptibility of western corn rootworm populations to the rootworm-active proteins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and Cry34/35Ab1. Results demonstrate that there are heritable differences in susceptibility of Nebraska western corn rootworm populations to rootworm-active Bt traits. Proportional survival and corrected survival data coupled with field histories collectively support the conclusion that a level of field resistance to Cry3Bb1 has evolved in some Nebraska populations in response to selection pressure and that cross-resistance exists between Cry3Bb1 and mCry3A. There was no apparent cross-resistance between Cry34/35Ab1 and either Cry3Bb1 or mCry3A. The potential implications of these results on current and future corn rootworm management strategies are discussed.
Moura, Luciano De A
New species of Neotropical Galerucini are described and illustrated: Caraguata onca sp. nov., from southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) and northern Argentina (Chaco); and Yingaresca cabrerae sp. nov., from Argentina (Misiones). Galerucella transversicollis Jacoby, 1886 is integrated to Yingaresca Bechyné. Two species originally described in Ophraella Wilcox are also transferred to Yingaresca: Yingaresca limonensis (Bechyné, 1997) comb. nov. and Yingaresca magdalia (Bechyné, 1997) comb. nov. Metrogaleruca obscura paraensis (Bechyné & Bechyné, 1961) is considered a synonym of Metrogaleruca obscura (Degeer, 1775).
Blom, Paul Erik
Integrating GPS with visual canopy surveys, a 1-m sampling support was used to explore within-field spatial organization of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum (L.)). Georeferenced adult and large larvae counts were made in four ˜1.5 ha untreated potato fields during two seasons. Overwintered, immigrating adults established mean density trends, but spatial dependency (covariance structure) was not detected. Large larvae and F1 adults, in contrast, displayed covariance structure, accounting for up to ˜45% of the variation. Spatial patterns were related to population phenology, density, and mean density trends established during immigration. The stability of these patterns was tested in fields treated with a narrow perimeter (5.5 m) of systemic imidacloprid and in fields where all rows received the systemic. Perimeter treatment reduced mean densities with no effect on phenology. Immigrating adults established similar trends in both treatments, but F1 larval trends of the Perimeter treatments diverged from immigrant patterns. Immigrating adults had little to no spatial dependence (covariance structure), while covariance structure of F1 larval and F1 adult populations developed as density increased in both treatments. Yields increased at a proportion higher than the proportion of land area treated, but remained lower than the Whole-field treatment. Refinement of border width is discussed to optimize trade-offs between yield, quality, and long-term maintenance of susceptibility. To optimize perimeter width, locations of individual L. decemlineata overwintered adults were georeferenced within 24 hours of their immigration into a potato field in two field seasons. Distance was measured to the nearest field edge or to the field edge along a radial vector from the field center. The frequency of beetles captured within 1-m distance intervals was modeled as an exponential decay function of distance from the edge for both measurement methods. A spatially-explicit individual-based simulation model of L. decemlineata population dynamics was developed to express the spatial patterns modeled in the field studies, and the immigration phase implemented. This will enable development and simulation tests of hypotheses related to the influence of scale upon the spatial dynamics of L. decemlineata , and the interaction of spatially variable management and scale.
Kato, Toshihide; Bonet, Arturo; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Romero-Nápoles, Jesús; Jinbo, Utsugi; Ito, Motomi; Shimada, Masakazu
The evolutionary history of diet breadth expansion and intergeneric host shifts in the seed beetle genus Mimosestes were reconstructed to investigate the process of host range expansion in phytophagous insects. The evolutionary correlation between diet breadth and variation in oviposition behavior of Mimosestes was also examined to estimate the process of generalist evolution within the genus. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a molecular phylogeny inferred from three mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and COI) and one nuclear marker (EF-1alpha) revealed that host utilization patterns were shaped by repeated colonizations to novel or pre-adapted host plants. Neither plant genus and species group level host conservatism nor an evolutionary tendency toward specialization was found in the genus, contrary to the expectations of plant-insect co-evolutionary theory. In addition, statistical analyses revealed that diet breadth was significantly correlated with oviposition behavior, suggesting that behavioral factors such as the oviposition preferences of female seed beetles affect the expansion of diet breadth in generalists.
Morse, Geoffrey E; Farrell, Brian D
Ehrlich and Raven's (1964) hypothesis on coevolution has stimulated numerous phylogenetic studies that focus on the effects of plant defensive chemistry as the main ecological axis of phytophagous insect diversification. However, other ecological features affect host use and diet breadth and they may have very different consequences for insect evolution. In this paper, we present a phylogenetic study based on DNA sequences from mitochondrial and protein-coding genes of species in the seed beetle genus Stator, which collectively show considerable interspecific variation in host affiliation, diet breadth, and the dispersal stage of the seeds that they attack. We used comparative analyses to examine transitions in these three axes of resource use. We argue that these analyses show that diet breadth evolution is dependent upon colonizing novel hosts that are closely or distantly related to the ancestral host, and that oviposition substrate affects the evolution of host-plant affiliation, the evolution of dietary specialization, and the degree to which host plants are shared between species. The results of this study show that diversification is structured by interactions between different selective pressures and along multiple ecological axes.
Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P
The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out.
Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D
The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.
The flea beetle Systena silvestrii Bechyné 1957, was studied in context with the evaluation of natural enemies of the alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae). The female is described and the holotype male is redescribed adding new diagnostic characters: mouth...
A new genus (Penghou) with a single new species (P. yulongshan) from Yunnan Province in China is described and illustrated. It is compared to Hespera Weise, Hesperomorpha Ogloblin, Laotzeus Chen, Luperomorpha Weise, Mandarella Duvivier, Omeiana Chen, Stenoluperus Ogloblin and Taiwanohespera Kimoto....
Nicaltica new genus and new species (N. selvanegra), from Nicaragua are described and illustrated. Nicaltica is compared to Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro, Monotalla Bechyne, and Normaltica Konstantinov....
Montemayor, Cecil O; Cave, Ronald D
Microtheca ochroloma Stål is a beetle native to South America and was introduced to the United States in 1945. Since then, M. ochroloma has become a serious pest in crucifer crops because of the lack of natural enemies. The objective of this study was to measure the predation rate and development time of the commercially available predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) feeding on M. ochroloma at four constant temperatures in the laboratory as a first step to evaluating the predator's capability as a biological control agent of the pest. Nymphal development of P. maculiventris increased from 23 d at 25°C to 99 d at 15°C. There was no development of first instar or egg hatch at 10°C. Number of fourth-instar M. ochroloma killed during nymphal development varied significantly from 65 at 15°C to 53 at 20°C because of length of the nymphal period. A mean total of 741 eggs of M. ochroloma were consumed during nymphal development at 25°C. Adult P. maculiventris preyed on nine and 12 times more fourth-instar M. ochroloma during 10 d at 20° and 25°C, respectively, than at 15°C. We conclude that P. maculiventris can develop successfully on a diet of eggs or fourth-instar M. ochroloma, but its predation and development rates will be significantly curtailed during the cool months from November to March when M. ochroloma is a key pest of organically grown crucifers in Florida.
Berry, R E; Liu, J; Reed, G
We compared the efficacy of 2 endemic strains of entomopathogenic nematodes isolated from Hermiston, OR, with that of 3 exotic nematode species for control of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In laboratory experiments, the exotic Heterorhabditis species were more pathogenic to Colorado potato beetle than were the endemic Heterorhabditis strains. Exotic Steinernema species were less pathogenic to Colorado potato beetle than the exotic Heterorhabditis species. No Colorado potato beetle adults emerged from soil treated with H. marelatus Liu & Berry, a new species collected from Seaside, OR. Nematode pathogenicity was detected up to 14 wk after application in Galleria mellonella (L.) in soil taken from field plots treated with endemic and exotic nematode species.
Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) was identified as a host recognition cue for larvae of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. An active glycolipid fraction obtained from an extract of germinating maize roots was isolated with thin layer chromatography using a bioassay-...
Zurek, Daniel B.; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Voigt, Dagmar
While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837
Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...
Fox, C W; Scheibly, K L; Smith, B P; Wallin, W G
Inbreeding depression is well documented in insects but the degree to which inbreeding depression varies among populations within species, and among traits within populations, is poorly studied in insects other than Drosophila. Inbreeding depression was examined in two long-term laboratory colonies of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), which are used frequently as models for experiments in ecology, evolution and behaviour. Inbreeding depression in these laboratory colonies are compared with one recently field-collected population of a different seed beetle, Stator limbatus Horn. Inbreeding reduced embryogenesis, egg hatch and larval survival in both species, such that eggs produced by sib matings were >17% less likely to produce an adult offspring. Inbred larvae also took 4-6% longer to develop to emergence in both species. Inbreeding depression varied among the measured traits but did not differ between the two populations of C. maculatus for any trait, despite the large geographic distance between source populations (western Africa vs. southern India). Inbreeding depression was similar in magnitude between C. maculatus and S. limbatus. This study demonstrates that these laboratory populations of C. maculatus harbour substantial genetic loads, similar to the genetic load of populations of S. limbatus recently collected from the field.
Lam, W K; Pedigo, L P
The role of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, pod trichomes on feeding by adult bean leaf beetles. Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions during 1997 and 1998. Three Clark isolines and 'Corsoy 79' were used to compare the feeding preference of the beetle on pods with different trichome densities. The three Clark isolines, including densely pubescent, sparsely pubescent, and glabrous, were isogenic except for trichome density. The trichome densities on the pods of Clark densely pubescent, Clark sparsely pubescent, and Corsoy 79 were significantly different. In no-choice tests, under both laboratory and field conditions, the feeding on pods of Clark densely pubescent was significantly lower than that on the other isolines. In the choice test of Corsoy 79 conducted in the laboratory and field, when the trichomes on one of the two pods were shaven off, the feeding on the shaven pods was significantly higher than that of the intact ones. In the choice test among Clark isolines under laboratory condition, the result was significant, with the lowest feeding on the densely pubescent pods. This study demonstrates that densely pubescent soybean has the potential to resist bean leaf beetle feeding on pods.
Messina, Frank J; Durham, Susan L
Geographic populations of a widespread species can differ in their ability to adapt to a novel environment because they possess different amounts of the requisite genetic variation. We compared responses to the same novel host in ecologically and genetically divergent populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Populations from Africa and Asia had been derived from and maintained on different legume hosts. In preselection assays, both populations exhibited lower survival, slower development, and smaller size on a third host (adzuki bean), and the difference in performance between the ancestral and novel hosts was especially high for the African population. Replicate lines of each population were switched to adzuki bean or maintained on the ancestral host, and beetle performance was measured on both hosts after 12 generations. Survival on adzuki bean increased substantially in the adzuki-bean lines of the African population, but improved only slightly in the Asian lines. Similarly, only the African adzuki-bean lines exhibited significantly faster development on adzuki bean. Improved performance on adzuki bean did not simultaneously reduce performance on the ancestral host. Together with previous studies, these results confirm that populations of C. maculatus often possess sufficient standing genetic variation for rapid adaptation to a novel host, but the magnitude of the response may depend on the source population. Although international trade in grain legumes can expand beetle host ranges and produce unusual biotypes, the consistent absence of strong genetic trade-offs in larval performance or adult oviposition across hosts makes it unlikely that this insect would form distinct host races.
Krell, Rayda K; Pedigo, Larry P; Hill, John H; Rice, Marlin E
Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a management concern for soybean, Glycine max (L.), producers in the North Central states because it can cause yield loss and reduce seed quality by induction of seed coat mottling. The main vector of BPMV is the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). An experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 at two locations in northwestern and central Iowa to test three insecticide treatments for suppression of bean leaf beetles, and subsequently, BPMV. Treatments of insecticide applications with lambda-cyhalothrin were 1) a single early-season application (23 g [AI] /ha) (2.5 oz/acre) at the VE-VC soybean developmental stage; 2) two early-season applications, the first the same as treatment 1 and a second at the same rate 9-13 d later; 3) a single early-season application the same as treatment 1, followed by a mid-season application (28 g [AI] /ha (3.2 oz/acre) at approximately R2 (flowering, near 15 July); and 4) an unsprayed control. Application of lambda-cyhalothrin after soybean emergence and again as first-generation bean leaf beetles emerged in northwestern Iowa in 2000 (treatment 3) significantly reduced beetle densities through mid-season, BPMV field incidence by 31.5%, and seed coat mottling by 31.2%, compared with the unsprayed control. Similar effects were measured at the same location when insecticide was applied twice at early season (treatment 2). Yield was 453.7 kg/ha (6.74 bu/acre) greater in treatment 2 and 525.20 kg/ha (7.80 bu/acre) greater in treatment 3 than in the unsprayed control at the northwestern site in 2000. At both locations in 2001 fewer treatment effects were observed, which was likely related to lower beetle populations in that year. Early-season insecticide sprays targeted at overwintered beetles on VC-VE reduced the initial population of vector insects and may have contributed to a lower first-generation population because of reduced overwintered beetle oviposition. In 1 year at one location there was a benefit to an additional mid-season insecticide spray, although effectiveness of spraying at this time could vary based on the magnitude of the vector population.
Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D
The western spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, is an important pest of melons (Cucurmis melo L.) in northern California. Recent observations indicate that adults are using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as a feeding host and larvae may be developing on the roots. Greenhouse studies were conducted during the winters of 2009 and 2010 in which larval development was compared on the roots of six field and vegetable crops commonly grown in the southern Sacramento Valley. The growth parameters used to evaluate the hosts were larval and pupal head capsule width, body width, and body length as well as total survival percentage and survival percentage to the third instar. According to larval growth and survivorship in 2009, maize (Zea mays L.) was the best host, followed by alfalfa and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) that were roughly equivalent to one another. Melon was a slightly weaker host than alfalfa and tomato; sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was a completely incompatible host and thus dropped from the 2010 study. In 2010, melon was the weakest host for larval development. Maize was the superior host again followed closely by alfalfa that performed slightly better than tomato and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Data suggest that larval western spotted cucumber beetles may primarily develop outside of melon fields and the adults emigrate to melons.
Kondo, Natsuko I; Tuda, Midori; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Lan, Yen-Chiu; Buranapanichpan, Sawai; Horng, Shwu-Bin; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema
Wolbachia endosymbionts are widespread among insects and other arthropods, often causing cytoplasmic incompatibility and other reproductive phenotypes in their hosts. Recently, possibilities of Wolbachia-mediated pest control and management have been proposed, and the bean beetles of the subfamily Bruchinae are known as serious pests of harvested and stored beans worldwide. Here we investigated Wolbachia infections in bean beetles from the world, representing seven genera, 20 species and 87 populations. Of 20 species examined, Wolbachia infections were detected in four species, Megabruchidius sophorae, Callosobruchus analis, C. latealbus and C. chinensis. Infection frequencies were partial in M. sophorae but perfect in the other species. In addition to C. chinensis described in the previous studies, C. latealbus was infected with two distinct Wolbachia strains. These Wolbachia strains from the bean beetles were phylogenetically not closely related to each other. Among world populations of C. chinensis, some Taiwanese populations on a wild leguminous plant, Rhynchosia minima, exhibited a peculiar Wolbachia infection pattern, suggesting the possibility that these populations comprise a distinct host race or a cryptic species.
Abstract The karyotypes of three species of Timarcha Latreille, 1829 have been analysed. Timarcha (Metallotimarcha) metallica (Laicharting, 1781), has 18 + Xyp male meioformula and 2n = 38 chromosomes, similar to those found in the two species of subgenus Americanotimarcha Jolivet, 1948, in agreement with morphological and molecular phylogenetic grounds. Timarcha (Timarcha) carmelenae Petitpierre, 2013 displays 9 + Xyp and 2n = 20 chromosomes as in morphologically related Andalusian species, whereas Timarcha (Timarcha) parvicollis ssp. seidlitzi Kraatz, 1879 shows 11 + Xyp and 2n = 24 chromosomes, clearly differing from the previous species. These results are discussed in order to get an insight into the main trends of the chromosomal evolution in Timarcha. PMID:27186335
Behle, Robert W; Isbell, Terry A
The ability to prevent significant root feeding damage to corn, Zea mays L., by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, by crop rotation with soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., has been lost in portions of the Corn Belt because this pest has adapted to laying eggs in soybean fields. Cuphea spp. has been proposed as a new broadleaf crop that may provide an undesirable habitat for rootworm adults because of its sticky surface and therefore may reduce or prevent oviposition in these fields. A 4-yr study (1 yr to establish seven rotation programs followed by 3 yr of evaluation) was conducted to determine whether crop rotation with Cuphea would provide cultural control of corn rootworm. In support of Cuphea as a rotation crop, fewer beetles were captured by sticky traps in plots of Cuphea over the 4 yr of this study compared with traps in corn and soybean, suggesting that fewer eggs may be laid in plots planted to Cuphea. Also, corn grown after Cuphea was significantly taller during vegetative growth, had significantly lower root damage ratings for 2 of 3 yr, and had significantly higher yields for 2 of 3 yr compared with continuous corn plots. In contrast to these benefits, growing Cuphea did not prevent economic damage to subsequent corn crops as indicated by root damage ratings > 3.0 recorded for corn plants in plots rotated from Cuphea, and sticky trap catches that exceeded the threshold of five beetles trap(-1) day(-1). Beetle emergence from corn plots rotated from Cuphea was significantly lower, not different and significantly higher compared with beetle emergence from continuous corn plots for 2002, 2003 and 2004 growing seasons, respectively. A high number of beetles were captured by emergence cages in plots planted to Cuphea, indicating that rootworm larvae may be capable of completing larval development by feeding on roots of Cuphea, although peak emergence lagged approximately 4 wk behind peak emergence from corn. Based on these data, it is unlikely that crop rotation with Cuphea will provide consistent, economical, cultural control of corn rootworm.
To elucidate the characterization of probable pheromone chemical compounds in Coelaenomenodera elaeidis Mlk., volatile samples were collected and subjected to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. These compounds were contained in active fractions: Butylated hydroxytoluene (C15H24O); 4, 4...
Kabaluk, J T; Vernon, R S
The effect of crop rotation on populations of tuber flea beetle, Epitrix tuberis Gentner, in potatoes was investigated using data supplied by an integrated pest management (IPM) company and Geographic Information System software and conventional statistical methods. Using combined 1995 and 1996 data, beetles of the overwintered and F1 generations in both the interior and edges of potato fields showed a significant linear increase with an increase in the preceding consecutive years (0, 1, and 2 years) that the current years' crop was planted to potatoes. Populations were significantly higher in nonrotated fields compared with rotated fields. Both the percentage of the cropping region requiring insecticidal control of tuber flea beetles and the cost of insecticides per hectare of potatoes grown increased linearly with an increase in the number of previous years planted to potatoes. Not practicing crop rotation resulted in a 4.2-7.3% increase in the cropping region requiring insecticidal control of tuber flea beetles. The cost of controlling beetles in potato fields planted to potatoes for 3 consecutive years was up to $20/ha greater than potatoes rotated from the preceding year. Beetle counts from the interior of rotated potato fields never exceeded threshold levels when field edges also were below threshold. It is concluded that sampling of overwintered beetles in interior sites of rotated fields could be abandoned, and only 1 monitoring scout rather than 2 would be necessary to monitor a field during this time. From these results, we concluded that rotating potato crops would reduce spray costs to the farmer and monitoring costs to IPM companies.
Buntin, G David; All, John N
Southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, can cause severe stand loss in reduced tillage corn after a vetch cover crop. Trials conducted over 3 yr found that clothianidin and thiamethoxam neonicotinoid seed treatments and conventional granular insecticides applied in-furrow or as a T-band were very effective against southern corn rootworm. Treatments were categorized as no control (untreated), partial control, and full control based on the extent of seedling injury. In 2 yr, damaged plants were individually marked and their survival, tiller (i.e., secondary stem) production, and ear and grain weight measured. About one-half of plants injured by larvae produced a tiller, with most plants producing tillers within 30 d after planting. All dead-hearted plants not producing a tiller died and were not evident by mid-season. In no control plots with severe damage, healthy plants produced more ears per plant and secondarily more grain weight per plant than healthy plants in full control plots. Plants with early tillers in no control produced approximately 38% of the grain weight of healthy plants compared with only approximately 6% in full control plots, whereas plants with late tillers in no control plots produced < 10% of the grain weight of healthy plants and produced no grain in full control plots. Therefore, in stands with severe seedling damage, remaining healthy plants and damaged plants producing a tiller within 30 d of planting responded to lower plant population by producing more ears and grain per plant. However, in full control plots with low levels of damage, damaged plants producing a tiller often persisted until harvest but produced very little grain thereby acting as weeds with the stand.
Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J
The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.
Zachariassen, K E; Li, N G; Laugsand, A E; Kristiansen, E; Pedersen, S A
The strategy for cold-hardiness and water balance features of two closely related families of Coleoptera, Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, were investigated. Cerambycids were freeze-avoiding with low supercooling points, whereas chrysomelids froze at high temperatures and were tolerant to freezing. Hence, the two families have adopted different strategies for cold-hardiness. Due to their low trans-cuticular water permeability, the cerambycids have low rates of evaporative water loss. Chrysomelids have much higher trans-cuticular water permeability, but freezing brings their body fluids in vapour pressure equilibrium with ice and prevents evaporative water loss. The differences in cold-hardiness strategies and rates of water loss are likely to reflect the water content of the diets of the two families. Cerambycids feed on dry wood with low water content, causing a restrictive water balance. Chrysomelids feed on leaves with high water content and may use evaporation through the cuticle as a route of water excretion. Haemolymph ice nucleators help chrysomelids to freeze at a high temperature and thus to maximize the period they spend in the water saving frozen state. The diet-related differences in water balance may be the reason why the two families have developed different strategies for cold-hardiness.
Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.
Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171
Webster, Reginald P; Webster, Vincent L; Alderson, Chantelle A; Hughes, Cory C; Sweeney, Jon D
This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick.
Field resistance of two soybean germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, against bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaidae).
Hammond, R B; Bierman, P; Levine, E; Cooper, R L
Two recently released, Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, Mulsant, resistant soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, were examined for foliar and pod feeding resistance to adult bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman. Both lines were planted along with a susceptible control cultivar in 18 by 30-m plots and separate 0.8-ha size fields. Insects were sampled on a weekly basis with a sweep net. In late summer, defoliation ratings were recorded along with data on percentage pod feeding. Although a few significant differences in insect densities were obtained among the soybean lines on some sampling dates, no specific trends were observed in the ability of the resistant germplasm to reduce insect numbers. Insect population densities were similarly on all lines. However, both resistant lines were able to reduce defoliation during the growing season. Conversely, percentage pod feeding was similar among all the soybean lines, with no differences observed. The resistant germplasm lines appear able to lower levels of defoliation, and thus, offer a potential management tactic where leaf feeding, i.e., defoliation, is of concern. However, their ability to greatly reduce beetle population densities, and for the bean leaf beetle, to reduce pod feeding, appears limited.
Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong
The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia.
Southcott, R V
The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed.
Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Hunt, Toby; Kopliku, Fatos; Vogler, Alfried P.
Background The great diversity of the “Phytophaga” (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. Methodology A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA) including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary) leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini. Principal Findings The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73–79 Mya (confidence interval 63–86 Mya), and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous) angiosperm lineage. Conclusions Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations. PMID:17426809
Konstantinov, Alexander S.
Abstract A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided. PMID:27408546
Five short-diapause laboratory lines of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) were selected for resistance to MON863, a variety of corn genetically modified with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgene that expresses the Cry3Bb1 endotoxin. Three of the selecte...
Maize production in the United States is dominated by plants genetically modified with transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Varieties of Bt maize expressing Cry3Bb endotoxins that specifically target corn rootworms (genus Diabrotica) have proven highly efficacious. Howeve...
Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.
Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522
Chaetocnema picipes species-group is revised in China. It contains 5 species including 3 new species: C. cheni n.sp., C. constricta n.sp. and C. kingpinensis n.sp.. The lectotype of C. fortecostata is designated. A key to all known species of this group from China and illustrations of habitus and ge...
Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D
Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants.
Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Cardoso, Anabela; Coronado, Indiana; De la Cadena, Gissela; Jurado-Rivera, José A.; Maes, Jean-Michel; Montelongo, Tinguaro; Nguyen, Dinh Thi; Papadopoulou, Anna
Abstract Biodiversity assessment has been the focus of intense debate and conceptual and methodological advances in recent years. The cultural, academic and aesthetic impulses to recognise and catalogue the diversity in our surroundings, in this case of living objects, is furthermore propelled by the urgency of understanding that we may be responsible for a dramatic reduction of biodiversity, comparable in magnitude to geological mass extinctions. One of the most important advances in this attempt to characterise biodiversity has been incorporating DNA-based characters and molecular taxonomy tools to achieve faster and more efficient species delimitation and identification, even in hyperdiverse tropical biomes. In this assay we advocate for a broad understanding of Biodiversity as the inventory of species in a given environment, but also the diversity of their interactions, with both aspects being attainable using molecular markers and phylogenetic approaches. We exemplify the suitability and utility of this framework for large-scale biodiversity assessment with the results of our ongoing projects trying to characterise the communities of leaf beetles and their host plants in several tropical setups. Moreover, we propose that approaches similar to ours, establishing the inventories of two ecologically inter-related and species-rich groups of organisms, such as insect herbivores and their angiosperm host-plants, can serve as the foundational stone to anchor a comprehensive assessment of diversity, also in tropical environments, by subsequent addition of trophic levels. PMID:27408583
Reid, Chris A M; De Little, David W
A new species of chrysomeline leaf beetle, Paropsisterna selmani Reid & de Little, is described, including all larval in-stars. This species, native to Australia, is now a significant pest of Eucalyptus plantations in Australia and Ireland, and has been recorded in southern England. Its occurrence in the British Isles represents the first record of establishment of a eucalypt feeding chrysomelid in Europe.
Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L
Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus.
A series of greenhouse experiments using three infestation levels of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, under well-watered, moderately dry, and very dry soil moisture levels were conducted to quantify the interaction of western corn rootworm and soil water deficit on ...
Chinese species of Chaetocnema semicoerulea group are revised and 3 new species described as new: C. salixis n.sp., C. yulongensis n.sp. and C. deqinensis n.sp. A key to all 5 species of this group occurring in China and the illustrations of habitus and genitalia are provided. A map of species distr...
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) has been a major insect pest of potatoes for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Pesticide use is currently the most widely used approach, although alternative methods are being developed. Amongst ...
Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...
Toepfer, S; Gueldenzoph, C; Ehlers, R-U; Kuhlmann, U
Entomopathogenic nematode species available in Europe were screened for their efficacy against both the root-feeding larvae and silk-feeding adults of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Laboratory screening tests were aimed at the selection of candidate biological control agents for the management of this invasive alien pest in Europe. Steinernema glaseri, S. arenarium, S. abassi, S. bicornutum, S. feltiae, S. kraussei, S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were studied to determine their virulence against third instar larvae and adults of D. v. virgifera in small-volume arenas (using nematode concentrations of 0.5, 0.8, 7.9 and 15.9 infective juveniles cm-2). All nematode species were able to invade and propagate in D. v. virgifera larvae, but adults were rarely infected. At concentrations of 7.9 and 15.9 cm-2, S. glaseri, S. arenarium, S. abassi and H. bacteriophora caused the highest larval mortality of up to 77%. Steinernema bicornutum, S. abassi, S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora appeared to have a high propagation level, producing 5970+/-779, 5595+/-811, 5341+/-1177 and 4039+/-1025 infective juveniles per larva, respectively. Steinernema glaseri, S. arenarium, S. feltiae, S. kraussei and H. bacteriophora were further screened at a concentration of 16.7 nematodes cm-2 against third instar larvae in medium-volume arenas (sand-filled trays with maize plants). Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, S. arenarium and S. feltiae caused the highest larval mortality with 77+/-16.6%, 67+/-3.5%, and 57+/-17.1%, respectively. In a next step, criteria for rating the entomopathogenic nematode species were applied based on results obtained for virulence and propagation, and for current production costs and availability in Europe. These criteria were then rated to determine the potential of the nematodes for further field testing. Results showed the highest potential in H. bacteriophora, followed by S. arenarium and S. feltiae, for further testing as candidate biological control agents.
Matsumura, Yoko; Michels, Jan; Appel, Esther; Gorb, Stanislav N
The peculiar phenomenon of hyper-elongation of intromittent organs is well known in a number of insect groups. However, the unresolved questions of how and why such a phenomenon originated independently many times continue to attract biologists' attention. To be able to detect the evolutionary driving mechanisms that enabled insects to repeatedly acquire such a peculiarity, first of all the structural key features and the mechanics of these organs have to be determined. In the present study, the morphology of the reproductive organs of two species of the beetle genus Cassida, with a special focus on the male structures, was scrutinised in detail during copulation and at rest using different microscopy techniques. We found that the hyper-elongated structure of the intromittent organ, called flagellum, is part of the male ejaculatory duct. When the flagellum is inserted into the female spermathecal duct, longitudinal muscles of the ejaculatory duct, but not the flagellum, are shortened. These results strongly suggest that the contraction of the longitudinal muscles of the ejaculatory duct causes propulsion of the flagellum into the highly spiralled spermathecal duct of the female. The tip of the cuticular flagellum is curled up, which can suggest that its physical properties differ from those of the rest of the flagellum. Considering the preceding modelling studies, this property aids the flagellum in penetrating within the highly spiralled and very variable female duct. Based on our morphological results and in comparison with the morphology of intromittent organs of other beetles, we discuss the evolutionary origin of the hyper-elongation in the Cassida species and propose a hypothesis that explains the independent origin of the hyper-elongation of intromittent organs.
Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the United States Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resis...
Open-field host-specificity testing assesses the host-range of a biological control agent in a setting that permits the agent to use its full complement of host-seeking behaviors. This form of testing, particularly when it includes a no-choice phase in which the target weed is killed, may provide th...
The previously monotypic West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyne is reviewed, redescribed and illustrated. Five new species are added: Monotalla dominica (Dominica); M. lecticafolium (St. Lucia); M. maierae (St. Lucia); M. obrienorum (Grenada); and M. viridis (St. Lucia). A key to Monotalla species is p...
Sablon, Ludovic; Dickens, Joseph C.; Haubruge, Éric; Verheggen, François J.
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications. PMID:26466794
Sorensen, Mary A; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T
Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO4(-)), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brullé. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system.
Guenther, D A; Gardner, K T; Thompson, D C
Establishment of the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) has been unpredictable when caged or released in the field for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) biocontrol. It has been observed that one caged tree might be voraciously fed upon by beetles while an adjacent tree in the cage is left untouched. We hypothesized that differences in the nutrient content of individual trees may explain this behavior. We evaluated survival, development rate, and egg production of beetles fed in the laboratory on saltcedar foliage from trees that had been grown under a range of fertilizer treatments. Tissue samples from the experimental trees and from the field were analyzed for percent nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. There was essentially no survival of beetle larvae fed foliage from saltcedar trees at nitrogen levels below 2.0%. At levels above 2.0% N, beetle larvae had corresponding increased survival rates and shorter development times. Multiple regression analyses indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus are important for larval survival and faster development rates. Higher levels of potassium were important for increased egg cluster production. The plant tissue analysis showed that the percentage of nitrogen in the experimental trees reflected the range of trees in the field and also that there is high variability within trees in the field. Our research indicates that if beetles are released on trees with poor nutrient quality, the larvae will not survive.
The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...
The European herbaceous perennials pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) have been the subject of classical biological control efforts, due to their invasion of various natural areas and managed habitats in the northeaste...
Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Bista, Sanjay; Pemberton, Robert W.; Center, Ted D.
Abstract Criocerine leaf beetles found in Nepal feeding on Dioscorea bulbifera (L.), an invasive weed of Asian origin, were identified as Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto based on a synopsis of the Oriental Lilioceris species and review of the Lilioceris impressa species group. All the continental, Oriental species included in the group are diagnosed and illustrated, and a key for their identification is provided. Species status of Lilioceris thibetana Pic, 1916 is resurrected. The following new synonyms are proposed: Lilioceris coomani (Pic, 1928) = Lilioceris egena (Weise, 1922), and Lilioceris subcostata (Pic, 1921a), Lilioceris laticornis (Gressit, 1942), Lilioceris inflaticornis Gressit & Kimoto, 1961, and Lilioceris maai Gressit & Kimoto, 1961 = Lilioceris impressa (Fabricius, 1787). Lectotypes of the following species are designated: Lilioceris coomani Pic, 1928; Lilioceris impressa (Fabricius, 1787); Lilioceris laosensis (Pic, 1916); Lilioceris malabarica (Jacoby, 1904); Lilioceris ruficornis (Pic, 1921b); Lilioceris subcostata (Pic, 1921a); Lilioceris thibetana (Pic, 1916); and Lilioceris unicolor (Hope, 1831). PMID:21747681
Lee, Chi-Feng; Matsumura, Yoko
Abstract New records of four species (Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845, Lema diversipes Pic, 1921, Lema cyanella (Linnaeus, 1758), Lema trivittata trivittata Say, 1824 and additional information on one recently recorded species (Lema solani Fabricius, 1798) are reported for Taiwan. Lema diversipes Pic, 1921 is removed from synonymy with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845; both species are redescribed. A lectotype is designated for Lema phungi Pic, 1924. The synonymies of Lema phungi Pic, 1924 and Lema jeanvoinei Pic, 1932 with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845 are supported. A revised key to the known species in Taiwan is provided. PMID:23653513
Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.) can inflict serious damage to maize (Zea mays L.) and have evolved resistance to cultural and chemical management methods. Currently genetically modified maize producing rootworm-toxic proteins derived from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, is extensive...
Despite a long history of cultural and chemical control strategies, Diabrotica spp. still can inflict serious damage to maize (Zea mays L.). Currently, genetically modified maize produce a rootworm-toxic protein derived from the soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. To slow the progressio...
Diaz, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Carlos; Wheeler, Gregory S; Lapointe, Stephen L; Rosskopf, Erin; Overholt, William A
The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of light intensity on the performance of tropical soda apple and G. boliviana under greenhouse conditions, and to determine the abundance and mortality of G. boliviana in open and shaded habitats. Leaves growing in the shade were less tough, had higher water and nitrogen content, lower soluble sugars, and less dense and smaller glandular trichomes compared with leaves growing in the open. Plants grew slightly taller and wider under shaded conditions but total biomass was significantly reduced compared with plants grown in the open. In the greenhouse, G. boliviana had higher immature survival, greater folivory, larger adult size, and higher fecundity when reared on shaded plants compared with open plants. Sampling of field populations revealed that the overall abundance of G. boliviana was lower but leaf feeding damage was higher in shaded habitats compared with the open habitats. The percentage of eggs surviving to adult was greater in shaded compared with open habitats. The abundance of predators was higher in the open pasture and was positively correlated with the abundance of G. boliviana. These results indicate that not only plant quality but also habitat structure are important to the performance of weed biological control agents.
The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas...
1. Seasonal adaptations to day length often limit the effective range of biocontrol insects. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44°N) for the biocontrol of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish below 38° latitude because o...
The second known species of flea beetle genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. (C. siamensis sp. nov.) from Thailand is described and illustrated. The described species is associated with moss habitats in a mountain forest. A key to the two known species of Cangshanaltica is provided...
The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) in eastern and central North America exhibits at least three distinct populations with respect to Wolbachia infection: uninfected; singly-infected; multiply-infected. The infected states are associated with different mtDNA haplotypes and reduced mtDNA ...
Kleinschmidt, Birgit; Kölsch, Gregor
The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation).
Mahmoud, M A B; Sharp, R E; Oliver, M J; Finke, D L; Ellersieck, M R; Hibbard, B E
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect of maize, Zea mays L., but knowledge of its interaction with water deficit on maize production is lacking. A series of greenhouse experiments using three infestation levels of the western corn rootworm, D. virgifera virgifera, under well-watered, moderately dry, and very dry soil moisture levels were conducted to quantify the interaction of western corn rootworm and soil water deficit on B73×Mo17 maize growth and physiology. Three separate experiments were conducted. Soil moisture regimes were initiated 30 d postplanting for experiments using neonate and second-instar larvae and 30 d postinfestation in the experiment using eggs. In the neonate and second-instar experiments, there were no significant differences among western corn rootworm levels in their effects on leaf water potential, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. The interaction of western corn rootworm and soil moisture significantly impacted the larval recovery in the neonate experiment, but no other significant interactions were documented between soil moisture levels and rootworm infestation levels. Overall, the results indicate that under the conditions of these experiments, the effect of water deficit was much greater on plants than the effect of western corn rootworm and that the interactions between water deficit and western corn rootworm levels minimally affected the measured parameters of plant performance.
Ruan, Yongying; Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Ge, Siqin; Yang, Xingke
Abstract The Chinese Chaetocnema picipes species-group is revised. It contains 5 species including 3 new species: C. cheni sp. n., C. constricta sp. n. and C. kingpinensis sp. n. The lectotype of C. fortecostata is designated. A key to all known species of this group from China and the illustrations of habitus and genitalia are provided. A distribution map of species is given. PMID:24693217
Kleinschmidt, Birgit; Kölsch, Gregor
The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation). PMID:26467833
Maize production in the United States is dominated by plants genetically modified with transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Varieties of Bt maize expressing Cry3Bb d endotoxins that specifically target corn rootworms (genus Diabrotica) have proven highly efficacious. However, development of ...
Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran
Abstract Madurasia Jacoby is revised and Madurasia andamanica sp. n., endemic to the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean, is described and illustrated. Madurasia obscurella Jacoby, syn. n., is a new junior synonym of Madurasia undulatovittata (Motschulsky), comb. n. A lectotype is designated for Madurasia obscurella. Literature on the biology and management of Madurasia undulatovittata is reviewed. PMID:27408586
Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Cardoso, Anabela; Coronado, Indiana; De la Cadena, Gissela; Jurado-Rivera, José A; Maes, Jean-Michel; Montelongo, Tinguaro; Nguyen, Dinh Thi; Papadopoulou, Anna
Biodiversity assessment has been the focus of intense debate and conceptual and methodological advances in recent years. The cultural, academic and aesthetic impulses to recognise and catalogue the diversity in our surroundings, in this case of living objects, is furthermore propelled by the urgency of understanding that we may be responsible for a dramatic reduction of biodiversity, comparable in magnitude to geological mass extinctions. One of the most important advances in this attempt to characterise biodiversity has been incorporating DNA-based characters and molecular taxonomy tools to achieve faster and more efficient species delimitation and identification, even in hyperdiverse tropical biomes. In this assay we advocate for a broad understanding of Biodiversity as the inventory of species in a given environment, but also the diversity of their interactions, with both aspects being attainable using molecular markers and phylogenetic approaches. We exemplify the suitability and utility of this framework for large-scale biodiversity assessment with the results of our ongoing projects trying to characterise the communities of leaf beetles and their host plants in several tropical setups. Moreover, we propose that approaches similar to ours, establishing the inventories of two ecologically inter-related and species-rich groups of organisms, such as insect herbivores and their angiosperm host-plants, can serve as the foundational stone to anchor a comprehensive assessment of diversity, also in tropical environments, by subsequent addition of trophic levels.
Adult Mediterranean tamarisk beetles, Diorhabda elongata (Brullé), a defoliator of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), were released into four field cages containing small saltcedar trees or closely-related exotic athel trees (Tamarix aphylla (L.). Karsten) and onto uncaged beneficial mature athel tree...
Zurek, Daniel B; Gorb, Stanislav N; Voigt, Dagmar
Insects live in a three-dimensional space, and need to be able to attach to different types of surfaces in a variety of environmental and behavioral contexts. Adult leaf beetles possess great attachment ability due to their hairy attachment pads. In contrast, their larvae depend on smooth pads to attach to the same host plant. We tested friction forces generated by larvae and adults of dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula on different rough surfaces, and found that adults generate much higher attachment to various substrates than larvae, but are more susceptible to completely losing attachment ability on surfaces with "critical" roughness. Furthermore, sex-specific setal morphology has the effect that attachment forces of male adults are generally higher than those of females when adjusted for body weight. The results are discussed in the context of development, ecology, and changing behavioral strategies of successive life stages.
Kergoat, Gael J; Le Ru, Bruno P; Genson, Gwenaelle; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Delobel, Alex
Though for a long time it was hypothesized that the extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects was better explained by a synchronous pattern of co-diversification with plants, the results of recent studies have led to question this theory, suggesting that the diversification of insects occurred well after that of their hosts. In this study we address this issue by investigating the timing of diversification of a highly specialized group of seed beetles, which mostly feeds on legume plants from the tribe Indigofereae. To that purpose, a total of 130 specimens were sequenced for six genes and analyzed under a Bayesian phylogenetic framework. Based on the resulting trees we performed several analyses that allowed a better definition of the group boundaries and to investigate the status of several taxa through the use of molecular species delimitation analyses in combination with morphological evidences. In addition the evolution of host plant use was reconstructed and different molecular-dating approaches were carried out in order to assess the ages of several clades of interest. The resulting framework suggests a more ancient than previously thought origin for seed beetles, and a pattern of rapid host plant colonization. These findings call for further similar studies in other highly specialized groups of phytophagous insects.
Antwi, F B; Olson, D L; Knodel, J J
From 2001 to 2004, field studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the ecorational insecticides SpinTor (spinosad), BotaniGard (Beauveria bassiana), Neemix (azadirachtin), and Surround (kaolin) against crucifer flea beetle on canola, Brassica napus L., at the cotyledon stage. The ecorational treatments were compared with a standard foliar chemical insecticide, Capture (bifenthrin), and the chemical seed treatment insecticide Helix XTra (thiamethoxam). This study indicated that flea beetle injury was lower for Helix XTra, Capture, and the ecorational insecticide SpinTor. SpinTor was less effective when flea beetle populations were relatively high (200-300 per trap-week). Yields for chemical insecticide treatments were always greater than SpinTor, with differences being the smallest (68-374 kg/ha) at low levels of flea beetle feeding injury. Differences were greatest when canola seedling injury was high (775-1,364 kg/ha). Yield differences between the conventional insecticides and BotaniGard, Neemix, and Surround were 119-439 and 61-2,248 kg/ha at low and high flea beetle feeding injury, respectively. Although yield differences between SpinTor and chemical insecticides were relatively small at lower levels of flea beetle injury, net losses ranged from $47 to $151/ha when SpinTor was used as an alternative to a standard chemical seed treatment, Helix XTra. This suggests that SpinTor would not be a viable alternative to the chemical insecticide. Net losses ranged from $30 to $266/ha when BotaniGard, Neemix, and Surround were used as alternatives to the seed treatment.
A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....
Diversity of moss cushion inhabiting and moss feeding flea beetles is documented and discussed. A new genus (Cangshanaltica) with a single new species (C. nigra) from Yunnan Province in China is described and illustrated. It is similar to Benedictus Scherer, Ivalia Jacoby, Minota Weise, Paraminota S...
Xue, Huai-Jun; Yang, Xing-Ke
Olfactory stimuli play an important role in the host searching of larval phytophagous insects. Previous studies indicate that larvae that have to find feeding sites after hatching are generally attracted to host volatiles. However, there are few studies on the olfactory responses of neonate larvae to host volatiles in cases when those larvae hatched on the host plant. In the present study, we determined the olfactory responses of neonate larvae of the specialist flea beetle, Altica koreana Ogloblin, to host and six non-host plants, using a static-air “arena.” Larvae responded significantly to the host plant Potentilla chinensis Ser. and five of six non-host plants, compared to the control. Larvae did not prefer the host plant over the non-host plants (except Artemisia sp.) when offered a choice. Additionally, odours of a non-host plant, which were unattractive to neonate larvae, may have masked the attractive odour of the host plant. These results indicate that common volatiles can play a major role in attracting larvae of this specialist to plants, but attraction to such odours may not be the major mechanism of host choice.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Amadou, L; Baoua, I B; Baributsa, D; Williams, S B; Murdock, L L
We assessed the performance of hermetic triple layer Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags for protecting Hibiscus sabdariffa grain against storage insects. The major storage pest in the grain was a bruchid, Spermophagus sp.. When we stored infested H. sabdariffa grain for six months in the woven polypropylene bags typically used by farmers, the Spermophagus population increased 33-fold over that initially present. The mean number of emergence holes per 100 seeds increased from 3.3 holes to 35.4 holes during this time period, while grain held for the same length of time in PICS bags experienced no increase in the numbers of holes. Grain weight loss in the woven control bags was 8.6% while no weight loss was observed in the PICS bags. Seed germination rates of grain held in woven bags for six months dropped significantly while germination of grain held in PICS bags did not change from the initial value. PICS bags can be used to safely store Hibiscus grain after harvest to protect against a major insect pest.
Souza, Sheila M; Uchôa, Adriana F; Silva, José R; Samuels, Richard I; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Oliveira, Eliana M; Linhares, Ricardo T; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P
The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments.
Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P; Alexandre, Daniel; Samuels, Richard I; Soares, Emanoella L; Aragão, Francisco J L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Domont, Gilberto B; Roepstorff, Peter; Campos, Francisco A P
The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-β-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, α-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor.
Bean, Daniel W; Wang, Tammy; Bartelt, Robert J; Zilkowski, Bruce W
The tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brullé deserticola Chen, was collected in northwestern China and has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Characteristics of diapause and reproductive development in D. elongata were examined to improve management as a biocontrol agent. Under long days, 16:8 (L:D) h, males began to emit aggregation pheromone within 2-3 d of adult emergence, mating occurred, and females oviposited within 7 d of adult emergence. Under short days, 12:12 (L:D) h, males did not emit pheromone, mating did not occur, and both males and females entered reproductive diapause marked by inconspicuous gonads and hypertrophied fat body. Ovaries of diapausing females lacked vitellogenic oocytes, and the ovarioles were clear and narrow, whereas reproductive females had enlarged ovaries with two to three yellow oocytes per ovariole. Diapausing males had thin, transparent accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts, whereas reproductive males had thick white accessory glands and white opaque ejaculatory ducts. Sensitivity to diapause-inducing photoperiods extended into the adult stage. Reproductive females ceased oviposition, resorbed oocytes, and entered diapause when switched from long to short days. Diapause-destined insects ceased feeding and entered the leaf litter 10-20 d after adult emergence, whereas reproductive insects remained on the plants and fed for at least 30 d. Reproductive insects exhibited dispersal behaviors, such as attempted flights, whereas diapause-destined insects did not show dispersal behaviors. Information gained from these studies will be used to better manage populations in the field and to improve rearing and storage in the laboratory.
Dalin, Peter; Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Carney, Vanessa A; Eberts, Debra; Gardner, Kevin T; Hebertson, Elizabeth; Jones, Erin N; Kazmer, David J; Michels, G J; O'Meara, Scott A; Thompson, David C
Seasonal adaptations to daylength often limit the effective range of insects used in biological control of weeds. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44° N) to control saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish south of 38° N latitude because of a mismatched critical daylength response for diapause induction. The daylength response caused beetles to enter diapause too early in the season to survive the duration of winter at southern latitudes. Using climate chambers, we characterized the critical daylength response for diapause induction (CDL) in three ecotypes of Diorhabda beetles originating from 36, 38, and 43° N latitudes in Eurasia. In a field experiment, the timing of reproductive diapause and voltinism were compared among ecotypes by rearing the insects on plants in the field. CDL declined with latitude of origin among Diorhabda ecotypes. Moreover, CDL in southern (<39° N latitude) ecotypes was shortened by more than an hour when the insects were reared under a fluctuating 35-15°C thermoperiod than at a constant 25°C. In the northern (>42° N latitude) ecotypes, however, CDL was relatively insensitive to temperature. The southern ecotypes produced up to four generations when reared on plants in the field at sites south of 38° N, whereas northern ecotypes produced only one or two generations. The study reveals latitudinal variation in how Diorhabda ecotypes respond to daylength for diapause induction and how these responses affect insect voltinism across the introduced range.
Borowiec, Lech; Świętojańska, Jolanta
Abstract A new tortoise beetle species, Cyrtonota abrili, is described from the Antioquia and Caldas departments in Colombia. New faunistic data are provided for 87 species, including 16 new additions to the country’s fauna. A checklist of the known 238 species of tortoise beetles recorded from Colombia is given. PMID:26448702
McLeod, Paul; Diaz, Francisco J; Johnson, Donn T
A laboratory bioassay was developed for determining the toxicity of spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam against the eggplant flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula Crotch, on eggplant foliage. Four days after initial exposure, LC50 values were 1.99, 2.50, and 0.88 ppm for spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam, respectively. By dividing the recommended field rate in ppm by the LC50 value, a field toxicity ratio was determined and ranged from 13.5 for spinosad to 73.9 for thiamethoxam. The high ratios suggest that field rates for all three insecticides could likely be reduced. This was supported by field studies in 2000 in which reduced rates of spinosad and thiamethoxam significantly reduced flea beetle numbers on eggplant. Mortality produced by thiamethoxam occurred more quickly than that for the other tested materials as shown with LT50 values of 1.8, 3.0, and 3.6 and days for thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and spinosad, respectively. Persistence studies indicated that while all three of the tested compounds initially produced high levels of mortality, chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam produced 50% or greater mortality after 6 d. Our data suggest that future management strategies for E. fuscula on eggplant can be successfully altered to meet the changing needs of the producer. Spinosad was recently registered, is effective against the E. fuscula, and offers a viable alternative to carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. Thiamethoxam and chlorfenapyr offer high levels of toxicity to E. fuscula and upon registration will offer additional effective tools for management.
To develop a more comprehensive understanding of diapause within Chrysomelidae, we are employing phylogenetic foot-printing to isolate and characterize the regulatory elements associated with the diapause-associated gene, DAT-1. Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle, CPB) DAT-1 has been ...
Bouzan, Angela Machado; Flinte, Vivian; Macedo, Margarete Valverde; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira
Abstract In this study we present an ecological pattern of elevation and temporal variations found in the Chrysomelidae in one of the highest mountains in southeastern Brazil. Monthly surveys using an entomological sweep-net were conducted between April 2011 and June 2012, at five different elevations (800 m, 1000 m, 1750 m, 2200 m and 2450 m). A total of 2318 individuals were collected, belonging to 91 species. The elevation and temporal patterns of distribution of Chrysomelidae were heavily dominated by the Galerucinae. This subfamily had the highest richness and abundance at intermediate altitudes and during the rainy season. Probably the food availability as well as abiotic factors this time of the year favor the development of Galerucinae. Also, most of the more abundant Galerucinae species showed broad elevation ranges but approximately 20% of these species were only collected on the mountaintop sites. We would expect these species to be ones most prone to extinction in a scenario of climate warming or even after local disturbances. PMID:26798317
Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P
Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.
Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas
Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107
Descampe, A; Meskens, C; Pasteels, J; Windsor, D; Hance, T
Accurate descriptions of feeding habits are essential to understanding the evolution of dietary preferences and the high levels of diversification within the Chrysomelidae. Both primary observations and summaries suggest that the cassidine beetle tribe, Cephaloleiini, is a species-rich group of feeding specialists on monocot hosts. However, accurate host ranges are poorly defined for most hispine beetle species. To better document occurrence and feeding, we censused the Cephaloleiini associated with rolled leaves of five species of Marantaceae and six species of Heliconiaceae (Zingiberales) in lowland Central Panama. Additionally, we conducted choice and no-choice feeding tests on a subset of both the plants and beetles encountered in the censuses. Both types of data suggest that most species of Cephaloleiini feed on a greater variety of related plant species than has previously been reported.
Flinte, Vivian; Hentz, Ethel; Morgado, Barbara Mascarenhas; Lima, Anne Caruliny do Monte; Khattar, Gabriel; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira; de Macedo, Margarete Valverde
Abstract The population phenology of the cassidines, Coptocycla arcuata and Omaspides trichroa, and the chrysomeline, Platyphora axillaris, was studied at Serra dos Órgãos National Park, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Monthly surveys of larvae and adults were conducted between 2008 and 2011 at approximately 1000 m altitude on their respective host plants, Cordia polycephala (Boraginaceae), Ipomoea philomega (Convolvulaceae) and Solanum scuticum (Solanaceae). This is the first observation of larviparity and host record for Platyphora axillaris. Although having different life history traits, all species showed similar phenologies. They were abundant from October to March, months of high temperatures and intense rainfall, with two distinct reproductive peaks in the same season. Abundance dropped abruptly during the coldest and driest months, from May to August. Frequently none of these species were recorded during June and July. This phenological pattern is similar to other Chrysomelidae living in subtropical areas of Brazil. Temperature and rainfall appear to be the major factors influencing the fluctuation of these three species. PMID:26798318
Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....
The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...
Cavanagh, Andrew F; Adler, Lynn S; Hazzard, Ruth V
Winter squash is a vital agricultural commodity worldwide. In the Northeastern United States, the primary insect pest is the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F. Using a Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) perimeter trap crop system can reduce insecticide use by >90% in butternut squash (C. moschata Poir), the primary winter squash grown in this region. Despite the savings in insecticide costs, growers may be reluctant to give up field space for a perimeter crop of Blue Hubbard squash, which comprises only 5% of the winter squash market in New England as compared with 19% for buttercup squash. Finding a more marketable trap crop would lower the barrier for adoption of this system. We tested eight varieties of three species of cucurbits for attractiveness to beetles relative to Blue Hubbard and butternut squash, and chose buttercup squash as the most promising replacement. We compared the effect of a buttercup border, Blue Hubbard border, or control (no border) on beetle numbers, herbivory, insecticide use, pollination, and pollen limitation in the main crop. We found that buttercup squash performed equally well as Blue Hubbard as a trap crop, with 97% reduction in total insecticide use compared with control fields. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa Say) were the predominant pollinators, and border treatments did not affect visitation. Hand pollination did not increase reproduction or yield, indicating that natural pollination was sufficient for full yield. This study confirms the effectiveness of perimeter trap crop systems and offers growers a more marketable trap crop for managing cucumber beetle damage.
When laboratory host specificity tests on weed biological control agents produce ambiguous results or are suspected of producing false positives, field cage or open field tests can be utilized in an attempt to determine the true ecological host range of the agent. The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata ...
A laboratory colony of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was selected for resistance to transgenic maize expressing the eCry3.1ab protein. The selected colony was developed by rearing larvae on non-elite, non-commercial Bt maize expressing the eCry3.1Ab protein. After ...
Jurado-Rivera, José A.; Petitpierre, Eduard
Abstract The taxonomic circumscription of the large and diverse leaf beetle genus Chrysolina Motschulsky is not clear, and its discrimination from the closely related genus Oreina Chevrolat has classically been controversial. In addition, the subgeneric arrangement of the species is unstable, and proposals segregating Chrysolina species into new genera have been recently suggested. In this context, the availability of a phylogenetic framework would provide the basis for a stable taxonomic system, but the existing phylogenies are based on few taxa and have low resolution. In the present study we perform a phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial (cox1 and rrnL) and nuclear (H3) DNA sequences from a sample of fifty-two Chrysolina species representing almost half of the subgeneric diversity of the group (thirty out of sixty-five subgenera) and most of the morphological, ecological and karyological variation in the genus. In addition, five Oreina species from two subgenera have also been analysed. The resulting phylogeny is used to evaluate some of the most relevant taxonomic hypotheses for Chrysolina, and also to reconstruct its ancestral host plant associations in a Bayesian framework. Our findings support the paraphyly of Chrysolina as currently defined due to the inclusion of Oreina, the monophyly of the Chrysolina (plus Oreina) species including the divergent Chrysolina (Polysticta) vigintimaculata (Clark, 1864), and enable inferences of deep-level evolutionary relationships among the studied subgenera. The plant family Lamiaceae is inferred as the ancestral host of the study group, whose evolution is characterized by continuous host-shifting among pre-existing host plant families. Some Chrysolina clades include mixtures of species with different levels of diet breadth, indicating that niche width has varied through time. PMID:26798320
Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a perennial invasive weed species which has become a serious problem in both agricultural and natural areas of the southeastern United States. A field survey was conducted at a ranch in Madison County, Florida, to assess the effect of sun and shade condi...
Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA sinc...
Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA since...
Air potato, Dioscorea bulbifera, is an invasive, herbaceous, climbing vine, which dominates invaded native vegetation in Florida. The fortuitous discovery of Lilioceris sp. near impressa defoliating D. bulbifera vines and feeding on the bulbils (aerial tubers) in the Katmandu Valley of Nepal initiat...
Corn fields planted with plant-incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins must have a portion of the field planted with non-Bt, isoline, plants which serve as a refuge for susceptible insects. In the Corn Belt, refuge seeds are now blended in the bag with Bt seeds for corn hybrids containing ...
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is commonly managed with corn (Zea mays L.) expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Under laboratory conditions, populations of western corn rootworm have been selected for resistance to each c...
Six new species of Phaelota Jacoby from India viz. P. assamensis, P. kottigehara, P. maculipennis, P. mauliki, P. saluki, and P. viridipennis and two new species from Sri Lanka viz. P. ogloblini and P. schereri are described and illustrated. Thrylaea Jacoby is treated as a new junior synonym of Phae...
Biondi, Maurizio; D’Alessandro, Paola
Abstract A revision of the Alticini genera from the Afrotropical region is reported. The paper includes the following for the flea beetle fauna occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: a key to their identification; habitus photos of all the genera; microscope and scanning electron micrographs of many diagnostic morphological characters; and an updated annotated catalogue with biogeographical notes that include new distributional data. The following new synonymies are proposed: Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836 = Ethiopia Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Sanckia Duvivier, 1891 = Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 syn. n.; Eurylegna Weise, 1910a = Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Kimongona Bechyné, 1959a = Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963 syn. n.; Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a = Neoderina Bechyné, 1952 syn. n.; Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958a = Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958a syn. n.; Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836 = Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940 syn. n.; Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 = Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876a syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Blepharida insignis Brancsik, 1897 = Xanthophysca insignis (Brancsik, 1897) comb. n.; Blepharida multiguttata Duvivier, 1891 = Xanthophysca multiguttata (Duvivier, 1891) comb. n.; Hemipyxis balyana (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940) = Pseudadorium balyanum (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki, 1940) comb. n.; Hemipyxis brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) = Pseudadorium brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) comb. n.; Hemipyxis cyanea (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium cyaneum (Weise, 1910b) comb. n.; Hemipyxis gynandromorpha Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium gynandromorphum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis latiuscula Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium latiusculum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis soror (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium soror (Weise, 1910b) comb. n. The genera Buphonella Jacoby, 1903aand Halticopsis Fairmaire, 1883a are transferred to the tribe Galerucini; the genus Biodontocnema Biondi, 2000 stat. prom. is considered to be valid and reinstated at generic level. Finally, a zoogeographical analysis of the flea beetle fauna in the Afrotropical region is provided. PMID:23378812
Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S; Pereira, Paulo Roberto V da S; Zukovski, Luciana
This research intended to evaluate the development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.), a stored-grain pest, on bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly cultivated in the State of Parana and containing arcelin, and the possible resistance of these genotypes to the bruchine. Tests were performed under laboratory conditions (27 masculineC, fotophase 12h, 50 +/- 10 % RH) with the genotypes TPS-Bionobre, IAC-Una, IPR-Uirapuru, IAPAR 44, IPR Juriti, IAPAR 81, Pérola, Carioca, Bolinha, and two others containing arcelin, Arc 1 and Arc 2. The genotypes with Arc 1 and 2 alleles caused higher mortality of immature stages; in Arc 1 developmental period was prolonged and the male and female dry weights were the lowest, suggesting an antibiosis mechanism of resistance. Non-preference for oviposition was not observed for these two genotypes. Among varieties without arcelin, IAPAR 44 was the most resistant to the bruchid, being the least preferred for oviposition, and promoting low percentage of viable eggs, long developmental period and reduced male and female adult dry weight. Perola, IPR Juriti and Bolinha with high number of eggs and viable eggs, low mortality of immature stages, were the most susceptible.
Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg
Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests.
Hiltpold, Ivan; Adamczyk, John J; Higdon, Matthew L; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hibbard, Bruce E
In much of the Corn Belt and parts of Europe, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect pest of maize. The need for additional basic knowledge of this pest has been highlighted while developing resistance management plans for insecticidal genetically modified crops. This study evaluated the possibility of tracking feeding habits of western corn rootworm larvae using stable carbon isotope signatures. Plants accumulate different ratios of (13)C:(12)C isotopes, usually expressed as δ(13)C, according to whether they use the C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway. Herbivore biomass is expected to reflect the δ(13)C of the food they eat. For the current experiment, western corn rootworm larvae were grown on different species of plants exhibiting different δ(13)C values. The δ(13)C values were then measured in elytra of emerged beetles. When beetles were unfed, biomass reflected larval feeding. When beetles were fed for 31 d postemergence, δ(13)C values of elytra almost exclusively reflected adult feeding. These results suggest the use of caution in the interpretation of δ(13)C data aiming to document larval diet history when adult feeding history is unknown. The technique was also used to evaluate western corn rootworm larval choice between alternate hosts and maize with and without genetically modified (Bt) traits aimed at their control. Propensity for feeding on alternate hosts versus maize was biased toward feeding on maize regardless whether the maize had Bt or not, suggesting western corn rootworm larvae were not repelled by Bt. These data will be helpful for regulators in interpreting western corn rootworm feeding data on Bt maize.
An approved quarantine treatment using bale compression (32 kg/sq cm of pressure) and phosphine fumigation (61 g/28.2 cu m) aluminum phosphide for 7 d at 20 degrees C) was determined to control Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), in large-size, polypropylene fabric-wrapped bales exported from t...
The Oriental genus Burumoseria Csiki is redescribed. A new species, Burumoseria yuae from Taiwan is described and illustrated. A key to Burumoseria species is provided. The Oriental and Australian genus Licyllus Jacoby 1885 is synonymized with Thrasychroma Jacoby 1885....
Hasan, F; Ansari, M S
Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of six commonly used insecticides, i.e., malathion, carbaryl, imidacloprid, cypermethrin, dimethoate, and monocrotophos, were evaluated through biological and life table parameters of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister in laboratory. Concentration of these insecticides was within the minimum ranges of recommended field rate. Among the insecticides tested for acute toxicity, monocrotophos and imidacloprid caused the highest mortality of third instars and prolonged the development time of treated larvae. Fecundity and egg viability were also reduced in monocrotophos-treated group. Sublethal toxicity (carryover effect) of insecticides was evaluated through life table analysis of F1 progenies developed from surviving third instars treated for acute toxicity experiment. Survivorship was prolonged to 117 days in carbaryl treated group. Monocrotophos prolonged the overall immature development time compared to other insecticidal treatments and untreated control. Moreover, the lowest female survival, and the lowest value of life indices parameters, i.e., m x , R 0, r m, and λ, was evident in monocrotophos-exposed groups compared to that in other tested insecticides. However, mean generation time (T c) and doubling time (DT) were significantly prolonged in the insecticide-treated groups compared to those in the untreated group. A significantly greater number of females were produced in control groups than those in treated with malathion and sex ratio (proportion of male) was computed as 0.34 and 0.37, respectively. Based on the present study, it can be concluded that none of the tested insecticides can be classified as safe to Z. bicolorata. However, comparisons among the tested insecticides showed that malathion was less toxic compared to other insecticides tested.
Swiętojańska, Jolanta; Moradian, Hossein; Borowiec, Lech; Ostovan, Hadi
Larvae of two closely related species Cassida palaestina Reiche, 1858 and Cassida rubiginosa Müller, 1776 are described in detail including SEM microstructures. First instars are extremely similar with no clear diagnostic characters, larvae of Cassida palaestina are slightly more contrastingly coloured than larvae of C. rubiginosa, the latter having darker scoli, basal part of supra-anal processes and legs. Last instars differ in very subtle but constant characters: lateral scoli of C. palaestina are slightly shorter than those of C. rubiginosa, in C. palaestina tops of the lateral branches are armed apically with an elongate cauliflower-shaped sensillum while in C. rubiginosa tops of the lateral branches are more often armed with a pointed seta than with an elongate cauliflower-shaped sensillum, and cauliflower-shaped sensilla on tergites are less elongate in C. palaestina than in C. rubiginosa. These differences accompanied by distinguishing characters of adults and their distribution range indicate that both taxa are probably vicariant species with partial parapatric occurrence. Centaurea behen is a new host plant for C. palaestina.
Two behavioral novelties in adults of leaf beetles were observed in a couple of new species of Orthaltica Crotch: 1) use of low cost, leaf-hole shelter, which are pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or made artificially as part of an experiment; 2) use of feces t...
Boetel, M A; Fuller, B W; Chandler, L D; Tollefson, J J; McManus, B L; Kadakia, N D; Evenson, P D; Mishra, T P
Impacts of semiochemical-based insecticidal bait applications on beneficial arthropod groups common to field corn, Zea mays L., habitats were assessed in areawide-managed field sites in South Dakota and Iowa during 1997 and 1998. Slam, a commercial bait formulation comprised of 87% cucurbitacin and 13% carbaryl insecticide, was used for management of adult rootworm, Diabrotica spp., and controls consisted of cornfield habitats without bait applications. Effects on beneficial organisms were variable, and negative impacts were infrequent. Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae, and Anthocoridae were usually more abundant in bait-treated plots than in controls that received at-plant soil insecticides, especially by 4 wk postapplication. Carabid beetle activity also had increased in bait-treated corn by proportionally greater rates than in control plots at 4 wk postapplication in two of the four site by year combinations in this study. Impacts of semiochemical-based adulticide applications on Formicidae were not consistently negative or positive. The relative lack of consistent negative impacts on nontarget arthropods suggests that other biotic and abiotic factors leading to natural population fluxes may have more influence on these groups of beneficial organisms than applications of semiochemical-based bait containing carbaryl. Overall, it seems that areawide applications of these baits for managing rootworm populations in corn are not likely to impose deleterious effects on the nontarget faunal groups we surveyed, especially in comparison with the at-plant applications of soil insecticides used as experimental controls in this study.
Susceptibility of the northern corn rootworm (NCR), to mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was determined using a diet bioassay. Northern corn rootworm neonates were exposed to different concentrations of mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab, incorporated into artificial diet. Lar...
Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem, with the development of effective resistance management programs often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This stu...
An open-field experiment was conducted to asses the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buen...
Manfio, Daiara; Jorge, Isaac R; Morse, Geoffrey E; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S
The seed beetle Gibbobruchus tridentatus Manfio, Jorge & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. is described from the Amazon basin in Brazil (Acre) and Ecuador (Napo), and is included in an updated key to the species of Gibbobruchus Pic. This new species and the recently described G. bergamini Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa are incorporated into a phylogenetic reanalysis of the genus and into a comparative analysis of host plant use and biogeography. Species groups previously proposed were supported and the evolutionary history in host plant-use shows Gibbobruchus conserved at tribe level, Cercideae (Caesalpinioideae), with coordination between biogeographic expansion and host genus shifts. Both species, Gibbobruchus tridentatus Manfio, Jorge & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. and G. bergamini, were placed within the group scurra (G. tridentatus (G. scurra (G. cavillator+G. bolivianus+G. bergamini))) and supported by one synapomorphy. Additionally, we update geographic distributions and host plant records. Two hosts, Bauhinia argentinensis Burkart and B. tarapotensis Benth. are recorded for the first time as hosts for the genus and for the subfamily.
Canty, Roy; Ruzzier, Enrico
Abstract Background Chrysomelid beetles associated with willow (Salix spp.) were surveyed at 41 sites across Europe, from Greece (lat. 38.8 °N) to arctic Norway (lat. 69.7 °N). New information In all, 34 willow-associated chrysomelid species were encountered, of which eight were very abundant. The abundant species were: Crepidodera aurata Marsham, 1802 at 27 sites, Phratora vitellinae (Linnaeus, 1758) at 21 sites, Galerucella lineola (Fabricius, 1781) at 19 sites, Crepidodera fulvicornis (Fabricius, 1792) at 19 sites, Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting, 1781) at 11 sites, Crepidodera plutus (Latreille, 1804) at nine sites, Chrysomela vigintipunctata Scopoli, 1763 at nine sites and Gonioctena pallida (Linnaeus, 1758) at eight sites. The mean number of willow associated chrysomelid morphospecies at each site was 4.2. Around 20% of the total variance in chrysomelid distribution could be accounted for by latitude, but this is mainly due to distinctive occurrence patterns at the northern and southern parts of the transect. There was a paucity of chrysomelids at Greek sites and a distinctively northern faunal composition at sites north of Poland. Considerable site-to-site variation in colour was noted, except in G. lineola, which was chromatically invariant. PMID:27956853
Both an eCry3.1Ab resistant and paired control western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera colony were tested for adult longevity, egg oviposition, egg viability, and larval development in order to evaluate the potential fitness costs associated with eCry3.1Ab resistance in the western cor...
Determining the genomic structure of diapause-associated transcripts (DAT) -2 and -3 led to the isolation of four novel miniature subterminal inverted repeat-like elements (MSITE): Mild-1, -2, -3 and -4. Mild-1a is inserted within the first intron of diapause protein-1. Mild-1a is 284 bp in length, ...
Wolbachia wsp gene clones detect the distribution of Wolbachia variants and wsp hypervariable regions among individuals of a multistrain infected population of Diabrotica barberi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) in eastern and central North America exhibits at least three distinct populations with respect to Wolbachia infection: uninfected; singly-infected; multi-infected. The infected states are associated with different mtDNA haplotypes and reduced mtDNA var...
Six species of Aphthona flea beetles from Europe have been introduced in North America for the purpose of controlling a noxious weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In the years following the releases, five of the species have been recorded as being established at various locations. There is no evi...
The following new synonyms in Diabrotica Chevrolat are proposed: D. flaviventris Jacoby 1887 = D. tibialis Jacoby 1887 = D. adelpha Harold 1875; D. peckii Bowditch 1911 = D. bioculata Bowditch 1911; D. circulata Harold 1875 = D. nummularis Harold 1877; D. linensis Bechyné 1956 = D. trifurcata Jacoby...
The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Centrla American species: D. barclayi nov. sp. Guatemala, D. caveyi nov. sp. Costa Rica, D. costaricensis nov. sp. Costa Rica, D. dmitryogloblini nov. sp. Mexico, D. duckworthae nov. sp....
Bieńkowski, Andrzej O; Orlova-Bienkowskaja, Marina J
The genus Epitrix Foudras, 1860a has a worldwide distribution. Some species of Epitrix are major pests of potato, tomato, eggplant, tobacco and other plants in North America and Europe. Some pest species have been inadvertently introduced from North America to Europe, from Europe to North America and from both continents to some islands in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Therefore, a key for the identification of all Holarctic species is necessary for plant quarantine and protection services. We have compiled the key for distinguishing Epitrix from genera that could be confused with it and a key for all Holarctic species of Epitrix with the figures of spermathecae and aedeagi and the checklist with a review of the geographical distribution, host plants and history of invasions. The following species are included: E. abeillei (Bauduer), E. allardii (Wollaston), E. atropae Foudras, E. brevis Schwarz, E. caucasica (Heikertinger), E. cucumeris (Harris), E. dieckmanni (Mohr), E. ermischi (Mohr), E. fasciata Blatchley, E. flavotestacea Horn, E. fuscula Crotch, E. hirtipennis (Melsheimer), E. humeralis Dury, E. intermedia Foudras, E. krali Döberl, E. lobata Crotch, E. muehlei Döberl, E. priesneri (Heikertinger), E. pubescens (Koch), E. ogloblini (Iablokov-Khnzorian), E. robusta Jacoby, E. setosella (Fairmaire), E. similaris Gentner, E. solani (Blatchley), E. subcrinita (LeConte), E. tuberis Gentner, E. warchalowskii (Mohr) and E. papa Orlova-Bienkowskaja.
Viana, Jéssica Herzog
Until this study, Sennius Bridwell, 1946 included 60 species. As part of an ongoing revision of this genus, nomenclatural changes, synonymies, lectotype designations and corrections of misspelled names are presented, updating to a total of 68 species for this genus. One species is transferred from Sennius Bridwell, 1946 to Acanthoscelides Schilsky 1905, megacornis group: A. infractus (Johnson & Kingsolver, 1973) comb. n.. Eight species are transferred from Acanthoscelides Schilsky 1905 to Sennius Bridwell, 1946: S. aequinoctialis (Fåhraeus, 1839) comb. n., S. amazonicus (Pic, 1929) comb. n., S. batesii (Jekel, 1855) comb. n., S. diosanus (Pic, 1930) comb. n., S. notatopygus (Pic, 1930) comb. n., S. reductus (Pic, 1930) comb. n., S. transversesignatus (Fåhraeus, 1839) comb. n. and S. ventralis (Fåhraeus, 1839) comb. n.. One species is transferred from Megasennius Whitehead & Kingsolver 1975 to Sennius: S. muricatus (Sharp, 1885) comb. n.. One variety is elevated to species rank and transferred to Sennius: Sennius rufopygus (Pic, 1934) stat. n. comb. n. from Acanthoscelides carneofasciatus v. rufopygus Pic, 1934. New synonymies are proposed: The monotypic genus Megasennius Whitehead & Kingsolver 1975 is synonymized with Sennius as its type species is transferred to Sennius. Sennius batesii (Jekel, 1855) comb. n. = Bruchus subaenescens Pic, 1931 syn. n.; Sennius bicoloripes (Pic, 1930) = Bruchus bicoloripes var. jatayensis Pic, 1930 syn. n. and Bruchus bicoloripes var. indiversipes Pic, 1930 syn. n.; Sennius subdiversicolor (Pic, 1931) = Bruchus subdiversicolor var. innigripes Pic, 1931 syn. n.; Sennius transversesignatus (Fåhraeus, 1839) comb. n. = Bruchus carneofasciatus Pic, 1927 syn. n. and Bruchus carneofasciatus var. subapicalis Pic, 1930 syn. n.; and Sennius trinotaticollis (Pic, 1930) = Bruchus diversicollis Pic, 1930 syn. n. Lectotypes are designated for B. diversicollis, B. subdiversicolor var. innigripes, Sennius aequinoctialis, S. amazonicus, S. diosanus, S. reductus, S. rufopygus and S. subdiversicolor. Correct original spellings are noted for Bruchus batesii and B. lebasii Fåhraeus, 1839 in place of the incorrect subsequent spellings of Sennius batesi and Sennius lebasi.
Cucurbitacins are fed on by male and female Luperini but field trials reveal that males are far more attracted to them than females. The sex ratio and number of beetles killed by an application of cucurbitacin based toxic baits was assessed at two different scales: small areas of 100 m2, and a large...
Five short-diapause laboratory lines of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) were selected for resistance to MON863, a variety of corn genetically modified with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgene that expresses the Cry3Bb1 d-endotoxin. Three of the selected lines were develo...
Chidawanyika, Frank; Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Strathie, Lorraine; Fischer, Klaus
Temperature and resource availability are key elements known to limit the occurrence and survival of arthropods in the wild. In the current era of climate change, critical thermal limits and the factors affecting these may be of particular importance. We therefore investigated the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) of adult Zygogramma bicolorata beetles, a biological control agent for the invasive plant Parthenium hysterophorus, in relation to thermal acclimation, hardening, age, and food availability using static (constant) and dynamic (ramping) protocols. Increasing temperatures and exposure times reduced heat survival. In general, older age and lack of food reduced heat tolerance, suggesting an important impact of resource availability. Acclimation at constant temperatures did not affect CTmax, while fluctuating thermal conditions resulted in a substantial increase. Hardening at 33°C and 35°C improved heat survival in fed young and mid-aged but only partly in old beetles, while CTmax remained unaffected by hardening throughout. These findings stress the importance of methodology when assessing heat tolerance. Temperature data recorded in the field revealed that upper thermal limits are at least occasionally reached in nature. Our results therefore suggest that the occurrence of heat waves may influence the performance and survival of Z. bicolorata, potentially impacting on its field establishment and effectiveness as a biological control agent. PMID:28052099
Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.
An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)
Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas; Malone, Sean; Philips, Chris; Weisz, Randy
Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L., can be effectively managed in southeastern U.S. wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with scouting and a single insecticide treatment, applied at the recommended economic threshold. However, many growers eschew this approach for a prophylactic treatment, often tank mixed with a nitrogen application before wheat growth stage 30. The efficacy of a prophylactic and an integrated pest management (IPM) approach was compared for 2 yr using small plot studies in North Carolina and regional surveys across North Carolina and Virginia. Economic analyses were performed, comparing the total cost of management of each approach using the regional survey data. From a cost perspective, the prophylactic approach was riskier, because when cereal leafbeetle densities were high, economic loss was also high. However, fields under the prophylactic approach did not exceed threshold as often as fields using IPM. Total cost of prophylactic management was also $20.72 less per hectare, giving this approach an economic advantage over IPM. The majority of fields under the IPM approach did not exceed the economic threshold. Hence, from an economic perspective, both the prophylactic and IPM approaches have advantages and disadvantages. This helps explains the partial, rather than complete, adoption of IPM by southeastern U.S. wheat growers. Cereal leaf beetle was spatially aggregated across the region in 2010, but not in 2011. As a result, from an economic standpoint, prophylaxis or IPM may have a better fit in localized areas of the region than others. Finally, because IPM adoption is favored when it has a strong economic advantage over alternative management approaches, more emphasis should be placed on research to reduce costs within the IPM approach.
Groll, Elisa Von; Moura, Luciano De A
A new species of Lilophaea Bechyné (Luperina) from Southern Brazil, Lilophaea sulina sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The complexity behind the taxonomic history for Lilophaea in relation to two similar genera (Luperodes and Monolepta), is approached herein. After the description of L. sulina sp. nov., 19 species of this genus are currently known, all Neotropical. An updated list of species of Lilophaea with their respective geographical distribution is provided.
Biondi, Maurizio; D’Alessandro, Paola
Abstract The Afrotropical flea beetle genus Notomela Jacoby, 1899 is reviewed. Notomela joliveti sp.n. from Principe Island is described. The following new synonymies are established: Notomela cyanipennis Jacoby, 1899 = Notomela viridipennis Bryant, 1941, syn. n. = Notomela cyanipennis macrosoma Bechyné, 1959, syn. n. In addition, the new combination is established: Notomela fulvofasciata Jacoby, 1903 is transfered to Amphimela [Amphimela fulvofasciata (Jacoby, 1903), comb. n.]. Micrographs of male and female genitalia, scanning electron micrographs of some diagnostic morphological characters, a key to identification, and distributional data for all species of Notomela, are provided. PMID:26798314
The new species Diabrotica collicola Cabrera & Cabrera Walsh is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from Balcozna, Catamarca Province (Argentina). A full description is provided and includes morphological characters of the mouthparts, hind wing venation, binding patch, metendoster...
Schmitt, Michael; Uhl, Gabriele
Abstract For more than 100 years it has been known that the sclerotised median lobe of beetles harbours a membranous structure (the "internal sac" or "endophallus") which is everted during copula inside the female genital tract. In order to explore the functional role of this structure and those associated with it, we cryofixed copulating pairs of Donacia semicuprea and Lilioceris lilii and studied the relative position of the elements of the copulatory apparatus of males and females by micro-computer-tomography. We found that the everted endophallus fills the lumen of the bursa copulatrix completely. Our data suggest that in Lilioceris lilii the tip of the sclerotised distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the flagellum, is positioned exactly over the opening of the spermathecal duct inside the bursa copulatrix. The mouth of the bursa copulatrix in Donacia semicuprea is armed with a strong muscle ring, and the whole wall of the bursa is covered externally with a layer of muscle fibres. These morphological differences correspond with differences in mating behaviour: In reed beetles (Donaciinae), females seemingly can control mating to a higher degree than in lily beetles (Lilioceris spp.). PMID:26798321
Viana, Jéssica Herzog; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare
Sennius Bridwell is a New World genus of Bruchinae. Most species are placed in eight groups. In this study the species of the S. abbreviatus group are reviewed based on characters of the external morphology and the male genitalia. The group includes 14 species, two of which are new: Sennius abbreviatus (Say, 1824), S. bondari (Pic, 1929), S. durangensis Johnson & Kingsolver, 1973, S. lawrencei Johnson, 1977, S. lebasi (Fåhraeus, 1839), S. leucostauros Johnson & Kingsolver, 1973, S. lojaensis (Pic, 1933), S. medialis (Sharp, 1885), S. nappi Ribeiro-Costa & Reynaud, 1998, S. rufomaculatus (Motschulsky, 1874), S. transversesignatus (Fåhraeus, 1839), S. trinotaticollis (Pic, 1930), S. vivi sp. nov. and S. flinte sp. nov. The S. abbreviatus group differs from other groups by the pattern of sclerites and the shape of the internal sac of the male genitalia, and has three subgroups, defined here. The lectotype of S. lebasi is designated. New host plant records are presented for S. lojaensis and S. transversesignatus, and new distribution records for S. lawrencei, S. lojaensis and S. trinotaticollis.
Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B
Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.
Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg
Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests. PMID:23840776
A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (C. cuevas, C. ellimon, and C. maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne 1958, Psylliodes Berthold 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein 2010. Remarkably, ba...
Inundative releases of beneficial insects are frequently used to suppress pest insects, but not commonly attempted as a method of weed biological control because of the difficulty in obtaining the required large numbers of insects. The successful establishment of a complex of Aphthona spp. flea beet...
Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg
Dry grain legume seeds possessing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing αAI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to αAI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The αAI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control αAI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to αAI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.
First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).
Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole
The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.
Dalin, Peter; O'Neal, Melissa J; Dudley, Tom; Bean, Daniel W
Several sibling species of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) have been introduced into North America for the biocontrol of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but only one, D. carinulata (Desbrochers), has been extensively used in the field. The first open releases took place in 2001, and widespread defoliation occurred at sites infested by Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrid forms. The beetles failed, however, to establish at sites where other Tamarix species are targeted for control. In this study, we compared the preference and performance of three Diorhabda sibling species using adult choice and larval performance experiments on the two formally targeted Tamarix species: T. ramosissima and T. parviflora. In the adult choice experiment, a greater proportion of D. carinulata was found on T. ramosissima than on T. parviflora. For the other two sibling species, D. elongata (Brullé) and D. carinata (Faldermann), adults were found in similar proportions on the two host plants. In the larval performance experiment, larval growth and survival did not differ between Tamarix species for any Diorhabda type; however, D. carinata larval biomass was 35-50% greater than the other beetles regardless of host species. Based on the few adults of D. carinulata found on T. parviflora in the adult choice experiment, we do not recommend introducing this beetle at sites where T. parviflora is targeted for biological control. The species D. carinata seems especially promising for future release because its larvae gained substantially more biomass than the other beetles during the same time period on both Tamarix species.
Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Keller, Julie C
The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brullé subspecies deserticola Chen, collected in northwestern China, has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). While beetle establishment and saltcedar defoliation have been noted at northern study sites, this species has not established at latitudes south of the 38th parallel. Critical daylength for diapause induction was measured in the laboratory and ranged between 14 h 50 min to 15 h 08 min, depending on temperature, and adults were shown to cease reproduction and enter diapause at daylengths of 14 h 30 min or less. Critical daylength in the field was measured at approximately 14 h 39 min and occurred 13 d before 50% of the population reached diapause. South of 36 degrees 20' N, the longest days of the year are shorter than 14 h 39 min, making the beetles univoltine in the southern United States. North of 36 degrees 20' N, a window of reproductive activity opens 13 d after the critical daylength is reached in the spring and closes 13 d after it is passed in the summer, allowing at least a partial second summer generation. It is predicted that south of the 38th parallel, premature diapause will increase mortality and disrupt synchrony between the life cycle of the beetle and host plant availability. This could hinder establishment and help explain the failure of this population south of the 38th parallel, providing a rationale for testing other populations of D. elongata in the southern range of Tamarix in North America.
López-Pérez, Sara; Zaragoza-Caballero, Santiago; Chaboo, Caroline S
The tortoise beetle genus Ogdoecosta Spaeth 1909 is revised and an illustrated key to 12 species is provided, based on a morphological analysis of all species. All the known species are redescribed and one new species, Ogdoecosta paraflavomaculata López-Pérez sp. nov., is described from Belize and México. Lectotypes are designated for O. omissa Dohrn 1880, O. epilachnoides (Champion 1893), O. fasciata (Boheman 1856), O. flavomaculata (Champion 1893), O. mexicana (Champion 1893 and O. obliterata (Champion 1893). The distribution ranges for O. biannularis (Boheman 1854), O. catenulata (Boheman 1854), O. decemstillata (Boheman 1856), O. epilachnoides, O. fasciata, O. guttifera, O. juvenca, and O. obliterata are extended within México. Ogdoecosta guttifera (Boheman) is a new record for Venezuela.
Cho, Hee-Wook; Kippenberg, Horst; Borowiec, Lech
Abstract The Gonioctena nivosa species-group of the genus Gonioctena Chevrolat, 1836 is defined and reviewed. It contains six species including two new to science: Gonioctena gracilicornis (Kraatz, 1879), Gonioctena nivosa (Suffrian, 1851), Gonioctena norvegica (Strand, 1936), Gonioctena springlovae (Bechyně, 1948), Gonioctena amurensis Cho & Borowiec, sp. n. and Gonioctena jani Cho & Borowiec, sp. n. Six new synonyms are proposed: Gonioctena nivosa (= Gonioctena arctica alberta Brown, 1952, syn. n., Phytodecta linnaeana bergrothi Jacobson, 1901, syn. n., Phytodecta linnaeanus var. mutatus Achard, 1924, syn. n., Phytodecta linnaeanus var. simplex Achard, 1924, syn. n. and Phytodecta nivosa var. cedehensis Ronchetti, 1922, syn. n.) and Gonioctena norvegica (= Gonioctena janovskii Medvedev, 1976, syn. n.). Phytodecta flavicornis var. limbatipennis Achard, 1924 and Phytodecta nivosa var. bicolor Heyden, 1883 are removed from synonymy with Gonioctena nivosa (Suffrian, 1851) and are synonymized with Gonioctena flavicornis (Suffrian, 1851). Distribution maps, a key to species, color variation, geographic variation of male genitalia and host plants are provided. Ovoviviparity is newly recorded in Gonioctena gracilicornis and Gonioctena nivosa. Lectotypes are designated for Gonioctena affinis, Gonioctena arctica, Gonioctena linnaeana bergrothi and Gonioctena nivosa. PMID:27408579
Crowder, D W; Onstad, D W
We expanded a simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of the western corn rootworm for a landscape of corn, soybean, and other crops to study the simultaneous development of resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn. Transgenic corn effective against corn rootworm was recently approved in 2003 and may be a very effective new technology for control of western corn rootworm in areas with or without the rotation-resistant variant. In simulations of areas with rotation-resistant populations, planting transgenic corn to only rotated cornfields was a robust strategy to prevent resistance to both traits. In these areas, planting transgenic corn to only continuous fields was not an effective strategy for preventing adaptation to crop rotation or transgenic corn. In areas without rotation-resistant phenotypes, gene expression of the allele for resistance to transgenic corn was the most important factor affecting the development of resistance to transgenic corn. If the allele for resistance to transgenic corn is recessive, resistance can be delayed longer than 15 yr, but if the resistant allele is dominant then resistance usually developed within 15 yr. In a sensitivity analysis, among the parameters investigated, initial allele frequency and density dependence were the two most important factors affecting the evolution of resistance. We compared the results of this simulation model with a more complicated model and results between the two were similar. This indicates that results from a simpler model with a generational time-step can compare favorably with a more complex model with a daily time-step.
Crowder, D W; Onstad, D W; Cray, M E; Pierce, C M F; Hager, A G; Ratcliffe, S T; Steffey, K L
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has overcome crop rotation in several areas of the north central United States. The effectiveness of crop rotation for management of corn rootworm has begun to fail in many areas of the midwestern United States, thus new management strategies need to be developed to control rotation-resistant populations. Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., effective against western corn rootworm, may be the most effective new technology for control of this pest in areas with or without populations adapted to crop rotation. We expanded a simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of the western corn rootworm for a landscape of corn; soybean, Glycine max (L.); and other crops to study the simultaneous development of resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn. Results indicate that planting transgenic corn to first-year cornfields is a robust strategy to prevent resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn in areas where rotation-resistant populations are currently a problem or may be a problem in the future. In these areas, planting transgenic corn only in continuous cornfields is not an effective strategy to prevent resistance to either trait. In areas without rotation-resistant populations, gene expression of the allele for resistance to transgenic corn, R, is the most important factor affecting the evolution of resistance. If R is recessive, resistance can be delayed longer than 15 yr. If R is dominant, resistance may be difficult to prevent. In a sensitivity analysis, results indicate that density dependence, rotational level in the landscape, and initial allele frequency are the three most important factors affecting the results.
Mikac, K M; Douglas, J; Spencer, J L
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize in the United States and more recently, Europe. Understanding the dispersal dynamics of this species will provide crucial information for its management. This study used geometric morphometric analysis of hind wing venation based on 13 landmarks in 223 specimens from nine locations in Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, to assess whether wing shape and size differed between rotated and continuously grown maize where crop rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals are found, respectively. Before assessing differences between rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals, sexual dimorphism was investigated. No significant difference in wing (centroid) size was found between males and females; however, females had significantly different shaped (more elongated) wings compared with males. Wing shape and (centroid) size were significantly larger among individuals from rotated maize where crop-rotation resistance was reported; however, cross-validation of these results revealed that collection site resistance status was an only better than average predictor of shape in males and females. This study provides preliminary evidence of wing shape and size differences in D. v. virgifera from rotated versus continuous maize. Further study is needed to confirm whether wing shape and size can be used to track the movement of rotation-resistant individuals and populations as a means to better inform management strategies.
Hammack, Leslie; Pikul, Joseph L; West, Mark S
Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without added nitrogen (N). Populations were also sampled early and late season in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Beetles were present in alfalfa by late May and most were reproductively active within a week, but their presence in alfalfa did not always precede soybean emergence. Most beetles taken from alfalfa in late fall were teneral; all were previtellogenic and unmated. Reproductively active beetles were detected in soybeans as soon as seedlings emerged. A partial second generation apparently occurred each year. First-generation beetles started to emerge in soybean fields during the first or third week of July but, whether emergence started early or late, most beetles emerging after July seemingly failed to mature their eggs and started leaving soybeans within several weeks of eclosion. This pattern suggested that any second generation arose from only the earliest emerging beetles of the first generation, with later emerging individuals having to overwinter before reproducing. Thus, any factors delaying emergence of the first generation, such as delayed soybean planting, could potentially limit its reproductive capacity through winter mortality. Cumulative seasonal beetle counts were lower in N-treated subplots and in ridge-tilled compared with chisel-tilled plots. Soybean grain yield increased with decreases in peak abundance of first-generation beetles and with N fertilization.
Cabrera Walsh, G; Athanas, M M; Salles, L A B; Schroder, R F W
The genus Diabrotica includes a large number of pest species, including some of the most important crop pests of the Americas. The parasitoid Centistes gasseni Shaw is the first braconid to be described parasitizing Diabrotica in South America, and high natural infestations are reported. Field and experimental observations on the host range, distribution and biology of this parasitoid are described. Centistes gasseniwas collected in southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in a region comprising humid lowlands and highlands, and cool temperate to warm subtropical climates, with regular rainfall in excess of 1300 mm. Three Diabroticaspecies, D. limitata (Sahlberg), D. speciosa (Germar) and D. viridula (Fabricius) were found to host the parasitoid, with mean percent parasitism of 5.4, 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. Diabrotica speciosa and D. viridula are the two most important pest Diabroticaspecies in South America. Laboratory experiments with field-collected beetles and parasitoid cocoons indicated that C. gasseni overwinters in adult host beetles, remaining dormant in its live host below developmental temperatures. A potential distribution of C. gasseni in North America is proposed based on its known climatic range and the distribution of the main pest species of adult overwintering North American Diabrotica.
de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; zu Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer
The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821530
Paulsen, M J; Ocampo, Federico C
The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10.
Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.
Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...
Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A
Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.
Paulsen, M J
Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson.
Webster, Reginald P.
Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a nonnative pest that vectors the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt in trees of the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt is present in the commercial growing areas of avocado (Perse...
One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...
Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...
Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan
A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country.
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele
An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.
Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon
The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI.
Liu, Kui; Fu, Buli; Lin, Jiangrong; Fu, Yueguan; Peng, Zhengqiang; Jin, Qi'an
Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of temperature and cold storage on the performance of Tetrastichus brontispae (Ferriere) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), one of the major endoparasitoids against coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleptera: Chrysomelidae). The results revealed that T. brontispae could successfully parasitize host pupae under all seven tested temperatures, but no adult emergence was observed at 32°C. It was also revealed that temperatures between 24 and 26°C appeared to be the optimum temperatures for parasitism, as these temperatures resulted in the most parasitized pupae and a significantly higher emergence rate and progeny production. These measurements significantly declined at 20, 30, and 32°C. This study confirmed developmental periods of parasitoid progeny decreased as the temperature increased, and sex ratio of this female-biased parasitoid was not affected by rearing temperatures. More importantly, this study indicated that cold storage of parasitized pupae could extend up to 30 d at 10°C, and a longer storage period had a significant adverse effect on mean adult emergence and parasitism performance. Ten days might be the optimum cold-storage period at 10°C, as parasitism performance, emergence rate, and progeny production at this storage period were similar to the control of 26°C. Furthermore, the developmental period, emergence rate, and sex ratio of progeny that emerged from cold-stored parasitized pupae were not influenced by storage periods, whereas parasitism performance of progeny decreased as storage period increased. This study suggests that about 24-26°C would be the optimal temperature for mass production and release of T. brontispae for biological control of B. longissima. These results also provide novel findings that a period of 10 d at 10°C may be more suitable and acceptable for ideal cold storage of parasitized pupae of T. brontispae.
Mallqui, K S Vilca; Vieira, J L; Guedes, R N C; Gontijo, L M
Insecticides can have lethal or sublethal effects upon targeted pest species, and sublethal effects may even favor pest outbreaks if insecticide-induced hormesis occurs. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response of a given chemical compound that is stimulatory at low doses and toxic at high doses. The former response may result from the disruption of animal homeostasis leading to trade-off shifts between basic ecophysiological processes. A growing interest in the use of biorational insecticides, such as azadirachtin to control stored-product pests, raises concerns about potential sublethal effects. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that azadirachtin can negatively impact the reproductive capacity of the Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), a key pest of stored beans. In addition, we investigated whether adults of this species could compensate for any sublethal effect that might have affected any of their reproductive parameters by adjusting the allocation of its reproductive efforts. The results showed that females of Z. subfasciatus increased fecundity daily to compensate for azadirachtin-induced decreased longevity. In addition, a stage-structured matrix study revealed that populations of Z. subfasciatus engendered from females exposed to azadirachtin exhibited a higher rate of population increase (r) and a higher net reproductive rate (R(o)). Finally, a projection matrix analysis showed notably higher densities along the generations for azadirachtin-exposed Z. subfasciatus populations. Thus, our study provides empirical evidence for the capacity of Z. subfasciatus to adapt to sublethal effects caused by biorational insecticides; consequently, this study highlights the importance of understanding this phenomenon when devising pest management strategies.
Galerucella calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has become an effective biological control agent for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). A male-produced aggregation pheromone was recently identified in this mostly univoltine beetle, and attractiveness to both sexes was demonstrated in the ...
The strawberry rootworm (SRW), Paria fragariae Wilcox (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae), hinders profitable production of azaleas and other containerized ornamental crops at nurseries throughout the Southeast. Properly timed early-season insecticide applications are critical to reducing poten...
Marking biological control agents facilitates studies of dispersal and predation. This study examines the effect of a biological solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), on retention of immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein solutions applied to Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) eit...
Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.
Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes
Population size estimates of arthropod predators and parasitoids may paradoxically increase following insecticide applications. Previous research with ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) suggests such unusual results reflect increased arthropod movement and capture in traps rather than real chang...
Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.
Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.
Abstract A new species Phymatodes (Poecilium) latefasciatus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiini) from China is described and illustrated. Features distinguishing the new species from its congeners are presented. PMID:24478575
The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...
The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...
The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...
Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan
A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.
He, Li; Liu, Bin; Wang, Cheng-Bin
Abstract Pseudomacrochenus wusuae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini) is described from Sichuan, China. Relevant morphological characters are illustrated by colour plates and a differential diagnosis of the new species from its relatives is provided. PMID:28331404
The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...
The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Cave, Ronald D; Amat-García, Germán
An updated and annotated checklist of the Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of the New World is presented. The tribe is composed of 32 genera and 151 species, including the introduced species Heteronychus arator (Fabricius).
Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...
Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas
Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this
Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.
Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590
The Australian fauna of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae) is revised. Two genera are present, both shared with Asia, with a total of seven species, all localized in eastern Queensland and all except one, endemic to Australia. Cyphopisthes is comprised of three species, two of them new (Cyphopisthes yorkensis sp. n. and Cyphopisthes monteithi sp. n., the latter, together with Cyphopisthes descarpentriesi Paulian, 1977 displaying an unusual ecology, with occurrence in the southern Queensland dry rainforest/scrub habitats), and Pterorthochaetes is comprised of four species, two of them new (Pterorthochaetes danielsi sp. n. and Pterorthochaeres storeyi sp. n.). Descriptions, distribution, ecological remarks and a key to species are provided.
Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C
We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.
Abstract The Australian fauna of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae) is revised. Two genera are present, both shared with Asia, with a total of seven species, all localized in eastern Queensland and all except one, endemic to Australia. Cyphopisthes is comprised of three species, two of them new (Cyphopisthes yorkensis sp. n. and Cyphopisthes monteithi sp. n., the latter, together with Cyphopisthes descarpentriesi Paulian, 1977 displaying an unusual ecology, with occurrence in the southern Queensland dry rainforest/scrub habitats), and Pterorthochaetes is comprised of four species, two of them new (Pterorthochaetes danielsi sp. n. and Pterorthochaeres storeyi sp. n.). Descriptions, distribution, ecological remarks and a key to species are provided. PMID:24146587
Ozdemir, Senem; Sert, Osman
In this study, 40 species from Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae, Nitidulidae and Cleridae families of Coleoptera which were found in 12 pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were identified and recorded during a one-year period at the Hacettepe University Beytepe Campus located in Ankara, Turkey. According to the duration of their presence on the carcasses, 22 of these species were accepted to be important in decomposition. Their distribution over the months and the duration of their presence in the various decomposition stages over the seasons were determined.
Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L
An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species.
Biranvand, Amir; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Khormizi, Mehdi Zare; Nicolas, Vincent; Canepari, Claudio; Shakarami, Jahanshir; Fekrat, Lida; Fürsch, Helmut
The Iranian species of the tribe Hyperaspidini Mulsant, 1846 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are reviewed. The current list includes 12 species, all placed in a single genus Hyperaspis Chevrolat, 1836. Hyperapsis asiatica Lewis, 1896 and H. pumila Mulsant, 1850 are excluded from the Iranian list of Coccinellidae. Diagnoses of the tribe Hyperaspidini and the genus Hyperaspis are given. Images of adult beetles and diagnostic characters of the male genitalia of all species distributed in Iran are shown. A key to identification of the species is presented. Distribution records are provided for each species along with information on host plants and prey species when available.
The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...
Kollmann, Martin; Schmidt, Rovenna; Heuer, Carsten M; Schachtner, Joachim
Beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. The enormous success of the order Coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. All these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the Coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain and the adaptions that occurred. In the current study we concentrated on the paired antennal lobes (AL), the part of the brain that is typically responsible for the first processing of olfactory information collected from olfactory sensilla on antenna and mouthparts. We analyzed 63 beetle species from 22 different families and thus provide an extensive comparison of principal neuroarchitecture of the AL. On the examined anatomical level, we found a broad diversity including AL containing a wide range of glomeruli numbers reaching from 50 to 150 glomeruli and several species with numerous small glomeruli, resembling the microglomerular design described in acridid grasshoppers and diving beetles, and substructures within the glomeruli that have to date only been described for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. A first comparison of the various anatomical features of the AL with available descriptions of lifestyle and behaviors did so far not reveal useful correlations. In summary, the current study provides a solid basis for further studies to unravel mechanisms that are basic to evolutionary adaptions of the insect olfactory system.
Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296
Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia
B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.
Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice
Abstract All genus-group names listed in the second edition of the catalogue (1833-1836) of Dejean’s beetle collection are recorded. For each new genus-group name the originally included available species are listed and for generic names with at least one available species, the type species and the current status are given. Names available prior to the publication of Dejean’s second catalogue (1833-1836) are listed in an appendix. The following new synonymies are proposed: Cyclonotum Dejean, 1833 (= Dactylosternum Wollaston, 1854) [Hydrophilidae], Hyporhiza Dejean, 1833 (= Rhinaspis Perty, 1830) [Scarabaeidae], Aethales Dejean, 1834 (= Epitragus Latreille, 1802) [Tenebrionidae], Arctylus Dejean, 1834 (= Praocis Eschscholtz, 1829) [Tenebrionidae], Euphron Dejean, 1834 (= Derosphaerus Thomson, 1858) [Tenebrionidae], Hipomelus Dejean, 1834 (= Trachynotus Latreille, 1828) [Tenebrionidae], Pezodontus Dejean, 1834 (= Odontopezus Alluaud, 1889) [Tenebrionidae], Zygocera Dejean, 1835 (= Disternopsis Breuning, 1939) [Cerambycidae], and Physonota Chevrolat, 1836 (= Anacassis Spaeth, 1913) [Chrysomelidae]. Heterogaster pilicornis Dejean, 1835 [Cerambycidae] and Labidomera trimaculata Chevrolat, 1836 [Chrysomelidae] are placed for the first time in synonymy with Anisogaster flavicans Deyrolle, 1862 and Chrysomela clivicollis Kirby, 1837 respectively. Type species of the following genus-group taxa are proposed: Sphaeromorphus Dejean, 1833 (Sphaeromorphus humeralis Erichson, 1843) [Scarabaeidae], Adelphus Dejean, 1834 (Helops marginatus Fabricius, 1792) [Tenebrionidae], Cyrtoderes Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrio cristatus DeGeer, 1778) [Tenebrionidae], Selenepistoma Dejean, 1834 (Opatrum acutum Wiedemann, 1823) [Tenebrionidae], Charactus Dejean, 1833 (Lycus limbatus Fabricius, 1801) [Lycidae], Corynomalus Chevrolat, 1836 (Eumorphus limbatus Olivier, 1808) [Endomychidae], Hebecerus Dejean, 1835 (Acanthocinus marginicollis Boisduval, 1835) [Cerambycidae], Pterostenus Dejean, 1835
Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A
Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.
Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....
Biology of Blepharida-group flea beetles with first notes on natural history of Podontia congregata Baly, 1865 an endemic flea beetle from southern India (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)*
Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita
Abstract The biology, host plants, and pest status of Podontia Dalman, 1824 species are reviewed. Natural history of Podontia congregata Baly, 1865 a flea beetle endemic to southern India, is reported for the first time. It is distributed from the Western Ghats Mountains westward to the plains. Clusiaceae is reported as a new host plant family for Blepharida-group species, with Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) N. Robson (Clusiaceae) as the host plant for Podontia congregata. Pentatomid bugs attack the larvae but not eggs, pupae, or adults. A new egg parasitoid species, Ooencyrtus keralensis Hayat and Prathapan, 2010 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was discovered. Aspects of Podontia congregata host selection, life cycle, and larval fecal defenses are consistent with its inclusion in the Blepharida-genus group. PMID:22303106
Larval performance of the mustard leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on white mustard (Sinapis alba) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves in dependence of plant exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Reifenrath, Kerstin; Müller, Caroline
Short-term exposure to ambient or attenuated ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in shifts in plant metabolite concentrations of the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba and Nasturtium officinale. Leaf quality also varied between plant species and within species due to age. Larvae of the oligophagous leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae were raised on these different host leaves, in order to investigate the effects of variable plant chemistry on this herbivore. The performance of P. cochleariae was influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but it responded with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation. Body mass increase and developmental times of larvae were exclusively affected by plant species and leaf-age. However, developmental differences were fully compensated in the pupal stage. We suggest that the plasticity of herbivores may depend on the degree of specialisation, and insect performance may not necessarily be altered by stress-induced host plants.
A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.
Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D
Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided.
Two reciprocal cross colonies were created by separating virgin western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, males and females from both a selected laboratory colony that was being reared on eCry3.1Ab-expressing corn (Zea mays L.) and a control colony reared on its near isoline. F...
Biology, immature and adult morphology, and molecular characterization of a new species of the genus Entedon (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with the invasive pest Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) on Erythrina plants.
Gumovsky, A V; Ramadan, M M
Entedon erythrinae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious egg-larval endoparasitoid of the Erythrina bruchine Specularius impressithorax, an invasive pest of the coral tree seeds (Erythrina spp.), is described from the Hawaiian Islands and Africa (South Africa, Tanzania and Mozambique). The biology and morphology of preimaginal stages of this new species are described in details.It is remarkable that the early embryo of the parasitoid represents a mass of undifferentiated cells surrounded by a peculiar membrane formed by the peripheral enlarged polygonal cells. The young larva developing inside this membrane corresponds morphologically to the second instar of congeneric species. Various peculiarities of the parasitoid-host relationships in gregarious and solitary Entedon parasitoids are discussed. The DNA sequences of 28S D2 (nuclear), Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI, mitochondrial) and Cytochrome B (CytB, mitochondrial) genes are provided for this new species and compared with the sequences of some other Afrotropical and Palearctic species of the genus.
Hitchon, A J; Smith, J L; French, B W; Schaafsma, A W
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L. The effect of the Bt proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, alone or pyramided in corn hybrids on D. v. virgifera adult emergence was evaluated in field experiments for 3 yr. Experiments were infested artificially with 2,500 viable D. v. virgifera eggs per row meter of corn. The reduction in beetle emergence compared with non-Bt controls, from Cry34/35Ab1, Cry3Bb1, and the pyramided hybrids ranged from 64.3 to 97.4%, 91.1 to 95.2%, and 98.1 to 99.6%, respectively. The sex ratio of emerged beetles was usually female-biased from the Cry3Bb1 and pyramided treatments, but not from Cry34/35Ab1 treatment alone. Emergence from all Bt hybrids was delayed compared with the control, with the delay longest from the pyramided hybrid. In 2013, three egg infestation levels were tested, with density-dependent mortality observed at 1,250 viable eggs per row meter. The effect of Bt proteins on the emergence timing and sex ratio of D. v. virgifera may impact the suitability of resistance management plans, specifically the effectiveness of the refuge strategy. Susceptible males emerging from refuge might not be synchronized to mate with potentially resistant females emerging later from Bt corn hybrids.
Host-mediated induction of alpha-amylases by larvae of the Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is irreversible and observed from the initiation of the feeding period.
Bifano, Thaís D; Samuels, Richard I; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P
Larvae of Zabrotes subfasciatus secrete alpha-amylases that are insensitive to the alpha-amylase inhibitor found in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. By analyzing amylase activities during larval development on P. vulgaris, we detected activity of the constitutive amylase and the two inducible amylase isoforms at all stages. When larvae were transferred from the non alpha-amylase inhibitor containing seeds of Vigna unguiculata to P. vulgaris, the inducible alpha-amylases were expressed at the same level as in control larvae fed on P. vulgaris. Interestingly, when larvae were transferred from seeds of P. vulgaris to those of V. unguiculata, inducible alpha-amylases continued to be expressed at a level similar to that found in control larvae fed P. vulgaris continuously. When 10-day-old larvae were removed from seeds of V. unguiculata and transferred into capsules containing flour of P. vulgaris cotyledons, and thus maintained until completing 17 days (age when the larvae stopped feeding), we could detect higher activity of the inducible alpha-amylases. However, when larvae of the same age were transferred from P. vulgaris into capsules containing flour of V. unguiculata, the inducible alpha-amylases remained up-regulated. These results suggest that the larvae of Z. subfasciatus have the ability to induce insensitive amylases early in their development. A short period of feeding on P. vulgaris cotyledon flour was sufficient to irreversibly induce the inducible alpha-amylase isoforms. Incubations of brush border membrane vesicles with the alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 from P. vulgaris suggest that the inhibitor is recognized by putative receptors found in the midgut microvillar membranes.
Phenrica littoralis (Bechyné, 1955) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternantheraphiloxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae): redescription of the adult, first description of immature stages, and biological notes.
Cabrera, Nora; Sosa, Alejandro J; Julien, Mic
Flea beetles of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby, Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyné were frequently found on this weed. Phenrica littoralis (Bechyn6) was the most abundant within this genus. The male is described and the holotype female is redescribed adding new diagnostic characters of the mouthparts, hind wings, metendosternite, and male and female genitalia. Larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time providing data for future phylogenetic studies in the subtribe Disonychina.
[Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico].
Córdova-Ballona, Leonides; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl
Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants.
Tan, Sek Yee; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Wang, Haichuan; Vélez, Ana María; Hasler, James; McCaskill, David; Xu, Tao; Chen, Hong; Jurzenski, Jessica; Kelker, Matthew; Xu, Xiaoping; Narva, Kenneth; Siegfried, Blair D
The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is an important maize pest throughout most of the U.S. Corn Belt. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins including modified Cry3Aa and Cry34/35Ab1 have been expressed in transgenic maize to protect against WCR feeding damage. To date, there is limited information regarding the WCR midgut target sites for these proteins. In this study, we examined whether a cadherin-like gene from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (DvvCad; GenBank accession # EF531715) associated with WCR larval midgut tissue is necessary for Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 toxicity. Experiments were designed to examine the sensitivity of WCR to trypsin activated Cry3Aa and Cry34/35Ab1 after oral feeding of the DvvCad dsRNA to knockdown gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that DvvCad mRNA transcript levels were reduced in larvae treated with cadherin dsRNA. Relative cadherin expression by immunoblot analysis and nano-liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) of WCR neonate brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) preparations exposed to DvvCad dsRNA confirmed reduced cadherin expression when compared to BBMV from untreated larvae. However, the larval mortality and growth inhibition of WCR neonates exposed to cadherin dsRNA for two days followed by feeding exposure to either Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 for four days was not significantly different to that observed in insects exposed to either Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 alone. In combination, these results suggest that cadherin is unlikely to be involved in the toxicity of Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 to WCR.
Life history traits and host specificity of Japanese Trachyaphthona species (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), candidates as biological control agents against skunk vine, Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae),in Southeastern U.S. & Hawaii.
Skunk vine, Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae), is native to Asia and has been recognized as an invasive weedy vine of natural areas in Florida and Hawaii. It has overgrown on native vegetation and caused serious damage. The USDA Agricultural Research Service has been considering use of Trachyaphthona sor...
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L. This study compared the effect of the Bt proteins Cry34/35Ab1, Cry3Bb1, singly expressed, and Cry3Bb1 plus Cry34/35Ab1 in a pyramid, with a near-isoline control, on D. virgifera adult emergence in fie...
The species of Botanochara Dejean, 1836 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Argentina: an identification key, new host plant records and list of Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places.
Iorio, Osvaldo Di
The genus Botanochara Dejean, 1836 comprises 43 species distributed in the Neotropical Region, among which 26 (57%) are known from Argentina. Botanochara praefica (Spaeth, 1940) is synonymized with B. macularia (Boheman, 1850). Botanochara missionea (Spaeth, 1915) and B. tessellata (Burmeister, 1870) are illustrated for the first time. Botanochara duodecimnotata (Boheman, 1850) and Botanochara segnis (Boheman, 1862) are new country records. Six species are shared with Bolivia, 21 with Brazil, 15 with Paraguay, one with Peru, and 7 with Uruguay. The known geographic distributions, synonymies, hybrids, chromosome numbers, and host plants in Argentina and adjacent countries are summarized. New localities and host plants, and some corrections of misidentified species from Argentina are given. Distribution maps of all species in Argentina with known localities superimposed with biogeographic provinces are provided. The southern limits of Botanochara in western, central and eastern Argentina are established and correlates with the known distributions of Ipomoea L. species (Convolvulaceae). A total of 12,815 specimens of Cassidinae were found inside birds' nests from Argentina, from which 11,538 (90.03%) belong to 8 species of Botanochara; 9,331 (80.87%) were found during Autumn (21th March to 20th June) and Winter (21th June to 20th September) (diapause), and 2,207 (19.13%) during Spring (21 th September to 20 th December) and Summer (21 th December to 20 th March) (aseasonal quiescence). Additional records of two other Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places, Carlobruchia tricostata (Spaeth, 1907) and Stolas lacordairei (Boheman, 1850), are also provided.
French, Bryan Wade; Hammack, Leslie; Tallamy, Douglas W.
Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem. The development of effective resistance management programs is often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This study examined the reproductive behavior and biology of western corn rootworm beetles of known body size from lines resistant and susceptible to the Cry3Bb1 protein toxin expressed in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. In crosses between, and within, the resistant and susceptible genotypes, no differences occurred in mating frequency, copulation duration, courtship duration, or fertility; however, females mated with resistant males showed reduced longevity. Body size did not vary with genotype. Larger males and females were not more likely to mate than smaller males and females, but larger females laid more eggs. Moderately strong, positive correlation occurred between the body sizes of successfully mated males and females; however, weak correlation also existed for pairs that did not mate. Our study provided only limited evidence for fitness costs associated with the Cry3Bb1-resistant genotype that might reduce the persistence in populations of the resistant genotype but provided additional evidence for size-based, assortative mating, which could favor the persistence of resistant genotypes affecting body size. PMID:26569315
New genus and species of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) from Puerto Rico, with comments on flea beetle diversity in the West Indies and a key to the West Indian Monoplatini genera
Konstantinov, A. S.; Konstantinova, A. A.
Abstract A new genus (Borinken) and five new species (Borinken elyunque, Distigmoptera chamorrae, Kiskeya elyunque, Ulrica eltoro, and Ulrica iviei) from Puerto Rico are described and illustrated. A keyto all West Indian Monoplatini genera is provided, as are keys to all speciesof Kiskeya and to the speciesof Ulrica from Puerto Rico. A list of the flea beetle genera, along with the number of species and some of the faunal features is presented and discussed for the West Indies. PMID:22291512
Taxonomic revision and biogeography of the Tamarix-feeding Diorhabda elongata (Brulle, 1832) species group (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Galerucini) and analysis of their potential in biological control of Tamarisk
The primarily Palearctic Diorhabda elongata species group is established for five Tamarix-feeding sibling species (tamarisk beetles): D. elongata (Brullé, 1832), D. carinata (Faldermann, 1837), D. sublineata (Lucas, 1849) REVISED STATUS, D. carinulata (Desbrochers, 1869), and D. meridionalis Berti &...
Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A
Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.
Muths, Erin Louise
Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.
Dupuy, Madeleine M.; Ramirez, Ricardo A.
Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Sphenophorus spp.) are a complex of weevil pests affecting turfgrass throughout the United States. Billbug larvae cause damage by feeding in stems, on roots, and on the crowns of turf, causing severe discoloration and eventual plant death. Monitoring efforts have focused on nondestructive pitfall sampling of ground-active billbug adults and on destructive sampling using soil cores for larval stages in the soil. Given the cryptic nature of the susceptible larval stages, billbugs are typically managed by preventive applications of long-residual, systemic insecticides, including neonicotinoids and anthranilic diamides. Despite knowledge of effective management practices including pest-resistant turf varieties, irrigation management, and microbial controls that contribute to an IPM approach, billbug management continues to rely heavily on prophylactic synthetic insecticides. This review will summarize the identification and biology of billbugs and strategies for their management. PMID:27065080
Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907
Higginbotham, Ryan W; Froese, Paul S; Carter, Arron H
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae), the subterranean larval stage of the click beetle, are becoming more prevalent in many cropping systems and posing an increasing economic threat to wheat growers in the Pacific Northwest following the cancellation of the insecticide lindane in 2006. Current insecticide seed treatments alone are not adequate for wireworm control. The objective of this study was to evaluate a diverse set of 163 wheat genotypes for tolerance to wireworm feeding. Entries were planted in replicated field trials over 3 yr and evaluated for their performance when grown in the presence of wireworms. Entries were rated based on survival and given a tolerance score. Results indicated that differences exist among wheat genotypes in their level of tolerance to wireworm feeding. In particular, consistently high-ranking genotypes of interest may be 'BR 18', 'Sonalika', 'Safed Lerma', and 'Hollis'. These genotypes, used in conjunction with other cultural or chemical control methods, may help provide an economic means of controlling wireworms.
Kollmann, Martin; Schmidt, Rovenna; Heuer, Carsten M.
Beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. The enormous success of the order Coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. All these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the Coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain and the adaptions that occurred. In the current study we concentrated on the paired antennal lobes (AL), the part of the brain that is typically responsible for the first processing of olfactory information collected from olfactory sensilla on antenna and mouthparts. We analyzed 63 beetle species from 22 different families and thus provide an extensive comparison of principal neuroarchitecture of the AL. On the examined anatomical level, we found a broad diversity including AL containing a wide range of glomeruli numbers reaching from 50 to 150 glomeruli and several species with numerous small glomeruli, resembling the microglomerular design described in acridid grasshoppers and diving beetles, and substructures within the glomeruli that have to date only been described for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. A first comparison of the various anatomical features of the AL with available descriptions of lifestyle and behaviors did so far not reveal useful correlations. In summary, the current study provides a solid basis for further studies to unravel mechanisms that are basic to evolutionary adaptions of the insect olfactory system. PMID:27973569
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric
Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.
Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.
The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.
Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....
Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...
Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia that is being evaluated as a prospective classical biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) in the United States. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory ...
Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...
Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...
Abstract Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries. Available chemical measures are not completely effective, and due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and product breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in ...
Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...
With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...
Valois, M; Silva, F
Golinca trevisani Valois & Silva, new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Trichiini: Incina) from Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, and Amazonas, Brazil is described, representing the first record of the genus Golinca for Brazil. Diagnosis, illustrations of key morphological characters, the first male genitalia description in the genus, and a key for identification of four species of Golinca are provided.
Jäch, Manfred A.; Delgado, Juan A.
Abstract Hydraena matyoti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented. PMID:27843389
Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is the most important stored-product insect pest infesting rice mills in the U.S. Due to the phasing out of methyl bromide in accordance with the 1987 Montreal Protocol, the efficacy of alternative fumigants in controlli...
Irradiation is a quarantine treatment option for stored products pests. Dose response tests were conducted to identify a postharvest radiation treatment that would control rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rice. Rice infested with adult or immature weevils was treate...
In June and July 2011 traps were deployed in Tuskegee National Forest, Macon County, Alabama to test the influence of chemical and visual cues on for the capture of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). \\using chemical and visual cues. The first experiment investigated t...
A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...
Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805
A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...
Camino, Nora B; Reboredo, Guillermo R
Cephalobellus cyclocephalae n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae), a parasite of larvae of Cyclocephala signaticollis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), found in Argentina is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the cuticle striated at the anterior end in both sexes, with 15 annules, buccal cavity short and not armed, and the male with 4 pairs of genital papillae, 1 pair of preanal papillae, 3 pairs of postanal papillae.
Jäch, Manfred A; Delgado, Juan A
Hydraena matyotisp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented.
The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.
Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...
Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu
The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models.
This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...
Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit dise...
The non-native shot-hole borer, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), was discovered in Florida’s avocado production area in Homestead in 2010. It is a highly polyphagous ambrosia beetle that carries Fusarium fungal symbionts. In susceptible host trees, the fung...
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as Sri Lankan weevil, is becoming a major pest of ornamentals and tropical fruit trees in the southern states of USA, especially in Florida. Recent findings of this species in Florida citrus groves justify research ...
Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...
A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....
Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...
Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...
Rearing conditions, particularly the crowding of larvae, may have a significant impact on production efficiency of some insects produced commercially, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, n...
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...
Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor Jaime; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc
A new Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini) species from Venezuela is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with Cotinis barthelemyi (Gory & Percheron) from Colombia. The Neotropical distribution of Cotinis is expanded to Venezuela. A revised key to the species of Cotinis is provided in both English and Spanish.
Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...
Grosman, Donald M; Upton, William W
We evaluated the efficacy of the systemic insecticides dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, fipronil, and imidacloprid for preventing attacks and brood production of southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on standing, stressed trees and bolt sections of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., in eastern Texas. Emamectin benzoate significantly reduced the colonization success of engraver beetles and associated wood borers in both stressed trees and pine bolt sections. Fipronil was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate in reducing insect colonization of bolts 3 and 5 mo after injection but only moderately effective 1 mo after injection. Fipronil also significantly reduced bark beetle-caused mortality of stressed trees. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran were ineffective in preventing bark beetle and wood borer colonization of bolts or standing, stressed trees. The injected formulation of emamectin benzoate was found to cause long vertical lesions in the sapwood-phloem interface at each injection point.
Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.
Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola
The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated.
Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.
Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347
Shao, L L; Huang, D Y; Sun, X Y; Hao, J S; Cheng, C H; Zhang, W; Yang, Q
We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Cheirotonus jansoni (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), an endangered insect species from Southeast Asia. This long legged scarab is widely collected and reared for sale, although it is rare and protected in the wild. The circular genome is 17,249 bp long and contains a typical gene complement: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 putative tRNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. As with all other sequenced coleopteran species, a 5-bp long TAGTA motif was detected in the intergenic space sequence located between trnS(UCN) and nad1. The atypical cox1 start codon is AAC, and the putative initiation codon for the atp8 gene appears to be GTC, instead of the frequently found ATN. By sequence comparison, the 2590-bp long non-coding AT-rich region is the second longest among the coleopterans, with two tandem repeat regions: one is 10 copies of an 88-bp sequence and the other is 2 copies of a 153-bp sequence. Additionally, the A+T content (64%) of the 13 protein-coding genes is the lowest among all sequenced coleopteran species. This newly sequenced genome aids in our understanding of the comparative biology of the mitogenomes of coleopteran species and supplies important data for the conservation of this species.
Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.
Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Estela, Anna; Porcar, Manuel; Martínez, Clara; Oguiza, José A; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan; Caballero, Primitivo
The most notable characteristic of Bacillus thuringiensis is its ability to produce insecticidal proteins. More than 300 different proteins have been described with specific activity against insect species. We report the molecular and insecticidal characterization of a novel cry gene encoding a protein of the Cry1I group with toxic activity towards insects of the families Noctuidae, Tortricidae, Plutellidae, and Chrysomelidae. PCR analysis detected a DNA sequence with an open reading frame of 2.2 kb which encodes a protein with a molecular mass of 80.9 kDa. Trypsin digestion of this protein resulted in a fragment of ca. 60 kDa, typical of activated Cry1 proteins. The deduced sequence of the protein has homologies of 96.1% with Cry1Ia1, 92.8% with Cry1Ib1, and 89.6% with Cry1Ic1. According to the Cry protein classification criteria, this protein was named Cry1Ia7. The expression of the gene in Escherichia coli resulted in a protein that was water soluble and toxic to several insect species. The 50% lethal concentrations for larvae of Earias insulana, Lobesia botrana, Plutella xylostella, and Leptinotarsa decemlineata were 21.1, 8.6, 12.3, and 10.0 microg/ml, respectively. Binding assays with biotinylated toxins to E. insulana and L. botrana midgut membrane vesicles revealed that Cry1Ia7 does not share binding sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac proteins, which are commonly present in B. thuringiensis-treated crops and commercial B. thuringiensis-based bioinsecticides. We discuss the potential of Cry1Ia7 as an active ingredient which can be used in combination with Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac in pest control and the management of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins.
Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn
Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott
Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.
Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.
Strom, B L; Smith, S L; Brownie, C
Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey pine and its primary insect pest. Despite the importance of P. jeffreyi, difficult terrain, environmental concerns, and lack of roads can constrain pest management activities. Semiochemicals are often easier to apply and more environmentally acceptable than other options, but they are lacking in this system. Attractants have been identified, but field bioassays have been limited because of infrequent or short duration outbreaks and a lack of beetles during nonoutbreak periods. Disruptant semiochemicals have not been assessed for D. jeffreyi during outbreak conditions; however, commercially available semiochemicals have been implicated as disruptants for this bark beetle. The objective of this study was to identify the most effective commercially available attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for D. jeffreyi. Our highest observed catch occurred with the blend of 5% 1-heptanol and 95% n-heptane. When this was used to challenge potential disruptant semiochemicals, the combination of S-(-)-verbenone and the green leaf volatile blend (cis-3-Hexenol and 1-Hexanol) reduced trap catch by ≍80%. However, frontalin was most effective, reducing the number of D. jeffreyi caught by >96%. Within each year of the study, the percentage female of D. jeffreyi caught with our attractant decreased from start to end of the experimental period. On average, our first collection in a year (mid-June to early July) was 59% female, whereas our last (mid-August) was 34%. Frontalin was equally or more effective against females (the pioneering sex) than males, providing optimism that semiochemical disruption may be possible for protecting Jeffrey pines from D
Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to
Mahroof, Rizana M; Edde, Peter A; Robertson, Barrett; Puckette, J Andrew; Phillips, Thomas W
The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), a serious pest of stored cereal grains, is widely distributed and has been collected in different habitats in North America, such as those from agricultural and nonagricultural settings. Our objective was to study the dispersal distances and direction of dispersal by R. dominica after external marking using fluorescent powder, releasing marked beetles, and recapturing adults using pheromone traps in distinctively different ecological habitats, wooded sites and open grasslands, for 2 consecutive yr. The recapture rate of marked beetles ranged from 6 to 26% in both sites and was generally higher in the wooded site than the open field site for both years. There was a significant difference in dispersal distances between wooded and open sites. Mean dispersal distances in the wooded site ranged from 337 to 375 m, whereas in the open site, they varied from 261 to 333 m. Trap captures for both marked and feral beetles were related to the ambient temperature such that increase in trap captures occurred with increasing temperature. Significant differences were observed for directional movement of R. dominica in both sites and indicated that most beetles dispersed in the northwest direction. Correlation analyses showed that the relationship between numbers of marked-released-recaptured beetles significantly decreased with increasing trap distances. Understanding dispersal distances and directions provide insight to flight behavior of R. dominica and to the relationship between ecologically diverse breeding habitats. Knowledge of R. dominica habitat ecology outside of grain storage facilities may be useful in designing suitable management tactics to minimize the onset of infestations in grain storages.
Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.
Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361
Faisal, Mohammad; Singh, Sudhir
Members of family Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) are a dominant group of terrestrial predators. National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India) has a good collection of carabids rich in type material. Here we report the details of the type specimens of 139 species included in 49 genera, 24 tribes and 14 subfamilies. Colour automontaged photographs of each type along with its original labels are also included.
Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799
Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M
The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.
Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko
Abstract Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271
Stevenson, B J; Cai, L; Faucher, C; Michie, M; Berna, A; Ren, Y; Anderson, A; Chyb, S; Xu, W
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.
Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.
Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.
Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq
Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958
A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...
Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...
Sugars and several plant essential oils were evaluated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Compounds were evaluated by quantifying biting rates of wireworms on treated filter paper disks, modifying a method used previously in assays w...
The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. To date, all confirmed U.S. hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Laurac...
Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the Lauraceae. First detected in the U.S. near Savannah, ...
Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva that causes laurel wilt (LW), a l...
Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We evaluated the reliability of ethanol-baite...
The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...
The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U. S.-controlled Marianas Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic ...
Microcenoscelis n. gen. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Ulomini) caeca n. sp. is described from Zimbabwe, a small and completely blind species. A second known species, however with completely developed eyes, and originally described as Uloma minuscula Ardoin, 1969, was also placed in the new genus. Microcenoscelis n. gen. seems to be mostly related to the genera Cenoscelis Wollaston, 1867, and Cneocnemis Gebien, 1914.
Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...
Insect growth regulators are promising alternatives to traditional pesticides in stored grain. The efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene was evaluated as a layer treatment in a laboratory experiment for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in wheat, rice and...
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...
The Coleoptera, or beetles, are represented in the world by about 220,000 described species, of which about 24,000 occur in the United States and Canada. A comprehensive taxonomic catalog of beetles for this area has not been available except the series of world-based 'Coleopterorum Catalogus' volumes (1909-present, Junk, Berlin).
Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...
The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...
Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza
We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.
Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...
The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...
Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán
A new Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini) species is described from western Colombia. The new species is compared with Tomarus laevicollis (Bates, 1888) from Central America. An identification key is also provided to the species occurring in the country.
A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...
An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...
Yu, Yajun; Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying
Cloning of new toxic genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and construction of Bt engineered strains are two key strategies for bio-control of coleopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. In this study, we cloned a new cry3Aa-type gene, cry3Aa8, from wild Bt strain YC-03 against coleopteran, and constructed a Bt engineered strain, ACE-38, containing insecticidal protein-encoding gene cry3Aa8. The engineered strain, with almost four times of Cry3Aa yield compared with strain YC-03, was an antibiotic marker-free strain. Though no selective pressure was presented in the medium, cry3Aa8 in the engineered strain ACE-38 remained stable. The yield of Cry3Aa by strain ACE-38 reached 2.09 mg/ml in the optimized fermentation medium. The activity of strain ACE-38 against Plagiodera versicolora was tested, and the LC50 of ACE-38 cultures in the optimized fermentation medium was 1.13 μl/ml. Strain ACE-38 is a non-antibiotic Bt engineered strain with high Chrysomelidae toxicity and exhibits good fermentation property. The modified indigenous site-specific recombination system constructed in this study might be useful for the construction of Bt engineered strains containing genes that cannot be expressed in the indigenous site-specific recombination system using plasmid pBMB1205R.
Alekseev, Vitalii I; Telnov, Dmitry
Ischalia Pascoe, 1860, the monotypic genus of Ischaliidae, was placed as a subfamily among Pyrochroidae or Anthicidae by earlier authors. Nikitsky (1992) raised the status of Ischaliidae to the family rank. This position has been largely accepted and consequently followed by recent authors dealing with Ischalia, as well as in our paper. Ischaliidae is known from the Palaearctic (the Himalayas, East Asia: easternmost Russia, Japan, E China), South East Asia (southwards to Java, Borneo and the Philippines), and the Nearctic region (southern Canada, U.S.A.). No recent European representatives of Ischalia are known. At present, this genus is composed of 43 species worldwide (Gusakov & Telnov 2007; Saitô 2011; Young 2011; Young 2014; Saitô & Young 2015) placed in three subgenera (Young 2011): Ischalia s. str.-37 species, Eupleurida LeConte, 1862-5 species, Nitidischalia Young, 2011-1 species. Ischaliidae is most diverse in tropical rainforests, but many species are also known from subtropical to temperate zones. Adults and larvae of two Nearctic Ischalia feed on fungal mycelium growing on decaying wood of coniferous and broad-leaved trees (e.g. Pinus ponderosa, Lithocarpus densiflora) (Young 1985). Mimicry has been described among Bornean Ischaliidae, Tenebrionidae and Chrysomelidae (Telnov 2005) and also among Ischaliidae, Omalisidae, Lycidae and Endomychidae (Kazantsev & Young 2010).
Prado e Castro, Catarina; García, María Dolores; Martins da Silva, Pedro; Faria e Silva, Israel; Serrano, Artur
Some Coleoptera are recognised as being forensically important as post-mortem interval (PMI) indicators, especially in the later stages of cadaver decomposition. Because insect species and their timings of appearance in cadavers vary according to geographic location, it is important to know their succession patterns, as well as seasonality at a regional level. In this study, we aimed to contribute to broaden this knowledge by surveying beetle communities from the Lisbon area during the four seasons of the year, using piglet carcasses as animal models. Five stages were recognised during the decomposition process and they could be separated taking into account the occurrence and abundance of the specific groups of Coleoptera collected. Decay stages in general recorded higher abundance and richness of beetle species. A total of 82 species were identified, belonging to 28 families, in a total of 1968 adult Coleoptera collected. Autumn yielded the highest values of species abundance and richness, while the lowest values were recorded during winter. Staphylinidae was the most abundant family in all seasons, although in spring and summer Dermestidae was also quite dominant. In general, most species were related to the decay stages, particularly Margarinotus brunneus (Histeridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae), and also Saprinus detersus (Histeridae) and Thanatophilus sinuatus (Silphidae), while only few were related to the dry stage, namely Oligota pusillima (Staphylinidae) and Dermestidae spp. larvae. On the other hand, Anotylus complanatus and Atheta pertyi (Staphylinidae) were apparently more associated with the fresh and bloated stages, respectively. The presence of some species was markedly seasonal, allowing a season characterisation based on the occurrence of certain taxa, which can be useful for forensic purposes.
Audisio, Paolo; Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone; de Jong, Yde
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde.
Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone
Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde
Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin
The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.
Filippini, Valentina; Onore, Giovanni; Guidolin, Laura
The third instars are described and illustrated for five Anomalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) species from Ecuador: Anomala balzapambae Ohaus, 1897, A. popayana Ohaus, 1897, A. valida Burmeister, 1844, Callistethus buchwaldianus (Ohaus, 1908), and C. levii (Blanchard, 1851). The pupae of three Ecuadorian species are also described and illustrated: A. discoidalis Bates, 1888, A. popayana, and C. levii. Diagnostic characters of the species are provided. A key to the known larvae of Anomalini from the New World is provided, which now includes five genera and 31 species.
Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B
All available genus- and family- group nomina for the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) are listed along with original citation, original and current status, type nominal taxon with method of designation, and known synonymies and incorrect subsequent spellings. The nomina included follow the most current classification. Discussion is provided clarifying numerous nomenclatural problems with original spellings, correct authorship and type designation. Dineutini Ochs, 1926 syn. nov. is found to be a junior homonym of Dineutini Desmarest, 1851, and Enhydrini Régimbart, 1882 syn. nov. and its justified emendation Enhydrusini (Anonymous 2012) are here synonymized with Dineutini Desmarest, 1851.
Poinar, George; Poinar, Roberta
Hastisetae are extremely elaborate and intricate insect setae that occur solely on dermestid larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The present work characterizes hastisetae found in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar and compares them to hastisetae found on extant dermestid larvae. The presence of hastisetae in Myanmar amber shows that lineages of dermestid beetles had already developed hastisetae by the mid-Cretaceous and their presence allows us to follow the evolutionary development of this particular arthropod structure over the past 100 million years. Hastisetae attached to a parasitic wasp in the same piece of amber indicates that ancient dermestid beetles used their hastisetae for defense, similar to their function today.
Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.
This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.
Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós
In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.
Penchenier, L; Mouchet, J; Cros, B; Legall, P; Cosnefroy, J Y; Quézédé, P; Chandenier, J
In May 1993, at the end of the rainy season, outbreaks of Paederus sabaeus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) were recorded in Brazzaville (Congo), Kinshasa (Zaire), Franceville and Libreville (Gabon) and even in Bangui (CAR) at the North of the equator. A short review of previous outbreaks in Africa and on vesicant substances is given by the authors. These beetles are attracted to neon lights and they rest on the walls or on the skin of the occupants. When the insects are crushed on the bare skin their haemolymph liberate pederine and related vesicant components which provocate dermatitis. The insects disappeared spontaneously after three to four weeks.
Platia, Giuseppe; Ghahari, Hassan
The fauna of Iranian Elateridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) is summarized in this paper. In total 245 species from 58 genera and 7 subfamilies Agrypninae Candèze (13 genera, 36 species), Cardiophorinae Candèze (4 genera, 55 species), Cebrioninae Latreille (2 genera, 6 species), Dendrometrinae Gistel (13 genera, 28 species), Elaterinae Leach (23 genera, 104 species), Lissominae Laporte (1 genus, 1 species) and Negastriinae Nakane & Kishii (2 genera, 15 species) are listed in literature as the fauna of Iran. Totally 74 species are endemic to Iran.
The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.
Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A
Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna.
Yu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Zhen-Kai; Chen, Chong; Wen, Junbao
Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and E. brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are the two most important pests of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its variety Ailanthus altissima var. Qiantouchun in China. They are also considered potential biological control agents for tree-of-heaven in North America. In this study, the external morphologies and antennal sensilla of both species were examined using scanning electron microscopy to better understand their host-finding mechanisms. Eleven morphological sensilla types were recorded, that is, Böhm bristles, six types of sensilla chaetica (Sch. 1-6), two types of sensilla basiconica (Sb. 1-2), and two types of sensilla trichodea (St. 1-2). Sch. 5 were absent from the antennae of E. chinensis, while Sch. 2 were absent from the antennae of E. brandti. Abundant cuticular pores were present on the antennae of both species. Three types of sensilla on the antennae of E. chinensis that were not found in a previous study, and ten different types of sensilla on the antennae of E. brandti were identified for the first time. The possible functions of the sensilla types are discussed based on a comparison with previous studies. Four types of sensilla (Sb. 1, Sb. 2, St. 2, and Sch. 6) on the antennae of both species indicate chemoreception may play a significant role in host location.
Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji
Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis, while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis. The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor, and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor. The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage.
Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo
Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy.
Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin
The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.
Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin
Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607
Miller, D R; Allison, J D; Crowe, C M; Dickinson, D M; Eglitis, A; Hofstetter, R W; Munson, A S; Poland, T M; Reid, L S; Steed, B E; Sweeney, J D
Detection tools are needed for Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) because they are known to introduce pine wilt disease by vectoring nematodes in Asia, Europe, and North America. In 2012-2014, we examined the effects of the semiochemicals monochamol and ipsenol on the flight responses of the sawyer beetles Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), Monochamus clamator (LeConte), Monochamus mutator LeConte, Monochamus notatus (Drury), Monochamus obtusus Casey, Monochamus scutellatus (Say), and Monochamus titillator (F.) complex (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to traps baited with α-pinene. Experiments were set in pine forests in New Brunswick and Ontario (Canada), and Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Montana, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, and Washington (United States). In brief, 40 traps were placed in 10 blocks of 4 traps per block per location. Traps were baited with: 1) α-pinene; 2) α-pinene + monochamol; 3) α-pinene + ipsenol; and 4) α-pinene + monochamol + ipsenol. Monochamol increased catches of six species and one species complex of Monochamus with an additive effect of ipsenol for five species and one species complex. There was no evidence of synergy between monochamol and ipsenol on beetle catches. Monochamol had no effect on catches of other Cerambycidae or on any associated species of bark beetles, weevils, or bark beetle predators. We present a robust data set suggesting that the combination of α-pinene, ipsenol, and monochamol may be a useful lure for detecting Monochamus species.
Tropical soda apple (TSA), Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae), has invaded many pastures and natural areas in Florida. The biological control agent Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is providing adequate control of TSA stands in South and Central Florida. However, poor or no es...
The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...
The spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most devastating pests of asparagus in China and elsewhere. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bas...
Crops producing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage insect pests, including western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a significant pest of maize. The evolution of resistance would diminish the ef...
The tamarisk beetle Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) native to Asia and the Mediterranean Basin, is an effective biocontrol agent for use against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) an invasive shrub in western North America. The genus Diorhabda was recently revised, using morphological characters, i...
Dispersal is a way insects search for food, shelter, mates, oviposition sites, etc., and can ultimately result in gene flow among populations. We investigated the within and between field movement of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence and D. virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)...
The strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae Wilcox (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a primary pest of azaleas and other containerized ornamental crops at production nurseries. The cryptic nature of all life stages of this pest can make detection and subsequent control a challenge. The intent of our re...
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and recent management of western corn rootworm has included planting of Bt corn. Beginning in 2009, western corn rootworm populations with resistance to Cry3Bb1 c...
Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen o...
The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern and central North America exhibits at least three distinct populations with respect to Wolbachia infection: uninfected; singly-infected; multi-infected. The infected states are associated with different mtDNA haplo...
Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...
We report large induction (> 65fold increases) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a single leaf of the invasive weed mossy sorrel, Rumex confertus Willd. (Polygonaceae), by herbivory of the dock leaf beetle, Gastrophysa polygoni L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The R. confertus VOC ble...
Background Coleoptera is the most diverse order of insects (>300,000 described species), but its richness diminishes at increasing latitudes (e.g., ca. 7400 species recorded in Canada), particularly of phytophagous and detritivorous species. However, incomplete sampling of northern habitats and a lack of taxonomic study of some families limits our understanding of biodiversity patterns in the Coleoptera. We conducted an intensive biodiversity survey from 2006–2010 at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in order to quantify beetle species diversity in this model region, and to prepare a barcode library of beetles for sub-arctic biodiversity and ecological research. We employed DNA barcoding to provide estimates of provisional species diversity, including for families currently lacking taxonomic expertise, and to examine the guild structure, habitat distribution, and biogeography of beetles in the Churchill region. Results We obtained DNA barcodes from 3203 specimens representing 302 species or provisional species (the latter quantitatively defined on the basis of Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units, MOTUs) in 31 families of Coleoptera. Of the 184 taxa identified to the level of a Linnaean species name, 170 (92.4%) corresponded to a single MOTU, four (2.2%) represented closely related sibling species pairs within a single MOTU, and ten (5.4%) were divided into two or more MOTUs suggestive of cryptic species. The most diverse families were the Dytiscidae (63 spp.), Staphylinidae (54 spp.), and Carabidae (52 spp.), although the accumulation curve for Staphylinidae suggests that considerable additional diversity remains to be sampled in this family. Most of the species present are predatory, with phytophagous, mycophagous, and saprophagous guilds being represented by fewer species. Most named species of Carabidae and Dytiscidae showed a significant bias toward open habitats (wet or dry). Forest habitats, particularly dry boreal forest, although limited in extent in the
Vitturi, R; Colomba, M S; Barbieri, R; Zunino, M
Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of the scarab beetle Thorectes intermedius (Costa) (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae) were analyzed using various banding methods and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) with a ribosomal probe. The results obtained indicate that silver and CMA3 staining are unable to localize the chromosome sites of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). Such an inadequacy is a consequence of the extensive silver and CMA3 stainability of both constitutive heterochromatin and heterochromatin associated to the NORs.
Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D
A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.
Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin
Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232
Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela
Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526
Ferreira, Vinicius S
While searching for Calochromini (Coleoptera: Lycidae) specimens in entomological collections and identifying other Lycidae, a new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 was found in the collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). This genus is one of the smallest in the tribe Calopterini with 13 known species, two of which were recently described by Bocákova et al. (2012) in their revision of the genus, and can be found in Central and South America.
McElrath, Thomas C.; Boyd, Olivia F.; McHugh, Joseph V.
Abstract A matrix-based LucidTM key is presented for the twelve genera of Monotomidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) represented in the New World. A general overview is given for the features and technical specifications of an original interactive key for the identification of these genera. The list of terminal taxa included with the key provides a current summary of monotomid generic diversity for the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. PMID:27917049
Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A
Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of
Jaskuła, Radomir; Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka
Abstract This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species) and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates. PMID:21738431
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán
Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.
Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang
The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8–10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924
Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang
The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8-10 beetles per minute.
Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia
The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below.
Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia
Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body.
A morphological association between genitalia and ejaculates could provide insight into the function and evolution of genitalia. In this study, the morphologies of the ejaculates and male genitalia of 15 species of Pterostichini and two species of Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described. All the species examined formed a spermatophore, the morphology of which could be classified into three types based on its relative volume in the female vaginal cavity and the presence or absence of a pluglike conformation. Male genital morphology could be divided into two types by the direction of the endophallus and gonopore. Species with a strongly bent endophallus invariably formed a pluglike spermatophore. The results suggest that the peculiar shape of endophallus found in some species of Pterostichini may function in forming the pluglike structure of the spermatophore.
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi
Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.
Inoda, Toshio; Tajima, Fumitada; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saeki, Motoyuki; Numakura, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Masami; Kamimura, Shinji
The effects of temperature on the mating behavior, gonad development, germ cell maturation, and egg spawning of the predaceous diving beetle Dytiscus sharpi (Coleoptera; Dytiscidae), were investigated. By field observations, we found that mating behavior started in October and occurred more frequently from November to December. Under our laboratory breeding conditions, we observed almost the same seasonal variation in mating behavior. We found that temperatures lower than 20 degrees C were required to trigger mating behavior. We also found the same temperature threshold triggered gonadogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. Furthermore, for females, exposure to lower temperatures (<8 degrees C) during the winter was required for egg maturation and spawning in spring; that is, there was a second threshold for successful female reproduction. We conclude that the termination of summer reproductive diapause of D. sharpi is regulated in a temperature-dependent manner, thus effecting the adaptation of D. sharpi to southern warm habitats.
Jacobs, Carmen T; Scholtz, Clarke H; Strümpher, Werner P
Three new species of the Cape high-mountain stag beetle genus, Colophon Gray (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), from South Africa are described. They are C. deschodti new species, C. switalae new species, and C. struempheri new species. The new taxa fall within a species complex of geographically disjunct entities related to Colophon stokoei Barnard. Furthermore, the mitochondrial COI gene shows a high degree of sequence divergence, with pairwise genetic distances between the species ranging between 7.4-10.7%. The new species are illustrated by photographs. Colophon eastmani nagaii Mizukami is raised to species level on the basis of geographic range and molecular differences between it and the nominate subspecies. This brings the total number of described species in the genus to 21. An updated checklist of the South African species of Colophon is also provided.
Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yan; Fang, Jie; Wan, Xia
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that is endemic to Southern China is determined. The circular genome is 736 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects. The nucleotide composition of heavy strand is A (36.6%), C (22.6%), T (29.5%) and G (11.3%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon except for the gene COI that uses AAC as the start codon. tRNA-Ser (AGN) uses the anticodon UCU instead of the commonly used GCU. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of Lucanidae and the sister relationship of Nigidionus and the remaining sampled genera. Two species of Prosopocoilus were not recovered as a monophyletic group.
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi
Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.
Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J
A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties.