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Sample records for boiler tube coatings

  1. Nickel-chromium plasma spray coatings: A way to enhance degradation resistance of boiler tube steels in boiler environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-03-01

    Boiler tube steels, namely low carbon steel ASTM-SA-210-Grades A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-22(T22), were used as substrate steels. Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y powder was sprayed as a bond coat 150 μm thick before a 200 μm final coating of Ni-20Cr was applied Coatings were characterized prior to testing in the environment of a coal fire boiler. The uncoated and coated steels were inserted in the platen superheater zone of a coal fired boiler at around 755°C for 10 cycles, each 100 h. Coated steels showed lower degradation (erosion-corrosion) rate than uncoated steels showed. The lowest rate was observed in the case of Ni-20Cr coated T11 steel. Among the uncoated steels, the observed rate of degradation was the lowest for the T22 steel.

  2. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  3. Evaluation of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion - corrosion resistant boiler tube coatings in low NO{sub x} boilers

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N.; Banovic, S.W.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01

    Low NOx burners are being installed in many fossil fired power plants in order to comply with new Clean Air Regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion is often enhanced and premature tube failures can occur. Failures due to oxidation and solid particle erosion are also a concern. A program was initiated in early 1996 to evaluate the use of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx boilers. Composite iron/aluminum wires will be used with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process to prepare overlays on boiler tubes steels with aluminum contents from 8 to 16wt%. The weldability of the composite wires will be evaluated as a function of chemical composition and welding parameters. The effect of overlay composition on corrosion (oxidation and sulfidation) and solid particle erosion will also be evaluated. The laboratory studies will be complemented by field exposures of both iron aluminide weld overlays and co-extruded tubing under actual boiler conditions.

  4. Hot Corrosion Studies of HVOF-Sprayed Coating on T-91 Boiler Tube Steel at Different Operating Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Singh, Hazoor; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the usefulness of high velocity oxy fuel-sprayed 75% Cr3C2-25% (Ni-20Cr) coating to control hot corrosion of T-91 boiler tube steel at different operating temperatures viz 550, 700, and 850 °C. The deposited coatings on the substrates exhibit nearly uniform, adherent and dense microstructure with porosity less than 2%. Thermogravimetry technique is used to study the high temperature hot corrosion behavior of uncoated and coated samples. The corrosion products of the coating on the substrate are analyzed by using XRD, SEM, and FE-SEM/EDAX to reveal their microstructural and compositional features for the corrosion mechanisms. It is found that the coated specimens have shown minimum weight gain at all the operating temperatures when compared with uncoated T-91 samples. Hence, coating is effective in decreasing the corrosion rate in the given molten salt environment. Oxides and spinels of nickel-chromium may be the reason for successful resistance against hot corrosion.

  5. Evaluation of Thermocyclic Oxidation Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed NiCrFeSiB Coatings on Boiler Tube Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, M. R.; Prakash, S.; Nath, S. K.; Sapra, Pawan Kumar; Krishnamurthy, N.

    2011-09-01

    High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process has grown into a well-accepted industrial technology for obtaining coatings resistant to significant surface degradation processes. In the present study, HVOF process was used to deposit Ni-based hardfacing NiCrFeSiB alloy powder on kinds of boiler tube steels designated as SA210 grade-A1, SA213-T11, and SA213-T22. The microstructures and several properties of the as-sprayed coatings have been investigated. Thermocyclic oxidation studies were performed in static air at 900 °C. NiCrFeSiB-coated steels showed slow oxidation kinetics and considerably lower weight gains than that of uncoated steels. The superior performance of NiCrFeSiB coatings can be attributed to continuous and protective thin oxide scale of amorphous SiO2 and Cr2O3 formed on the surface of the oxidized coatings. The combined technique of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron probe microanalysis are used to characterize reaction products of the oxidized surfaces.

  6. Arc-Sprayed Iron-Based Coatings for Erosion-Corrosion Protection of Boiler Tubes at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhmurskii, Vasyl; Student, Mykhailo; Gvozdeckii, Volodymyr; Stypnutskyy, Taras; Student, Oleksandra; Wielage, Bernhard; Pokhmurska, Hanna

    2013-06-01

    Wire arc spraying is an economically attractive thermal spray process that is especially interesting for the protection of large-scale parts or constructions. This study presents the results of the development and investigation of a number of cored wires based on the Fe-Cr-Al system with minor addition of alloying elements (B, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, Mg, etc.). The microstructure of the coatings, their electrochemical behavior, and isothermal oxidation performance over a temperature range of 20-700 °C were investigated. Erosion resistance at elevated temperatures was determined with a laboratory test unit under test conditions that have simulated the work conditions in fossil-fuel-fired boilers. It was established that the oxidation resistance and the gas-abrasive wear resistance of arc-sprayed coatings depend mostly on the coating microstructure and homogeneity of element distribution rather than on the general alloying level and microhardness of the coating. A new parameter for coating characterization, namely, the coefficient of chemical microheterogeneity, K CMH, is introduced to quantify this influence. Formation of the coating microstructure at elevated temperatures and its influence on the protection ability of the coating are discussed.

  7. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Kish, Joseph; Singbeil, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  8. High-Temperature Erosion of HVOF Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coating and Mild Steel for Boiler Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin

    2008-12-01

    The comparison of the high-temperature erosion behavior of a High-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coating with mild steel for circulating fluidized bed boiler tubes was investigated. Results showed that the erosion rate of the mild steel at 800 °C was four times that at 300 °C at an erosion angle of 30°. However, the erosion rate of the HVOF sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coating was not influenced by the temperature in the range of 300-800 °C. It was found that the erosion resistance of HVOF sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coating was more than three times higher than that of the mild steel at 700-800 °C. In addition to the ploughing on the coating surface, the cracking along splat interfaces in the coating was clearly observed on the cross-sectional microstructure. The results indicate that the erosion performance of the HVOF sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coating is controlled by the cohesion between splats and can be further enhanced by improving splat cohesion.

  9. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  10. Benchmarking boiler tube failures - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, J.; Oldani, R.; von Behren, D.

    2005-10-01

    Boiler tube failures continue to be the leading cause of downtime for steam power plants. That should not be a surprise; a typical steam generator has miles of tubes that operate at high temperatures and pressures. Are your experiences comparable to those of your peers? Could you learn something from tube-leak benchmarking data that could improve the operation of your plant? The Electric Utility Cost Group (EUCG) recently completed a boiler-tube failure study that is available only to its members. But Power magazine has been given exclusive access to some of the results, published in this article. 4 figs.

  11. Chemical cleaning clears San Miguel's boiler tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.; Wofford, J. ); Magel, R. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes chemical cleaning of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) boiler, an opposed-fired, natural circulation, reheat unit. At maximum continuous rating, steam flow is 3,054,000 lb/hr at a pressure of 2,925 psig. The superheater and reheater design temperatures are both 1,005 F. Boiler volume is 69,000 gallons. The Unit 1 boiler had not been cleaned since 1980, its original start-up date. Tube sample analyses indicated deposit densities ranging from 12 to 26 grams/ft[sup 2]. Utility boiler tubes will, over time, accumulate an internal layer of iron oxides and other deposits that inhibit flow and heat transfer, even with well-controlled water chemistry. Tube deposits can speed up corrosion, cause tube overheating, and be a precursor to tube failure. Deposits can influence such phenomena as phosphate hideout, and reduce boiler efficiency. For many utility boilers, a periodic cleaning is necessary to remove internal deposits before they can cause serious problems. Regardless of the benefits, chemical cleanings often make plant managers, engineers, and operators anxious because the process has been known to cause equipment damage or extend the length of an outage.

  12. Microphone Detects Boiler-Tube Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Unit simple, sensitive, rugged, and reliable. Diaphragmless microphone detects leaks from small boiler tubes. Porous plug retains carbon granules in tube while allowing pressure changes to penetrate to granules. Has greater life expectancy than previous controllers and used in variety of hot corrosive atmospheres.

  13. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  14. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, Sergei A.; Zavorin, Alexander S.; Buvakov, Konstantin V.; Sheikin, Vyacheslav A.

    2015-01-01

    Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  15. Stress Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes - Failure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Preet M; Pawel, Steven J; Yang, Dong; Mahmood, Jamshad

    2007-01-01

    Stress assisted corrosion (SAC) of carbon steel boiler tubes is one of the major causes of waterside failure in industrial boilers. SAC is a major concern for kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry as any water leak into the furnace can cause a smelt-water explosion in the boiler. Failed carbon steel boiler tubes from different kraft recovery boilers were examined to understand the role of carbon steel microstructure on crack initiation and SAC crack morphology. A number of carbon steel tubes showed a deep decarburized layer on the inner surface (water-touched) and also an unusually large grain size at the inner tube surface. SAC cracks were found to initiate in these areas with large-graineddecarburized microstructure. Tubes without such microstructure were also found to have SAC cracks. It was found that the decarburization and large grained microstructure may facilitate initiation and growth but is not necessary for SAC of carbon steel boiler tubes.

  16. A Flexural Mode Tuning Technique for Membraned Boiler Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J; Rose, J L

    2005-03-21

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the cold side or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications.

  17. Guided wave acoustic monitoring of corrosion in recovery boiler tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J

    2004-02-19

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the coldside or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.

  18. Evaluation of boiler tube deposit weight density methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Esmacher, M.J.; Jeve, J.M.; Laronge, T.M.; Selby, K.A.; Shifler, D.A.

    1997-12-01

    Waterside or steamside deposits within a boiler may be formed in situ because of a chemical reaction (typically oxidation) with the base metal, transport of corrosion products from another part of the system, and/or deposition of impurities in the boiler feedwater. Because boiler deposits or scaling may interfere with efficient operation of the boiler and/or lead to lost revenue from boiler tube failures, periodic cleaning of pertinent boiler components is necessary. One effective tool to determine whether boiler cleaning is required involves deposit removal and quantification from areas in the steam generator where the heaviest and most complex deposits have accumulated. An EPRI report presents chemical cleaning guidelines related to deposit weight results for chemical scraping and solvent removal methods of deposits from fossil-fueled steam-generating boiler tube components. There are three methods for determining specific deposit weight density (DWD) from boiler tube surfaces: (a) mechanical scraping and vibratory tool cleaning method; (b) chemical solvent cleaning method; and (c) glass bead blasting cleaning method. The first two methods are described in ASTM D-3483-83. The third procedure is a more recently developed method that is similar in approach to mechanical scraping but utilizes glass bead blasting. The T-7H-6f Work Group performed a round-robin series of deposit weight density tests on boiler tube samples. There were significant differences between the results obtained from the different methods and from sample to sample when using the same method.

  19. Boiler Tube Corrosion Characterization with a Scanning Thermal Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Jacobstein, Ronald; Reilly, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water wall tubing is a significant operational concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. Unfortunately, ultrasonic inspection is very manpower intense and slow. Therefore, thickness measurements are typically taken over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall and statistical analysis is used to determine the overall condition of the boiler tubing. Other inspection techniques, such as electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), have recently been evaluated, however they provide only a qualitative evaluation - identifying areas or spots where corrosion has significantly reduced the wall thickness. NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with ThermTech Services, has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to quantitatively measure the wall thickness and thus determine the amount of material thinning present in steel boiler tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed and accuracy for large structures such as boiler water walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented to establish the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of the application of this technology to actual water wall

  20. Analysis of composite tube cracking in recovery boiler floors

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Hubbard, C.R.; Swindeman, R.W.; Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.

    1996-08-01

    Cracking of co-extruded (generally identified as composite) floor tubes in kraft black liquor recovery boilers was first observed in Scandinavia, but this problem has now been found in many North American boilers. In most cases, cracking in the outer 304L stainless steel has not progressed into the carbon steel, but the potential for such crack propagation is a cause of concern. A multidimensional study has been initiated to characterize the cracking seen in composite floor tubes, to measure the residual stresses resulting from composite tube fabrication, and to predict the stresses in tubes under operating conditions. The characterization studies include review of available reports and documents on composite tube cracking, metallographic examination of a substantial number of cracked tubes, and evaluation of the dislocation structure in cracked tubes. Neutron and X-ray diffraction are being used to determine the residual stresses in composite tubes from two major manufacturers, and finite element analysis is being used to predict the stresses in the tubes during normal operation and under conditions where thermal fluctuations occur.

  1. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  2. Study on Acoustic Catheter of Boiler Tube Leakage Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yongxing; Feng, Qiang

    Boiler tube leakage is the major reason of affecting the safe operation of the unit now, there are 3 methods of the "four tube" leakage detection: Traditional method, filtering method and acoustic spectrum analysis, acoustic spectrum analysis is the common method, but this method have low sensitivity and the sensor damage easily. Therewith, designed the special acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type, proved by experiments, the acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type can enhance leakage sound, can accurately extract leakage signals, has high sensitivity, and can avoid the effect of sensor by fire and hot-gas when the furnace is in positive pressure situation, reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the boiler tube leakage monitor system.

  3. High-Temperature Behavior of a NiCr-Coated T91 Boiler Steel in the Platen Superheater of Coal-Fired Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatha, Sukhpal Singh; Sidhu, Hazoor S.; Sidhu, Buta S.

    2013-06-01

    Ni-20Cr coating was deposited on T91 boiler tube steel by high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to enhance high-temperature oxidation resistance. High-temperature performance of bare, as well as HVOF-coated steel specimens was evaluated for 1500 h under in the platen superheater zone of coal-fired boiler, where the temperature was around 900 °C. Experiments were carried out for 15 cycles, each of 100-h duration followed by 1-h cooling at ambient temperature. The extent of degradation of the specimens was assessed by the thickness loss and depth of internal corrosion attack. Ni-20Cr-coated steel performed better than the uncoated steel in actual boiler environment. The improved degradation resistance of Ni-20Cr coating can be attributed to the presence of Cr2O3 in the top oxide scale and dense microstructure.

  4. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  5. High-performance nanoscale composite coatings for boiler applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branagan, D. J.; Breitsameter, M.; Meacham, B. E.; Belashchenko, V.

    2005-06-01

    In this article, we will show how unconventional nanoscale composite coatings can be formed using conventional wire-arc thermal spray systems. The as-sprayed SHS7170 wire-arc coatings are found to develop an amorphous matrix structure containing starburst-shaped boride and carbide crystallites with sizes ranging from 60 to 140 nm. After heating to temperatures above the peak crystalline temperature (566 °C), a solid/state transformation occurs that results in the formation of an intimate three-phase matrix structure consisting of the same complex boride and carbide phases, along with α-iron interdispersed on a structural scale from 60 to 110 nm. The nanocomposite microstructure contains clean grain boundaries, which are found to be extremely stable and resist coarsening throughout the range of temperatures found in boilers. Additionally, the properties of the coating are presented including the bond strength, hardness, bend resistance, and impact resistance. The sprayability, forgiveness, and repairability of the SHS7170 wire-arc coatings are explained in detail, with an emphasis on field applicability in boiler environments. The performance of the SHS7170 coatings in boiler environments is measured via elevated temperature-erosion experiments conducted at 300, 450, and 600 °C using bed ash from an operating circulating fluidized-bed combustor boiler, and the results are compared with those for existing boiler coatings.

  6. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  7. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-15

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  8. Development of Erosion-Corrosion-Resistant Cold-Spray Nanostructured Ni-20Cr Coating for Coal-Fired Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, N.; Chavan, N. M.; Kumar, S.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of a cold-spray nanostructured Ni-20Cr coating was studied under cyclic conditions in a coal-fired boiler. This study was done for 15 cycles (1500 h), in which each cycle comprised 100 h of heating in the boiler environment, followed by 1 h of cooling under ambient air conditions. The E-C extent was evaluated in terms of thickness loss data of the samples. The eroded-corroded samples were characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, and x-ray mapping analyses. The nanostructured coating offered excellent E-C protection to boiler tube material (SA 516 steel) under harsh live conditions of the boiler. This E-C resistance offered by investigated coating may be attributed to the presence of protective NiO and Cr2O3 phases in its oxide scale and its superior as-sprayed microhardness.

  9. Computational prediction of tube erosion in coal fired power utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.E.; Fletcher, C.A.J.; Behnia, M.

    1999-10-01

    Erosion of boiler tubes causes serious operational problems in many pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. A new erosion model has been developed in the present study for the prediction of boiler tube erosion. The Lagrangian approach is employed to predict the behavior of the particulate phase. The results of computational prediction of boiler tube erosion and the various parameters causing erosion are discussed in this paper. Comparison of the numerical predictions for a single tube erosion with experimental data shows very good agreement.

  10. Final Report: Guided Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Corrosion in Recovery Boiler Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D J; Quarry, M J; Rose, J L

    2005-03-31

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the cold side or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.

  11. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  12. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  13. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.; Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  14. The use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique for the characterization of boiler tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.

    2007-12-01

    The present work focuses on the characterization of boiler tube walls using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique with visual inspection by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sections of these tubes. In a watertube boiler, water runs through tubes that are surrounded by a heating source. As a result, the water is heated to very high temperatures, causing accumulation of deposits on the inside surfaces of the tubes. These deposits play an important role in the efficiency of the boiler tube because they produce a reduction of the boiler heat rate and an increase in the number of tube failures. The objectives are to determine the thickness and arrangement of deposits located on the highest heat area of the boiler and compare them with tube parts where the heat flux is lower. The major deposits found were copper and magnetite. These deposits come mainly from the boiler feedwater and from the reaction between iron and water, and they do not form on the tube walls at a uniform rate over time. Their amount depends on the areas where they are collected. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm has been used to perform laser-induced plasma spectra and depth profiles of the deposits.

  15. Development of an electrochemistry-based corrosion sensor to monitor corrosion of boiler tubes, pipes, and painted structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Guy D.; Dacres, C. M.; Shook, M. B.

    1998-03-01

    An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based in-situ corrosion sensor has been adapted and evaluated for use with steel heat exchanger tubes in boilers, coated buried steel pipes, and painted steel structures. An excellent correlation was obtained between the algorithm of the ratio of the breakpoint frequencies, as measured by the sensor, and corrosion rate for the boiler tubes. Use of this sensor and appropriate electronics would allow the corrosion of the boiler tubes to be monitored in real time and the inhibitor concentration automatically controlled to prevent excessive corrosion. The EIS sensor is also sensitive to the quality of coating of a buried steel pipe with and without the application of cathodic protection. Similar results were obtained from a sensor attached to the pipe and from a separate electrode driven into the soil. A hand-held version of the EIS in-situ sensor is suitable for inspecting painted metal structures, such as storage tanks and locks and dams, under ambient, service conditions. An excellent correlation was obtained between the sensor measurements, and the amount of corrosion on test panels immersed for up to 28 years.

  16. Development of composite tube protective coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, H.; Hendricks, C.

    1986-01-01

    Protective coatings for graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) tubular structures proposed for the Space Station are evaluated. The program was divided into four parts; System Definition, Coating Concept Selection and Evaluation, Scale-up and Assembly, and Reporting. System Definition involved defining the structural and environmental properties required of the Gr/Ep tubes. The prepreg and ply sequence selected was a P75S/934 (O2, + or - 20, O2)sub s layup which meets the various structural requirements of the Space Station. Coating Concept and Selection comprised the main emphasis of the effort. Concepts for protectively coating the Gr/Ep tubes included the use of metal foil and electroplating. The program results demonstrated that both phosphoric and chromic acid anodized Al foil provided adequate adhesion to the Gr/Ep tubes and stability of optical properties when subjected to atomic oxygen and thermal cycling representative of the LEO environment. SiO2/Al coatings sputtered onto Al foils also resulted in an excellent protective coating. The electroplated Ni possessed unacceptable adhesion loss to the Gr/Ep tubes during atomic oxygen testing. Scale-Up and Assembly involved fabricating and wrapping 8-ft-long by 2-in-diameter Gr/EP tubes with chromic acid anodized foil and delivering these tubes, along with representative Space Station erectable end fittings, to NASA LaRC.

  17. The application of tubes produced by the electroslag melting process in tubing of thermal power plants and boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemykina, T. I.; Koz'minskii, A. N.

    2013-06-01

    The results of a chemical analysis to determine the short-term mechanical and metallographic properties of boiler tubes manufactured by the electroslag melting process are presented. The paper also contains the data on the long-term strength of the above tubes.

  18. Mechanical Design of Steel Tubing for Use in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Taljat, B.; Zacharaia, T.; Wang, X.; Kesier, J.; Swindeman, R.; Hubbard, C.

    1999-05-26

    Finite element models were developed for thermal-mechanical analysis of black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes. Residual stresses in boiler floors due to various manufacturing processes were analyzed. The modeling results were verified by X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature on as-manufactured tubes as well as tubes after service. The established finite element models were then used to evaluate stress conditions during boiler operation. Using these finite element models, a parametric response surface study was performed to investigate the influence of material properties of the clad layer on stresses in the floor tubes during various boiler operating conditions, which yielded a generalized solution of stresses in the composite tube floors. The results of the study are useful for identifying the mechanisms of cracking experienced by recovery boilers. Based on the results of the response surface study, a recommendation was made for more suitable materials in terms of the analyzed mechanical properties. Alternative materials and manufacturing processes are being considered to improve the resistance to cracking and the in-service life of composite tubes. To avoid numerous FE stress-strain analyses of composite tubes made of different material combinations, a response surface study was performed that considered two essential mechanical properties of the clad material - coefficient of thermal expansion and yield stress - as independent variables. The response surface study provided a generalized solution of stresses in the floor in terms of the two selected parameters.

  19. The Characterization of Twin-Wire Arc-Sprayed FeCrBSi Coating and the Application in Sewage Sludge Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Enwei; Huang, Qian; Shao, Yumin; Chen, Guoxing; Ye, Lin; Gu, Qin; Wu, Shuhui

    2014-12-01

    Incineration in boilers is an environment-friendly treatment for industrial and civil sewage sludge. However, due to the aggressive nature of the sludge, the boiler fireside-surface is subjected to severe wear, erosive, and high temperature corrosion problems during incineration. In this study, we developed an economical FeCrBSi wire material with iron weight content as high as 80%. The coating was prepared by twin-wire arc spraying processing. The chemical compositions of the coating, as well as phase components were analyzed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction method. The surface roughness, porosity, and cross-sectional morphology were further characterized. The coating hardness is close to that of the commercial Armacor M and Armacor C materials. In-boiler test was also carried out. The low thickness loss of the tube indicates a promising application future in sludge boilers.

  20. Distinctive features of fracture processes in screen tubes from nonheated parts of high-pressure boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Melekhov, R.K.; Smiyan, O.D.; Vasylyk, A.V.; Marchak, V.I.

    1995-05-01

    We present the data of metallophysical and metallographic investigations of steam-generating tubes in the lower nonheated parts of high-pressure boilers of heat and electric power plants and study the influence of hydrogen on the corrosion of internal and external surfaces of the tubes.

  1. DME-Fired Water-Tube Boiler─A R&D Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Higuchi, Nobuo; Hayashi, Yoshio; Uematsu, Hiroki; Suita, Yoshitaka

    Increasing attention has been given to the development of low-NOx combustion technology for DME (Dimethyl Ether). The present paper describes the R&D study for water-tube boiler carried out in Kansai University and Hirakawa Guidam Co., Ltd. under the support of DME project from METI. The major problem in DME use is the difficulty in the application of premixed flame due to its low ignition temperature and rather high burning velocity. However, the previously developed tube-nested combustor, i.e. water-tubes installed in the empty furnace, becomes effective means together with the flue-gas recirculation to overcome such difficulty in achieving low-NOx combustion. This paper begins with a brief review of the R&D study of the tube-nested combustor specifically designed for city gas. Then the further development for DME-fired water-tube boiler is described.

  2. Investigation into Cause of High Temperature Failure of Boiler Superheater Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    The failure of the boiler tubes occur due to various reasons like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion. This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a final superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, oxide scale thickness measurement, microstructural examination are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these investigations, sulfur print, Energy Dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis (XRD) are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure of final super heater tube. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to the combination of localized high tube metal temperature and loss of metal from the outer surface due to high temperature corrosion. The corrective actions have also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  3. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOEpatents

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A.; Hogle, Richard E.

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  4. A study of LNCFS III coal burners on boiler waterwall tube wastage

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, R.C.; Gordon, C.M.; Saunders, M.M.; Bray, A.J.

    1996-07-01

    Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of waterwall tubing of a tangentially-fired, sub-critical boiler at Milliken Station of New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) was undertaken to determine the effects of the newly installed low NO{sub x} firing system on waterwall tube wastage. During a 1993 outage, the pulverized coal-fired boiler was equipped with an ABB CE Low NO, Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) of the third generation (III) including Staged Overfire Air (SOFA) and a coal pulverizing system capable of improving mill fineness by approximately 30 percent. The study was in conjunction with a Department of Energy Clean Coal Demonstration Project. Three separate thickness, surveys were compared using the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Boiler Maintenance Workstation (BMW). The Tube Condition Module of BMW compared a total of 20,556 test locations of the three surveys. The evaluations of the surveys indicate that the short-term effect of low NO{sub x} firing with LNCFS III and increased fineness has moderately reduced the remaining life of the carbon steel boiler tubing in selected locations of the waterfall. Approximately 5 percent of the test locations are experiencing an annual tube wastage of 0.008 inches or greater. Additional testing and analyses are recommended to better understand the longer term effects of the low NO{sub x} firing system and the wastage of selected tubing The influence of boiler operating parameters, such as cyclic duty, proportioning of secondary air, or fuel changes, on waterwall tube wastage should also be evaluated over a longer operating period.

  5. Thermal Nondestructive Characterization of Corrosion in Boiler Tubes by Application fo a Moving Line Heat Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2000-01-01

    Wall thinning in utility boiler waterwall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used lor inspection of these tubes. This technique has proved to be very labor intensive and slow. This has resulted in a "spot check" approach to inspections, making thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source, coupled with this analysis technique, represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler waterwalls while still providing high-resolution thickness measurements. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented thus demonstrating the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, results of laboratory experiments on flat Panel specimens with fabricated material loss regions will be presented.

  6. MANAGING OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN BOILERS WITH TP347H SUPERHEATER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G.; Shingledecker, John P.; Tortorelli, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    A model based on a concept of fraction of exfoliated area as a function of oxide scale strain energy was developed to predict the extent of exfoliation of steam-side scale from boiler tube superheater loops. As compared with the Armitt diagram, which can be used to predict when scale damage and exfoliation would be likely to occur, a fraction of exfoliated area approach provides an estimation of mass of scale released and the fraction of tube likely to be blocked by the exfoliation. This paper show results for the extent of blockage expected in a single bend of a superheater loop was predicted as a function of operating time, bend geometry, and outlet steam temperature under realistic service conditions that include outages. The deposits of exfoliated scale were assumed to be distributed horizontally the tubes bends. Three types of bends were considered: regular bends, short bends, and hairpin bends. The progressive increase in steam and tube temperatures along a single loop of superheater tubing and the ensuing variation of oxide scale thickness are considered. Numerical simulation results for a superheater loop made of TP347H austenitic steel indicated that tube blockage fractions larger than 50% are likely to occur within the first two years of boiler operation (with regularly scheduled outages) for outlet tube temperatures of 540-570oC, which is consistent with practical experience. Higher blockage fractions were predicted for tubes with short bends and hairpin bends than for tubes with regular bends, of length that are larger than five internal tube diameters. Finally, the blockage model presented can be used with some confidence to devise operating schedules for managing the consequences of oxide scale exfoliation based on projections of time to some critical blockage fraction for specific boiler operating conditions.

  7. Overview of the DOE studies of recovery boiler floor tube cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L.

    1998-03-01

    Cracking of the stainless steel layer of coextruded 304L/SA210 recovery boiler floor tubes has been observed in an increasing number of black liquor recovery boilers. Because failure of such tubes is a serious safety concern as well as an economic issue, this project was initiated with the objective of identifying alternate materials or process changes that would prevent tube cracking. Tensile stresses are essential for the most likely failure mechanisms, i.e., fatigue or stress corrosion cracking, therefore stresses were measured at room temperature and modeling was used to predict stresses under operating conditions. Laboratory studies have identified conditions under which composite tubes crack due to thermal fatigue and stress corrosion. Floor tube temperature measurements have defined the magnitude and frequency of temperature fluctuations experienced by such tubes, and smelt corrosion studies have measured the degradation rate when molten smelt comes in contact with tubes. Based on these observations, certain materials appear more likely to resist cracking and certain process changes should help avoid conditions that cause composite tube cracking.

  8. A Novel Low-Temperature Fiffusion Aluminide Coating for Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fried Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying

    2009-12-31

    An ultrasupercritical (USC) boiler with higher steam temperature and pressure is expected to increase the efficiency of the coal-fired power plant and also decrease emissions of air pollutants. Ferritic/martensitic alloys have been developed with good creep strength for the key components in coal-fired USC plants. However, they typically suffer excessive steam-side oxidation, which contributes to one of main degradation mechanisms along with the fire-side corrosion in coal-fired boilers. As the steam temperature further increases in USC boilers, oxidation of the tube internals becomes an increasing concern, and protective coatings such as aluminide-based diffusion coatings need to be considered. However, conventional aluminizing processes via pack cementation or chemical vapor deposition are typically carried out at elevated temperatures (1000-1150 C). Thermochemical treatment of ferritic/martensitic alloys at such high temperatures could severely degrade their mechanical properties, particularly the alloy's creep resistance. The research focus of this project was to develop an aluminide coating with good oxidation resistance at temperatures {le} 700 C so that the coating processing would not detrimentally alter the creep performance of the ferritic/martensitic alloys. Nevertheless, when the aluminizing temperature is lowered, brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases, such as Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3}, tend to form in the coating, which may reduce the resistance to fatigue cracking. Al-containing binary masteralloys were selected based on thermodynamic calculations to reduce the Al activity in the pack cementation process and thus to prevent the formation of brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases. Thermodynamic computations were carried out using commercial software HSC 5.0 for a series of packs containing various Cr-Al binary masteralloys. The calculation results indicate that the equilibrium partial pressures of Al halides at 700 C were a function of Al

  9. Modelling of thermal behaviour of iron oxide layers on boiler tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, J. D.; Bennecer, A.; Kaczmarczyk, S.; Picton, P.

    2016-05-01

    Slender boiler tubes are subject to localised swelling when they are expose to excessive heat. The latter is due to the formation of an oxide layer, which acts as an insulation barrier. This excessive heat can lead to microstructural changes in the material that would reduce the mechanical strength and would eventually lead to critical and catastrophic failure. Detecting such creep damage remains a formidable challenge for boiler operators. It involves a costly process of shutting down the plant, performing electromagnetic and ultrasonic non-destructive inspection, repairing or replacing damaged tubes and finally restarting the plant to resume its service. This research explores through a model developed using a finite element computer simulation platform the thermal behaviour of slender tubes under constant temperature exceeding 723 °K. Our simulation results demonstrate that hematite layers up to 15 μm thickness inside the tubes do not act as insulation. They clearly show the process of long term overheating on the outside of boiler tubes which in turn leads to initiation of flaws.

  10. Computer simulation of vortex combustion processes in fire-tube boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, Sergei A.; Zavorin, Alexander S.; Buvakov, Konstantin V.; Kudryashova, Lidiya D.; Tshelkunova, Anastasiya V.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes computer simulation of the turbulent methane-air combustion in a fire-tube boiler furnace. Computer simulations performed for variants of once-through fire-tube furnace and reversive flame furnace. Options with various twist parameters of the fuel-air jet were examined. The flame structure has been determined computationally, contours of average speed, temperature and concentrations have been acquired. The results of calculations are presented in graphical form. Dependence of construction characteristics on vortex aerodynamic parameters was estimated. Turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire-tube boiler was studied by means of the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software.

  11. Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-01

    The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

  12. Application of High Temperature Corrosion-Resistant Materials and Coatings Under Severe Corrosive Environment in Waste-to-Energy Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Yuuzou

    2007-06-01

    Corrosion-resistant materials (CRMs) and coatings are key technologies to increase power generation efficiency and reduce maintenance in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. Corrosion environment became severe as steam temperatures have increased. The steam condition of more than 400 °C/3.9 MPa became possible in WTE boilers by using highly durable corrosion-resistant coatings, such as thermal spray of Al/80Ni20Cr alloy, HVOF-sprayed NiCrSiB alloy, Alloy 625 weld overlay for waterwall tubes and also superheater tubes. Also, the use of 310S type stainless steels and high Cr-high Mo-Ni base and high Si-Cr-Ni-Fe alloys have progressed because of a better understanding of corrosion mechanisms. Furthermore, high durability coatings using cermet and ceramic materials were applied to high temperature superheaters. This paper describes the major developments and the application of CRMs and coating technologies in the last 30 years in WTE plants, the corrosion mechanisms of alloys, the deterioration mechanisms of spray coating layers, and future subjects for the development of corrosion-resistant materials and coatings.

  13. Characterization of single-tube model-boiler dented intersection specimens. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Varsanik, R.G.; Gibbon, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Crevice denting, caused by the uncontrolled growth of magnetite in the space between carbon-steel tube-support plates and Inconel heat-exchange tubes is a major cause of concern in nuclear steam generators. This particular form of localized corrosion has been modeled experimentally by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation using prototypical boiler systems. In this study, three corrosion specimens from these model-boiler systems have been characterized by Calgon Corporation using light and scanning electron microscopy along with both energy- and wave-length-dispersive x-ray spectrophotometry. Samples examined consisted of specimens which had been exposed to a known corrosive environment and then either left untreated, treated with calcium hydroxide, or treated with boric acid in an attempt to halt the corrosion process. The destructive examination of the samples was conducted on both polished sections as well as sections fractured in liquid nitrogen to expose uncontaminated interfaces between the multiple phases involved.

  14. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  15. Selection of stainless steel tubes to minimize hot corrosion in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Fujikawa, H.; Makiura, H.

    1982-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steel tubes of AISI 304, 316, 321, and 347 types are sometimes exposed to severe hot corrosion environments in superheaters and reheaters of utility boilers. Hot corrosion depends on the existence of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in the oil-fired boilers, and of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in the coal-fired boilers. Among various kinds of ash corrosions, the alkali sulphate-side corrosion has been mainly studied. Type 347 steel better resistance to alkali sulphate-side corrosion than 304, 316, and 321 steels. Alloying with Nb was more effective than Mo or Ti. A (Cr, Fe, Ni)-spinel oxide layer with little ash content formed at the scale-metal interface in 347 steel. In field tests, 347 tubes have maintained good resistance to both fire-side and steam-side corrosion for five years. However, 321 tubes were removed after three years of service, because of severe fire-side corrosion.

  16. Failure Investigation of Radiant Platen Superheater Tube of Thermal Power Plant Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Mandal, A.; Roy, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a radiant platen superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis, are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these, metallographic analysis and fractography are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to localized creep at high temperature. The corrective actions has also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  17. Protective coatings for composite tubes in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry W.; Hendricks, Carl L.

    1987-01-01

    Protective coatings for graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) tubular structures for a Manned Space Station truss structure were evaluated. The success of the composite tube truss structure depends on its stability to long-term exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment with particular emphasis placed on atomic oxygen. Concepts for protectively coating Gr/Ep tubes include use of inorganic coated metal foils and electroplating. These coatings were applied to Gr/Ep tubes and then subjected to simulated LEO environmnet to evaluate survivability of coatings and coated tubes. Evaluation included: atomic oxygen resistance, changes in optical properties and adhesion, abrasion resistancem surface preparation required, coating uniformity, and formation of microcracks in the Gr/Ep tubes caused by thermal cycling. Program results demonstrated that both phosphoric and chromic acid anodized Al foil provided excellent adhesion to Gr/Ep tubes and exhibited stable optical properties when subjected to simulated LEO environment. The SiO2/Al coatings speuttered onto Al foils also resulted in an excellent protective coating. Electroplated Ni exhibited unaccepatble adhesion loss to Gr/Ep tubes during atomic oxygen exposure.

  18. Investigations of the Failure in Boilers Economizer Tubes Used in Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moakhar, Roozbeh Siavash; Mehdipour, Mehrad; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Mohebali, Milad; Koohbor, Behrad

    2013-09-01

    In this study, failure of a high pressure economizer tube of a boiler used in gas-Mazut combined cycle power plants was studied. Failure analysis of the tube was accomplished by taking into account visual inspection, thickness measurement, and hardness testing as well as microstructural observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical microscopy images indicate that there is no phase transformation during service, and ferrite-pearlite remained. The results of XRD also revealed Iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Iron hydroxide sulfate (FeOH(SO4)) phases formed on the steel surface. A considerable amount of Sulfur was also detected on the outer surface of the tube by EDS analysis. Dew-point corrosion was found to be the principal reason for the failure of the examined tube while it has been left out-of-service.

  19. Power plant VII - Air-air /tube boiler/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    An attempt to design a solar thermal electric central receiver power plant in the multi-MW size with acceptable efficiencies using air in the power loop is described. The turbine and generator are placed in the tower to reduce heat losses in the superheated gas, and the depleted gas loop is coupled to a low temperature generator powered by boiling water. The receiver cavity is configured to retain a maximum amount of flux and has brick walls. Nickel alloys are indicated for the air tubes in the receiver, with Inconel 601, Incoloy 800, and Inconel 600 considered acceptable. The gas leaving the chamber will be at 950 C to power a high pressure turbine, followed by entrance into a heat exchanger to boil the water for the low-pressure turbine, and is then discharged. Thermodynamic efficiencies between 13.9-20.3 percent for a 4700 kW plant are considered feasible with the design.

  20. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  1. Automating data analysis during the inspection of boiler tubes using line scanning thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Obdulia; Momeni, Sepand; Ostroff, Jason; Godinez, Valery

    2012-05-01

    Failures in boiler waterwalls can occur when a relatively small amount of corrosion and loss of metal have been experienced. This study presents our efforts towards the application of Line Scanning Thermography (LST) for the analysis of thinning in boiler waterwall tubing. LST utilizes a line heat source to thermally excite the surface to be inspected and an infrared detector to record the transient surface temperature increase observed due to the presence of voids, thinning or other defects. In waterwall boiler tubes the defects that can be detected using LST correspond to corrosion pitting, hydrogen damage and wall thinning produced by inadequate burner heating or problems with the water chemistry. In this paper we discuss how the LST technique is implemented to determine thickness from the surface temperature data, and we describe our efforts towards developing a semiautomatic analysis tool to speed up the time between scanning, reporting and implementing repairs. We compare the density of data produced by the common techniques used to assess wall thickness and the data produced by LST.

  2. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  3. ANSYS Fluent Modelling of an Underexpanded Supersonic Sootblower Jet Impinging into Recovery Boiler Tube Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroudi, Shahed

    Sootblowers generate high pressure supersonic steam jets to control fireside deposition on heat transfer tubes of a kraft recovery boiler. Sootblowing is energy expensive, using 3-12% of the mill's total steam production. This motivates research on the dynamics of sootblower jet interaction with tubes and deposits, to optimize their use. A CFD investigation was performed using ANSYS Fluent 15.0 to model three-dimensional steady-state impingement of a Mach 2.5 mildly underexpanded (PR 1.2) air jet onto arrays of cylindrical tubes with and without fins, at various nozzle-to-tube centerline offsets. A free jet and four impingement cases for each of the economizer and generating bank geometries are compared to experimental visualizations. Pressure distributions on impinging surfaces suggest that the fins in the economizer produce a reduced but uniform sootblowing force. Pressure contours along the tubes (in the vertical direction) show a sharp decline one tube diameter away from the jet mid-plane.

  4. Creep-Rupture Behavior and Recrystallization in HR6W and Haynes Alloy 230 Cold-Bent Boiler Tubing for Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shingledecker, John P

    2007-01-01

    Creep-rupture experiments were conducted on HR6W and Haynes 230, candidate Ultrasupercritical (USC) alloys, tubes to evaluate the effects of cold-work and recrystallization during high-temperature service. These creep tests were performed by internally pressurizing cold-bent boiler tubes at 775 C for times up to 8000 hours. The bends were fabricated with cold-work levels beyond the current ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (ASME B&PV) Code Section I limits for austenitic stainless steels. Destructive metallographic evaluation of the crept tube bends was used to determine the effects of cold-work and the degree of recrystallization. The metallographic analysis combined with an evaluation of the creep and rupture data suggest that solid-solution strengthened nickel-based alloys can be fabricated for high-temperature service at USC conditions utilizing levels of cold-work higher than the current allowed levels for austenitic stainless steels.

  5. Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, J.C.

    2009-09-15

    Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

  6. Method of coating graphite tubes with refractory metal carbides

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of coating graphite tubes with a refractory metal carbide is described. An alkali halide is reacted with a metallic oxide, the metallic portion being selected from the IVth or Vth group of the Periodic Table, the resulting salt reacting in turn with the carbon to give the desired refractory metal carbide coating. (Official Gazette)

  7. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  8. Thermographic Imaging of Material Loss in Boiler Water-Wall Tubing by Application of Scanning Line Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water-wall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. This technique has proven to be very manpower and time intensive. This has resulted in a spot check approach to inspections, documenting thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler water-walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented which explains the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of applying this technology to actual water-wall tubing samples and in situ inspections will be presented.

  9. Increased Lifetime for Biomass and Waste to Energy Power Plant Boilers with HVOF Coatings: High Temperature Corrosion Testing Under Chlorine-Containing Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, Maria; Tuurna, Satu; Varis, Tommi

    2013-06-01

    Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 °C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

  10. Status Report on Studies of Recovery Boiler Composite Floor Tube Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, P.; Frederick, L.A.; Hoffmann, C.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Mahmood, J.; Maziasz, P.J.; Prescott, R.; Sarma, G.B.; Singbeil, D.L.; Singh, P.M.; Swindeman, R.W.; Wang, X.-L.

    1999-09-12

    Cracking of the stainless steel layer of co-extruded 304L stainless steel/SA210 Gd A 1 carbon steel black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes has been identified as one of the most serious material problems in the pulp and paper industry. A DOE-funded study was initiated in 1995 with the goal of determining the cause of and possible solutions to this cracking problem. These studies have characterized tube cracking as well as the chemical and thermal environment and stress state of floor tubes. Investigations of possible cracking mechanisms indicate that stress corrosion cracking rather than thermal fatigue is a more likely cause of crack initiation. The cracking mechanism appears to require the presence of hydrated sodium sulfide and is most likely active during shut-downs and/or start-ups. Based on these results and operating experience, certain alloys appear to be more resistant than others to cracking in the floor environment, and certain operating practices appear to significantly lessen the likelihood of cracking. This report is the latest in a series of progress reports presented on this project.

  11. Corrosion/erosion detection of boiler tubes utilizing pulsed infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, Maurice J.; Bishop, Chip C.

    1995-05-01

    This paper discusses a new technique for locating and detecting wall thickness reduction in boiler tubes caused by erosion/corrosion. Traditional means for this type of defect detection utilizes ultrasonics (UT) to perform a point by point measurement at given intervals of the tube length, which requires extensive and costly shutdown or `outage' time to complete the inspection, and has led to thin areas going undetected simply because they were located in between the sampling points. Pulsed infrared imaging (PII) can provide nearly 100% inspection of the tubes in a fraction of the time needed for UT. The IR system and heat source used in this study do not require any special access or fixed scaffolding, and can be remotely operated from a distance of up to 100 feet. This technique has been tried experimentally in a laboratory environment and verified in an actual field application. Since PII is a non-contact technique, considerable time and cost savings should be realized as well as the ability to predict failures rather than repairing them once they have occurred.

  12. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  13. Research on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Metal Temperature Distribution in Spiral tube Water Wall of an Ultra Supercritical Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weijing; Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhou, Xu

    2010-03-01

    On the basis of a 350 MW supercritical pressure OTSC boiler, established the mathematical model for the circulation loop flow and grid pressure in a complex flow network system, and an iteration method was used to solve the nonlinear equations. The water wall flow distribution and temperature profile of the boiler were computed. The results show that the flow difference and heat difference are small in spiral tube water wall at BMCR, 75%BMCR load and 30%BMCR load. The metal temperatures are all in the range of allowable range, and the operation of boil is safe and reliable.

  14. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    DOE PAGES

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-04-01

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

  15. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01

    Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

  16. Causes and solutions for cracking of coextruded and weld overlay floor tubes in black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L.

    1998-09-01

    Cracking of coextruded, black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes is both a safety and an economic issue to mill operators. In an effort to determine the cause of the cracking and to identify a solution, extensive studies, described in this and three accompanying papers, are being conducted. In this paper, results of studies to characterize both the cracking and the chemical and thermal environment are reported. Based on the results described in this series of papers, a possible mechanism is presented and means to lessen the likelihood of cracking or to totally avoid cracking of floor tubes are offered.

  17. Degradation behavior of Ni3Al plasma-sprayed boiler tube steels in an energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2005-06-01

    Boiler steels, namely, low-C steel, ASTM-SA210-Grade A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11) and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22) were plasma sprayed with Ni3Al. The alloy powder was prepared by mixing Ni and Al in the stoichiometric ratio of 3 to 1. The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was used as a bond coat, with a 150 µm thick layer sprayed onto the surface before applying the 200 µm coating of Ni3Al. Exposure studies have been performed in the platen superheater zone of a coal-fired boiler at around 755 °C for 10 cycles, each of 100 h duration. The protection to the base steel was minimal for the three steels. Scale spallation and the formation of a porous and nonadherent NiO scale were probably the main reasons for the lack of protection. In the case of T22-coated steel, cracks in the coatings have been observed after the first 100 h exposure cycle.

  18. Assessment of current NDI techniques for determining the type, location, and extent of fossil-fired boiler tube damage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, E.R.; Johnson, D.; Sarian, S.

    1980-10-01

    Assessment of state-of-the-art nondestructive evaluation techniques for detecting the type, location, and extent of fossil-fired boiler tube damage was made through on-site visits and canvassing by questionnaire. The results of this survey indicate that state-of-the-art for fossil fired boiler tube NDE practice is limited almost exclusively, in order of use frequency, to: (1) magnetic particle/dye penetrant, (2) ultrasonic testing (UT), (3) visual, including fiber-optic/borescope and TV, and (4) radiography. None of these techniques are adequate for reliably detecting and sizing boiler tube damage, and they suffer from low inspection volume coverage, i.e., they are limited to small localized checking of suspect troublespots. Our survey shows that boiler inspection using even these four methods is not practiced routinely but only after a forced outage has occurred. While there is a wide spectrum of boiler tube damage which results in failures forcing complete or partial outages, our survey indicates that: (1) wall thinning and wastage by erosion/corrosion, (2) overheating, and (3) hydrogen damage are the most prevalent failure modes for fossil fired boilers. Our survey also shows that at least one-quarter to one-third of the failures forcing a full outage occur in the furnace wall tube bank and reducing the number of these failures alone would result in considerable savings to the utilities. We recommend that EPRI undertake a research and development program for the purpose of providing the utilities with a practical NDE capability for inspecting boiler tubes.

  19. Influence of Carbon Content on Fatigue Strength of Drawn Steel Tubes for Small Once-Through Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Daisuke; Fujie, Yuta; Murakami, Ri-Ichi; Tokunaga, Yukihiro

    Tension-tension fatigue tests were performed to examine the influence of carbon content on the fatigue properties of drawn specific steel tube (STB340) with/without post heat treatment for small once-through boiler. Two different carbon content steel tubes, C=0.06 and 0.12% were prepared. The as-received, as-drawn and post drawing heat treated series for each carbon content tube were prepared for fatigue test. The hardness, grain size and residual stress were measured for each series. As a result, the fatigue strength of as-received and as-drawn series showed a small difference between C=0.06 and 0.12% specimens. However, the post drawing heat treatment series showed obvious difference in the fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of higher carbon content tubes significantly decreased by the post drawing heat treatment, whereas the decrease of fatigue strength was little for lower carbon content heat treated tubes. The difference of fatigue strength was mainly caused by the degree of relaxation of work hardening by post heat treatment.

  20. Oxidation study by Mössbauer and optic microscopy of steels from boiler tubes used in sugar industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, M.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Aguilar, Y.

    1998-08-01

    Optic microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to study the fail and the inner rusted surface of two boiler tubes used in the sugar industry, respectively. The studied tubes, of the type ASTM A 192, were found to have cracks. By optic microscopy it was observed that the failure begins in the inner surface with circumferential cracking. Also, inside and around the surface close to the cracks a rusted layer was detected. Powder from these layers was collected for Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis. By this method the presence of two or three types of Fe oxides such as wüstite, magnetite and hematite, was proved. These results permit to conclude that the failure mechanism was the thermal fatigue due to a hot work in an O2 -rich vapor atmosphere. The rusted products are stable at high temperatures.

  1. Extending the erosion-corrosion service life of the tube system of heat-recovery boilers used as part of combined-cycle plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Velichko, E. V.; Budanov, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results from an analysis of damageability and determination of dominating mechanisms through which thinning occurs to the metal of elements used in the tube system of heat recovery boilers used as part of combined-cycle plants during operation and during their outages. Results obtained from putting in use a technology for making the tubes of such boilers more resistant to erosion-corrosion wear with the aid of film-forming amines are also presented. Measures are proposed on extending the service life of the tube system of heat recovery boilers used as part of combined-cycle plants and operating under the conditions of single- and two-phase flows.

  2. Determining the parameters at which burnout occurs in the waterwall tubes of drum boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, I. I.

    2007-09-01

    Parameters at which burnout occurs are presented that were obtained by measuring the temperature and heat fluxes during experiments carried out directly on a boiler. The results of a comparison between the obtained values and the data of investigations on a test facility are given.

  3. Ionic liquid coated copper wires and tubes for fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-08-01

    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was developed by filling eleven copper wires into a copper tube, and all of those were functionalized with ionic liquids. Its morphology and surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was connected into high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment by replacing the sample loop of six-port injection valve, building the online SPME-HPLC system. In the optimization of extraction conditions, sampling rate, sample volume, pH of sample and desorption time were investigated with five estrogens as model analytes. Under the optimum conditions, an online SPME-HPLC analysis method was achieved, showing enrichment efficiency from 611 to 1661 and a good linearity of 0.06-60μgL(-1) with low detection limits of 0.02-0.05μgL(-1). It was applied to detect estrogens analytes in two water samples, with recoveries in the range of 85-114%. Relative standard deviation (n=3) of extraction repeatability is in the range of 1.9-3.0%. Relative standard deviation of extraction tubes (n=3) is in the range of 12-19%. The extraction mechanism is probably related to hydrophobic, π-π and dipole-dipole interactions between ionic liquids coating and estrogens analytes.

  4. Superior Corrosion Resistance Properties of TiN-Based Coatings on Zircaloy Tubes in Supercritical Water

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzia Khatkhatay; Liang Jiao; Jie Jian; Zhijie Jiao; Hongbin Zhang; Jian Gan; Haiyan Wang; Wenrui Zhang; Xinghang Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Thin films of TiN and Ti0.35Al0.65N nanocomposite were deposited on polished Zircaloy-4 tubes. After exposure to supercritical water for 48 h, the coated tubes are remarkably intact, while the bare uncoated tube shows severe oxidation and breakaway corrosion. X-ray diffraction patterns, secondary electron images, backscattered electron images, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data from the tube surfaces and cross-sections show that a protective oxide, formed on the film surface, effectively prevents further oxidation and corrosion to the Zircaloy-4 tubes. This result demonstrates the effectiveness of thin film ceramics as protective coatings under extreme environments.

  5. PLASMA SPRAYED Ni-Al COATINGS FOR SAFE ENDING HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.; OTTERSON,D.; BERNDT,C.C.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed thermally conductive composite liners for corrosion and scale protection in heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The liners cannot withstand roller expansion to connect the tubes to the tubesheet. It is not possible to line the ends of the tubes with the same material after roller expansion due to the nature of the current liner application process. It was requested that BNL evaluate plasma sprayed Ni-Al coatings for safe ending heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The tubes of interest had an internal diameter of 0.875 inches. It is not typical to thermal spray small diameter components or use such small standoff distances. In this project a nozzle extension was developed by Zatorski Coating Company to spray the tube ends as well as flat coupons for testing. Four different Ni-Al coatings were investigated. One of these was a ductilized Ni-AIB material developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coatings were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and subjected to corrosion, tensile adhesion, microhardness and field tests in a volcanic pool in New Zealand. It was determined that the Ni-Al coatings could be applied to a depth of two inches on the tube ends. When sprayed on flat coupons the coatings exhibited relatively high adhesion strength and microhardness. Polarization curves showed that the coating performance was variable. Measured corrosion potentials indicated that the Ni-Al coatings are active towards steel coated with thermally conductive polymers, thereby suggesting preferential corrosion. Corrosion also occurred on the coated coupons tested in the volcanic pool. This may have been exacerbated by the difficulty in applying a uniform coating to the coupon edges. The Ni-Al coatings applied to the tubes had significant porosity and did not provide adequate corrosion protection. This is associated with

  6. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings was exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy are being exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after approximately 4,400 hours of exposure.

  7. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase I a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase II (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-8511, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4000 hours of exposure.

  8. Substantiation of causes for damage of water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a high-pressure boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    The damageability for water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a TPE-208 boiler is analyzed. The general cause for tube damage is the intensive underslime corrosion of the inner surface, which is caused by a local increase in the salt concentration in boiler water. The experiment-calculated method showed that continuous bleeding from an external cyclone being the first in water downstream causes a substantial increase in the concentration of salts (more than by a factor of three) and scale-forming agents within a contour of the loop of a distant cyclone in comparison with the variant of bleeding from a loop being the second in water downstream.

  9. Modelling of heat and flow phenomena occuring in waterwall tubes of boilers for supercritical steam parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Wiesław; Grądziel, Sławomir; Cebula, Artur

    2010-09-01

    In this paper a mathematical model enabling the analysis of the heat-flow phenomena occurring in the waterwalls of the combustion chambers of the boilers for supercritical parameters is proposed. It is a one-dimensional model with distributed parameters based on the solution of equations describing the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The purpose of the numerical calculations is to determine the distributions of the fluid enthalpy and the temperature of the waterwall pipes. This temperature should not exceed the calculation temperature for particular category of steel. The derived differential equations are solved using two methods: with the use of the implicit difference scheme, in which the mesh with regular nodes was applied, and using the Runge-Kutta method. The temperature distribution of the waterwall pipes is determined using the CFD. All thermophysical properties of the fluid and waterwall pipes are computed in real-time. The time-spatial heat transfer coefficient distribution is also computed in the on-line mode. The heat calculations for the combustion chamber are carried out with the use of the zone method, thus the thermal load distribution of the waterwalls is known. The time needed for the computations is of great importance when taking into consideration calculations carried out in the on-line mode. A correctly solved one-dimensional model ensures the appropriately short computational time.

  10. Combustion monitoring of a water tube boiler using a discriminant radial basis network.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, K; Pappa, N

    2011-01-01

    This research work includes a combination of Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD) analysis and a radial basis network (RBN) for monitoring the combustion conditions for a coal fired boiler so as to allow control of the air/fuel ratio. For this, two-dimensional flame images are required, which were captured with a CCD camera; the features of the images-average intensity, area, brightness and orientation etc of the flame-are extracted after preprocessing the images. The FLD is applied to reduce the n-dimensional feature size to a two-dimensional feature size for faster learning of the RBN. Also, three classes of images corresponding to different burning conditions of the flames have been extracted from continuous video processing. In this, the corresponding temperatures, and the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and those of other flue gases have been obtained through measurement. Further, the training and testing of Fisher's linear discriminant radial basis network (FLDRBN), with the data collected, have been carried out and the performance of the algorithms is presented.

  11. Plasma Sprayed Ni-Al Coatings for Safe Ending Heat Exchanger Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.L.; Berndt, C.C.; Otterson, D.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed thermally conductive composite liners for corrosion and scale protection in heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The liners cannot withstand roller expansion to connect the tubes to the tubesheet. It is not possible to line the ends of the tubes with the same material after roller expansion due to the nature of the current liner application process. It was requested that BNL evaluate plasma sprayed Ni-Al coatings for safe ending heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The tubes of interest had an internal diameter of 0.875 inches. It is not typical to thermal spray small diameter components or use such small standoff distances. In this project a nozzle extension was developed by Zatorski Coating Company to spray the tube ends as well as flat coupons for testing. Four different Ni-Al coatings were investigated. One of these was a ductilized Ni-AlB material developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coatings were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and subjected to corrosion, tensile adhesion, microhardness and field tests in a volcanic pool in New Zealand.

  12. [Preparation and antithrombogenicity of oxidated low molecular weight heparin-antithrombin complex coated-polyvinyl chloride tubing].

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Liu, Weiyong; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Hua; Cao, Ruijun; Yang, Jian

    2011-02-01

    Based on non-enzymatic protein glycated reaction, the sodium periodate-oxidated low molecular weight heparin-antithrombin covalent complex (SPLMWATH) was produced. By using polyethyleneimine-glutaraldehyde bonding technique, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings were coated with SPLMWATH, heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Spectrophotometry and dynamic clotting time experiment were used to determine the synthetic ratio of SPLMWATH, graft density, coating leaching ratio and to evaluate the antithrombogenicity of different coating on the PVC tubings. The results showed that the synthetic ratio of SPLMWATH was approximately 55%, and compared with heparin coating and LMWH coating, the graft density of SPLMWATH coating on the PVC tubing was smaller, but its coating stability and antithrombogenicity were significantly better than that of heparin coating and LMWH coating on the PVC tubings.

  13. High-temperature oxidation studies of cold-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni-50Cr coatings on SAE 213-T22 boiler steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2009-05-01

    The high-temperature oxidation behavior of cold-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni-50Cr coatings on SAE 213-T22 boiler steel has been investigated at 900 °C in air under cyclic heating and cooling conditions for 50 cycles. The kinetics of oxidation of coated and bare boiler steel has been established with the help of weight change measurements. It was observed that all the coated and bare steels obeyed parabolic rate law of oxidation. X-ray diffraction, FE-SEM/EDAX and X-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the oxidation products of the coated and uncoated boiler steel. The uncoated steel suffered corrosion in the form of intense spalling and peeling of its oxide scale, which was perhaps due to the formation of unprotective Fe 2O 3 oxide scale. Both the coatings showed better resistance to the air oxidation as compared to the uncoated steel. The Ni-50Cr coating was found to be more protective than the Ni-20Cr-coated steel. The formation of oxides and spinels of nickel and chromium may be contributing to the development of air oxidation resistance in the coatings.

  14. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  15. Characterization and High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Cold-Sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni-50Cr Coatings on Boiler Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2011-11-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-spray coatings are usually required in order to explore the potential industrial application of the latter. This article demonstrates the successful formulation of Ni-20Cr and Ni-50Cr coatings on two boiler steels, namely, SAE 213-T22 and SA 516 steel by cold-spray process. The microstructure, coating thickness, phase formation, and microhardness properties of the coatings were evaluated. The coatings were subjected to cyclic heating and cooling cycles at an elevated temperature of 1173.15 K (900 °C) to ascertain their high-temperature oxidation behavior. Moreover, these cyclic exposures can give useful information regarding the adhesion of the coatings with the substrate steels. Of all the coatings, the Ni-50Cr coating on SA 516 steel had a maximum average hardness value of 469 Hv. As observed from the surface field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis, the coatings were found to have nearly dense microstructure with the sprayed particles in interlocked positions. It was concluded that the cold-spray process is suitable for spraying the preceding powders onto the given boiler steels to produce nearly dense and low oxide coatings. The coatings, in general, were found to follow the parabolic rate of oxidation and were successful in maintaining their surface contact with their respective substrate steels.

  16. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller

    2007-12-15

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  18. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A. Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J.

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  19. The effect of alternative amines on the rate of boiler tube fouling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.

    1997-09-01

    Deposition rates were measured for magnetite and hematite particles depositing onto Alloy 600 surfaces, and for magnetite particles depositing onto surfaces prefouled with sintered porous magnetite deposits. The measurements were made in a high-temperature loop, under typical nuclear steam generator operating conditions, with pH controlled using morpholine, ethanolamine, ammonia, dimethylamine, or potassium hydroxide. The deposition rate was compared as a function of the particle type, tube surface morphology, and the reagent used for pH control. The deposition rates were measured for steam qualities ranging up to 50%. The conclusions drawn from this program are: the particle deposition rate of hematite is about an order of magnitude greater than the rate for magnetite on bare Inconel 600 surfaces; the identify of the amine used for pH control affects the deposition rate, the lowest deposition rate is obtained when dimethylamine is used for pH control; the deposition rate of magnetite increases with the increasing concentration of amine (at constant pH); under reducing conditions with no detectable oxygen and with free hydrazine, the deposition rate of hematite decreases towards the value for magnetite; the particle deposition rate can be affected by the surface morphology; the deposition rate is significantly higher on surfaces covered with porous deposits; the heat transfer mechanism and steam quality strongly affect the deposition rate, the deposition rate increases abruptly at higher steam qualities; and there is no evidence that the volatility of the amine affects the deposition behavior.

  20. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    Research is presently being initiated to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituents` size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. During the last quarter, model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder cermet composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technique. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a nickel matrix with an average size of alumina particles of 12 micrometers. The increase in volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to an increase in hardness of these composites from 85 to 180 HV{sub 1000}. The experimental procedure and preliminary microstructural characterization of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are presented in this progress report along with plans for the research in coming year. 3 figs.

  1. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Krawchuk, M.T.; Van Weele, S.F.

    1995-08-01

    A number of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings have previously been exposed in Phase I to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. This program is exposing samples of TP 347, RA-85H, HR-3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF-709, 690 clad, and 671 clad, which showed good corrosion resistance from Phase 1, to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and are being controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The exposure will continue for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. After the three exposure times, the samples will be metallurgically examined to determine the wastage rates and mode of attack. The probes were commissioned November 16, 1994. The temperatures are being recorded every 15 minutes, and the weighted average temperature calculated for each sample. Each of the alloys is being exposed to a temperature in each of two temperature bands-1150 to 1260{degrees}F and 1260 to 1325{degrees}F. After 2000 hours of exposure, one of the corrosion probes was cleaned and the wall thicknesses were ultrasonically measured. The alloy performance from the field probes will be discussed.

  2. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A.

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  3. Comparative High-Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Ni-20Cr Coatings on T22 Boiler Steel Produced by HVOF, D-Gun, and Cold Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Gagandeep; Bala, Niraj; Kaur, Narinder; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    To protect materials from surface degradations such as wear, corrosion, and thermal flux, a wide variety of materials can be deposited on the materials by several spraying processes. This paper examines and compares the microstructure and high-temperature corrosion of Ni-20Cr coatings deposited on T22 boiler steel by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), detonation gun spray, and cold spraying techniques. The coatings' microstructural features were characterized by means of XRD and FE-SEM/EDS analyses. Based upon the results of mass gain, XRD, and FE-SEM/EDS analyses it may be concluded that the Ni-20Cr coating sprayed by all the three techniques was effective in reducing the corrosion rate of the steel. Among the three coatings, D-gun spray coating proved to be better than HVOF-spray and cold-spray coatings.

  4. Adhesion property and high-temperature oxidation behavior of Cr-coated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube prepared by 3D laser coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Il-Hyun; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    A 3D laser coating technology using Cr powder was developed for Zr-based alloys considering parameters such as: the laser beam power, inert gas flow, cooling of Zr-based alloys, and Cr powder control. This technology was then applied to Zr cladding tube samples to study the effect of Cr coating on the high-temperature oxidation of Zr-based alloys in a steam environment of 1200 °C for 2000s. It was revealed that the oxide layer thickness formed on the Cr-coated tube surface was about 25-times lower than that formed on a Zircaloy-4 tube surface. In addition, both the ring compression and the tensile tests were performed to evaluate the adhesion properties of the Cr-coated sample. Although some cracks were formed on the Cr-coated layer, the Cr-coated layer had not peeled off after the two tests.

  5. Hydroxyapatite-coated tendon chitosan tubes with adsorbed laminin peptides facilitate nerve regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Suzuki, Masumi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Takakuda, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Tanaka, Junzo

    2003-12-12

    On the inner surface of tendon chitosan tubes having a triangular shape and a hydroxyapatite coating (t-chitosan/HAp tube), laminin-1 and laminin peptides (YIGSR, IKVAV) have been adsorbed in order to develop nerve growth conduits. The mechanical property, biocompatibility and efficacy of these tubes for nerve regeneration were examined. Step-1: bridge grafting (15 mm) into the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was carried out using either t-chitosan or t-chitosan/HAp tubes having either a circular or triangular cross section (N=12 in each group). Specimens were taken after 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-week post-implantation (N=3 in each group) for histology determinations. Step-2: t-chitosan/HAp tubes having a triangular cross section with adsorbed laminin-1, CDPGYIGSR or CSRARKQAASIKVAVSAD, as well as control tubes without pre-adsorption were used for implantation (N=18 in each group). Isografting was also carried out (N=6). Histological evaluation was carried out similarly as in Step-1. Furthermore, evoked muscle and sensory nerve action potentials were recorded, and the percentage of myelinated axon area measured at 10 mm distance of the distal anastomosed site in the experimental, control and isograft groups after 12 weeks (N=6 in each group). The results of histological findings, as well as mechanical properties, suggest that a triangular tube shape with a HAp coating benefits nerve regeneration. The effect of laminin peptides (YIGSR, followed by IKVAV) to enhance the growth of regenerating axons has been found comparable with intact laminin-1. Although histological regeneration in both the YIGSR- and laminin-1-treated t-chitosan/HAp tubes matches the isografts, the functional recovery is however delayed.

  6. Coded excitation speeds up the detection of the fundamental flexural guided wave in coated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaojun; Moilanen, Petro; Zhao, Zuomin; Ta, Dean; Pirhonen, Jalmari; Salmi, Ari; Hæeggström, Edward; Myllylä, Risto; Timonen, Jussi; Wang, Weiqi

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental flexural guided wave (FFGW) permits ultrasonic assessment of the wall thickness of solid waveguides, such as tubes or, e.g., long cortical bones. Recently, an optical non-contact method was proposed for ultrasound excitation and detection with the aim of facilitating the FFGW reception by suppressing the interfering modes from the soft coating. This technique suffers from low SNR and requires iterative physical scanning across the source-receiver distance for 2D-FFT analysis. This means that SNR improvement achieved by temporal averaging becomes time-consuming (several minutes) which reduces the applicability of the technique, especially in time-critical applications such as clinical quantitative ultrasound. To achieve sufficient SNR faster, an ultrasonic excitation by a base-sequence-modulated Golay code (BSGC, 64-bit code pair) on coated tube samples (1-5 mm wall thickness and 5 mm soft coating layer) was used. This approach improved SNR by 21 dB and speeded up the measurement by a factor of 100 compared to using a classical pulse excitation with temporal averaging. The measurement now took seconds instead of minutes, while the ability to determine the wall thickness of the phantoms was maintained. The technique thus allows rapid noncontacting assessment of the wall thickness in coated solid tubes, such as the human bone.

  7. Development and characterization of silica tube-coated separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lixiao; Shi, Chuan; Yang, Pingting; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-06-01

    In an endeavor to improve the thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a new kind of ceramic coated separator has been developed based on introducing one-dimensional silica tubes (ST) to one side of a commercial polyethylene (PE) porous separator. The ST interpenetrating network diminishes the thermal-induced dimensional change of the commercial separator without compromising the cell performance. In particular, compared to spherical silica particle (SP) coated separator, the ST coated separator exhibits significantly enhanced thermal stability at elevated temperature. Furthermore the ST coated separator shows better mechanical performance as well as the improved electrolyte absorption and retention behavior, which provides a promising solution to replace conventional polymer separator for high-performance LIBs.

  8. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, David W.; Shingledecker, John P.

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation's power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country's total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760°C (1400°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    SciTech Connect

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOI's coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  10. High-Temperature Corrosion Studies of HVOF-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coating on SAE-347H Boiler Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2009-12-01

    Cr3C2-NiCr coating was deposited on SAE-347H boiler steel by high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) spray process. Subsequently, high-temperature corrosion behavior of the bare and coated boiler steel was investigated at 700 °C for 50 cycles in Na2SO4-82Fe2(SO4)3 molten salt, as well as air environments. Weight-change measurements after each cycle were made to establish the kinetics of corrosion. X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray mapping analyses were performed on the exposed samples to analyze the oxidation products. The bare 347H steel suffered accelerated oxidation during exposure at 700 °C in the air as well as the molten salt environment in comparison with its respective coated counterparts. The HVOF-spray Cr3C2-NiCr coating was found to be successful in maintaining its adherence in both the environments. The surface oxide scales were also found to be intact. The formation of chromium rich oxide scale might have contributed for the better hot corrosion/oxidation resistance in the coated steel.

  11. Assessment of factors affecting boiler tube lifetime in waste-fired generators: New opportunities for research and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.; Krause, H.H.

    1996-07-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem in numerous communities in the United States. In this country, approximately 195.7 million tons of MSW were produced in 1990 of which 17 percent was recovered for recycling or composting, 16 percent was combusted, and about 67 percent was disposed of in landfills. This paper discusses the combustion of refuse derived fuels and municipal wastes. The corrosion of the alloys used in boilers is described.

  12. Versatile device for in-situ discharge cleaning and multiple coatings of long, small diameter tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Custer, A.; Erickson, M.; Liaw, C.J.; Fischer, Jamshidi, N.; W.; Meng, W.; Poole, H.J.; Sochugov, N.

    2010-05-23

    Electron clouds, which can limit machine performance, have been observed in many accelerators including RHIC at BNL. Additional concern for the RHIC machine, whose vacuum chamber is made from relatively high resistivity 316LN stainless steel, is high wall resistivity that can result in unacceptably high ohmic heating for superconducting magnets. The high resistivity can be addressed with a copper (Cu) coating; a reduction in the secondary electron yield can be achieved with a TiN or amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. Applying such coatings in an already constructed machine is rather challenging. We have been developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for in-situ coating of long, small diameter tubes. The technique entails fabricating a device comprising of staged magnetrons mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of about 5 ?m of Cu followed by about 0.1 ?m of a-C. As a first step, a 15-cm Cu cathode magnetron was designed, fabricated, and 30-cm long samples of the RHIC pipe have been coated with 2 ?m to 5.6 ?m of copper. Deposition rates of up to 92 A/sec with an average coating rate of 30 A/sec were measured. Effects on RF resistivity is also to be measured.

  13. Studies on Hot Corrosion of the Microstructurally Different Regions of 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) Boiler Tube Steel Weldment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravindra; Tewari, V. K.; Prakash, Satya

    2009-10-01

    This study examines the effect of microstructurally different regions on the hot corrosion of tungsten inert gas weldment in 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) boiler tube steel. Various regions of weldment were oxidized in molten salt Na2SO4-60% V2O5 environment at 900 °C. The base metal was found to oxidize at much higher rates than the weld metal and the heat-affected zone. Oxide scales formed in the three regions were compared by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive of X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction pattern, and electron probe microanalysis. The research investigates the formation of inner scales with free Cr over the HAZ.

  14. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of

  15. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and... for the service intended at the MAWP specified on the boiler specification FRA Form No. 4, they...

  16. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and... for the service intended at the MAWP specified on the boiler specification FRA Form No. 4, they...

  17. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and... for the service intended at the MAWP specified on the boiler specification FRA Form No. 4, they...

  18. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and... for the service intended at the MAWP specified on the boiler specification FRA Form No. 4, they...

  19. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and... for the service intended at the MAWP specified on the boiler specification FRA Form No. 4, they...

  20. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  1. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    PubMed

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000μgL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500μgL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05μgL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction. PMID:26231896

  2. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    PubMed

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000μgL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500μgL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05μgL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction.

  3. TiN-based coatings on fuel cladding tubes for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ickchan Kim; Fauzia Khatkhatay; Liang Jiao; Greg Swadener; James Cole; Jian Gan; Haiyan Wang

    2012-10-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films are coated on HT-9 and MA957 fuel cladding tubes and bars to explore their mechanical strength, thermal stability, diffusion barrier properties, and thermal conductivity properties. The ultimate goal is to implement TiN as an effective diffusion barrier to prevent the inter-diffusion between the nuclear fuel and the cladding material, and thus lead to a longer life time of the cladding tubes. Mechanical tests including hardness and scratch tests for the samples before and after thermal cycle tests show that the films have a high hardness of 28 GPa and excellent adhesion properties despite the thermal treatment. Thermal conductivity measurements demonstrate that the thin TiN films have very minimal impact on the overall thermal conductivity of the MA957 and HT9 substrates, i.e., the thermal conductivity of the uncoated HT-9 and MA957 substrates was 26.25 and 28.44 W m-1K-1 , and that of the coated ones was 26.21 and 28.38 W m-1K-1, respectively. A preliminary Ce diffusion test on the couple of Ce/TiN/HT-9 suggests that TiN has excellent material compatibility and good diffusion barrier properties.

  4. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  5. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  6. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  7. Silver-Coated Teflon Tubes for Waveguiding at 1-2 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Melzer, Jeffrey E.; Harrington, James A.; Mitrofanov, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    Realization of single-mode low-loss waveguides for 1.0-2.0 THz remains a challenging problem due to large absorption in most dielectrics and ohmic losses in metals. To address this problem, we investigate dielectric-lined hollow metallic waveguides fabricated by coating 1-mm diameter 38-μm-thick polytetrafluoroethylene tubes with silver. These waveguides support a hybrid HE11 mode, which exhibits low attenuation and low dispersion. Quasi-single-mode propagation is achieved in the band of 1.0-1.6 THz, in which the hybrid HE11 mode is supported by the waveguide. In this band, the experimentally measured loss is ~20 dB/m (~0.046 cm-1), whereas the numerically computed loss is ~7 dB/m (~0.016 cm-1). The difference is attributed to additional losses in the dielectric layer, which can be reduced by using alternative polymers.

  8. Corrosion resistant coatings for silicon carbide heat exchanger tubes -- Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1996-06-07

    The development of a silicon carbide (SiC) heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structure materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. This demanding set of technical performance and cost drivers was used in reviewing and selecting candidate protective materials. After a review of open literature, discussion with leading researchers in materials for coal combustion environments, and preliminary thermodynamic studies, a total of ten materials were identified for future study that were grouped into three categories: alumina-based materials, materials stable with SiO{sub 2}, and low expansion materials.

  9. Study of mechanical properties and high temperature oxidation behavior of a novel cold-spray Ni-20Cr coating on boiler steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Narinder; Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Kim, Deuk Young; Kumar, S.; Chavan, N. M.; Joshi, S. V.; Singh, Narinder; Singh, Harpreet

    2015-02-01

    In the current investigation, high temperature oxidation behavior of a novel cold-spray Ni-20Cr nanostructured coating was studied. The nanocrystalline Ni-20Cr powder was synthesized by the investigators using ball milling, which was deposited on T22 and SA 516 steels by cold spraying. The crystallite size based upon Scherrer's formula for the developed coatings was found to be in nano-range for both the substrates. The accelerated oxidation testing was performed in a laboratory tube furnace at a temperature 900 °C under thermal cyclic conditions. Each cycle comprised heating for one hour at 900 °C followed by cooling for 20 min in ambient air. The kinetics of oxidation was established using weight change measurements for the bare and the coated steels. The oxidation products were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray mapping techniques. It was found from the results that the coating was successful in reducing the weight gain of SA213-T22 and SA 516-Grade 70 steel by 71% and 94%, respectively. This may be attributed to relatively denser structure, lower porosity and lower oxide content of the coating. Moreover, the developed nano-structured Ni-20Cr powder coating was found to perform better than its counterpart micron-sized Ni-20Cr powder coating, in terms of offering higher oxidation resistance and hardness.

  10. Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill furnace building in foreground. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Central Boiler House, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al

  12. Vascular tube formation and angiogenesis induced by polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeongah; Lim, Dae-Hyoun; Choi, In-Hong; Kang, Taegyeong; Lee, Kangtaek; Moon, Eun-Yi; Yang, Young; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2011-09-10

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials due to their antibacterial properties. In this study, we examined the effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNPs (average size 2.3nm) on angiogenesis in both an in vivo model and an in vitro endothelial cell line, SVEC4-10. Increased angiogenesis was detected around the injection site of AgNP-containing Matrigel in vivo. AgNPs also increased the infiltration of endothelial cells and the hemoglobin (Hb) content in AgNP-Matrigel plugs implanted into mice. AgNPs induced endothelial cell tube formation on growth factor-reduced Matrigel, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and production of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO), in SVEC4-10 cells. In addition, AgNPs promoted the activation of FAK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38, which are all involved in VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-mediated signaling. Finally, AgNP-treated tumors caused angiogenesis around tumors in B16F10 melanomas after they were injected into mice, and the Hb concentration in the tumors increased in a concentration-dependent manner with AgNP treatment. Thus, our study suggests that exposure to AgNPs can cause angiogenesis through the production of angiogenic factors.

  13. Clean boiler systems chemically

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.O. )

    1993-04-01

    Internal surfaces of steam generator systems are cleaned to remove contaminants that impair heat transfer and may ultimately cause tube failure. One method of doing so is chemical cleaning. All new steam generators should be chemically cleaned to remove construction contaminants. The degree of cleaning required depends on the initial condition of the boiler and on its operating requirements. This paper discusses: key considerations; pre-operational cleaning; post-operational cleaning; water flushing and steam blowing; alkaline cleaning; and solvent cleaning.

  14. Characterization of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Sengstock, Christina; Motemani, Yahya; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Köller, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Release of Ni(1+) ions from NiTi alloy into tissue environment, biological response on the surface of NiTi and the allergic reaction of atopic people towards Ni are challengeable issues for biomedical application. In this study, composite coatings of hydroxyapatite-silicon multi walled carbon nano-tubes with 20wt% Silicon and 1wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes of HA were deposited on a NiTi substrate using electrophoretic methods. The SEM images of coated samples exhibit a continuous and compact morphology for hydroxyapatite-silicon and hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings. Nano-indentation analysis on different locations of coatings represents the highest elastic modulus (45.8GPa) for HA-Si-MWCNTs which is between the elastic modulus of NiTi substrate (66.5GPa) and bone tissue (≈30GPa). This results in decrease of stress gradient on coating-substrate-bone interfaces during performance. The results of nano-scratch analysis show the highest critical distance of delamination (2.5mm) and normal load before failure (837mN) as well as highest critical contact pressure for hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coating. The cell culture results show that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to adhere and proliferate on the pure hydroxyapatite and composite coatings. The presence of both silicon and multi walled carbon nano-tubes (CS3) in the hydroxyapatite coating induce more adherence of viable human mesenchymal stem cells in contrast to the HA coated samples with only silicon (CS2). These results make hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes a promising composite coating for future bone implant application. PMID:26897095

  15. Characterization of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Sengstock, Christina; Motemani, Yahya; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Köller, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Release of Ni(1+) ions from NiTi alloy into tissue environment, biological response on the surface of NiTi and the allergic reaction of atopic people towards Ni are challengeable issues for biomedical application. In this study, composite coatings of hydroxyapatite-silicon multi walled carbon nano-tubes with 20wt% Silicon and 1wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes of HA were deposited on a NiTi substrate using electrophoretic methods. The SEM images of coated samples exhibit a continuous and compact morphology for hydroxyapatite-silicon and hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings. Nano-indentation analysis on different locations of coatings represents the highest elastic modulus (45.8GPa) for HA-Si-MWCNTs which is between the elastic modulus of NiTi substrate (66.5GPa) and bone tissue (≈30GPa). This results in decrease of stress gradient on coating-substrate-bone interfaces during performance. The results of nano-scratch analysis show the highest critical distance of delamination (2.5mm) and normal load before failure (837mN) as well as highest critical contact pressure for hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coating. The cell culture results show that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to adhere and proliferate on the pure hydroxyapatite and composite coatings. The presence of both silicon and multi walled carbon nano-tubes (CS3) in the hydroxyapatite coating induce more adherence of viable human mesenchymal stem cells in contrast to the HA coated samples with only silicon (CS2). These results make hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes a promising composite coating for future bone implant application.

  16. 35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ROOM. CYLINDRICAL TANKS ARE WORTHINGTON DEAERATORS. THESE REMOVED AIR FROM BOILER FEED WATER TO MINIMIZE CORROSION AND PITTING OF THE BOILER TUBES. AIR REMOVAL ALSO HELPED AVOID THE FORMATION OF FOAM IN THE SYSTEM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Black-chrome solar-selective coatings electrodeposited on metallized-glass tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmer, D P; Collier, R K

    1981-01-01

    Glass tubes, initially metallized with thin layers of chromium and copper, were electroplated with copper and black chrome. The optical properties of the black-chrome-plated tubes were excellent with ..cap alpha../sub s/ approx. = 0.94 and epsilon/sub TH/ (25/sup 0/C) approx. = 0.08. Thermal-cycling tests of the tubes revealed relatively stable optical properties until temperatures around 400/sup 0/C in vacuum were reached.

  18. Histomorphological researches on large porous hydroxyapatite cylinder tubes with polylactic acid surface coating in different nonskeletal sites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Peng; Weng, Jie; Zhi, Wei; Hu, Yonghe; Feng, Huaizhi; Yao, Yimin; Li, Shuo; Xia, Tian

    2012-05-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic cylinder tubes coated with polylactic acid on the exposed surfaces were implanted in four nonskeletal sites (omentum, peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur). Six months postoperatively, proper amount of Chinese ink was injected to dye the implanting areas. Decalcified and nondecalcified sections were observed under inverted microscope. The results showed that the soft tissues around the HA cylinder tubes in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups appeared visible black. Some small blacked vascular architectures were also discernible. However in omentum group, only small number of blacked vessels existed. Histological observations indicated that vascularization and ossification occurred in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups. In omentum group, there was no any sign of vascularization and ossification. A conclusion could be made in this study that excepting bones and muscles, parietal peritoneum could serve as a potential spot for culturing histoengineering hydroxyapatite (HA)-polylactic acid (PLA) ceramic bone substitutes.

  19. Histomorphological researches on large porous hydroxyapatite cylinder tubes with polylactic acid surface coating in different nonskeletal sites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Peng; Weng, Jie; Zhi, Wei; Hu, Yonghe; Feng, Huaizhi; Yao, Yimin; Li, Shuo; Xia, Tian

    2012-05-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic cylinder tubes coated with polylactic acid on the exposed surfaces were implanted in four nonskeletal sites (omentum, peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur). Six months postoperatively, proper amount of Chinese ink was injected to dye the implanting areas. Decalcified and nondecalcified sections were observed under inverted microscope. The results showed that the soft tissues around the HA cylinder tubes in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups appeared visible black. Some small blacked vascular architectures were also discernible. However in omentum group, only small number of blacked vessels existed. Histological observations indicated that vascularization and ossification occurred in peritoneum, vastus lateralis, and side of femur groups. In omentum group, there was no any sign of vascularization and ossification. A conclusion could be made in this study that excepting bones and muscles, parietal peritoneum could serve as a potential spot for culturing histoengineering hydroxyapatite (HA)-polylactic acid (PLA) ceramic bone substitutes. PMID:22344718

  20. Electroplating of nanostructured polyaniline-polypyrrole composite coating in a stainless-steel tube for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Asiabi, Hamid; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Esrafili, Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    In this work, a novel and efficient on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction method followed by high performance liquid chromatography was developed for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of parabens. A nanostructured polyaniline-polypyrrole composite was electrochemically deposited on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube and used as the extraction phase. Several important factors that influence the extraction efficiency, including type of solid-phase coating, extraction and desorption times, flow rates of the sample solution and eluent, pH, and ionic strength of the sample solution were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were in the range of 0.02-0.04 μg L(-1). This method showed good linearity for parabens in the range of 0.07-50 μg L(-1), with coefficients of determination better than 0.998. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (RSD%, n=3) were in the range of 5.9-7.0% and 4.4-5.7% at three concentration levels of 2, 10, and 20 μg L(-1), respectively. The extraction recovery values for the spiked samples were in the acceptable range of 80.3-90.2%. The validated method was successfully applied for analysis of methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl parabens in some water, milk, and juice samples.

  1. Development of a novel graphene/polyaniline electrodeposited coating for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Xu, Hui

    2015-05-22

    In this work, we introduced a novel graphene/polyaniline (G/PANI) electrodeposited coating for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (IT-SPME) for the first time. The G/PANI coating was prepared on the internal surface of stainless steel tube by a facile in-situ electrodeposition method. The morphology and formation of the composite coating were confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Some important experimental parameters that could affect the extraction and separation such as the coating thickness, internal diameter of tube, sampling flow rate as well as sample volume were optimized. The extraction performance of the IT-SPME coating was evaluated systematically. The coating exhibited enhanced mechanical stability, long lifespan, large specific surface area and good biocompatibility compared with polyaniline coating. The on-line IT-SPME method showed higher enrichment efficiency, faster analysis speed and higher automation level than off-line manual mode. Six aldehydes were determined simultaneously with low limits of detection of 0.02-0.04nmolL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)≥0.9920). The method has been applied successfully for the determination of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates with good recovery (70-120%) and satisfied reproducibility (relative standard deviation: 1.1-11.9%). This on-line IT-SPME method provides a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehydes with approving sensitivity in human exhaled breath condensates.

  2. Tritium permeation experiments using reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel tube and erbium oxide coating

    SciTech Connect

    Takumi Chikada; Masashi Shimada; Robert Pawelko; Takayuki Terai; Takeo Muroga

    2013-09-01

    Low concentration tritium permeation experiments have been performed on uncoated F82H and Er2O3-coated tubular samples in the framework of the Japan-US TITAN collaborative program. Tritium permeability of the uncoated sample with 1.2 ppm tritium showed one order of magnitude lower than that with 100% deuterium. The permeability of the sample with 40 ppm tritium was more than twice higher than that of 1.2 ppm, indicating a surface contribution at the lower tritium concentration. The Er2O3-coated sample showed two orders of magnitude lower permeability than the uncoated sample, and lower permeability than that of the coated plate sample with 100% deuterium. It was also indicated that the memory effect of ion chambers in the primary and secondary circuits was caused by absorption of tritiated water vapor that was generated by isotope exchange reactions between tritium and surface water on the coating.

  3. Novel Surface Modification Method for Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, T. Danny

    2013-05-22

    US Department of Energy seeks an innovative coating technology for energy production to reduce the emission of SOx, NOx, and CO2 toxic gaseous species. To realize this need, Inframat Corporation (IMC) proposed an SPS thermal spray coating technique to produce ultrafine/nanocoatings that can be deposited onto the surfaces of high temperature boiler tubes, so that higher temperatures of boiler operation becomes possible, leading to significantly reduced emission of toxic gaseous species. It should be noted that the original PI was Dr. Xinqing Ma, who after 1.5 year conducting this project left Inframat in December, 2008. Thus, the PI was transferred to Dr. Danny Xiao, who originally co-authored the proposal with Dr. Ma, in order to carry the project into a completion. Phase II Objectives: The proposed technology has the following attributes, including: (1). Dispersion of a nanoparticle or alloyed particle in a solvent to form a uniform slurry feedstock; (2). Feeding of the slurry feedstock into a thermal spray flame, followed by deposition of the slurry feedstock onto substrates to form tenacious nanocoatings; (3). High coating performance: including high bonding strength, and high temperature service life in the temperature range of 760oC/1400oF. Following the above premises, our past Phase I project has demonstrated the feasibility in small scale coatings on boiler substrates. The objective of this Phase II project was to focus on scale-up the already demonstrated Phase I work for the fabrication of SPS coatings that can satisfy DOE's emission reduction goals for energy production operations. Specifically, they are: (1). Solving engineering problems to scale-up the SPS-HVOF delivery system to a prototype production sub-delivery system; (2). Produce ultrafine/nanocoatings using the scale-up prototype system; (3). Demonstrate the coated components using the scale-up device having superior properties. Proposed Phase II Tasks: In the original Phase II proposal, we have

  4. Pollen tube contents initiate ovule enlargement and enhance seed coat development without fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Ryushiro D.; Notaguchi, Michitaka; Nagahara, Shiori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Susaki, Daichi; Honma, Yujiro; Maruyama, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, pollen tubes carry two sperm cells toward the egg and central cells to complete double fertilization. In animals, not only sperm but also seminal plasma is required for proper fertilization. However, little is known regarding the function of pollen tube content (PTC), which is analogous to seminal plasma. We report that the PTC plays a vital role in the prefertilization state and causes an enlargement of ovules without fertilization. We termed this phenomenon as pollen tube–dependent ovule enlargement morphology and placed it between pollen tube guidance and double fertilization. Additionally, PTC increases endosperm nuclei without fertilization when combined with autonomous endosperm mutants. This finding could be applied in agriculture, particularly in enhancing seed formation without fertilization in important crops.

  5. Novel techniques and devices for in-situ film coatings of long, small diameter tubes or elliptical and other surface contours

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Joseph Michael; Fischer, Wolfram; Liaw, Chong -Jer; Meng, Wuzhang; Todd, Robert; Custer, Art; Dingus, Aaron; Erikson, Mark; Jamshidi, Nader; Poole, Henry Joe

    2015-07-30

    In this study, devices and techniques that can, via physical vapor deposition,coat various surface contours or very long small aperture pipes, are described. Recently, a magnetron mole was developed in order to in-situ coat accelerator tube sections of the Brookhaven National Lab relativistic heavy ion collider that have 7.1 cm diameter with access points that are 500 m apart, for copper coat the accelerator vacuum tube in order to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating and of electron clouds. A magnetron with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated and successfully operated to copper coat a whole assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, of the accelerator magnet tubing connected to two types bellows, to which two additional pipes made of accelerator tubing were connected. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system, which is enclosed in a flexible braided metal sleeve, is driven by a motorized spool. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate distance of less than 1.5 cm. Optimized process to ensure excellent adhesion was developed. Coating thickness of 10 μm Cu passed all industrial tests and even exceeded maximum capability of a 12 kg pull test fixture. Room temperature radio frequency (RF) resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel accelerator tube has conductivity close to copper tubing. Work is in progress to repeat the RF resistivity measurement at cryogenic temperatures. Over 20 years ago, a device using multi axis robotic manipulators controlling separate robotic assemblies resulted in nine-axes of motion combined with conformal shape of the

  6. Novel techniques and devices for in-situ film coatings of long, small diameter tubes or elliptical and other surface contours

    DOE PAGES

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Joseph Michael; Fischer, Wolfram; Liaw, Chong -Jer; Meng, Wuzhang; Todd, Robert; Custer, Art; Dingus, Aaron; Erikson, Mark; et al

    2015-07-30

    In this study, devices and techniques that can, via physical vapor deposition,coat various surface contours or very long small aperture pipes, are described. Recently, a magnetron mole was developed in order to in-situ coat accelerator tube sections of the Brookhaven National Lab relativistic heavy ion collider that have 7.1 cm diameter with access points that are 500 m apart, for copper coat the accelerator vacuum tube in order to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating and of electron clouds. A magnetron with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated and successfully operated to copper coat a whole assemblymore » containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, of the accelerator magnet tubing connected to two types bellows, to which two additional pipes made of accelerator tubing were connected. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system, which is enclosed in a flexible braided metal sleeve, is driven by a motorized spool. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate distance of less than 1.5 cm. Optimized process to ensure excellent adhesion was developed. Coating thickness of 10 μm Cu passed all industrial tests and even exceeded maximum capability of a 12 kg pull test fixture. Room temperature radio frequency (RF) resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel accelerator tube has conductivity close to copper tubing. Work is in progress to repeat the RF resistivity measurement at cryogenic temperatures. Over 20 years ago, a device using multi axis robotic manipulators controlling separate robotic assemblies resulted in nine-axes of motion combined with conformal

  7. 13. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Engine and boiler house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Engine and boiler house, ca. 1881. Locomotive-type, fire-tube, portable boiler, no. I model. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. 120 lbs./sq. in. working pressure, 66 sq. ft. heating surface in tubes. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. View shows engine and boiler house structure intact. The water and pressure gauge to the right of the boiler are in more complete condition than in 1978 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S. )

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  9. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S.

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  10. Heat-shrink tubing as a solid-phase microextraction coating for the enrichment and determination of phthalic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; He, Chengxia; Zhang, Feifang; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-12-01

    Heat-shrink tubing, which shrinks in one plane only (its diameter) when heated, commonly used for sealing protection in electrical engineering, was found to be able to function as a solid-phase microextraction coating. Its utility was demonstrated for the determination of phthalic acid esters in an aqueous solution combined with high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV absorbance detector. The preparation procedure was rather simple and only ∼10 min was needed. The fiber cost is extremely low (∼10 cent each). The parameters affecting the extraction were optimized. Heat-shrink tubing fiber exhibited a significant enrichment effect for the three examined phthalic acid esters and up to 931-fold enrichment factor was obtained. The limit of detection was <10 μg/L for all analytes. The operation repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were 1.2-8.3 and 5.4-9.1%, respectively. It was successfully applied for the analysis of bottled drinking water with recoveries ranging from 90.1-100.5%.

  11. Investigating the Inter-Tube Conduction Mechanism in Polycarbonate Nanocomposites Prepared with Conductive Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    A well-known strategy to improve the electrical conductivity of polymers is to dope them with high-aspect-ratio and conductive nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, these nanocomposites also exhibit undesirable properties such as damage-sensitive and history-dependent conductivity because their macroscopic electrical conductivity is largely determined by the tunneling effect at the tube/tube interface. To reduce these issues, new nanocomposites have been developed with CNTs that have been coated with a conductive layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). It has been posited that the insulating region between the CNTs is replaced by a conductive polymer bridge; this has not been proven up to now. We propose here to investigate in-depth how the macroscopic conductivity of these materials is changing when (1) varying the frequency of the electrical loading (impedance spectroscopy), (2) varying the mechanical hydrostatic pressure, and (3) varying the voltage of the electrical loading. The response is systematically compared to the one of conventional carbon nanotube/polycarbonate (CNT/PC) nanocomposites so we can clarify how efficiently the tunneling effect is suppressed from these composites. The objective is to elucidate further the mechanism for conduction in such material formulations.

  12. Investigating the Inter-Tube Conduction Mechanism in Polycarbonate Nanocomposites Prepared with Conductive Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    A well-known strategy to improve the electrical conductivity of polymers is to dope them with high-aspect-ratio and conductive nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, these nanocomposites also exhibit undesirable properties such as damage-sensitive and history-dependent conductivity because their macroscopic electrical conductivity is largely determined by the tunneling effect at the tube/tube interface. To reduce these issues, new nanocomposites have been developed with CNTs that have been coated with a conductive layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). It has been posited that the insulating region between the CNTs is replaced by a conductive polymer bridge; this has not been proven up to now. We propose here to investigate in-depth how the macroscopic conductivity of these materials is changing when (1) varying the frequency of the electrical loading (impedance spectroscopy), (2) varying the mechanical hydrostatic pressure, and (3) varying the voltage of the electrical loading. The response is systematically compared to the one of conventional carbon nanotube/polycarbonate (CNT/PC) nanocomposites so we can clarify how efficiently the tunneling effect is suppressed from these composites. The objective is to elucidate further the mechanism for conduction in such material formulations.

  13. Hydrogel Antimicrobial Capture Coatings for Endotracheal Tubes: A Pharmaceutical Strategy Designed to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Jones, David S; McCoy, Colin P; Andrews, Gavin P; McCrory, Roisin M; Gorman, Sean P

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia that involves coating poly(vinyl chloride, PVC) endotracheal tubes (ET) with hydrogels that may be subsequently used to entrap nebulized antimicrobial solutions. Candidate hydrogels were prepared containing a range of ratios of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) from 100:0 to 70:30 using free radical polymerization and, when required, simultaneous attachment to PVC was performed. The mechanical properties, glass transition temperatures, swelling kinetics, uptake of gentamicin from an aqueous medium, and gentamicin release were characterized. Increasing the MAA content of the hydrogels significantly decreased the ultimate tensile strength, % elongation at break, Young's modulus, and increased the glass transition temperature, the swelling ratio, and gentamicin uptake. Microbial (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) adherence to control (drug-free) hydrogels was observed; however, while adherence to gentamicin-containing p(HEMA) occurred, no adherence occurred to gentamicin-containing HEMA:MAA copolymers. Antimicrobial persistence of gentamicin-containing hydrogels was examined by determining the zone of inhibition against each microorganism on successive days. Hydrogel composition affected the observed antimicrobial persistence, with the hydrogel composed of 70:30 HEMA:MAA exhibiting >20 days persistence against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. To simulate clinical use, the hydrogels (coated onto PVC) were first exposed to a nebulized solution of gentamicin (4 mL, 80 mg for 20 min), and then to nebulized bacteria (4 mL ca. 1×10(9) colony forming units mL(-1), 30 min). Viable bacteria were not observed on the gentamicin-treated p(HEMA: MAA) copolymers, whereas growth was observed on gentamicin-treated p(HEMA). In light of the excellent antimicrobial activity and physicochemical properties, p(HEMA: MAA) copolymers composed of

  14. 9. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Locomotivetype, firetube, portable boiler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Locomotive-type, fire-tube, portable boiler, No. 1 model. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. 120 lbs/sq. inch working pressure, 66 sq. ft. heating surface in tubes. View: from side. The boiler provided steam for steam engine which in turn powered the mill's centrifugals. The section on the left side included the firebox with its surrounding water-legs. The fluted chimney-type structure is the steam port, safety valve, and whistle. Column projecting from side was part of steam pressure and water gauge. Pipe running above boiler carried steam to the engine. Pipe running below boiler provided the boiler feed-water. Cylindrical section included 22 fire-tube surrounded by water. The far right ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. 34. (Credit JTL) Front (north side) of three water tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. (Credit JTL) Front (north side) of three water tube boilers built by the Heine Safety Boiler Co. of St. Louis, Missouri in 1917; rebuilt in 1938. Front doors opened on center boiler to show water header and inspection plugs for water tubes. Smaller doors beneath open into firebox; boilers presently equipped for gas firing. Operating pressure approx. 150 psi (saturated steam). - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  16. 32. INTERIOR BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR - BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one of the boilers can be seen to the upper left. The large pipes in the foreground are all that remain of the distribution system. Most of the pipe and tubing have been stripped from the room and sold for scrap. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. Fossil-Fired Boilers

    1993-09-23

    Boiler Performance Model (BPM 3.0S) is a set of computer programs developed to analyze the performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, and can model coal, oil, or natural gas firing. The programs are intended for use by engineers performing analyses of alternative fuels, alternative operating modes, or boiler modifications.

  18. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  19. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical progress report, August 14, 1996--January 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. In the first six months of this project, bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The results of microstructural characterization of these alloys were presented in the first semiannual report. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. An increase in the volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to a significant increase in hardness of these composites.

  20. Tests of a TGM-96 boiler unit at higher than rated load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholshchev, V. V.

    2011-09-01

    Results of boiler tests are presented that were carried out at boiler loads up to 1.1 of its rated value, during which the steam superheater's temperature operating conditions were checked, and the parameters characterizing the quality of steam, feedwater, and boiler water were determined. Figures characterizing the longevity of steam superheater tubes are presented that were calculated taking into account the boiler operating mode with a higher-than-nominal load.

  1. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  2. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  3. Boiler chemical cleaning waste management manual

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.P.; Holcombe, L.J.; Owen, M.L.; Rohlack, L.A.; Stohs, M. )

    1992-08-01

    Boiler chemical cleaning waste is generated during power plant outages when the water-side of the boiler and condenser tubes are cleaned to remove built-up scale and corrosion products that reduce heat transfer efficiency. The cleaning agents are designed to remove scale and deposits; thus, the spent cleaning solutions contain dissolved and suspended metals such as iron and copper, with lesser amounts of chromium, magnesium, nickel and zinc. The alternatives for managing boiler chemical cleaning waste include strategies for minimizing the generation of the waste, pretreatment, physical/chemical treatment, ponding, evaporation in the boiler, contract disposal, and reuse in wet scrubbers. The selection of a particular management option will be influenced by the cleaning chemical used, tube metallurgy, environmental regulations, and particulars of the plant such as the facilities and equipment available for treatment and the plant physical layout. The continued evolution of air, water, and solid waste regulations will greatly influence the choices available for cleaning chemicals, vendors, and boiler cleaning waste management options. This manual presents cost information and detailed laboratory and field data on the options available for management of this waste stream.

  4. 46 CFR 52.15-5 - Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11). 52.15-5... BOILERS Requirements for Watertube Boilers § 52.15-5 Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11)....

  5. 46 CFR 52.15-5 - Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11). 52.15-5... BOILERS Requirements for Watertube Boilers § 52.15-5 Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11)....

  6. 46 CFR 52.15-5 - Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11). 52.15-5... BOILERS Requirements for Watertube Boilers § 52.15-5 Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11)....

  7. 46 CFR 52.15-5 - Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11). 52.15-5... BOILERS Requirements for Watertube Boilers § 52.15-5 Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11)....

  8. 46 CFR 52.15-5 - Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11). 52.15-5... BOILERS Requirements for Watertube Boilers § 52.15-5 Tube connections (modifies PWT-9 and PWT-11)....

  9. Resistance of Nanostructured Environmental Barrier Coatings to the Movement of Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S.; Frederick, L.; McDonald, A.

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion of components in a recovery boiler is a major problem faced by the pulp and paper industry. The superheater tubes become severely corroded due to the presence of sulfidic gases in the boiler and molten salts which are deposited on the surface of the tubes. As a result, the boiler must be decommissioned for expensive maintenance and repairs. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings have been shown to provide corrosion resistance when applied on gas turbines operating at high temperatures. Air plasma-sprayed YSZ environmental barrier coatings on Type 309 stainless steel were exposed to three different corrosive environments: Test A—600 °C, salt vapors, flue gases, 168 h; Test B—600 °C, molten salt, air, 168 h; and Test C—600 °C, molten salt, flue gases, 168 h. Two different types of YSZ coatings—conventional YSZ and nanostructured YSZ—were tested to study their resistance to corrosion and molten salt penetration. The performances of both types of coatings were evaluated, and a comparative study was conducted. It was found that the nanostructured YSZ samples protected the stainless steel substrate better than their conventional counterparts. This superior performance was attributed to the presence of semi-molten nano-agglomerates present in the coating microstructure, which acted as collection points for the penetrating molten salts.

  10. Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littwin, D. A.; McCurley, J.

    The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact package, a significant reduction in thermally induced stresses, double isolation of the steam from the heat source, an extended surface for improved efficiency in heat extraction, improved circulation and stability in the boiling regime, easy cleaning, individually replaceable tubes, and low flue gas pressure drop.

  11. Evaluating boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Coerper, P. )

    1995-01-09

    The packaged boiler continues to be one of the most cost-effective ways to generate steam and hot water. Selecting the right boiler equipment, however, requires a thorough evaluation according to several criteria: reviewing boiler types; comparing features and benefits; determining maintenance requirements; and determining fuel use requirements, also called boiler efficiency. The paper attempts to explain just what efficiency means and what data are used for its calculation. These data include: boiler stack temperature; fuel specification; excess air levels; ambient air temperature and relative humidity; and radiation and convection losses. The bottom line is to examine the five factors used in the efficiency calculation, then work with vendors who can point to projects where the stated efficiencies and stack temperatures are realized. Once a boiler is purchased, it is difficult to reverse the decision. Performing basic research before buying provides the highest efficiency boiler and the maximum return on one's investment.

  12. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  13. 33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  14. Boiler control systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.

    2005-07-01

    The book provides in-depth coverage on how to safely and reliably control the firing of a boiler. Regardless of the capacity or fuel, certain fundamental control systems are required for boiler control. Large utility systems are more complex due to the number of burners and the overall capacity and equipment. This book covers engineering details on control systems and provides specific examples of boiler control including configuration and tuning. References to requirements are based on the 2004 NFPA 85 along with other ISA standards. Detailed chapters cover: Boiler fundamentals including piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and a design basis checklist; Control of boilers, from strategies and bumpless transfer to interlock circuitry and final control elements; Furnace draft; Feedwater; Coal-fired boilers; Fuel and air control; Steam temperature; Burner management systems; Environment; and Control valve sizing. 2 apps.

  15. Interface reaction between nickel-base self-fluxing alloy coating and steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsubo, F.; Era, H.; Kishitake, K.

    2000-06-01

    The interface reaction between a nickel-base, self-fluxing alloy coating and a steel substrate has been investigated to examine the formation of “pores,” which are observed along the interface of used boiler tubes. It was found that lumpy precipitates form along the interface instead of pores after heating at high temperatures and that the precipitates are of Fe2B boride. The adhesion strength of the coating is not decreased by the formation of Fe2B precipitates along the interface because of the increase of the adhesion due to interdiffusion.

  16. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  17. Expert systems optimize boiler performance, extend plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Sarunac, N.

    2006-10-15

    Slagging and fouling of furnaces and boilers' convective pass top the list of costly coal plant O & M problems. Although sootblowing is a tried and true solution, running sootblowers too often can erode boiler tubes. Lehigh University's Energy Research Center has developed an 'expert' sootblowing system that has outperformed experienced operators' 'seat of their pants' sootblowing procedures on two head-to-head field tests. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 17. Internal view of boiler in steam space above return ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Internal view of boiler in steam space above return flues. View looks forward in ship toward fireboxes; tubes (flues) below carry hot combustion gases from return chamber to smoke chamber. From thence gasses flow through vertical pipe at left into steam stack, and eventually to ship's smokestack. Inclined and radiating straps are stays used to reinforce boiler plates against distortion under pressure. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  19. Production of Nanocrystalline Ni-20Cr Coatings for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Narinder

    2014-04-01

    Presynthesized nanocrystalline Ni-20Cr powder was deposited on SA 516 and T91 boiler steels by a high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying process. Ni-20Cr powder was synthesized by the ball milling approach. The high-temperature oxidation behavior of bare and coated samples was then studied under cyclic isothermal conditions at 900 °C for 50 cycles. The kinetics of oxidation was established using weight change measurements for the bare and coated boiler steels. Uncoated and coated samples of T91 steel were exposed to the superheated zone of a power plant boiler at 750 °C under cyclic conditions for 15 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 100 h of heating followed by 1 h of cooling. Attempts were made to study the kinetics of erosion-corrosion using weight change and thickness loss data for the samples. Different characterization techniques were used to study the oxidized and eroded-corroded samples, including x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray mapping analyses. The Ni-20Cr alloy powder coating was found to offer excellent oxidation resistance to the base steels and was successful in reducing the weight gain of SA 516 steel by 98.5 % and that of T91 steel by 65 %. The coating was observed to reduce the erosion-corrosion rate of T91 steel by 86 % in terms of thickness loss. This indicates that the investigated nanostructured coating can be a better choice over conventional coating for erosion-corrosion control of boiler tubes.

  20. Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Process Control Solutions, Inc.

    2004-01-30

    This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

  1. Production of carbon nano-tubes via CCVD method and their corrosion protection performance in epoxy based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, M. A.; Ghauri, F. A.; Awan, M. S.; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, R.

    2016-08-01

    Good yield of carbon products was obtained by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique using 100-500mg of ferrocene catalyst at temperature of 900 °C and acetylene flow rate of 150-200cc/min. The effects of amount of ferrocene, temperature and hydrocarbons precursors on the yield of carbon nanomaterial's was calculated and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) andenergy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Good yield of carbon nanomaterials primarily consisted of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanoparticles was obtained. CNTs obtained after purification were dispersed in epoxy resin to produce composite coatings which were coated on stainless steel 316L. The coated stainless steel samples’ corrosion behavior was studied using open circuit potential (OCP), cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Results showed that epoxy coating containing 4 wt. % of CNTs offered improved corrosion resistance to stainless steel.

  2. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to

  3. Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Characterization of underdeposit corrosion in boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, D.I.; Fan, J.C.; Kelly, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Tube failures in industrial boiler equipment represent a significant cost to manufacturing industries. it is important to investigate the reasons for a tube failure thoroughly. The techniques utilized in failure analysis include metallurgical analysis, physical and microscopic examination, and analysis of surface deposits together with a thorough review of the operation of the piece of equipment in the field. Over the past decade or so, a number of more advanced analytical techniques have come into common use, such as the Scanning Electronic Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM EDAX) which considerably improve their ability to determine the exact composition of surface deposits, providing more insight into the causes of failure.

  5. Improving boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, L.

    1982-06-24

    Boilers and burners are designed to operate most efficiently at, or near, full load. This fact seems to indicate that on/off operation is more efficient; however, standby losses must be considered. This article examines various types of industrial boiler heat losses that reduce efficiency and discusses methods for improving operation.

  6. Preparing hydroxyapatite-silicon composite suspensions with homogeneous distribution of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for electrophoretic coating of NiTi bone implant and their effect on the surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Xia, Wei; Parsa, Alireza B.; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-03-01

    Preparing a stable suspension is a main step towards the electrophoretically depositing of homogeneous and dense composite coatings on NiTi for its biomedical application. In the present study, different composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes were prepared using n-butanol and triethanolamine as media and dispersing agent, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were first functionalized in the nitric acid vapor for 15 h at 175 °C, and then mixed into suspensions. Thermal desorption spectroscopy profiles indicate the formation of functional groups on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes. An excellent suspension stability can be achieved for different amounts of triethanolamine. The amount of triethanolamine can be increased by adding a second component to a stable hydroxyapatite suspension due to an electrostatic interaction between components in suspension. The stability of composite suspension is less than that of the hydroxyapatite suspension, due to density differences, which under the gravitational force promote the demixing. The scanning electron microscopy images of the coatings surface show that more dense coatings are developed on NiTi substrate using electrophoretic deposition and sintering at 850 °C in the simultaneous presence of silicon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the hydroxyapatite coatings. The atomic force microscopy results of the coatings surface represent that composite coatings of hydroxyapatite-20 wt.% silicon and hydroxyapatite-20 wt.% silicon-1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nano-tubes with low zeta potential have rougher surfaces.

  7. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  8. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB`s.

  9. 68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. SPACE HEATING BOILER S REPLACED ORIGINAL 8 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE STEAM POWER BOILERS. THE ORIGINAL SHEET METAL FLUE IS IN THE UPPER CENTER. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  10. 39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler casing in background, boiler feedwater pumps and feedwater heater in middle ground; hot well on columns in left foreground. Steam lines from boilers to high service engines pass overhead. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  11. Antimicrobial activity of silica coated silicon nano-tubes (SCSNT) and silica coated silicon nano-particles (SCSNP) synthesized by gas phase condensation.

    PubMed

    Tank, Chiti; Raman, Sujatha; Karan, Sujoy; Gosavi, Suresh; Lalla, Niranjan P; Sathe, Vasant; Berndt, Richard; Gade, W N; Bhoraskar, S V; Mathe, Vikas L

    2013-06-01

    Silica-coated, silicon nanotubes (SCSNTs) and silica-coated, silicon nanoparticles (SCSNPs) have been synthesized by catalyst-free single-step gas phase condensation using the arc plasma process. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy showed that SCSNTs exhibited a wall thickness of less than 1 nm, with an average diameter of 14 nm and a length of several 100 nm. Both nano-structures had a high specific surface area. The present study has demonstrated cheaper, resistance-free and effective antibacterial activity in silica-coated silicon nano-structures, each for two Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was estimated, using the optical densitometric technique, and by determining colony-forming units. The MIC was found to range in the order of micrograms, which is comparable to the reported MIC of metal oxides for these bacteria. SCSNTs were found to be more effective in limiting the growth of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus over SCSNPs at 10 μg/ml (IC 50 = 100 μg/ml).

  12. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  13. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-7.9 Boilers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains nine modules covering boilers. The modules provide information on the following topics: fire and water tube types of boilers, construction, fittings, operation, cleaning, heat recovery systems, instruments and controls, and…

  14. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  15. Photoemissive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Polystyrene coating is applied to holographic storage tube substrate via glow discharge polymerization in an inert environment. After deposition of styrene coating, antimony and then cesium are added to produce photoemissive layer. Technique is utilized in preparing perfectly organized polymeric films useful as single-crystal membranes.

  16. Lead determination at ng/mL level by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a tantalum coated slotted quartz tube atom trap.

    PubMed

    Demirtaş, İlknur; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) still keeps its importance despite the relatively low sensitivity; because it is a simple and economical technique for determination of metals. In recent years, atom traps have been developed to increase the sensitivity of FAAS. Although the detection limit of FAAS is only at the level of µg/mL, with the use of atom traps it can reach to ng/mL. Slotted quartz tube (SQT) is one of the atom traps used to improve sensitivity. In atom trapping mode of SQT, analyte is trapped on-line in SQT for few minutes using ordinary sample aspiration, followed by the introduction of a small volume of organic solvent to effect the revolatilization and atomization of analyte species resulting in a transient signal. This system is economical, commercially available and easy to use. In this study, a sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of lead with the help of SQT atom trapping flame atomization (SQT-AT-FAAS). 574 Fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained at a sample suction rate of 3.9 mL/min for 5.0 min trapping period with respect to FAAS. Organic solvent was selected as 40 µL of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). To obtain a further sensitivity enhancement inner surface of SQT was coated with several transition metals. The best sensitivity enhancement, 1650 fold enhancement, was obtained by the Ta-coated SQT-AT-FAAS. In addition, chemical nature of Pb species trapped on quartz and Ta surface, and the chemical nature of Ta on quartz surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. Raman spectrometric results indicate that tantalum is coated on SQT surface in the form of Ta2O5. XPS studies revealed that the oxidation state of Pb in species trapped on both bare and Ta coated SQT surfaces is +2. For the accuracy check, the analyses of standard reference material were performed by use of SCP SCIENCE EnviroMAT Low (EU-L-2) and results for Pb were to be in good agreement with

  17. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A.

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  18. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F.

    1990-01-01

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  19. Workshop proceedings: U-bend tube cracking in steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, C. E.

    1981-06-01

    A design to reduce the rate of tube failure in high pressure feedwater heaters, a number of failed drawn and stress relieved Monel 400 U-bend tubes removed from three high pressure feedwater heaters was examined. Steam extracted from the turbine is used to preheat the boiler feedwater in fossil fuel fired steam plants to improve thermal efficiency. This is accomplished in a series of heaters between the condenser hot well and the boiler. The heaters closest to the boiler handle water at high pressure and temperature. Because of the severe service conditions, high pressure feedwater heaters are frequently tubed with drawn and stress relieved Monel 400.

  20. Study of the HVOF Ni-Based Coatings' Corrosion Resistance Applied on Municipal Solid-Waste Incinerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilemany, J. M.; Torrell, M.; Miguel, J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Oxidation of exchanger steel tubes causes important problems in Municipal Solid-Waste Incinerator (MSWI) plants. The present paper shows a possible solution for this problem through High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings. A comparative study was carried out between powder and wire Ni-based thermal spray coatings (with the same composition). These optimized coatings were compared based on their microstructure, wear properties (ASTM G99-90, ASTM G65-91), and erosion-corrosion (E-C) resistance. An E-C test designed in the Thermal Spray Centre was performed to reproduce the mechanisms that take place in a boiler. Studying the results of this test, the wire HVT Inconel coating sprayed by propylene appears to be the best alternative. A commercial bulk material with a composition similar to Ni-based coatings was tested to find the products of the oxidation reactions. The protective mechanisms of these materials were assessed after studying the results obtained for HVOF coatings and the bulk material where the presence of nickel and chromium oxides as a corrosion product can be seen. Kinetic evolution of the Ni-based coatings can be studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The protection that Inconel coatings give to the tube through the difference of the gain mass can be seen. Ni-based HVOF coatings by both spray conditions are a promising alternative to MSWI protection against chlorine environments, and their structures have a very important role.

  1. Properties and microstructure of the Ru-coated carbon nano tube counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeungjo; Yu, Byungkwan; Noh, Yunyoung; Suh, Young Joon; Kim, Moon J; Yoo, Kicheon; Ko, Min Jae; Song, Ohsung

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the ruthenium (Ru) coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the counter electrode (CE). High purity MWCNT (0.01~0.06 g) was sprayed on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Then 30 nm-thick Ru thin films were coated on a MWCNT template at low temperature by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using RuDi and O2 as precursor to prepare Ru-CNT CE and the 0.45 cm2 DSSC device of glass/FTO/TiO2/Dye (N719)/electrolyte (C6DMII, GSCN)/Ru-CNT CE was fabricated. The surface morphology of CEs and the energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC device were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurement. We confirmed that effective surface of the CE increased linearly as the amount of MWCNT spray increased and the crystallized Ru was deposited very conformally around the MWCNT nano template. Moreover, the efficiency of the DSSC increased up to 3.3% as the amount of MWCNT increased. PMID:25936072

  2. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  3. DETAIL OF BOILER, SHOWING (TOP TO BOTTOM) ENDS OF STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF BOILER, SHOWING (TOP TO BOTTOM) ENDS OF STEAM CHAMBERS, DOORS GIVING ACCESS TO TUBING, AND SIX BURNERS, CAMERA FACING WEST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  6. View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube boiler showing steam drum inspection manhole and blow-down valve. Note inspection plugs for water tubes in tube header below drum. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  8. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xingbo

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  9. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER HOUSE WAS USED FOR HEATING THE MILL; HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER FOR PRODUCTION WAS PURCHASED FROM THE COLUMBUS LIGHT & POWER COMPANY. NORTH END OF 1924 MILL TO RIGHT, c. 1970 WINDOWLESS WEAVE ROOM ADDITION TO LEFT. - Stark Mill, Boiler House, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  10. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  11. 11. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Locomotive=type, firetube, portable boiler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Locomotive=type, fire-tube, portable boiler, model No. 1, Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. 120 lbs./sq. in. working pressure, 66 sq. ft. heating surface in tubes. View: the boiler provided steam for steam engine which in turn powered the centrifugals. View shows front fire box, end of boiler. Below fire-box,used for removing ashes, is a door. Circular openings at the rear of the fire-box are where fire-tubes connected with furnace. Column to right of fire-box carried pressure and water level gauges. Fluted chimney-type structure is steam-port, safety valve, and whistle. Weights originally sat on the arm extending from the top of the port and controlled the boiler pressure. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  13. Making Internal Molds Of Long, Curved Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    Mold material carried to internal weld joint and removed after impression taken. Remotely operated device makes impression mold of interior surface of tube at weld joint. Mold provides indication of extent of mismatch between members at joint. Maneuvered to weld inspected through curved tube 3 in. in diameter by 50 in. long. Readily adapted to making molds to measure depth of corrosion in boiler tubes or other pipes.

  14. Characterization and High-Temperature Erosion Behaviour of HVOF Thermal Spray Cermet Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2016-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray, carbide-cermet-based coatings are usually employed in high-temperature erosive and erosive-corrosive environments. Extensive literature is available on high-temperature erosion performance of HVOF coatings under moderate to low particle flux and velocities for application in boiler tubes. This research work presents the characterization and high-temperature erosion behaviour of Cr3C2-25NiCr and WC-10Co-4Cr HVOF-sprayed coatings. Coatings were formulated on the substrate steel of type AISI 304, commonly used for the fabrication of pulverized coal burner nozzles (PCBN). Erosion testing was carried out in high-temperature air-jet erosion tester after simulating the conditions akin to that prevailing in PCBN in the boiler furnace. The coatings were tested for erosion behaviour at different angles and temperatures by freezing other test parameters. Brittle erosion behaviour was depicted in erosion testing, and the coatings couldn't restrain the erodent attacks to protect the substrate. High particle velocity and high particle flux were attributed to be the reasons of extensive erosive weight loss of the coatings. The surface morphology of the eroded specimens was analysed from back-scattered electron images to depict the probable mechanism of material removal. The coatings were characterized with optical microscopy, SEM-EDS analysis, XRD analysis, micro-hardness testing, porosity measurements, surface roughness testing and bond strength testing. The work was undertaken to investigate the performance of the selected coatings in highly erosive environment, so as to envisage their application in PCBNs for protection against material degradation. The coatings could only sustain in oblique impact erosion at room temperature and depleted fully under all other conditions.

  15. Boiler chemical cleaning waste management manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.P.; Holcombe, L.J.; Owen, M.L.; Rohlack, L.A.; Stohs, M.

    1992-08-01

    Boiler chemical cleaning waste is generated during power plant outages when the water-side of the boiler and condenser tubes are cleaned to remove built-up scale and corrosion products that reduce heat transfer efficiency. The cleaning agents are designed to remove scale and deposits; thus, the spent cleaning solutions contain dissolved and suspended metals such as iron and copper, with lesser amounts of chromium, magnesium, nickel and zinc. The alternatives for managing boiler chemical cleaning waste include strategies for minimizing the generation of the waste, pretreatment, physical/chemical treatment, ponding, evaporation in the boiler, contract disposal, and reuse in wet scrubbers. The selection of a particular management option will be influenced by the cleaning chemical used, tube metallurgy, environmental regulations, and particulars of the plant such as the facilities and equipment available for treatment and the plant physical layout. The continued evolution of air, water, and solid waste regulations will greatly influence the choices available for cleaning chemicals, vendors, and boiler cleaning waste management options. This manual presents cost information and detailed laboratory and field data on the options available for management of this waste stream.

  16. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  17. Computer method for identification of boiler transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    An iterative computer method is described for identifying boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. An objective penalized performance measure and a nonlinear minimization technique are used to cause the locus of points generated by a transfer function to resemble the locus of points obtained from frequency response measurements. Different transfer functions can be tried until a satisfactory empirical transfer function to the system is found. To illustrate the method, some examples and some results from a study of a set of data consisting of measurements of the inlet impedance of a single tube forced flow boiler with inserts are given.

  18. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  19. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  20. Preparation of chitosan nanofiber tube by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Kagata, Go; Kino, Rikako; Tanaka, Junzo

    2007-03-01

    Water-insoluble chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes coated with chitosan-cast film were prepared by electrospinning. When as-spun chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were immersed in 28% ammonium aqueous solution, they became insoluble in water and showed nanofiber structures confirmed by SEM micrography. Mechanical properties of chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were improved by coating with chitosan-cast film, which gave them a compressive strength higher than that of crab-tendon chitosan, demonstrating that chitosan nanofiber tubes coated with chitosan-cast film are usable as nerve-regenerative guide tubes.

  1. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  2. New technique of the local heat flux measurement in combustion chambers of steam boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Dzierwa, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    A new method for measurement of local heat flux to water-walls of steam boilers was developed. A flux meter tube was made from an eccentric tube of short length to which two longitudinal fins were attached. These two fins prevent the boiler setting from heating by a thermal radiation from the combustion chamber. The fins are not welded to the adjacent water-wall tubes, so that the temperature distribution in the heat flux meter is not influenced by neighbouring water-wall tubes. The thickness of the heat flux tube wall is larger on the fireside to obtain a greater distance between the thermocouples located inside the wall which increases the accuracy of heat flux determination. Based on the temperature measurements at selected points inside the heat flux meter, the heat flux absorbed by the water-wall, heat transfer coefficient on the inner tube surface and temperature of the water-steam mixture was determined.

  3. High-Temperature Graphitization Failure of Primary Superheater Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Mandal, N.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Failure of boiler tubes is the main cause of unit outages of the plant, which further affects the reliability, availability and safety of the unit. So failure analysis of boiler tubes is absolutely essential to predict the root cause of the failure and the steps are taken for future remedial action to prevent the failure in near future. This paper investigates the probable cause/causes of failure of the primary superheater tube in a thermal power plant boiler. Visual inspection, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, metallographic examination and hardness measurement are conducted as the part of the investigative studies. Apart from these tests, mechanical testing and fractographic analysis are also conducted as supplements. Finally, it is concluded that the superheater tube is failed due to graphitization for prolonged exposure of the tube at higher temperature.

  4. Boiler modeling optimizes sootblowing

    SciTech Connect

    Piboontum, S.J.; Swift, S.M.; Conrad, R.S.

    2005-10-01

    Controlling the cleanliness and limiting the fouling and slagging of heat transfer surfaces are absolutely necessary to optimize boiler performance. The traditional way to clean heat-transfer surfaces is by sootblowing using air, steam, or water at regular intervals. But with the advent of fuel-switching strategies, such as switching to PRB coal to reduce a plant's emissions, the control of heating surface cleanliness has become more problematic for many owners of steam generators. Boiler modeling can help solve that problem. The article describes Babcock & Wilcox's Powerclean modeling system which consists of heating surface models that produce real-time cleanliness indexes. The Heat Transfer Manager (HTM) program is the core of the system, which can be used on any make or model of boiler. A case study is described to show how the system was successfully used at the 1,350 MW Unit 2 of the American Electric Power's Rockport Power Plant in Indiana. The unit fires a blend of eastern bituminous and Powder River Basin coal. 5 figs.

  5. Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

  6. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  7. Recent developments on corrosion-resistant diffusion coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, S.C.; Rapp, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process has been used to grow corrosion-resistant diffusion coatings for a variety of traditional and advanced materials. Further understanding of the thermodynamics for packs activated by a selected pair of halide salts has led to the codeposition of two elements to form adherent coatings with compositions resistant to cyclic oxidation and other corrosion attack. The coating method has been applied in various novel ways to protect advanced materials. For example, different schemes are presented to create effective coatings for the application of materials for hot-gas cleanup and heat-exchanger tubes in combined-cycle coal-fired power generating systems. Likewise, developmental refractory-metal aluminides have been protected by either aluminizing or siliciding. The protection of Mo by a pack-grown Mo(Si,Ge){sub 2} coating may eliminate the occurrence of pesting in low-temperature oxidation. Traditional steels for boiler applications can be protected by the codeposition of Cr and Si to grow a ferrite surface layer with an approximate composition of Fe-25Cr-3Si. Alternatively, the codeposition of Al and Cr can yield a very corrosion-resistant composition of Fe{sub 3}(Al,Cr).

  8. BOILER HOUSE, WITH 1947 BOILER IN LEFT FOREGROUND. SQUARE METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILER HOUSE, WITH 1947 BOILER IN LEFT FOREGROUND. SQUARE METAL WATER TANK IN MIDDLE AND INGERSOLL-RAND RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR AND ALLIS-CHALMERS 75 HORSE POWER MOTOR IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  9. Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are on right. HAER Engineer/Historian Donald C. Jackson on right is interviewing Garry Dobbins concerning operation of the facility. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  10. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  11. Laser processing of high-chromium nickel-chromium coatings deposited by various thermal spraying methods

    SciTech Connect

    Longa, Y.; Takemoto, M. . Coll. of Science and Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    High-chromium Ni-Cr coatings were deposited by thermal spraying in air and in an argon gas atmosphere. Coatings sprayed in Ar gas were free of pores and defects and of the same chemical composition as the spraying material. Following thermal spraying for each coating, laser glazing or laser gas alloying was applied to provide a protective chromium oxide film, produced by the intermediate oxidation process on top of the coatings. Five types of coatings were treated: (1) arc and (2) flame spraying in Ar, (3) arc and (4) flame spraying in air, and (5) low-pressure plasma spraying (LPPS). Oxide formation mechanisms during laser processing were studied, and the oxidation and hot-corrosion resistance of the coatings in the presence of a sulfate-vanadate fused salt at 900 C in air were examined. High-chromium Ni-Cr coatings deposited by thermal spraying, and they are used mostly to prevent ash attack of boilers and furnace tubes in power plants and oil refineries.

  12. Carbon granule probe microphone for leak detection. [recovery boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microphone which is not subject to corrosion is provided by employing carbon granules to sense sound waves. The granules are packed into a ceramic tube and no diaphragm is used. A pair of electrodes is located in the tube adjacent the carbon granules and are coupled to a sensing circuit. Sound waves cause pressure changes on the carbon granules which results in a change in resistance in the electrical path between the electrodes. This change in resistance is detected by the sensing circuit. The microphone is suitable for use as a leak detection probe in recovery boilers, where it provides reliable operation without corrosion problems associated with conventional microphones.

  13. Studies on Hot Corrosion of the 2.25 Cr-1Mo Boiler Tube Steel and Its Weldments in the Molten Salt Na2SO4-60 pct V2O5 Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravindra; Tewari, V. K.; Prakash, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hot corrosion is mainly due to the dissolution of protective oxides in the molten salt at the metal surface and their reprecipitation at some other sites as nonprotective porous mass. The hot corrosion attack along the grain boundaries leading to subsurface precipitation of oxides and sulfides also contributes to weakening of material. Ferritic steel with 2.25Cr 1Mo is used widely as a candidate material in the steam generating system of power plants. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on 2.25Cr-1Mo unwelded as well as welded steel specimens with molten salt coated after exposure at 900 °C under cyclic conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (SEM/EDAX) was used to analyze the corrosion products.

  14. TUBE TESTER

    DOEpatents

    Gittings, H.T. Jr.; Kalbach, J.F.

    1958-01-14

    This patent relates to tube testing, and in particular describes a tube tester for automatic testing of a number of vacuum tubes while in service and as frequently as may be desired. In it broadest aspects the tube tester compares a particular tube with a standard tube tarough a difference amplifier. An unbalanced condition in the circuit of the latter produced by excessive deviation of the tube in its characteristics from standard actuates a switch mechanism stopping the testing cycle and indicating the defective tube.

  15. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  16. Measurements of absorbed heat flux and water-side heat transfer coefficient in water wall tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    The tubular type instrument (flux tube) was developed to identify boundary conditions in water wall tubes of steam boilers. The meter is constructed from a short length of eccentric tube containing four thermocouples on the fire side below the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. The fifth thermocouple is located at the rear of the tube on the casing side of the water-wall tube. The boundary conditions on the outer and inner surfaces of the water flux-tube are determined based on temperature measurements at the interior locations. Four K-type sheathed thermocouples of 1 mm in diameter, are inserted into holes, which are parallel to the tube axis. The non-linear least squares problem is solved numerically using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The heat transfer conditions in adjacent boiler tubes have no impact on the temperature distribution in the flux tubes.

  17. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  18. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  19. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  20. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  1. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  2. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  3. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section...

  5. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section...

  8. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  9. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10...

  10. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10...

  11. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10...

  12. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10...

  13. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10...

  14. Boiler fuel from waste.

    PubMed

    Finch, T A; Lowe, C J

    1986-05-01

    This article describes a unique, self-initiated scheme for the installation of a new boiler at Chorley and District Hospital fueled by waste. The system described is applicable to smaller sites and, since it answers many of the traditional incineration/heat recovery problems, the principle employed is relevant for all sizes of plant. Several Regional Health Authorities have already visited the site and shown a high degree of interest in this pilot project, Terry Finch, the Works Officer, previously worked for Preston Health Authority. He won the Institute of Hospital Engineering's Energy Conservation Competition in 1980. Chris Lowe has worked in hospitals in Chorley for over twelve years and has contributed to many innovative projects throughout that time. PMID:10278901

  15. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of at... wasted portion with a new section. The ligaments between the tube holes may be joined by means of...

  16. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of at... wasted portion with a new section. The ligaments between the tube holes may be joined by means of...

  17. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of at... wasted portion with a new section. The ligaments between the tube holes may be joined by means of...

  18. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of at... wasted portion with a new section. The ligaments between the tube holes may be joined by means of...

  19. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of at... wasted portion with a new section. The ligaments between the tube holes may be joined by means of...

  20. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, William

    2011-12-01

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through

  1. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1994-04-21

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterwalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds.

  2. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  3. Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

    Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

  4. INDUSTRIAL BOILER RETROFIT FOR NOX CONTROL: COMBINED SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes retrofitting and testing a 590 kW (2 MBtu/hr), oil-fired, three-pass, fire-tube package boiler with a combined selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The system demonstrated 85% nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction w...

  5. Accelerated aging tests on ENEA-ASE solar coating for receiver tube suitable to operate up to 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonaia, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Esposito, S.; Addonizio, M. L.; Castaldo, A.; Ferrara, M.; Guglielmo, A.; Maccari, A.

    2016-05-01

    A patented solar coating for evacuated receiver, based on innovative graded WN-AlN cermet layer, has been optically designed and optimized to operate at high temperature with high performance and high thermal stability. This solar coating, being designed to operate in solar field with molten salt as heat transfer fluid, has to be thermally stable up to the maximum temperature of 550 °C. With the aim of determining degradation behaviour and lifetime prediction of the solar coating, we chose to monitor the variation of the solar absorptance αs after each thermal annealing cycle carried out at accelerated temperatures under vacuum. This prediction method was coupled with a preliminary Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) in order to give evidence for any chemical-physical coating modification in the temperature range of interest before performing accelerated aging tests. In the accelerated aging tests we assumed that the temperature dependence of the degradation processes could be described by Arrhenius behaviour and we hypothesized that a linear correlation occurs between optical parameter variation rate (specifically, Δαs/Δt) and degradation process rate. Starting from Δαs/Δt values evaluated at 650 and 690 °C, Arrhenius plot gave an activation energy of 325 kJ mol-1 for the degradation phenomenon, where the prediction on the coating degradation gave a solar absorptance decrease of only 1.65 % after 25 years at 550 °C. This very low αs decrease gave evidence for an excellent stability of our solar coating, also when employed at the maximum temperature (550 °C) of a solar field operating with molten salt as heat transfer fluid.

  6. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  7. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  8. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pressure boiler means a packaged boiler that is: (1) A steam boiler designed to operate at a steam pressure... steam boiler designed to operate at or below a steam pressure of 15 psig; or (2) A hot water boiler... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers....

  9. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure boiler means a packaged boiler that is: (1) A steam boiler designed to operate at a steam pressure... steam boiler designed to operate at or below a steam pressure of 15 psig; or (2) A hot water boiler... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers....

  10. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pressure boiler means a packaged boiler that is: (1) A steam boiler designed to operate at a steam pressure... steam boiler designed to operate at or below a steam pressure of 15 psig; or (2) A hot water boiler... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers....

  11. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pressure boiler means a packaged boiler that is: (1) A steam boiler designed to operate at a steam pressure... steam boiler designed to operate at or below a steam pressure of 15 psig; or (2) A hot water boiler... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers....

  12. Optimization of creep properties of welded header-stub tube connection for lif extension

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, R.; Cunningham, G.; Roberts, B.

    1996-12-31

    The failure of boiler tubes is the predominant cause of boiler outages. From a life-extension point of view, the critical components are large diameter thick-wall high-temperature headers. The primary aim of this research is to numerically analyze the stresses in the boiler tube-header weld connection and study the behavior of the material as it creeps. The focus is on the initial thermoelastic stresses at the beginning of operation and the distribution of stresses after approximately twenty years of operation when the stresses have relaxed. The study calculates creep life fractions of the assembly after twenty years of service.

  13. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IVHeating Boilers VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers... examined at any Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and...

  14. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IVHeating Boilers VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers... examined at any Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and...

  15. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IVHeating Boilers VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers... examined at any Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and...

  16. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IVHeating Boilers VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers... examined at any Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and...

  17. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IVHeating Boilers VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers... examined at any Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and...

  18. Program to Train Boiler Operators Developed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This program initiated by Nalco Chemical, a major supplier of chemicals for boiler feedwater treatment, uses texts, audiovisual aids, and hands-on experience and is designed to boost the efficiency of boiler operators. (BB)

  19. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  20. PREDICTION OF OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN STEAM TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation results are presented for the prediction of the likelihood of oxide scale exfoliation from superheater tubes. The scenarios considered involved alloys T22, TP347H, and TP347HFG subjected to a simplified operating cycle in a power plant generating supercritical steam. The states of stress and strain of the oxides grown in steam were based solely on modeling the various phenomena experienced by superheater tubes during boiler operation, current understanding of the oxidation behavior of each alloy in steam, and consideration of operating parameters such as heat flux, tube dimensions, and boiler duty cycle. Interpretation of the evolution of strain in these scales, and the approach to conditions where scale failure (hence exfoliation) is expected, makes use of the type of Exfoliation Diagrams that incorporate various cracking and exfoliation criteria appropriate for the system considered. In these diagrams, the strain accumulation with time in an oxide is represented by a strain trajectory derived from the net strain resulting from oxide growth, differences in coefficients of thermal expansion among the components, and relaxation due to creep. It was found that an oxide growing on a tube subjected to routine boiler load cycling conditions attained relatively low values of net strain, indicating that oxide failure would not be expected to occur during normal boiler operation. However, during a boiler shut-down event, strains sufficient to exceed the scale failure criteria were developed after times reasonably in accord with plant experience, with the scales on the ferritic steel failing in tension, and those on the austenitic steels in compression. The results presented illustrate that using this approach to track the state of strain in the oxide scale through all phases of boiler operation, including transitions from full-to-low load and shut-down events, offers the possibility of identifying the phase(s) of boiler operation during which oxide

  1. Comparative characteristic and erosion behavior of NiCr coatings deposited by various high-velocity oxyfuel spray processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the mechanical properties and microstructure details at the interface of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF)-sprayed NiCr-coated boiler tube steels, namely ASTM-SA-210 grade A1, ASTM-SA213-T-11, and ASTM-SA213-T-22. Coatings were developed by two different techniques, and in these techniques liquefied petroleum gas was used as the fuel gas. First, the coatings were characterized by metallographic, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, surface roughness, and microhardness, and then were subjected to erosion testing. An attempt has been made to describe the transformations taking place during thermal spraying. It is concluded that the HVOF wire spraying process offers a technically viable and cost-effective alternative to HVOF powder spraying process for applications in an energy generation power plant with a point view of life enhancement and to minimize the tube failures because it gives a coating having better resistance to erosion.

  2. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  3. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  4. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  9. Hydrodynamic analysis and calculation of metal temperature distribution in spiral water wall of ultra supercritical tower boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengwu; Yang, Dong; Yao, Danhua; Zhu, Yufeng; Xu, Xueyuan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the spiral water wall system of a 1000MW ultra supercritical tower boiler is simplified as a network system, consisting of circuits, pressure grids and connecting tubes. The establishment of the mathematical model for calculating the mass flux distribution and metal temperature in water wall is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The water wall flow distribution and temperature profile of the boiler were computed. The result shows that the differences of outlet temperature and mass flux are small in spiral tube water wall at BMCR, 75%BMCR load and 40%BMCR load. The metal temperatures are all in the allowable ranger.

  10. [Development of salicylic acid detector tube].

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Fujio; Kirihara, Miho; Ishiwata, Tetsuya; Yashiki, Mikio; Namera, Akira; Nishida, Manami; Kimura, Kojiro

    2004-04-01

    A detector tube was successfully devised for the screening of salicylic acid in urine. It, named "salicylic acid detector tube", consists of glass tube in which silica gel coated with 5% (w/w) of ferric chloride is enclosed. A pipette rubber cap was attached to an end of the tube, and another end was inserted into urine sample. The sample was then introduced into the tube, the color of the reagent immediately turned purple under the condition of more than 50 microg/ml of salicylic acid in urine. This device was useful for the emergency screening of salicylic acid in acute poisoning cases with aspirin.

  11. SNAP-8 refractory boiler development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Performance and endurance tests of the SNAP-8, SN-1 refractory metal boiler are described. The tests were successful and indicated that the boiler heat transfer area could be reduced significantly primarily because of the wetting characteristics of mercury on tantalum in a contaminant-free environment. A continuous endurance test of more than 10,000 hours was conducted without noticeable change in the thermal performance of the boiler. A conclusion of the metallographic examination of the boiler following the endurance test was that expected boiler life would be of the order of 40,000 hours at observed corrosion rates.

  12. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  13. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  14. Identification of boiler inlet transfer functions and estimation of system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    An iterative computer method is described for identifying boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. An objective penalized performance measure and a nonlinear minimization technique are used to cause the locus of points generated by a transfer function to resemble the locus of points obtained from frequency response measurements. Different transfer functions can be tried until a satisfactory empirical transfer function of the system is found. To illustrate the method, some examples and some results from a study of a set of data consisting of measurements of the inlet impedance of a single tube forced flow boiler with inserts are given.

  15. Cleaning of boiler heating surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maidanik, M. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2006-09-15

    Basic methods and facilities for the external cleaning of the heating surfaces of boilers designed for the combustion of low-grade solid fuels are discussed. Water and steam blastings, which are the basic means of cleaning furnace shields, and semi-radiative and convective heating surfaces have the greatest range of application.

  16. Development of a reburning boiler process model

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.T.

    1992-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to integrate EER's expertise in boiler reburning performance evaluation into a package of analytical computer tools. Specific objectives of the program are to develop a computational capability with the following features: (1) can be used to predict the impact of gas reburning application on thermal conditions in the boiler radiant furnace, and on overall boiler performance; (2) can estimate gas reburning NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness based on specific reburning configurations and furnace/boiler configurations; (3) can be used as an analytical tool to evaluate the impact of boiler process parameters (e.g., fuel switching and changes in boiler operating conditions) on boiler thermal performance; (4) is adaptable to most boiler designs (tangential and wall fire boilers) and a variety of fuels (solid, liquid, gaseous and slurried fuels); (5) is sufficiently user friendly to be exercisable by engineers with a reasonable knowledge of boilers, and with reasonable computer skills. Here, user friendly'' means that the user will be guided by computer codes during the course of setting up individual input files for the boiler performance model.

  17. Development of a solid waste fired fluidized boiler, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuit, L. C.

    1982-02-01

    Tests were conducted to develop solid waste fired fluid bed boiler (FBB) technology. The fluid bed facility incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and can burn over seven tons of refuse derived fuel per day. Municipal solid waste from surrounding communities is shredded and air classified to remove inerts and recoverable materials. Current and past work shows that a fluid bed boiler will be able to operate at excess air levels well below those presently required by conventional grate-type waste fired boilers, and with comparable or superior combustion efficiencies. Tests were conducted to investigate: the range of process conditions over which satisfactory operation can be maintained; suppression of acid gas emissions; recycle of elutriated fines back to the fluid bed; and fuel technology. In previous testing, operation was stable while firing refuse derived fuel for the duration of a 300-hour test. No agglomeration of bed material or slag formation was experienced. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluid bed combustion.

  18. Coated particle waste form development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oma, K. H.; Buckwalter, C. Q.; Chick, L. A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms were developed as part of the multibarrier concept. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed coaters, screw agitated coaters, and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders of magnitude increase in chemical durability.

  19. Turndown studies for utility fluidized-bed boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Divilio, R.J.; Reed, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains a series of analyses that evaluate the turndown potential of the EPRI 6 x 6 test facility and the TVA 20 MW FBC pilot plant by variation of the fluidization velocity. The basis of the analyses is a heat balance program that incorporates basic principles of thermodynamics and fluidization. The heat balance program is used to explain the interrelationship of operating variables of a fluidized-bed boiler and to predict the steady state operating conditions of the boilers over a range of loads. Turndown analyses were performed on two tube bundle designs for the EPRI 6 x 6 test unit including a nine drawer tube bundle designed for 8 ft/sec operation and a twelve drawer bundle for operation up to 12 ft/sec. This twelve drawer bundle was found to have reasonable turndown characteristics between 4 and 12 ft/sec. At a 20 inch static bed depth, for example, this bundle should operate between 1545 and 1620/sup 0/F at 3.2% O/sub 2/ for loads from 4 to 12 ft/sec. In addition to the two bundles studies, a tube bundle capable of a 3:1 turndown range with a minimum temperature variation was designed for the 6 x 6 test facility. The tube bundle for the TVA 20 MW pilot plant was found to have excellent turndown characteristics between 4 and 8 ft/sec. For example, a 21 inch static bed should allow operation between 1541 and 1575/sup 0/F bed temperature at 3% O/sub 2/.

  20. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwani, A

    1990-12-31

    A spectral element method embodying Large Eddy Simulation based on Re- Normalization Group theory for simulating Sub Grid Scale viscosity was chosen for this work. This method is embodied in a computer code called NEKTON. NEKTON solves the unsteady, 2D or 3D,incompressible Navier Stokes equations by a spectral element method. The code was later extended to include the variable density and multiple reactive species effects at low Mach numbers, and to compute transport of large particles governed by inertia. Transport of small particles is computed by treating them as trace species. Code computations were performed for a number of test conditions typical of flow past a deep tube bank in a boiler. Results indicate qualitatively correct behavior. Predictions of deposition rates and deposit shape evolution also show correct qualitative behavior. These simulations are the first attempts to compute flow field results at realistic flow Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4}. Code validation was not done; comparison with experiment also could not be made as many phenomenological model parameters, e.g., sticking or erosion probabilities and their dependence on experimental conditions were not known. The predictions however demonstrate the capability to predict fouling from first principles. Further work is needed: use of large or massively parallel machine; code validation; parametric studies, etc.

  1. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  2. Polydopamine/dialdehyde starch/chitosan composite coating for in-tube solid-phase microextraction and in-situ derivation to analysis of two liver cancer biomarkers in human blood.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiju; Cai, Cuicui; Cheng, Jing; Cheng, Min; Zhou, Hongbin; Deng, Jiali

    2016-09-01

    In order to highly enrich two liver cancer biomarkers (hexanal and 2-butanone) in human blood, in this study, natural nontoxic polydopamine/dialdehyde starch/chitosan (PD/DAS/CHI) coating material was synthesized and immobilized on the inner wall of polytetrafluoro-ethlyene (PTFE) tube. It was used to develop the method based on in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) with in-situ derivatization (ISD) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of the above mentioned two liver cancer biomarkers in human blood. The simple, rapid and sensitive IT-SPME-ISD method can be finished within 11 min. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.4 and 1.6 nmol L(-1) for hexanal and 2-butanone, respectively. The relative recoveries from real human blood samples were in the range from 70% to 91% with the intra- and inter-day precisions less than 7.2%. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied for the analysis of hexanal and 2-butanone in blood samples from healthy people with 0.42 ± 0.05 and 0.34 ± 0.04 μmol L(-1), while liver cancer patients with 1.90 ± 0.07  μmol L(-1) and 0.91 ± 0.07 μmol L(-1), respectively. The t-test's results showed there is a statistically significant difference between the data from healthy persons and liver cancer patients. Hence, the developed method might be applied in the screening of suspected liver cancer patients. PMID:27543020

  3. Polydopamine/dialdehyde starch/chitosan composite coating for in-tube solid-phase microextraction and in-situ derivation to analysis of two liver cancer biomarkers in human blood.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiju; Cai, Cuicui; Cheng, Jing; Cheng, Min; Zhou, Hongbin; Deng, Jiali

    2016-09-01

    In order to highly enrich two liver cancer biomarkers (hexanal and 2-butanone) in human blood, in this study, natural nontoxic polydopamine/dialdehyde starch/chitosan (PD/DAS/CHI) coating material was synthesized and immobilized on the inner wall of polytetrafluoro-ethlyene (PTFE) tube. It was used to develop the method based on in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) with in-situ derivatization (ISD) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of the above mentioned two liver cancer biomarkers in human blood. The simple, rapid and sensitive IT-SPME-ISD method can be finished within 11 min. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.4 and 1.6 nmol L(-1) for hexanal and 2-butanone, respectively. The relative recoveries from real human blood samples were in the range from 70% to 91% with the intra- and inter-day precisions less than 7.2%. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied for the analysis of hexanal and 2-butanone in blood samples from healthy people with 0.42 ± 0.05 and 0.34 ± 0.04 μmol L(-1), while liver cancer patients with 1.90 ± 0.07  μmol L(-1) and 0.91 ± 0.07 μmol L(-1), respectively. The t-test's results showed there is a statistically significant difference between the data from healthy persons and liver cancer patients. Hence, the developed method might be applied in the screening of suspected liver cancer patients.

  4. Enhancement of boiler performance through optimized soot blower system for power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yook, Sim K.; Kim, Sung H.; Jung, Hae W.; Cho, Chang H.

    2005-12-01

    An optimal soot blowing system has been developed for the optimal operation of coal-fired power utility boilers by both the minimization of use of steam and the number of soot blowers worked during soot blowing. Traditionally, the soot blowing system has been operated manually or by the scheduled time-based interval. However, it has caused the reduction of power and the thermal performance degradation because many soot blowers installed in the plant should be worked even there are lots of tubes those are not contaminated by slagging and/or fouling. The degree of pollution on a boiler tube is based on heat transfer model. Heat transfer area is divided into several groups consisting of furnace, convection area including superheater, reheater and economizer, and air heater. The condition of cleanness of the tube is calculated by several parameters obtained by various sensors. Then, a part of soot blower works automatically where boiler tubes are contaminated. This system has been applied in a practical power plant. Therefore, a comparison has been done between this new system and manual operation, and then the results are discussed.

  5. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  6. High Temperature Corrosion Problem of Boiler Components in presence of Sulfur and Alkali based Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Material degradation and ageing is of particular concern for fossil fuel fired power plant components. New techniques/approaches have been explored in recent years for Residual Life assessment of aged components and material degradation due to different damage mechanism like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion etc. Apart from the creep, the high temperature corrosion problem in a fossil fuel fired boiler is a matter of great concern if the fuel contains sulfur, chlorine sodium, potassium and vanadium etc. This paper discusses the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion in different critical components of boiler like water wall, superheater and reheater tubes and also remedial measures to avoid the premature failure. This paper also high lights the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) methodology of the components based on high temperature fireside corrosion. of different critical components of boiler.

  7. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  13. Boiler - tuning basics, part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, T.

    2009-03-15

    Tuning power plant controls takes nerves of steel and an intimate knowledge of plant systems gained only by experience. Tuning controls also requires equal parts art and science, which probably is why there are so few tuning experts in the power industry. In part 1 of a two-part series, the author explores a mix of the theoretical and practical aspects of tuning boiler control. 5 figs.

  14. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  15. Energy storage-boiler tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  16. 5. North/northwest elevations of boiler stack and boiler room. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. North/northwest elevations of boiler stack and boiler room. Note tires on roof to reduce impact of brick work falling from stack. - Lowe Mill, Eighth Avenue, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. BOILER HOUSE, 1948 ADDITION, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, BOILER 1A. VACANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILER HOUSE, 1948 ADDITION, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, BOILER 1-A. VACANT SPACES WERE THE LOCATION OF A SUPPLEMENTAL OIL BURNER. VIEW FROM SOUTH - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  18. Intelligent Control System of Stack-boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Jingxia, Niu; Jianhua, Lang; Shaofeng, Li; Zhi, Li

    Boiler combustion control system's basic task is to make fuel burn calories adapt to the needs of the water temperature and ensure the economical combustion and the safe operation. In the foundations which have analyzed the stack-boiler's work process and control system structure, the system designed by using the self-learning and self-optimizing fuzzy control system of the PC to make air/coal ratio achieve the best and realize the optimized combustion; through PLC to accelerate the speed of response to the boiler, and speed up the PC to optimize the speed and realize the double loop control system for stack-boiler. The control system in premise of the stack-boiler reaches the goal of the load to achieve the highest efficiency of the boiler combustion.

  19. Unmanned boiler operation a reality in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ilg, E.

    1996-08-01

    With the rise in liquid level technology in Europe comes new standards for boiler operation. SMART technology for level probes and auxiliary equipment, means many European countries allow a boiler to operate completely unmanned (without operators) for up to 72 hours at a time. It is not just a level control system, but a total boiler control scheme. This incorporates level control, continuous TDS monitoring with blowdown, automatic timed bottom blowdown, feed water control, contamination detection systems for monitoring of incoming feed water, monitoring of exhaust stack temperatures, over pressure alarms and timed automatic blowdown of level pots. One of the main reasons for the development of the SMART equipment and the new boiler codes was to increase reliability of boiler operation. Surveys in Germany and England showed that almost 90 percent of boiler failures was due to operator error, this has almost been eliminated through the use of new equipment based on the new codes.

  20. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  1. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  2. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  3. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers VIIRecommended Rules for... Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and Health Administration....

  4. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers VIIRecommended Rules for... Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and Health Administration....

  5. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers VIIRecommended Rules for... Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and Health Administration....

  6. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers VIIRecommended Rules for... Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and Health Administration....

  7. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VNondestructive Examination VIRecommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers VIIRecommended Rules for... Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health District Office of the Mine Safety and Health Administration....

  8. 12. Forward end of Boiler Room showing open firing doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Forward end of Boiler Room showing open firing doors for boilers. Note ladderway retracted overhead by which firemen entered and left Boiler Room. Coal ejectors shown at extreme left of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  9. 6. VIEW WESTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 7. VIEW EASTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW EAST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 2. VIEW SOUTHWESTNORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST-NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  13. Numerical Calculation of Heat Transfer Distribution in a 600Mwe Supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, W. K.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, H. R.; Nie, L.; Huo, S. S.

    The water wall heat transfer and heat flux distribution in a 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler with water-cooled panel in the furnace was numerically studied. The water wall was made of smooth tube membrane. The solid suspension density ρ, heat flux q and heat transfer coefficient K distribution in the furnace were predicted at rated boiler load (100%BMCR), 75% of turbine heat acceptance load (75% THA) and 50% THA. The results show that for a large-scale CFB boiler, the convection is the main part of heat transfer in the lower furnace, and radiation is the main in the upper lower. The ρ, q and K have the similar axial and radial distributions. Their radial distributions depend on the position of the water wall and boiler load, and show a peak value in the corner. The ρ is a sensitive to K. With increasing of the height in furnace, ρ decreases, thereby the q and K decrease. The radial distributions of q and K are similar at different height. The study shows that the three-dimensional model is valid to predict the heat transfer in the furnace of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler.

  14. Minimization of the negative influence on the biosphere in heavy oil extraction and ecologically clean technology for the injection of the steam with supercritical parameters in oil strata on the basis of new ecologically clean tubing pipes with heat-resistant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkov, M. A.; Moiseev, V. A.; Tarasov, V. A.; Timofeev, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Some ecological problems related to heavy-oil extraction and ways for minimizing the negative impacts of this process on the biosphere are discussed. The ecological hazard of, for example, frequently used multistage hydraulic fracturing of formation is noted and the advantages and perspectives of superheated steam injection are considered. Steam generators of a new type and ecologically clean and costeffective insulating for tubing pipes (TPs) are necessary to develop the superheated steam injection method. The article is devoted to solving one of the most important and urgent tasks, i.e., the development and usage of lightweight, nonflammable, environmentally safe, and cost-effective insulating materials. It is shown that, for tubing shielding operating at temperatures up to 420°C, the most effective thermal insulation is a highly porous material based on basalt fiber. The process of filtration deposition of short basalt fibers with a bunch of alumina thermal insulation tubing pipe coatings in the form of cylinders and cylindrical shells from liquid pulp is substantiated. Based on the thermophysical characteristics of basalt fibers and on the technological features of manufacturing highly porous coating insulation, the thickness of a tubing pipe is determined. During the prolonged pumping of the air at an operating temperature of 400°C in the model sample of tubing pipes with insulation and a protective layer, we find that the surface temperature of the thermal barrier coating does not exceed 60°C. Introducing the described technology will considerably reduce the negative impact of heavy-oil extraction on the biosphere.

  15. Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S.; Clary, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

  16. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  17. Coated particle waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  18. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  19. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  20. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  1. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  2. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  3. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  4. Baghouse cleans flyash from boiler exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    A large baghouse installation recently started up on the boilerhouse of the Avtex Fibers Inc. rayon plant in Front Royal, Virginia. The baghouse removes 99.7% of the flyash particulate from the combustion fumes of five coal-fired boilers. The boilers have a combined capacity of one million lb/h of steam. Emissions from the plant are well below EPA limitations.

  5. Latest Development of CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. X.; Yang, H. R.; Lu, J. F.; Zhang, H.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) coal-fired boiler has being rapidly developed in China since 1980s and becomes a key clean coal technology used in thermal and power generation. In this paper, the development history and development status of the CFB boiler in China are introduced. The development history of the CFB boiler in China is divided into four periods and the important features of each period are given. Some latest research activities and important results on CFB boilers, and the typical achievements and newest development of the CFB boiler in China are also introduced. In addition, a few challenges and development directions including the capacity scaling up, SO2 removal and energy saving are discussed.

  6. Temperature Evolution and Oxide Growth in Waterwall Tubes of Supercritical Units

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G; Zhang, Wei; Pint, Bruce A; Unocic, Kinga A

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the failures in some waterwall tubes of supercritical steam boilers, an analysis is required to estimate the temperature of the waterwall tubes and the oxide growth in these tubes. A review on the thermophysical properties of oxide grown in waterwall tubes was conducted. Specimens of waterwall tubes associated with thermal fatigue cracking were obtained and microstructural analyses, using metallographic and electron-optical techniques such as SEM and electron-probe microanalysis, were performed. A computer model is being developed to estimate the maximum temperature in waterwall tubes by considering several phenomena that take place in supercritical units. The comprehensive model includes the following boiler operation features and phenomena: oxide growth, distribution of the heat flux on the waterwall tube as a function of height distance, variation of steam flow rate due to load variation, variation of heat flux due to load variation, and variation of the heat transfer coefficient with steam conditions and furnace heat flux. The model will handle the transition subcritical-to-supercritical and will account for the heat transfer deterioration phenomena in tubes. The tube regions with deteriorated heat transfer regimes will be identified. The temperatures of steam, metal, and oxide will be obtained as a function of the height distance in the boiler. The mixing effects of the steam from different waterwall tubes and subsequent fluid dynamics effects on the heat transfer will be considered. The new model will enable the prediction of the maximum metal temperature for realistic boiler operation schedule, which include transitions from full-to-low loads. Based on the estimated data for the steam temperature, metal temperature, and oxide thickness, regions of the waterwall tubes that are exposed to the most severe conditions will be identified.

  7. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  8. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  9. Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, J.R.

    2002-02-08

    Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

  10. Angular glass tubing drawn from round tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Round glass tubing softened in a furnace is drawn over a shaped plug or mandel to form shapes with other than a circular cross section. Irregularly shaped tubing is formed without limitations on tube length or wall thickness.

  11. Investigation of passive and active silica-tin oxide nanostructured optical fibers fabricated by "inverse dip-coating" and "powder in tube" method based on the chemical sol-gel process and laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, G.; Restoin, C.; Roy, P.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Duclere, J.-R.; Lecomte, A.; Dauliat, R.; Blondy, J.-M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a study of original nanostructured optical fibers based on the SiO2-SnO2-(Yb3+) system. Two different processes have been developed and compared: the sol-gel chemical method associated to the "inverse dip-coating" (IDC) and the "powder in tube" (PIT). The microstructural and optical properties of the fibers are studied according to the concentration of SnO2. X-Ray Diffraction as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy studies show that the SnO2 crystallizes into the cassiterite phase as nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 4 to 50 nm as a function of tin oxide concentration. A comparative study highlights a better conservation of SnO2 into the fiber core with the PIT approach according to the refractive index profile and energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry measurement. The attenuation evaluated by the classic cut-back method gives respectively values higher than 3 dB/m and 0.2 dB/m in the visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) ranges for the PIT fibers whereas background losses reach 0.5 dB/m in the VIS range for IDC fibers. The introduction of ytterbium ions into the core of PIT fibers, directly in the first chemical step, leads to a laser emission (between 1050 and 1100 nm) according to the fiber length under 850 nm wavelength pumping. Luminescence studies have demonstrated the influence of the tin oxide on the rare earth optical properties especially by the modification of the absorption (850 to 1000 nm) and emission (950 to 1100 nm) by discretization of the bands, as well as on the IR emission lifetime evaluated to 10 μs.

  12. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  13. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  14. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  15. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  16. Electron tube

    DOEpatents

    Suyama, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Atsuhito; Arisaka, Katsushi; Wang, Hanguo

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  17. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  18. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  20. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  1. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction. An auxiliary exhaust gas boiler must meet the applicable construction requirements of part 52 or...

  3. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction. An auxiliary exhaust gas boiler must meet the applicable construction requirements of part 52 or...

  4. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction. An auxiliary exhaust gas boiler must meet the applicable construction requirements of part 52 or...

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction. An auxiliary exhaust gas boiler must meet the applicable construction requirements of part 52 or...

  6. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction. An auxiliary exhaust gas boiler must meet the applicable construction requirements of part 52 or...

  7. 24. VIEW OF FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS 900 AND 901 ARE ON THE RIGHT, BOILERS 902, 903, AND 904 ARE ON THE LEFT. NOTE REMAINS OF THE LARRY CAR TRACK SYSTEM FOR TRANSFERRING COAL TO BOILER HOPPERS ABOVE THE AISLE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, boiler water treatment tank, and waste gas stack. Water tower is to the left of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  9. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely used in the preparation of steam that will.... The mixture is used as an anticorrosive agent in steam boiler distribution systems, with each... nitrilotriacetate Not to exceed 5 parts per million in boiler feedwater; not to be used where steam will be...

  12. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gauge for a boiler or a main steam line may be examined and checked for accuracy by the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments....

  16. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  1. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  2. Boiler efficiency methodology for solar heat applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, D.; Conwell, J. C.; Pacheco, J. E.

    1992-08-01

    This report contains a summary of boiler efficiency measurements which can be applied to evaluate the performance of steam-generating boilers via both the direct and indirect methods. This methodology was written to assist industries in calculating the boiler efficiency for determining the applicability and value of thermal industrial heat, as part of the efforts of the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) funded by Sandia National Laboratories. Tables of combustion efficiencies are enclosed as functions of stack temperatures and the amount of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the gas stream.

  3. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  4. Investigation of the weldability of iron-aluminum-chromium overlay coatings for corrosion protection in oxidizing/sulfidizing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regina, Jonathan R.

    The current study investigated the effect of chromium additions on the hydrogen cracking susceptibility of Fe-Al weld overlay claddings containing chromium additions. It was found that the weldability of FeAlCr claddings was a function of both the aluminum and chromium concentrations of the weld coatings. Weld overlay compositions that were not susceptible to hydrogen cracking were identified and the underlying mechanism behind the hydrogen cracking phenomenon was investigated further. It was concluded that the cracking behavior of the FeAlCr welds depended strongly on the microstructure of the weld fusion zone. Although it was found that the cracking susceptibility was influenced by the presence of Fe-Al intermetallic phases (namely Fe3 Al and FeAl), the cracking behavior of FeAlCr weld overlay claddings also depended on the size and distribution of carbide and oxide particles present within the weld structure. These particles acted as hydrogen trapping sites, which are areas where free hydrogen segregates and can no longer contribute to the hydrogen embrittlement of the metal. It was determined that in practical applications of these FeAlCr weld overlay coatings, carbon should be present within these welds to reduce the amount of hydrogen available for hydrogen cracking. Based on the weldability results of the FeAlCr weld claddings, coating compositions that were able to be deposited crack-free were used for long-term corrosion testing in a simulated low NOx environment. These alloys were compared to a Ni-based superalloy (622), which is commonly utilized as boiler tube coatings in power plant furnaces for corrosion protection. It was found that the FeAlCr alloys demonstrated superior corrosion resistance when compared to the Ni-based superalloy. Due to the excellent long-term corrosion behavior of FeAlCr weld overlays that were immune to hydrogen cracking, it was concluded that select FeAlCr weld overlay compositions would make excellent corrosion resistant

  5. Plasma-Chemical Hybrid NOx Reduction System for Commercial Cogeneration Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Fujishima, Hidekatsu; Okubo, Masaaki

    Operation tests of the smoke-tube boiler emission NOx treatment plant which consists of a plasma ozonizer using a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen generator and silent discharge for indirect NO oxidation and a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber are carried out for cogeneration boilers which uses a city gas and heavy oil as a fuel based on our proposed plasma-chemical hybrid NOx reduction principle. It is clear that amount of NO removed is almost same as the amount of corresponding O3 concentration to oxidize NO regardless of fuels and flow rates of flue gas. After the relation between oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and the NOx removal efficiency is obtained, continuous operation tests of this plant are performed. For gas firing boiler emission, the NO complete removal and the decrease in NOx from 32 ppm to 3 ppm are achieved for 300 min by keeping -30 mV of ORP. For the treatment of heavy oil boiler emission, the decrease in NOx from 90 ppm to less than 25 ppm is maintained for 250 min. It is demonstrated that the high NOx removal performance can be maintained for a long time by keeping the optimum value of ORP.

  6. Alkali metal pool boiler life tests for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Noble, J.

    1991-01-01

    The overall operating temperature and efficiency of solar-powered Stirling engines can be improved by adding an alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system to supply heat more uniformly to the heater head tubes. One issue with liquid metal pool boilers is unstable boiling. Stable boiling is obtained with an enhanced boiling surface containing nucleation sites that promote continuous boiling. Over longer time periods, it is possible that the boiling behavior of the system will change. An 800-h life test was conducted to verify that pool boiling with the chosen fluid/surface combination remains stable as the system ages. The apparatus uses NaK boiling on a - 100 + 140 stainless steel sintered porous layer, with the addition of a small amount of xenon. Pool boiling remained stable to the end of life test. The pool boiler life test included a total of 82 cold starts, to simulate startup each morning, and 60 warm restarts, to simulate cloud cover transients. The behavior of the cold and warm starts showed no significant changes during the life test. In the experiments, the fluid/surface combination provided stable, high-performance boiling at the operating temperature of 700 C. Based on these experiments, a pool boiler was designed for a full-scale 25-kWe Stirling system.

  7. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  8. Exploiting the On-Campus Boiler House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Shows how a university utility building ("boiler house") is used in a chemical engineering course for computer simulations, mathematical modeling and process problem exercises. Student projects involving the facility are also discussed. (JN)

  9. Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven L.; Griffin, Jr., Freddie; Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

  10. Collapse Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02154 Collapse Tubes

    The discontinuous channels in this image are collapsed lava tubes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -19.7N, Longitude 317.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. OXIDE DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Mark A.

    2001-11-06

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys (e.g. the INCOLOY{reg_sign} MA956 alloy) are known for their excellent high temperature properties and are prime candidate materials for the construction of very high temperature heat exchangers that will be used in Vision 21 power plants. The main limitation of these materials is their poor weldability. Commercially available ODS tubing also tends to exhibit relatively poor circumferential creep strength due to current processing practices resulting in a fine grain size in the transverse direction. Thus far, these two characteristics of the ODS tubing have restricted its use to mostly non-pressure containing applications. The objectives of this program are to develop: (a) an MA956 tube with sufficient circumferential creep strength for long term use as heat exchanger tubing for very high temperatures; (b) a welding technique(s) for producing adequate joints between an MA956 tube and an MA956 tube, and an MA956 tube and an INCONEL 601 tube; (c) the bending strain limits, below which recrystallization will not occur in a MA956 tube during normal operation; and (d) the high temperature corrosion limits for the MA956 alloy with respect to working-fluid side and fireside environments. Also, this program seeks to generate data for use by heat exchanger designers and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and perform an analysis of the mechanical property, tube bending, and corrosion data in order to determine the implications on the design of a very high temperature heat exchanger (T>1093 C/2000 F). After one year, work is currently being conducted on increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, developing joining techniques for this material, determining the tube bending strain limits, and establishing the high temperature corrosion parameters for the MA956 alloy in environments expected to be present in Vision 21 power plants. Work in these areas will is continuing into the next fiscal year, with success

  12. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation. PMID:22049674

  13. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  14. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions. PMID:22316759

  15. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions.

  16. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraka, C. E.; Moreno, J. B.; Diver, R. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW(sub t) sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW(sub t) parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90 percent when operated at full power and 800 C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  17. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  18. Applying a tapered electrode on a porous ceramic support tube by masking a band inside the tube and drawing in electrode material from the outside of the tube by suction

    DOEpatents

    Vasilow, T.R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1991-12-17

    An electrode is deposited on a support by providing a porous ceramic support tube having an open end and closed end; masking at least one circumferential interior band inside the tube; evacuating air from the tube by an evacuation system, to provide a permeability gradient between the masked part and unmasked part of the tube; applying a liquid dispersion of solid electrode particles to the outside surface of the support tube, where liquid flows through the wall, forming a uniform coating over the unmasked support part and a tapered coating over the masked part. 2 figures.

  19. Applying a tapered electrode on a porous ceramic support tube by masking a band inside the tube and drawing in electrode material from the outside of the tube by suction

    DOEpatents

    Vasilow, Theodore R.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1991-01-01

    An electrode is deposited on a support by providing a porous ceramic support tube (10) having an open end (14) and closed end (16); masking at least one circumferential interior band (18 and 18') inside the tube; evacuating air from the tube by an evacuation system (30), to provide a permeability gradient between the masked part (18 and 18') and unmasked part (20) of the tube; applying a liquid dispersion of solid electrode particles to the outside surface of the support tube, where liquid flows through the wall, forming a uniform coating (42) over the unmasked support part (20) and a tapered coating over the masked part (18 and 18').

  20. Experience gained from shifting a PK-19 boiler to operate with increased superheating and with a load higher than its rated value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholshchev, V. V.

    2011-08-01

    Failures of steam superheater tubes occurred after the boiler was shifted to operate with a steam temperature of 540°C. The operation of the steam superheater became more reliable after it had been subjected to retrofitting. The modernization scheme is described. An estimate is given to the temperature operating conditions of tubes taking into account the thermal-hydraulic nonuniformity of their heating.

  1. Research and Development of Large Capacity CFB Boilers in TPRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianbin, Sun; Minhua, Jiang

    This paper presents an overview of advancements of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology in Thermal Power Research Institute (TPRI),including technologies and configuration and progress of scaling up. For devoloping large CFB boiler, the CFB combustion test facilities have been established, the key technologies of large capacity CFB boiler have been research systematically, the 100MW ˜330MW CFB boiler have been developed and manufactured. The first domestically designed 100MW and 210MW CFB boiler have been put into commericial operation and have good operating performance. Domestic 330MW CFB boiler demonstration project also has been put into commericial operation,which is H type CFB boiler with Compact heat exchanger. This boiler is China's largest CFB boiler. The technical plan of domestic 600MW supercritical CFB boiler are also briefly introduced.

  2. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  3. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  4. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  5. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  6. Fiber Bragg Grating Array as a Quasi Distributed Temperature Sensor for Furnace Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Saidi; Prasad, R. L. N. Sai; Sengupta, D.; Shankar, M. Sai; Srimannarayana, K.; Kishore, P.; Rao, P. Vengal

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the experimental work on distributed temperature sensing making use of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensor for possible applications in the monitoring of temperature profile in high temperature boilers. A special sensor has been designed for this purpose which consists of four FBGs (of wavelengths λB1 = 1547.28 nm, λB2 = 1555.72 nm, λB3 = 1550.84 nm, λB4 = 1545.92 nm) written in hydrogen loaded fiber in line with a spacing of 15 cm between them. All the FBGs are encapsulated inside a stainless steel tube for avoiding micro cracks using rigid probe technique. The spatial distribution of temperature profile inside a prototype boiler has been measured experimentally both in horizontal and vertical directions employing the above sensor and the results are presented.

  7. 33. VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING TOWARD WEST BOILER ROOM BASEMENT THROUGH THE ASH TRANSFER TUNNEL. ASH HOPPER FOR BOILER 900 IS ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE TRACKS ALONG THE FLOOR OF THE TUNNEL. A SMALL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE HAULED CARS FOR TRANSFERRING ASH FROM BOILERS TO DISPOSAL SITES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING. THIS SYSTEM BECAME OBSOLETE IN 1938 WHEN BOILERS IN THE WEST BOILER ROOM WERE REMOVED AND PULVERIZED COAL WAS ADOPTED AS THE FUEL. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Hot Corrosion at Air-Ports in Kraft Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Russell, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of airports in Kraft recovery boilers. The primary corrosion mechanism involves the migration of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide vapors through leaks in the furnace wall at the airports and their subsequent condensation. It has been reported that stainless steel is attacked much faster than carbon steel in composite tubes, and that carbon steel tubing, when used with a low-chromium refractory, does not exhibit this type of corrosion. For hot corrosion fluxing of metal oxides, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minimum at the basicity of transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.

  9. Fuel sulfur and boiler fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; Butcher, T.

    1995-04-01

    Fouling of the heat transfer surfaces of boilers and furnaces by `soot` leads to reduced efficiency and increased service requirements. The average level of annual efficiency reduction as a result of fouling if generally accepted as 2% per year. Improving the efficiency of equipment in the field may be the most important oil heat conservation opportunity at present. Improvements can be realized by reducing fouling rates, promoting lower firing rates in existing equipment, and enabling excess air levels to be set lower without raising concerns about increased service requirements. In spite of the importance of efficiency in the field there is very little data available on efficiency degradation rates with modern equipment, actual field operating conditions (excess air and smoke number settings) and service problems which affect efficiency. During 1993-94 field tests were initiated to obtain such data and to obtain information that would compliment existing and current laboratory work. Experimental work conducted on a bench scale level have included tests with various advanced burners, fuel types, and different operating conditions which have been done at the BNL Rapid Fouling Test Facility. This report will focus on the field study of fouling effects on ten residential heating service problems at each site are summarized. In addition, the technical difficulties involved with conducting such a field study shall also be discussed as the findings should serve to improve future work in this area.

  10. Neural network boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability with TVA Kingston Unit 3 low NOx optimization test results

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.M.; Schroech, K.A.; Hou, H.S.

    1995-12-31

    Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires utilities to reduce NOx emission. NOx emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NOx burners. Boiler tuning for NOx control can be used as an alternative to low NOx burner installation. Specifically in tangentially-fired boilers, boiler tuning can be very effective in NOx reduction. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at TVA`s Kingston Unit 3 tangentially coal-fired furnace for NOx reduction. With a well-organized test plan, the optimized solution was reached with 16 tests at each test series load level. SOAP will be used for other plant equipment or system optimization, such as pulverizer performance, combustion system optimization, compared thermal performance design, and boiler tube leak detection and allocation.

  11. Design of a pool boiler heat transport system for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Noble, J.; Kesseli, J.

    1991-01-01

    The overall operating temperature and efficiency of solar-powered Stirling engines can be improved by adding a heat transport system to more uniformly supply heat to the heater head tubes. One heat transport system with favorable characteristics is an alkali metal pool boiler. An alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system was designed for a 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS). Solar energy concentrated on the absorber dome boils a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium. The alkali metal vapors condense on the heater head tubes, supplying the Stirling engine with a uniform heat flux at a constant temperature. Boiling stability is achieved with the use of an enhanced boiling surface and noncondensible gas.

  12. Efficient heat-transfer surfaces assembled from partially finned flat-oval tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pis'mennyi, E. N.

    2011-04-01

    The state of finned convective heat-transfer surfaces and prospects for using them in power engineering and industry are briefly reviewed. The characteristics of a heat-recovery economizer made of partially finned flat-oval tubes are presented by way of comparing them with design versions employing known types of finned tubes, and the results gained from its operation downstream of a PTVM-30M boiler are given.

  13. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  14. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO

  15. Long ceramic beam tubes for accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tilles, E.B.; Adderley, P.A.; Biallas, G.H.; Harrison, M.A.; May, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The ceramic beam tubes for the fast and abort kickers and the bucker and pinger magnets used at Fermilab must meet a number of exacting requirements. The tubes must be long and sufficiently straight so as not to limit magnet design. They must have wall strength capable of withstanding the atmospheric and mechanical forces encountered during construction and operation. Vacuum tight ceramic to stainless steel transitions must be of reasonable cost; they must also withstand high temperature processing and remain vacuum tight to the 10/sup -9/ Torr range. To remove the possibility of static charge buildup each tube must have a surface coating of indium oxide applied to the inner wall. This thin coating is difficult to achieve and requires the most careful attention to detail. The methods used at Fermilab to achieve these goals are presented in this paper.

  16. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

  17. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-07-28

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process. 4 figs.

  18. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  19. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  20. Explosion in boiler closes Arkansas utility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-23

    A major boiler explosion Aug. 11 that seriously injured one worker at the Independence Unit 2 coal-fired powerplant in Newark, Ark., caused extensive damage that will keep the plant closed for several months. The plant is owned by Arkansas Power Light Co., Little Rock. Officials are still trying to determine cause and are assessing damage, though they expect the boiler can be repaired. Etienne Senac, plant manager, says the explosion [open quotes]puffed out[close quotes] but did not rupture the 271-ft-tall boiler and also buckled several buck stays, which hold the boiler to a steel superstructure. The accident took place at 8:30 a.m. as the 842-Mw unit was operating close to full capacity. Senac says the concussion knocked down workers standing 50 ft from the boiler. The explosion pushed ash and molten material out of the bottom of the unit, causing a small fire. One contract worker was seriously burned and hospitalized. Four AP L workers received minor burns.

  1. Utilization of silt as CFB boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herb, B.; Tsao, T.R.; Bickley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Bituminous silt represents an enormous source of discarded energy that is polluting the environment. Although bituminous silt is a potential opportunity fuel for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, handling problems and uncertainties about the impact of this fuel on CFB boiler performance and operating economics have prevented its use. Under sponsorship of the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority, five different technologies having the potential to process silt into CFB boiler fuel were evaluated. The technologies evaluated include: washing, pelletizing, thermal drying, mulling and flaking. The desired goal was to process the silt into a form that can be fed to CFB boilers using conventional coal handling equipment and combusted in an environmentally acceptable manner. Criteria were developed for the product characteristics that are desired and tests were run to evaluate the technical feasibility of each silt processing technology. Based on these test results, the design and cost bases for a commercial silt processing facility were developed for each technology capable of achieving the desired product characteristics. As a result of considering both engineering and economic factors, the technology that best meets the objectives for use of processed silt as CFB boiler fuel was selected for further demonstration testing. This paper will present the results of this project up through the selection of the best silt processing technology.

  2. Fireplace boiler system. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    DePalmo, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The results showed that the fireplace boiler system can generate more heat than a conventional gas fired furnace (because of controls) and can generate higher temperatures at the various supply registers. In addition, the distribution of heat from the fireplace boiler system results in better thermal confort since the furnace fan is continuous rather than intermittent as in a conventional system. It is important to reiterate the fact that the system incorporates a pressure-temperature relief valve and an expansion tank to further alleviate any potential high temperature conditions. The second objective was partially fulfilled in view of the fact that, on a mild summer day (ambient temperature 83/sup 0/F), the fireplace boiler system, operating on incoming service water (75/sup 0/F) generated a cooling effect that could aid a conventional central air conditioning system in providing total house comfort. However, operating alone, only a ventilation effect could be generated. These results showed that with an ice pack, placed on the fireplace boiler, the water temperature rose 5/sup 0/F, depicting the fact that heat transfer was taking place while the water in the system is being circulated. The information gained from these tests results leads one to believe that an ice pack chilled water system, adequately designed, constructed and insulated could be added to the existing fireplace boiler system and a total air conditioning effect could be obtained.

  3. Looking north at the south wall of the boiler house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north at the south wall of the boiler house and the waste gas stack. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  4. 3. Partial view of SE sides of Boiler Building (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Partial view of SE sides of Boiler Building (left), Incineration Building (to right of stack) and Machine Shop (right). - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Boiler Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. Chelant enhancement of a polymer boiler water treatment program

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, S.L.

    1985-09-01

    Four boiler water treatment programs were evaluated for their ability to transport metal ions through 600 psi (41 MPa) waste heat recovery steam generators. Phosphate/sulfite alone failed to transport Ca, Mg, or Fe metal ions through the boiler. The addition of a polymer to the phosphate/sulfite transported Mg through the boiler and aided in the dissolution of Mg from the previously deposited boiler scale. This program also increased the amount of Ca transported through the boiler. The addition of the chelant, VERSENE /sup 1/ 100 (sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate), to the phosphate/sulfite allowed both Mg and Fe to be transported through the boiler and removed from the scale. The combination of chelant and polymer added to phosphate/ sulfite caused a synergism that allowed Mg, Ca, and Fe to be transported through the boiler and Mg and Ca to be removed from the boiler scale.

  8. 1. VIEW TO EAST, WITH BOILER HOUSE TO LEFT, FILTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO EAST, WITH BOILER HOUSE TO LEFT, FILTH HOIST HOUSE TO RIGHT, WITH ENGINE HOUSE AT RIGHT REAR. - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  9. 3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ENGINE HOUSE, LEFT REAR. - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  10. 4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BOILER HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH COAL HOPPERS AT W EST, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 2. EAST SIDE; COAL ASH FROM BOILERS WAS BLOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST SIDE; COAL ASH FROM BOILERS WAS BLOWN INTO TANK AT RIGHT, THEN DROPPED INTO RAIL CARS FOR REMOVAL - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL AT CENTER; BOXLIKE, RIVETED HOUSING AT TOP CENTER CONTAINED AUGER FOR COAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. Looking south at a chemical mixing tank for boiler feedwater. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at a chemical mixing tank for boiler feedwater. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  14. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  15. Overview of Boiler House showing the Ibeam framework supporting the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House showing the I-beam framework supporting the chimney, view facing southwest - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  16. Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on left, electric motor pump on right). - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  17. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING STEAM BOILER AT WEST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING STEAM BOILER AT WEST END OF MILL. WROUGHT IRON BOILER MADE BY I. & E. GREENWALD COMPANY OF CINCINNATI, OHIO, CIRCA 1880 - Guyn's Mill, Grist Mill, Mundy's Landing & Pauls Mill Roads, Troy, Woodford County, KY

  18. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Investigation and analysis of high temperature corrosion and degradation of marine boiler combustion swirler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdi, R. S.; Thakur, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    The present paper investigated and analyzed swirler material consisting of mild steel which was subjected to service for the period of one year in a 30 MW marine boiler. Due to the presence of high temperatures in the furnace coupled with the corrosive marine environment swirler material showed accelerated degradation and material wastage. An investigation into the feasibility of manufacturing the existing swirler with an alternate material or coating the swirler material with a thermal barrier coating was undertaken. Based on their properties and performance, SS 304 and SS 316 were proposed as the replacement materials for the swirler. The other alternative of coating the existing swirlers with a form thermal barrier coating to observe for any improvement in their performance at elevated temperatures was also tested. Stellite, which is a Ni-Co based coating, was carried out on the MS samples and the same were exposed to same temperatures mentioned above. The performance of the available options was evaluated with respect to the grain structure of the material, the hardness value of the materials and deterioration at elevated temperatures. Investigation showed the proposed materials/coatings like SS 304, SS 316 and Stellite coating revealed that SS 316 is the material best suited for high temperature application.

  20. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    PubMed

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload. PMID:22316768

  1. Condensing heat exchangers for maximum boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; DiVitto, J.G.; Rakocy, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    Until now, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense out, rapid deterioration, due to acid corrosion, of the outlet duct and stack would result. With the development of the condensing heat exchanger, boiler efficiency can now exceed 90%. Approximately 1% gain in boiler efficiency can be expected for every 40 F (4.5 C) reduction in flue gas stack temperature. In the CHX{reg_sign} condensing heat exchanger, all gas wetted surfaces are covered with DuPont Teflon{reg_sign}. The Teflon covered heat exchanger surfaces are impervious to all acids normally resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. This allows the flue gas to be cooled to below the water vapor dew point with no subsequent corrosion of the heat exchanger surfaces.

  2. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1979-12-27

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  3. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  4. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    PubMed

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload.

  5. Fluidized bed combustion offers replacement option for old boilers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    As emission standards begin to tighten and existing boilers grow older, electric utilities are searching for cost-effective and environmentally sound replacements for aging boilers. In the past few years, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has emerged as a viable replacement option for old, conventional boilers. The results of three case studies involving conversion of existing boilers to FBC are discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  6. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  7. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  8. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  9. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  10. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  11. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix G6 to Part 305 - Boilers (Gas)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Gas) G6 Appendix G6 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G6 to Part 305—Boilers (Gas) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Gas (Except Steam) Boilers Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional...

  13. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping... Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure... part. The design temperature of parts exposed to the exhaust gas must be the maximum temperature...

  14. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a..., bolts, or other means of attachment, can be performed by opening up the valves, such mountings or...

  15. Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops Building (center - with single large chimney), note the monitor on the original section of the Boiler House Building, view facing north - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  16. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O; (ii) A boiler or process heater with a design heat... 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (c) Incinerator, boiler, and process...

  17. 23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. BOILERS 900 AND 901 ARE ON THE LEFT, BOILERS 902 AND 903 ARE ON THE RIGHT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 16 CFR Appendix G7 to Part 305 - Boilers (Oil)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Oil) G7 Appendix G7 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G7 to Part 305—Boilers (Oil) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Oil Boilers Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional Standards for...

  19. 26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING EAST AT BOILER 904. BOILER 904 WAS MANUFACTURED BY RILEY STOKER AND INSTALLED IN 1944. ORIGINALLY FUELED BY PULVERIZED COAL, IT WAS CONVERTED TO GAS/OIL OPERATION IN 1978 AND OPERATED UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O; (ii) A boiler or process heater with a design heat... 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (c) Incinerator, boiler, and process...

  1. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  2. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  3. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  4. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix G8 to Part 305 - Boilers (Electric)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Electric) G8 Appendix G8 to Part... LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G8 to Part 305—Boilers (Electric) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Electric Boilers 100 100...

  6. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... below that for saturated steam at the maximum allowable working pressure of the boiler. (4) Feed pumps... that demanded by the boilers at their required normal operating capacity. (3) River or harbor steam... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... below that for saturated steam at the maximum allowable working pressure of the boiler. (4) Feed pumps... that demanded by the boilers at their required normal operating capacity. (3) River or harbor steam... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... below that for saturated steam at the maximum allowable working pressure of the boiler. (4) Feed pumps... that demanded by the boilers at their required normal operating capacity. (3) River or harbor steam... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30...

  11. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  12. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  14. Dense silica coatings on ceramic powder particles

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, J.F.A.; Mayr, W.

    1995-09-01

    Dense silica coatings on the surface of inorganic powders particles are prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in alcoholic suspensions. In a first reaction step, the TEOS is pre-hydrolysed in acidic solution and afterwards, a suspension of powder particles in this reaction solution is treated with ammonia which results in a dense silica coating of typically 10 - 100 nm thickness. Different luminescent powders which are used in the manufacture of cathode-ray tubes or fluorescent lamps have been coated by this procedure. The silica coating forms a transparent layer and the suspension properties of the coated powders are determined by the silica layer. The silica coating also protects sulfidic luminescent powders from being attacked by oxidizing agents like dichromate ions which are used in the suspension formulations for TV tube fabrication.

  15. Electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid; Manbohi, Ahmad; Heydar, Kourosh Tabar

    2015-01-01

    We report a new in-tube solid phase microextraction approach named electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction (EC in-tube SPME). This approach, which combined electrochemistry and in-tube SPME, led to decrease in total analysis time and increase in sensitivity. At first, pyrrole was elctropolymerized on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube. Then, the polypyrrole (PPy)-coated in-tube SPME was coupled on-line to liquid chromatography (HPLC) to achieve automated in-tube SPME-HPLC analysis. After the completion of EC-in-tube SPME-HPLC setup, the PPy-coated tube was used as working electrode for uptake of diclofenac as target analyte. Extraction ability of the tube in presence and in absence of applied electrical field was investigated. It was found that, under the same extraction conditions, the extraction efficiency could be greatly enhanced by using the constant potential. Important factors are also optimized. The detection limit (S/N=3) and precision were 0.1 μg L(-1) and 4.4%, respectively.

  16. Reducing minimum air flow at low boiler loads

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, B.L.; Lange, H.B.; Brown, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    One aspect of boiler operation that impairs performance at low loads is the practice of maintaining the flow of air to the boiler at or above 25% of the full-load air flow even though the boiler load may be reduced well below 25%. This is done in accordance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 8502, a guideline which boiler insurers generally require. The intent of the minimum air flow rate guideline is to reduce the likelihood of a boiler explosion being caused by an unexpected accumulation of unburned fuel in the boiler, by maintaining a minimum purge rate through the boiler. Operation at high excess air reduces boiler efficiency, increases NO{sub x} emissions and, in some cases, negatively impacts flame stability. Under a contract with EPRI, Carnot is currently engaged in a program aimed at more fully establishing the economics of and technical basis for safe reduced air flow operation at low boiler loads and developing guidelines for its implementation on any boiler. In Phase 1 of this program, discussions were initiated with the NFPA, and detailed boiler combustion and heat-transfer analyses were combined with cost models to quantify the benefits and costs of reduced air flow operation on a wide variety of boilers. The cost/benefit analysis investigated gas- and/or oil-fired boilers including tangential, wall and opposed-fired designs. Phase 2 of the program is to consist of a series of demonstrations of reduced air flow operation on working utility boilers. These demonstrations are to cover gas, oil and coal fuels and the major boiler design types.

  17. Have you looked in the boiler room lately

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The advances in energy management in the past ten years have been excellent. However with those advances it is important not to forget the basics, especially those in boiler energy management. The objective of this paper is to provide an incentive to examine any old boiler rooms. The first section describes Oklahoma State University's Boiler Tune Up Program, the underlying foundation and basis for the findings presented in this paper. Then, the paper provides a list of some basic opportunities that were found in OSU's boiler surveys. Finally, the paper concludes with an overview of the results of the OSU boiler program.

  18. A critical review of boiler controls for improved efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, A.

    1988-08-01

    Control of industrial equipment has improved with concerns for energy conservation and powerful low-cost microprocessors. These control system have been applied to boilers regardless of where they are used and their size. This paper addresses some critical issues and misconceptions about boiler controls. Combustion control is sometimes shown to be the primary control for a boiler and drum level control is included within the combustion control loops. But many important control loops are omitted, although they are related to combustion and boiler controls. In addition, literature is not cited on boiler control, which has over 60 years of history.

  19. Application of laser-based profilometry to tubing in power generating utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, James L.

    1995-05-01

    Over the past several years lasers have been employed in an ever widening number of applications in an incredibly diverse set of markets. In the area of nondestructive testing, however, laser-based systems have only recently made inroads into the commercial markets. About ten years ago QUEST Integrated, Inc., began working with the U.S. Navy to adapt the principal of laser triangulation to solve a serious maintenance related problem. The internal surfaces of marine boiler tubes were experiencing pitting and corrosion which had resulted in catastrophic shipboard failures. At that time, conventional visual methods only allowed operators to inspect the first eighteen inches of the tube using a rigid borescope. If any pits were located, a mechanical stylus mechanism was used to obtain an approximate depth measurement of the pit. The condition of the balance of the tube was then extrapolated based on this extremely limited amount of information. Often the worst pitting was found in the bends of the tube, which could not be inspected by the visual method. Finally, a catastrophic boiler failure on an aircraft carrier resulted in the initiation of a search by the U.S. Navy for a better solution. Quest was contracted to develop an articulated probe which could negotiate the full length of a boiler tube with multiple bends, and generate a complete digital map of the inside surface. A key requirement of this probe would be rapid and quantitative measurement of internal features such as ID pits and corrosion. In 1987 QUEST delivered the first laser- optic tube inspection system to the U.S. Navy for use in marine boiler tubes. The Laser Optic Tube Inspection System (LOTISTM) was immediately put to use and paid for itself many times over in reduced maintenance costs. Over the next six years several generations of LOTIS were developed for the U.S. Navy, each one providing more capabilities, improved inspection speeds, and more user friendly operator interface. Today, LOTIS is

  20. New thinking for the boiler room.

    PubMed

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction. PMID:18822819

  1. Is That Boiler Ready To Blow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Glenn S.; Trombley, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses implementation of a thorough assessment program to determine the condition of boilers, pressure vessels and other plant equipment to determine the feasibility of part or entire system replacement. Assessment basics are examined as are tips for selecting the right inspection and engineering contractor for assessments. (GR)

  2. Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.

    1984-03-01

    A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

  3. Infrared imaging of fossil fuel power plant boiler interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, James W.; Cranton, Brian W.; Armstrong, Karen L.; Hammaker, Robert G.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuel power plant boilers operate continuously for months at a time, typically shutting down only for routine maintenance or to address serious equipment failures. These shutdowns are very costly, and diagnostic tools and techniques which could be used to minimize shutdown duration and frequency are highly desirable. Due to the extremely hostile environment in these boilers, few tools exist to inspect and monitor operating boiler interiors. This paper presents the design of a passively cooled, infrared borescope used to inspect the interior of operating boilers. The borescope operates at 3.9 micrometer, where flame is partially transparent. The primary obstacles overcome in the instrument design were the harsh industrial environment surrounding the boilers and the high temperatures encountered inside the boilers. A portable yet durable lens system and enclosure was developed to work with a scanning radiometer to address these two problems by both shielding the radiometer from the environment and by extending the optical train into a snout designed to be inserted into access ports on the sides of the boiler. In this manner, interior images of the boiler can be made while keeping the radiometer safely outside the boiler. The lens views a 40 degree field of view through any 2.5' or larger opening in a foot thick boiler wall. Three of these borescopes have been built, and high resolution images of boiler interiors have been obtained.

  4. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  5. Aluminide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H; Shin, Yongsoon; Samuels, William D

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  6. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  7. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  8. University picks Riley Stoker to supply fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Block, P.

    1986-02-17

    By installing a circulating fluidized bed boiler rather than a conventional coal-fired boiler, the University of Missouri expects to save $500,000 a year in pollution control costs and $80,000 a year in coal costs. The new $6 million, 200,000 pound per hour boiler, manufactured by Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, Mass., cost about $1 million more than a conventional stoker-fired boiler, and should pay for itself in combined coal and lime savings in less than two years, according to Bob Bibb, president of Bibb and Associates, Shawnee Mission, Kan., the engineering firm that aided university officials in evaluating bids for the project. As part of the project, two steam turbines will be connected: one 19.5 MW unit to the new boiler and a 14.5 MW unit to an existing boiler. The turbine on the existing boiler will be used for backup power when the first turbine is inoperative.

  9. Study on Influence of Tube Arrays on Fluid Elastic Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Kunihiko; Kitayama, Gen

    The tube bank is used in boilers, heat exchangers in power plants and steam generators in nuclear plants. These tubes sometimes vibrate violently and come to the fatigue failure due to the flow induced vibration which is caused by the cross flow. This phenomenon is that the large vibrations arise at the critical flow velocity and it is called fluid elastic instability. However the relation between the onset velocity of fluid elastic instability and the tube array's geometry has not been clarified sufficiently. There is a few reference related to the relation between the pitch to diameter ratio and the onset velocity even in the lattice arrays. In this paper, the influence of tube arrays on fluid elastic instability is examined by experiments. As a result, it is clarified that the tube vibrations become large as T/D increases and L/D decreases, and the tube vibrations strongly depend on the dynamic characteristics of tubes such as the natural frequency and the damping ability.

  10. Torsion Tests of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.

  11. Physical and Numerical Analysis of Extrusion Process for Production of Bimetallic Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Misiolek, W.Z.; Sikka, V.K.

    2006-08-10

    Bimetallic tubes are used for very specific applications where one of the two metals provides strength and the other provides specific properties such as aqueous corrosion and carburization, coking resistance, and special electrical and thermal properties. Bimetallic tubes have application in pulp and paper industry for heat-recovery boilers, in the chemical industry for ethylene production, and in the petrochemical industry for deep oil well explorations. Although bimetallic tubes have major applications in energy-intensive industry, they often are not used because of their cost and manufacturing sources in the United States. This project was intended to address both of these issues.

  12. Materials for ultrasupercritical coal power plants—Boiler materials: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Bakker, W.

    2001-02-01

    The efficiency of conventional boiler/steam turbine fossil power plants is a strong function of the steam temperature and pressure. Research to increase both has been pursued worldwide, since the energy crisis in the 1970s. The need to reduce CO2 emission has recently provided an additional incentive to increase efficiency. Thus, steam temperatures of the most efficient fossil power plants are now in the 600 °C (1112 °F) range, which represents an increase of about 60 °C (108 °F) in 30 years. It is expected that steam temperatures will rise another 50 to 100 °C (90 to 180 °F) in the next 30 years. The main enabling technology is the development of stronger high-temperature materials, capable of operating under high stresses at ever-increasing temperatures. Recently, the EPRI performed a state-of-the-art review of materials technology for advanced boiler/steam turbine power plants (ultrasupercritical power plants). The results of the review show that with respect to boilers, high-strength ferritic 9 12Cr steels for use in thick section components are now commercially available for temperatures up to 620 °C (1150 °F). Initial data on two experimental 12Cr ferritic steels indicate that they may be capable of long-term service up to 650 °C (1112 °F), but more data are required to confirm this. For higher temperatures, austenitic steels and Ni-based alloys are needed. Advanced austenitic stainless steels for use as super and reheater tubing are available for service temperatures up to 650 °C (1112 °F) and possibly 700 °C (1292 °F). Ni-based superalloys would be needed for higher temperatures. None of these steels have been approved by the ASME Boiler Code Group so far. Higher-strength materials are needed for upper water walls of boilers with steam pressure above 24 MPa (3400 psi). A high-strength 2-1/2%Cr steel recently ASME code approved as T-23 is the preferred candidate material for this application. Field trials are in progress. This paper will

  13. Evaluation of internal boiler components and gases using a high-temperature infrared (IR) lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammaker, Robert G.; Colsher, Richard J.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Madding, Robert P.

    1996-03-01

    Fuel accounts for an average of seventy percent of the yearly operational and maintenance costs of all the fossil stations in the United States. This amounts to 30 billion dollars spent for fuel each year. In addition, federal and state environmental codes have been enforcing stricter regulations that demand cleaner environments, such as the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are a by-product of the fossil fuel flame. If the burn of the flame inside a boiler could be optimized, the usage of fuel and the amounts of pollution produced would be significantly reduced, and many of the common boiler tube failures can be avoided. This would result in a major dollar savings to the utility industry, and would provide a cleaner environment. Accomplishing these goals will require a major effort from the designers and operators that manufacture, operate, and maintain the fossil stations. Over the past few years re-designed burners have been installed in many boilers to help control the temperatures and shape of the flame for better performance and NOx reduction. However, the measurement of the processes and components inside the furnace, that could assist in determining the desired conditions, can at times be very difficult due to the hostile hot environment. In an attempt to resolve these problems, the EPRI M&D Center and a core group of EPRI member utilities have undertaken a two-year project with various optical manufacturers, IR manufacturers, and IR specialists, to fully develop an optical lens that will withstand the high furnace temperatures. The purpose of the lens is to explore the possibilities of making accurate high temperature measurements of the furnace processes and components in an ever-changing harsh environment. This paper provides an introduction to EPRI's internal boiler investigation using an IR high temperature lens (HTL). The paper describes the objectives, approach, benefits, and project progress.

  14. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  15. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  16. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  17. Startup, Commissioning and Operation of Fenyi 100MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yu, Wugao; Bo, Shi

    The first 100MW CFB boiler, designed by the Thermal Power Research Institute and manufactured by Harbin Boiler Company Limited, has been successfully running in Jiangxi Fenyi Power Plant since 2003. Local high ash content anthracite and lean coal that are very difficult to burn out are used in the 100 MW CFB boiler. The results of the 100MW CFB boiler shows that the CFB boiler can run in 30% MCR and startup with two under bed burners, and the boiler efficiency higher than 88% can be got after the combustion modification test. The CFB boiler can be operated with full load and reaches design parameters. The emissions of NO, N2O and CO are less than 7Omg/m3, 30mg/m3, and 125mg/m3, respectively, and SO2 less than 400mg/m3 after limestone injection. The bottom ash temperature from bed ash coolers is less than 120°C after its modification. Coal blockage at the coal storage silo is the main problem influencing the CFB boiler continuous operation. The running experiences for 5 years proved that the CFB boiler performance is successful, and the results were applied in 210 MW and 330 MW CFB Boiler design of Fenyi Power Plant.

  18. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  19. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  20. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...