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Sample records for boldus molina pata-de-vaca

  1. Multilayer adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) over Brazilian Orchid Tree (Pata-de-vaca) and its adsorptive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgetto, Alexandre de O.; da Silva, Adrielli C. P.; Wondracek, Marcos H. P.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Velini, Edivaldo D.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Pedrosa, Valber A.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2015-08-01

    Through very simple and inexpensive processes, pata-de-vaca leaves were turned into a powder and applied as an adsorbent for the uptake of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from water. The material was characterized through SEM, EDX, FTIR and surface area measurement. The material had its point of zero charge determined (5.24), and its adsorption capacity was evaluated as a function of time, pH and metal concentration. The material presented fast adsorption kinetics, reaching adsorption equilibrium in less than 5 min and it had a good correlation with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Optimum pH for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were found to be in the range from 4 to 5, approximately. In the experiment as a function of the analyte concentration, analogously to gas adsorption, the material presented a type II isotherm, indicating the formation of multilayers for both species. Such behavior was explained with basis in the alternation between cations and anions over the material's surface, and the maximum adsorption capacity, considering the formation of the multilayers were found to be 0.238 mmol L-1 for Cu(II) and 0.113 mmol L-1 for Cd(II).

  2. Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

    2009-07-01

    Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Larvicidal activity of essential oil of Peumus boldus Molina and its ascaridole-enriched fraction against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Débora Silva Borges; da Silva, Denise Brentan; Tibúrcio, Jacqueline Domingues; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Ferraz, Vany; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Serrão, José Eduardo; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Alves, Stênio Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment. The present work evaluated the larvicidal potential of the essential oil (EO) and ascaridole-enriched fraction (EF4-5) obtained from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina (boldo). The EO, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC/MS and fractionated on silica gel. EO and EF4-5, containing 31.4% and 89.5% ascaridole, respectively, were evaluated against C. quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml on the third and fourth instars. They showed lethal concentrations (LC50) of 82.14 and 41.85 μg/ml, respectively. Larvae treated with the EF4-5 showed morphological changes in the midgut, with cells possessing a cytoplasm that contained small vacuole-like structures, as well as a nucleus with decondensed chromatin and a cell apex with a short brush border. The cells of the fat body showed larger protein granules, which were acidophilic relative to the larvae of the control group. Moreover, the enriched fraction at a dose of 50 μg/ml showed a residual larvicidal effect according to exposure time on C. quinquefasciatus. This residual effect deserves consideration, since a long-term larvicidal product may be a useful tool for vector control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 2016 AMS Mario J. Molina Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Renyi

    2016-11-29

    A named symposium to honor Dr. Mario J. Molina was held 10–14 January 2016, as part of the 96th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dr. Molina first demonstrated that industrially produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) decompose in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms, leading to catalytic ozone destruction. His research in stratospheric chemistry was instrumental to the establishment of the 1987 United Nations Montreal Protocol to ban ozone-depleting substances worldwide. Dr. Molina’s contributions to preserving the planet Earth not only save the atmospheric ozone layer, but also protect the climate by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering research in understanding the stratospheric ozone loss mechanism. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced Dr. Molina as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The 2016 AMS Molina Symposium honored Dr. Molina’s distinguished contributions to research related to atmospheric chemistry. The symposium contained an integrated theme related to atmospheric chemistry, climate, and policy. Dr. Molina delivered a keynote speech at the Symposium. The conference included invited keynote speeches and invited and contributed oral and poster sessions, and a banquet was held on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The symposium covered all aspects of atmospheric chemistry, with topics including (1) Stratospheric chemistry, (2) Tropospheric chemistry, (3) Aerosol nucleation, growth, and transformation, (4) Aerosol properties, (5) Megacity air pollution, and (6) Atmospheric chemistry laboratory, field, and modeling studies. This DOE project supported 14 scientists, including graduate students, post docs, junior research scientists, and non-tenured assistant professors to attend this symposium.

  5. Herbicidal activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii essential oils from Chile.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, Mercedes; García-Rellán, David; Boira, Herminio; Pérez, Eduardo; Gandolfo, Sandra; Blázquez, María Amparo

    2011-01-10

    The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively) were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51), p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52) and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99) as the main compounds in P. boldus and g-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41), followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34) and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06) in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea. P. boldus essential oil was the most phytotoxic against both weeds, inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth at all concentrations assayed (0.125-1 µL/mL). D. winterii essential oil did not show any effect on A. hybridus germination and only affected P. oleracea germination at the highest concentration. The results suggest the possible use of the essential oil from P. boldus as a natural herbicide.

  6. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.

    PubMed

    Lanhers, M C; Joyeux, M; Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Sayag, M; Mortier, F; Younos, C; Pelt, J M

    1991-04-01

    Dried hydro-alcoholic extract of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) has been evaluated for hepatoprotective, choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or to invalidate traditional therapeutic indications. This extract exerted a significant hepatoprotection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes (in vitro technique) by reducing the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic leakage of LDH; this in vitro efficacy was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (in vivo technique), the plant extract reducing the enzymatic leakage of ALAT. Boldine, the main alkaloid of P. boldus appears to be implicated in this hepatoprotective activity. Choleretic effects, often mentioned in traditional indications, have not been confirmed in rats. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats). Boldine does not appear to be involved in such properties.

  7. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  8. Extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J; Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was the macromorphological analysis of extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina). Bile ducts, the gall bladder and portal vein were injected with coloured latex. Using the technique of dissection, bile ducts were isolated from the liver lobes. It was found that the cystic duct in this species is rarely single. Hepatic ducts form a system of multiple anastomosing structures running in the hepatoduodenal ligament. Many bile duct openings were observed in the duodenal papilla. The results confirm wide variations of the biliary tract in mammals and may be important for comparative analysis of the morphological differentiation of these structures in small mammals.

  9. Ultrasonically enhanced extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina.

    PubMed

    Gaete-Garretón, L; Vargas-Hernández, Yolanda; Cares-Pacheco, María G; Sainz, Javier; Alarcón, John

    2011-07-01

    A study of ultrasonic enhancement in the extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. The effects influencing the extraction process were studied through a two-level factorial design. The effects considered in the experimental design were: granulometry, extraction time, acoustic Power, raw matter/solvent ratio (concentration) and acoustic impedance. It was found that for aqueous extraction the main factors affecting the ultrasonically-assisted process were: granulometry, raw matter/solvent ratio and extraction time. The extraction ratio was increased by Ultrasonics effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified without any influence in the product quality. In addition the process can be carried out at lower temperatures than the conventional method. As the process developed uses chips from the branches of trees, and not only the bark, this research contributes to make the saponin exploitation process a sustainable industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of Peumus boldus tablets by direct compression using a novel dry plant extract.

    PubMed

    Palma, Santiago; Luján, Claudia; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Barboza, Gloria; Manzo, Ruben Hilario; Allemandi, Daniel Alberto

    2002-02-21

    A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract of Peumus boldus MOL. (Monimiaceae) (Pb) is proposed. The botanical evaluation of plant material, through morphological and anatomical diagnosis, is presented. This evaluation permits to identify the herb to be used correctly. The analysis of the most extractive solvent mixture and the attainment of plant extract (fluid and dry) are reported. Several formulations (tablets) containing a novel dry plant extract of Pb and common excipients for direct compression are evaluated. The following formulation: dry plant extract of Pb (170 mg), Avicel PH101 (112 mg), Lactose CD (112) and magnesium stearate (6 mg), compressed at 1000 mPa, showed the best pharmaceutical performance.

  11. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Peumus boldus leaves.

    PubMed

    Vila, R; Valenzuela, L; Bello, H; Cañigueral, S; Montes, M; Adzet, T

    1999-03-01

    The composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Peumus boldus is investigated. Analyses of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation were carried out by GC and GC-MS using columns of two different stationary phases. Fractionation of the essential oil by column chromatography on silica gel was performed to improve identification of some constituents. More than 90% of the total oil (46 components) was identified, major constituents being monoterpenes (90.5%), among which limonene (17.0%), p-cymene (13.6%), 1.8-cineole (11.8%), and beta-phellandrene (8.4%) reached the highest percentages. Determination of the minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentration against several microorganisms showed interesting activities towards Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus sp., and Candida sp.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Falé, P L; Amaral, F; Amorim Madeira, P J; Sousa Silva, M; Florêncio, M H; Frazão, F N; Serralheiro, M L M

    2012-08-01

    This work aimed to study the inhibition on acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), the antioxidant activity and the toxicity towards Caco-2 and HeLa cells of aqueous extracts of Peumus Boldus. An IC(50) value of 0.93 mg/mL, for AChE inhibition, and EC(50) of 18.7 μg/mL, for the antioxidant activity, was determined. This activity can be attributed to glycosylated flavonoid derivatives detected, which were the main compounds, although boldine and other aporphine derivatives were also present. No changes in the chemical composition or the biochemical activities were found after gastrointestinal digestion. Toxicity of P. boldus decoction gave an IC(50) value 0.66 mg/mL for HeLa cells, which caused significant changes in the cell proteome profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antimutagenic evaluation of traditional medicinal plants from South America Peumus boldus and Cryptocarya alba using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Erico R; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Parodi, Jorge; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) wing-spot test was employed. This assay detects a wide range of mutational events, including point mutations, deletions, certain types of chromosomal aberrations (nondisjunction), and mitotic recombination. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds were carried out using biochemical and high-performance liquid chromatography methodologies. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of P. boldus and C. alba leaf extracts was also analyzed. P. boldus and C. alba extracts did not induce significant mutagenic effects in the D. melanogaster model. However, simultaneous treatment of extracts concurrently with the mutagen ethyl methane sulphonate showed a decrease of mutant spots in somatic cells of D. melanogaster, indicating desmutagenic effects in this in vivo model. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were detected predominantly in the extracts, and these compounds exerted significant antioxidant capacity. The observed antimutagenic effects may be related to the presence of phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity, such as flavonoids and antohocyanins, in the extracts.

  15. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cares, M. G.; Vargas, Y.; Gaete, L.; Sainz, J.; Alarcón, J.

    2010-01-01

    A study of ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. To address the problem it was studied the effects that could influence the extraction process through a two-level Factorial Design. The effects considered in the Experimental Design were: Granulometry, Extraction time, Acoustic Power and Acoustic Impedance. The production of the quillaja extracts is done with an aqueous extraction and the process is assisted by an ultrasonic field; no other solvents are used in its production. The final product only incorporates natural ingredients and raw materials, authorized for their use in food manufacturing processes. The principal factors affecting the ultrasonic extraction process were: Granulometry and Extraction time. The enhanced of ultrasonic assisted extraction ratio was measuring the increasing yield of extracted components, the extraction ratio was increased by ultrasonic effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified. In addition the process can be carried out at temperatures lower than the traditional way. The influence of ultrasound on the quality of bioactive principles was examined by HPLC technique and no influence of ultrasound on natural components was found.

  16. Alkaloids from Peumus boldus and their acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activity.

    PubMed

    Hošt'álková, Anna; Opletal, Lubomír; Kuneš, Jiří; Novák, Zdeněk; Hrabinová, Martina; Chlebek, Jakub; Čegan, Lukáš; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Eleven isoquinoline alkaloids (1-11) were isolated from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. by standard chromatographic methods. The chemical structures were elucidated by MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with literature data. Compounds isolated in sufficient amount were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity using Ellman's method. In the prolyl oligopeptidase assay, Z-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide was used as substrate. Promising butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activities were demonstrated by two benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, reticuline (8) and N-methylcoclaurine (9), with IC50 values of 33.6 ± 3.0 µM and 15.0 ± 1.4 µM, respectively. Important prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activities were shown by N-methyllaurotetanine (6) and sinoacutine (4) with IC50 values of 135.4 ± 23.2 µM and 143.1 ± 25.4 µM, respectively. Other tested compounds were considered inactive.

  17. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo").

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Rodriguez, J A; Theoduloz, C; Astudillo, S L; Feresin, G E; Tapia, A

    2003-04-01

    The dry leaves of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) are used in infusion or decoction as a digestive and to improve hepatic complains. Preliminary assays showed free-radical scavenging activity in hot water extracts of boldo leaves, measured by the decoloration of a methanolic solution of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). Assay-guided isolation led to the active compounds. Catechin proved to be the main free-radical scavenger of the extracts. Lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes was inhibited by boldo extracts and fractions at 500 microg/ml with higher effect for the ethyl acetate soluble and alkaloid fractions. The IC50 for catechin and boldine in the lipid peroxidation test were 75.6 and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. On the basis of dry starting material the catechin content in the crude drug was 2.25% while the total alkaloid calculated as boldine was 0.06%. The activity of boldine was six times higher than catechin in the lipid peroxidation assay. However, the mean catechin:total alkaloid content ratio was 37:1. The relative concentration of alkaloids and phenolics in boldo leaves and their activity suggest that free-radical scavenging effect is mainly due to catechin and flavonoids and that antioxidant effect is mainly related with the catechin content The high catechin content of boldo leaves and its bioactivity suggest that quality control of Boldo folium has to combine the analysis of catechin as well as their characteristic aporphine alkaloids.

  18. [Neurotoxic effect of aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus) in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Dolores, Jhon William; Mendoza-Quispe, Daniel Enrique; Moreno-Rumay, Edwin Luis; Gonzales-Medina, Carlos Alejandro; Remuzgo-Artezano, Fany; Morales-Ipanaqué, Luis Alexander; Monje-Nolasco, Roberto Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To assess the neurotoxic effect of the aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus) in an experimental model. 20 male Holtzman rats of 250 ± 15 g were randomized into four groups: the negative control received saline solution (SS) orally (PO), the positive control received 6-hydroxydopamine intracranially (IC) and SS by PO. Experimental group 1 received aqueous extract of boldo (AEB) by PO, and experimental group 2 received 6-hydroxydopamine intracranially and AEB by PO. The experiment lasted 21 days. A neurological assessment was performed which had three components: a) clinical, evaluated with the rotarod test, b) biochemical, by measuring serum levels of uric acid, and c) histopathology, by immunohistochemistry for substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. The Kruskal Wallis test and the Dunn test were used to assess differences between groups. A significant decrease was found in the latency time of the rotarod test between the negative and positive control group (p<0.01), negative control and experimental 1 (p=0.09), negative control and experimental 2 (p<0.01), positive control and experimental 1 (p=0.04), and experimental 1 and 2 (p=0.09). There was no significant intergroup difference in the identification of uric acid. There was a depletion of the total dopaminergic neurons in the neuronal count, without intergroup difference. A neurotoxic effect of aqueous extract of boldo was recognized at a clinical level in Holtzman male rats.

  19. Kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of sorption of saponin of Quillaja Saponaria Molina on chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironenko, N. V.; Smuseva, S. O.; Brezhneva, T. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    The equilibrium and kinetic curves of the sorption of saponin of Quillaja saponaria molina on chitosan were analyzed. The inner diffusion was found to be limiting, and its coefficients were calculated. It was found that the form of the curves of the sorption isotherms of saponin is determined by the competing processes of association in solution and absorption by chitosan.

  20. Free radical scavenging potential of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl fruits extract.

    PubMed

    Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Veluswamy, Selvi; Sundaram, Krishnakumari Shanmuga; Kannappan, Priya; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria) (Molina) fruit. The free radical scavenging activity of the L. siceraria (Molina) fruit extract was assayed by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), FRAP, reducing power, chelating ability and β-carotene bleaching assay. The IC(50) values of DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 1.95 mg/mL and 19 mg/mL, respectively. In ferrous chelation assay, the percentage of inhibition was found to be 89.21%. The reducing power of ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Molina) fruit was 0.068 at 1 mg/mL and increased to 0.192 at 5 mg/mL. The β-carotene linoleate bleaching assay was 46.7% at 5 mg/mL and antioxidant activity using FRAP at 0.305 for 1 mg/mL to 0.969 for 5 mg/mL. The results indicate that L. siceraria (Molina) fruit could be an important sources of natural radical scavengers. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recasting Madrid and Its Characters in Munoz Molina's "Los misterios de Madrid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Sheri Spaine

    2009-01-01

    "Los misterios de Madrid" (1992) provides a burlesque novelistic portrayal of the changing capital city and its inhabitants in the early 1990s. Spanish writer Antonio Munoz Molina creates vignettes of Madrid's people and places while showing the capital as a destination for both foreign-born immigrants and provincial Spaniards alike. In…

  2. Geology of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.; Nadon, G.; LaFreniere, L.

    1996-06-01

    The Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation has been cored in order to assess the presence/absence and character of microbial communities in the deep subsurface. Geological study of the Molina Member was undertaken in support of the microbiological tasks of this project, for the purposes of characterizing the host strata and of assessing the potential for post-depositional introduction of microbes into the strata. The Molina Member comprises a sandy fluvial unit within a formation dominated by mudstones. Sandy to conglomeratic deposits of braided and meandering fluvial systems are present on the western and eastern margins of the basin respectively, although the physical and temporal equivalence of these systems cannot be proven. Distal braided facies of planar-horizontal bedded sandstones are recognized on the western margin of the basin. Natural fractures are present in all Molina sandstones, commonly as apparent shear pairs. Core from the 1-M-18 well contains natural fractures similar to those found in outcrops, and has sedimentological affinities to the meandering systems of the eastern margin of the basin. The hydrologic framework of the Molina, and thus any potential post-depositional introduction of microbes into the formation, should have been controlled by approximately east-west flow through the natural fracture system, the geometries and extent of the sandstones in which the fractures occur, and hydraulic gradient. Migration to the well site, from outcropping recharge areas at the edge of the basin, could have started as early as 40 million years ago if the cored strata are connected to the eastern sedimentary system.

  3. Case report: boldo (Peumus boldus) and tacrolimus interaction in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, R; Yisfalem, A; Pradhan, N; Baumstein, D; Chaudhari, A

    2014-09-01

    Boldo is an extract of a Chilean tree leave (Peumus boldus mol) that have been traditionally employed in folk medicine. We have presented a case of subtherapeutic tacrolimus levels in a renal transplant patient while taking boldo. In the literature search, no interaction has been reported between boldo and tacrolimus. A 78-year-old Hispanic man with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and deceased donor renal transplant in 2005 presented to the renal clinic for regular follow-up on September 1, 2010. No complaints were reported and physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests taken on July 26, 2010, were significant for tacrolimus level of <3 ng/mL (measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry) and serum creatinine of 1.2 mg/dL (106 μmol/L). Medications included tacrolimus 2 mg bid and mycophenolate 500 mg bid. On further inquiry, the patient admitted taking herbal medication, boldo 300 mg bid, for the last few weeks. There was no change in his regular medications. He was adherent to his medication. He had been taking tacrolimus from the same company and pharmacy since August 2009. The last dose of boldo was on September 1, 2010. One week after he stopped taking boldo, tacrolimus level was 6.1 ng/mL (9/8/2010) on the same tacrolimus dose of 2 mg bid. Tacrolimus dose was increased to 3 mg bid (9/9/2010), awaiting tacrolimus levels. Subsequent levels (ng/mL) were 8.6 and 9.5, which made us resume the prior tacrolimus dose (2 mg bid). We have reported a case of an allograft renal transplant recipient who presented to the clinic with subtherapeutic levels of tacrolimus while taking the herbal remedy boldo. Tacrolimus levels rose to the intended target after discontinuation of boldo. Although it is a single case report, our observation suggests a possible herb-drug interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Field immobilization of Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) using ketamine and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Diego F; Vidal, Estela Luengos; Casanave, Emma B; Lucherini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We injected 27 adult Molina's hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga) intramuscularly by hand with ketamine hydrochloride (KH) and xylazine hydrochloride (XH) in the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Skunks were immobilized with a mean (±SD) dosage of 24.9±6.5 mg/kg KH and 1.9±0.6 mg/kg XH. The mean effective dosages of KH (27.6 mg/kg) and XH (1.7 mg/kg) were higher and lower, respectively, than those reported in skunks previously. Mean induction and recovery time were 5.3±1.9 min and 47.7±18.5 min, respectively. Hypothermia was the only problem detected in field immobilization and occurred in winter but did not appear to be associated with to drug doses. We conclude that KH/XH is a safe immobilizing drug combination for Molina's hog-nosed skunk.

  5. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae Turcz. leaves of different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Peña-Cerda, Marcelo; Arancibia-Radich, Jorge; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Paula; Pérez-Arancibia, Rodrigo; Barriga, Andrés; Seguel, Ivette; García, Lorena; Delporte, Carla

    2017-01-15

    Ugni molinae Turcz. is a native shrub of Chile, known for its edible berries and its leaves, which have been the focus of recent attention, as a good source of phenolic compounds to be used in cosmetics and food products. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts from the leaves of 10 genotypes of U. molinae, that were cultivated under the same soil, climate and agronomical management. Antioxidant activity was assessed by complementary methods (ORAC-Fl, FRAP and DPPH assay), phenolic composition of each extract was analyzed by LC-MS. Phenolic and flavonoid total contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods. Significative differences were found by these methods, and ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives and flavonols were identified as responsible for these differences, showing the influence of the genotype on the phenolic composition of U. molinae leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis.

  7. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    PubMed Central

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  9. Peumus boldus (Boldo) Aqueous Extract Present Better Protective Effect than Boldine Against Manganese-Induced Toxicity in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Matheus Chimelo; Gularte, Claudia Ortiz Alves; Escoto, Dandara Fidélis; Pereira, Geovana; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Puntel, Robson L

    2016-10-01

    The cellular, intracellular and molecular mechanism(s) underlying the toxicity of Mn are still incompletely understood, although several points concerning Mn neurotoxicity have been addressed. Importantly, oxidative changes have been reported to be involved in Mn-induced toxicity. As a consequence, antioxidants are expected to offer protection in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to this metal. So, in this study we evaluated the hypothesis that the aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus), and its alkaloids boldine, could prevent/ameliorate behavioral and oxidative alterations induced by Mn in a D. melanogaster intoxication model. Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to Mn (3 mM) and boldo aqueous extract (5 mg/mL) or boldine (327.37 µg/mL) in the food during 9 days. Mn-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay and in the open-field test, as well as a higher incidence of mortality and TBARS levels in head and body, when compared to control group. Boldo aqueous extract was found to reduce the mortality rate of the flies exposed to Mn. In turn, boldine was ineffective against Mn-induced mortality and significantly increases mortality per se. Additionally, Mn-induced locomotors dysfunction were fully ameliorated by boldo crude extract and only partially ameliorated by boldine. Likewise, boldo completely normalize head and body TBARS levels, whereas boldine only partially normalize in body. Finally, we found that flies treated with Mn presented significantly decrease in dopamine levels. Our results suggest that boldo crude extract can exert protective effect against Mn-induced toxicity in D. melanogaster, whereas boldine do not. Moreover, our data confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, such as that caused by Mn.

  10. The effect of the aqueous extract Peumus boldus on the proliferation of hepatocytes and liver function in rats submitted to expanded hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maria Bernadete Galrão de Almeida; Santana, Vanessa Rocha de; Nardelli, Maria Júlia; Nogueira, Matheus de Souza; Azevedo, Danilo Xavier; Santana, Danillo Primo Andrade; Figueiredo, Ana Galrão de Almeida; Duarte, Ívison Xavier; Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de; Lima, Sônia Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    To assess the effect of aqueous extract of Peumus Boldus (AEPB) on the liver proliferative response after parcial hepatectomy of 70% (PH) in rodents. Twenty Wistar rats were divided in two groups: AEPB100 (whose rats received 100mg/Kg of AEPB, once a day, orally, in 4 days prior to the first surgical procedure) and Vehicle (whose rats were treated similarly with distilled water). Both groups underwent PH. After 24 hours the remaining livers were removed for studying the proliferation of hepatocytes by Ki-67 and 2mL of blood were collected for serological assessment: cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total, direct and indirect bilirubin. All data were analyzed by Gaussian distribution. Statistically significant differences between mean values were analyzed using T Student's test. Non-Gaussian data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test. The liver of all these rats presented positive staining of Ki-67, indicating liver proliferation. Laboratory results showed no significant difference in serum values between the analyzed groups. The analysis of Ki-67 was significantly more positive in AEPB100 group than in Vehicle group. Aqueous extract of Peumus Boldus acute administration exerts significant positive effect on liver regeneration after 24h in rats that underwent parcial hepatectomy, while maintaining unchanged hepatic function.

  11. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    PubMed

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention.

  13. Saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina: isolation, characterization and ability to form immuno stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs).

    PubMed

    Pham, Hoang L; Ross, Benjamin P; McGeary, Ross P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Davies, Nigel M

    2006-10-01

    ISCOMs have received much attention as vaccine adjuvants due to their immunostimulatory effects. They are colloidal particles typically comprised of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil A, a crude mixture of saponins extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. We have previously shown that ISCOMs can be prepared by ether injection wherein an ether solution of phospholipids and cholesterol in a mass ratio of 5:2 is injected into a solution of Quil A at a mass ratio of 7 lipids: 3 Quil A. The aim of this study was firstly to isolate and characterise discrete fractions of Quil A and secondly to investigate which of these fractions were able to form ISCOMs by the method of ether injection. Six fractions of Quil A were isolated by semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterised by analytical HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the qualitative Liebermann-Burchard and Molisch tests for triterpenoids and carbohydrates respectively. ISCOMs were subsequently prepared from the isolated fractions by the method of ether injection and the resulting preparations characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular weights of the major compounds in the fractions ranged from approximately 1200 to approximately 2300 Da; all fractions tested positive for triterpenoids and saccharides and four of the fractions were identified as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18 and QS-21 by analysis (LC-MS and analytical HPLC). Injection of ether solutions of lipids into aqueous solutions of QS-17, QS-18 or QS-21 all resulted in homogeneous ISCOM dispersions. The combination of lipids and QS-7 by ether injection produced lamellae and liposomes as the prominent structures and a minor amount of ISCOMs. The remaining two hydrophilic, low molecular weight fractions of Quil A did not produce ISCOMs, instead liposomes and helical structures predominated in the

  14. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    PubMed

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  15. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of 2alpha-hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids from the leaves of Ugni molinae.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, María C; Delporte, Carla; Backhouse, Nadine; Erazo, Silvia; Letelier, María Eugenia; Cassels, Bruce K; Silva, Ximena; Alegría, Sergio; Negrete, Rosa

    2006-08-15

    Leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz. are used in the Chilean cosmetic industry on the assumption that they have decongestant, regenerative, and anti-aging properties. A bioassay-guided fractionation of this plant material showed that some extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activities. Further fractionation led to the isolation and identification of betulinic acid, a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids, and the 2alpha-hydroxy derivatives alphitolic, asiatic, and corosolic acids. The latter three were evaluated in vivo in the mouse ear assay for their topical anti-inflammatory activity, inducing inflammation with either arachidonic acid (AA) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). Only corosolic acid was active in the AA assay, with similar potency to nimesulide, but all three triterpene acids inhibited TPA-induced inflammation with potencies comparable to that of indomethacin.

  16. Direct identification of phenolic constituents in Boldo Folium (Peumus boldus Mol.) infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, M J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    2010-01-22

    A very simple and direct method was developed for the qualitative analysis of polyphenols in boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., Monimiaceae) leaves infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)). The phenolic constituents identified in infusions of the crude drug Boldo Folium were mainly proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides. In the infusions, 41 compounds were detected in male and 43 compounds in female leaf samples, respectively. Nine quercetin glycosides, eight kaempferol derivatives, nine isorhamnetin glycosides, three phenolic acids, one caffeoylquinic acid glycoside and twenty one proanthocyanidins were identified by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS for the first time in the crude drug. Isorhamnetin glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the most abundant flavonol glycoside in the male boldo sample, whereas isorhamnetin di-glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the main phenolic compound in female boldo leaves infusion. The results suggest that the medicinal properties reported for this popular infusion should be attributed not only to the presence of catechin and boldine but also to several phenolic compounds with known antioxidant activity. The HPLC fingerprint obtained can be useful in the authentication of the crude drug Boldo Folium as well as for qualitative analysis and differentiation of plant populations in the tree distribution range. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; López-Urbina, María T; González, Armando E

    2009-03-23

    This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite.

  18. Determination of polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] a Chilean blackberry.

    PubMed

    Genskowsky, Estefania; Puente, Luis A; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Fernández-López, Juana; Muñoz, Loreto A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine (1) the polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins), (2) the antioxidant using four different methodologies (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC) and (3) the antibacterial properties of maqui berry [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] (MB) grown in Chile. The HPLC analysis of MB showed a total of 19 polyphenolic compounds identified as anthocyanins (eight compounds), flavonols (10 compounds) and ellagic acid. Delphinidin derivatives were the predominant anthocyanins while quercetin derivatives were the predominant flavonols. MB showed an antioxidant activity measured with DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC methods of 28.18, 18.66, 25.22 g Trolox equivalent kg(-1) and 0.12 g ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent kg(-1) , respectively. With regard to the antibacterial activity, all strains tested were affected by MB. Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria innocua showed the highest sensitivity to maqui berry extracts with MIC values of 40 and a 50 mg mL(-1) , respectively. The results suggest that maqui berry has a great potential to be employed in the food industry as potential food ingredient to functional food development or as bio-preservative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Isolation and characterization of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruits. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria Paula; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; A Contreras, Rodrigo; Zúñiga, Gustavo E

    2015-03-31

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic). LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays) was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit's characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    PubMed Central

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  1. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS).

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species.

  2. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  3. Conjugate fracture pairs in the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance basin, Colorado: Implications for fracture origins and hydrocarbon production/exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    The sandstones of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contain a suite of fractures that have a conjugate-pair geometry. The fractures are vertical and intersect at an acute angle of between 20 and 40 degrees. Although direct evidence of shear is rare, the fracture surfaces commonly display small steps. The fracture geometries suggest that the maximum compressive stress during fracturing was in the plane of the acute angle of the conjugate fractures: the steps are interpreted as broken-face manifestations of very low angle en echelon fractures, formed within exceptionally narrow zones of incipient shear. In contrast to the highly anisotropic permeability enhancement created by subparallel vertical extension fractures in the underlying Mesaverde Formation, the conjugate pairs in the Molina sandstones should create a well connected and relatively isotropic mesh of fracture conductivity. Increases in stress magnitudes and anisotropy during production drawdown of reservoir pressures should cause shear offsets along the fractures, initially enhancing permeability.

  4. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  5. Low doses of ethanolic extract of Boldo (Peumus boldus) can ameliorate toxicity generated by cisplatin in normal liver cells of mice in vivo and in WRL-68 cells in vitro, but not in cancer cells in vivo or in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Jesmin; Bishayee, Kausik; Panigrahi, Ashis Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-09-01

    Use of cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug, is restricted because it generates strong hepatotoxicity by accumulating in liver. Therefore its anticancer potential can only be fully exploited if its own toxicity is considerably reduced. Towards this goal, ethanolic extract of the plant, Boldo (Peumus boldus), known for its antihepatotoxic effects, was used simultaneously with cisplatin, to test its ability to reduce cisplatin's cytotoxicity without affecting its anticancer potential. The cytotoxicity of Boldo extract (BE) and cisplatin, administered alone and in combination, was determined in three cancer cell lines (A549, HeLa, and HepG2) and in normal liver cells (WRL-68). Drug-DNA interaction, DNA damage, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨ) were also studied. Hepatotoxicity and antioxidant activity levels were determined by alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione assays in mice. The cytotoxicity of related proteins was tested by Western blotting. Co-administration of BE and cisplatin increased viability of normal cells, but had no effect on the viability of cancer cells. Boldo protected liver from damage and normalized different antioxidant enzyme levels in vivo and also reduced ROS and re-polarized MMP in vitro. Bax and cytochrome c translocation was reduced with caspase 3 down-regulation. Further, a drug-DNA interaction study revealed that BE reduced cisplatin's DNA-binding capacity, resulting in a reduction in DNA damage. Results indicated that a low dose of BE could be used beneficially in combination with cisplatin to reduce its toxicity without hampering cisplatin's anticancer effect. These findings signify a potential future use of BE in cancer therapy.

  6. Evaluation of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate for alleviation of experimentally induced arthritic pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae)

    PubMed Central

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A.; Tourdot, Renee L.; Sladky, Kurt K.; Klauer, Julia M.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Brown, Carolyn S.; Heath, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate injection of microcrystalline sodium urate (MSU) for inducing articular pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae) and the analgesic efficacy of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate (LEBT) by use of weight load data, behavioral scores, and fecal corticosterone concentration. Animals 8 conures. Procedures In a crossover study, conures were randomly assigned to receive LEBT (15 mg/kg) or liposomal vehicle subsequent to experimental induction of arthritis or sham injection. The MSU was injected into 1 tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal (intertarsal) joint to induce arthritis (time 0). Weight-bearing load and behavioral scores were determined at 0, 2, 6, 26, and 30 hours. Results MSU injection into 1 intertarsal joint caused a temporary decrease in weight bearing on the affected limb. Treatment of arthritic conures with LEBT resulted in significantly more weight bearing on the arthritic limb than treatment with vehicle. Administration of vehicle to arthritic conures caused a decrease in activity and feeding behaviors during the induction phase of arthritis, but as the arthritis resolved, there was a significant increase in voluntary activity at 30 hours and feeding behaviors at 26 and 30 hours, compared with results for LEBT treatment of arthritic birds. Treatment with LEBT or vehicle in conures without arthritis resulted in similar measurements for weight bearing and voluntary and motivated behaviors. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Experimental induction of arthritis in conures was a good method for evaluating tonic pain. Weight-bearing load was the most sensitive measure of pain associated with induced arthritis. Pain associated with MSU-induced arthritis was alleviated by administration of LEBT. PMID:19795935

  7. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  8. [Demonstration of papillomatosis in nutrias (Myocastor coypus Molina)].

    PubMed

    Jelínek, P; Valícek, L; Smíd, B; Halouzka, R

    1978-02-01

    The occurrence of the papillomatous disease of the coypu having a contagious character was recorded for the first time in Czechoslovakia in 1975. The papillomatous lesions of the size of a pea to bean occurred on the skin of the extremities, tail head and in the oral and nasal cavities. The females were affected first, followed by their young and then by the young borne by healthy mothers after contact with the diseased animals. On the whole the disease affected 57 animals (60%). The disease spontaneously disappeared within 2.5 to 3.5 months of the occurrence of the papillomatous lesions. The virus etiology of the disease was demonstrated by means of the electron-microscopic detection of virus particles the structure of which corresponded to that of the papillomatous viruses.

  9. Husbandry and breeding in the Octodon degu (Molina 1782).

    PubMed

    Palacios, Adrian G; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-04-01

    The Octodon degu is a native rodent species from South America, which lives in colonies with a well-structured social organization grouping of 5-10 young and 2-5 adult animals sharing a burrow system. They show a temperature-dependent diurnal-crepuscular activity pattern. In nature they rarely survive 2 yr, mostly because of predation. However, in captivity, females reproduce for 4-4.5 yr, and both sexes live for 5-7 yr. Males remain fertile until death. Some care is required to maintain healthy degus, particularly breeding females. Here we describe husbandry and breeding guidelines from the experience of the University of Michigan degu colony. With the husbandry practices described here, 90% of pups born in our colony reach maturity (6 mo of age), and no diarrheal diseases are apparent in our adult population.

  10. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.).

    PubMed

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-03-12

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  11. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.)

    PubMed Central

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality. PMID:23481637

  12. Studies of Genetic Variation of Essential Oil and Alkaloid Content in Boldo (Peumus boldus).

    PubMed

    Vogel, H; Razmilic, I; Muñoz, M; Doll, U; Martin, J S

    1999-02-01

    Boldo is a tree or shrub with medicinal properties native to Chile. The leaves contain alkaloids and essential oils. Variation of total alkaloid concentration, of the alkaloid boldine, and essential oil components were studied in different populations from northern, central, and southern parts of its geographic range and in their progenies (half-sib families). Total alkaloid concentration showed genetic variation between progenies of the central population but not between populations. Boldine content found in concentrations of 0.007 to 0.009% did not differ significantly between populations. Principal components of the essential oil were determined genetically, with highest values for ascaridole in the population of the north and for P-cymene in the south. Between half-sib families genetic variation was found in the central and northern populations for these components. The high heritability coefficients found indicate considerable potential for successful selection of individuals for these characters.

  13. [Effect of a dry boldo extract on oro-cecal intestinal transit in healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Gotteland, M; Espinoza, J; Cassels, B; Speisky, H

    1995-08-01

    Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a widely used medicinal plant. However, its physiological effects are not well known. Recent studies in animals showed that certain components of boldo relax smooth muscle and prolong intestinal transit. To assess the effects of a dry boldo extract on oro cecal transit time in normal humans. Twelve volunteers received 2.5 g of a dry boldo extract or a placebo (glucose) during two successive periods of four days. On the fourth day, 20 g of lactulose were administered and breath hydrogen was collected every 15 min. Oro cecal transit time was defined as the time in which breath hydrogen increased by 20 ppm over the fasting level. Oro cecal transit time was larger after dry boldo extract administration, compared to placebo (112.5 +/- 15.4 and 87 +/- 11.8 min respectively, paired t p < 0.05). Dry boldo extract prolongs oro cecal transit time, a possible explanation for its medicinal use.

  14. The adhesive protein of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782): a proline-rich and a glycine-rich polyphenolic protein.

    PubMed

    Burzio, L A; Saéz, C; Pardo, J; Waite, J H; Burzio, L O

    2000-06-15

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from Aulacomya ater and Choromytilus chorus with apparent molecular masses of 135000 and 105000, respectively, were digested with trypsin and the peptides produced resolved by reversed phase liquid chromatography. About 5 and 12 major peptides were obtained from the protein of A. ater and C. chorus, respectively. The major peptides were purified by reverse-phase chromatography and the amino acid sequence indicates that both polyphenolic proteins consisted of repeated sequence motifs in their primary structure. The major peptides of A. ater contain seven amino acids corresponding to the consensus sequence AGYGGXK, whereas the tyrosine was always found as 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), the X residue in position 6 was either valine, leucine or isoleucine, and the carboxy terminal was either lysine or hydroxylysine. On the other hand, the major peptides of C. chorus ranged in size from 6 to 21 amino acids and the majority correspond to the consensus sequence AKPSKYPTGYKPPVK. Both proteins differ markedly in the sequence of their tryptic peptides, but they share the common characteristics of other adhesive proteins in having a tandem sequence repeat in their primary structure.

  15. Prevention of rotavirus infections in vitro with aqueous extracts of Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    PubMed Central

    Roner, Michael R; Tam, Ka Ian; Kiesling-Barrager, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. Rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the US FDA for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. The addition of saponins to existing water supplies offers a new form of intervention into the cycle of rotavirus infection. We believe that saponins will ‘coat’ the epithelium of the host's small intestine and prevent attachment of rotavirus. Discussion This experiment provides in vitro data for the possibility of including saponin in drinking water to prevent infections of rotavirus. We demonstrate that microgram amounts of extract, while exhibiting no cell cytotoxicity or direct virucidal activity, prevent rotavirus from infecting its host cells. In addition, the presence of residual amounts of extract continue to block viral infection and render cells resistant to infection for at least 16 h after the removal of the extract from the cell culture media. Conclusion We demonstrate that two Quillaja extracts possess strong antiviral activity at concentrations more than 1000-fold lower than concentrations exhibiting cell cytotoxicity. Extract concentrations as high as 1000 μg/ml are not cytotoxic, but concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/ml are able to block rotavirus and reovirus attachment and infection. PMID:20725585

  16. Antiviral activity obtained from aqueous extracts of the Chilean soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina).

    PubMed

    Roner, Michael R; Sprayberry, Jennifer; Spinks, Matthew; Dhanji, Salima

    2007-01-01

    Natural, aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponaria, the Chilean soapbark tree, contain several physiologically active triterpenoid saponins that display strong adjuvant activity when used in either human or animal vaccines. In this paper, we describe studies that demonstrate a novel antiviral activity of Quillaja extracts against six viruses: vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, varicella zoster virus, human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2) and reovirus. We demonstrate that microgram amounts of extract, while exhibiting no cell cytotoxicity or direct virucidal activity, prevent each of the six viruses tested from infecting their host cells. In addition, the presence of residual amounts of extract continue to block virus infection and render cells resistant to infection for at least 16 h after the removal of the extract from the cell culture medium. We demonstrate that a Quillaja extract possesses strong antiviral activity at concentrations more than 100-fold lower than concentrations that exhibit cell cytotoxicity. Extract concentrations as high as 100 microg ml(-1) are not cytotoxic, but concentrations as low as 0.1 microg ml(-1) are able to block HIV-1 and HIV-2 virus attachment and infection.

  17. Characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Ka Ian; Roner, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. Quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the Chilean soapbark tree. The extract is approved for use in humans by the FDA for use in beverages as a food addictive. We have demonstrated that Quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antiviral activity of these extracts against rhesus rotavirus (RRV) using a mouse model. We established that at a dosage of 0.015 mg/mouse of saponin extract, RRV induced diarrhea can be significantly reduced from 79% to 11% when mice are exposed to 500 plaque-forming-units (PFU) for each of five consecutive days. Additionally, while a reduction of RRV induced diarrhea depended both on the concentration of virus introduced and on the amount of Quillaja extract given to each mouse, the severity and interval of diarrhea under a variety of conditions tested, in all the treated mice were greatly reduced when compared to those that did not receive the Quillaja extracts. Mechanistically, there is strong evidence that the Quillaja extracts are able to “block” rotavirus infection by inhibiting virus-host attachment through disruption of cellular membrane proteins and/or virus receptors. We believe that Quillaja extracts have promise as antivirals to reduce rotavirus infection and the severity of the disease in humans. PMID:21549151

  18. Fibrinolytic activity of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley.

    PubMed

    Rajput, M S; Mathur, Vineet; Agrawal, Purti; Chandrawanshi, H K; Pilaniya, Urmila

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate a flavonol, kaempferol, from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) as a sole compound and to explore the fibrinolytic potential of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria and the isolated compound using their in vitro activity. The fibrinolytic activity in terms of percentage of plasma clot liquefaction was determined by plasma clot lysis at 37°C in 24 h. The fibrinolytic activity of both substances was compared to the well-known thrombolytic agent streptokinase (30,000 IU). The percentage of fibrinolytic activity of the extract and isolated compound were found to be 54.72 ± 0.7210 and 77.37 ± 1.3010, respectively. Streptokinase was considered as the standard fibrinolytic enzyme for comparative purposes and had 91.46 ± 0.7625% fibrinolytic activity. The conclusion drawn in our study after testing the hypothesis by experimental procedures is that in vitro fibrinolytic activity on plasma clots is an inherent property of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of L. siceraria, and its comparison with streptokinase is a new aspect for further study.

  19. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the large intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    The organization of autonomic nerve structures in the large intestine of chinchilla was investigated using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The myenteric plexus formed network nodes of cholinergic neurocyte agglomerations connected with bundles of nerve fibres and localized between the circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. The highest density of myenteric plexus was observed in the rectum. The different densities of myenteric plexus in subsequent parts of the large intestine is connected with the disparate functions of this part of the gut. The submucous plexus was distributed at several levels of mucosa and was a more dispersed structure than the myenteric plexus. Characteristic varicose adrenergic fibres were observed within the myenteric and submucous plexus in different layers of the large intestine wall.

  20. Morphometry and Variability of the Brain Arterial Circle in Chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Kuchinka, Jacek

    2017-02-09

    Arterial circles of brains from 70 adult chinchillas were filled with synthetic latex. The arterial circle of the brain is formed as the result of vertebral arteries being merged into the basilar artery. Caudally, both vertebral arteries gave rise to the ventral spinal artery. The ventral spinal artery splits into tiny cerebellar vessels, the pontine and cochlear branches. Distally, the basilar artery ramified into two terminal branches that formed the arterial circle of brain, rostrally open in most cases (75%). The observed variability of the arterial circle of brain of chinchillas pertained to all elements of that circle. The greatest variability within the vessels of the circle of Willis in chinchillas was observed in 22 cases (31.4%) of internal ophthalmic arteries. In chinchillas, a trend toward slight variability within the arteries comprising the arterial circle of the brain was observed in 44 animals. This accounted for 62.8% of all cases. Only in three cases was the arterial circle of brain clearly symmetrical. At the same time, 23 animals (32.8%) revealed features of significant vascular variability within the brain base region. These consisted of disturbed geometry of the entire arterial circle, different levels of ramifications into individual arteries, as well as the number and diameter of arteries. No internal carotid arteries were observed in chinchillas apart from one atypical case in which the carotid artery extended unilaterally into the basilar artery. These investigations indicate on the significant variability of arterial circle in rodents. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Organization of the innervation of the oesophagus and stomach in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Using the histochemical and histological techniques the morphology and topography of the autonomic plexuses of the oesophagus and stomach in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) was investigated. AChE-positive and adrenergic structures in the myenteric and submucosal plexus were observed. According to the results the cholinergic structures were formed by the different in shape network meshes, various size of the neurons agglomerations and nerve fibres. Adrenergic fibres were found. Density of these structures varied in different parts of the investigated organs. This study is the first attempt to localize the intramural autonomic plexuses in this species.

  2. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  3. Constituents of leaves from Bauhinia curvula Benth. exert gastroprotective activity in rodents: role of quercitrin and kaempferol.

    PubMed

    Beber, Ana Paula; de Souza, Priscila; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Cury, Benhur Judah; Burci, Ligia Moura; da Silva, Cristiane Bezerra; Simionatto, Euclésio; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; da Silva, Luísa Mota

    2017-02-07

    The Bauhinia genus is known as "Pata-de-Vaca" and a wide variety of these species are used in Brazilian folk medicine due to their gastroprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract from B. curvula (HEBC) leaves, as well as its semi-purified fraction (SPFr) and the contribution of their phytochemicals constituents for this effect. For that, ethanol 60%/HCl 0.3 M- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer were performed in rodents. Gastric ulcerated tissues were processed for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The oral treatment with HEBC and SPFr decreased the gastric ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice and by indomethacin (only HEBC) in rats. The gastroprotective effect of HEBC was abolished in mice pretreated with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-Ethylmaleimide, glibenclamide or indomethacin. Both HEBC and SPFr reduced myeloperoxidase activity in parallel with a decrease of lipoperoxides content at the site of the lesion. On the other hand, HEBC did not alter volume, pH, total acidity or pepsin activity of acid gastric secretion in rats, and neither inhibited the in vitro H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, the compounds identified and isolated from the SPFr, the flavonoids quercitrin (65%) and kaempferol (35%), were able to diminish the extent of ulcerated area induced by both ethanol/HCl and indomethacin. Taking together, these findings show that B. curvula extracts present gastroprotective effect, mainly explained by the presence of flavonoids quercitrin and kaempferol, which may possibly improve the defensive factors of gastric mucosa.

  4. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of Bauhinia variegata.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, C R; Maciel, F M; Silva, L B; Ferreira, A T S; da Cunha, M; Machado, O L T; Fernandes, K V S; Oliveira, A E A; Xavier-Filho, J

    2006-11-01

    Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó"), a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL) on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1) diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

  5. For the relief of Roberto Luis Dunoyer Mejia, Consuelo Cardona Molina, Camilo Dunoyer Cardona, and Pablo Dunoyer Cardona.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-52

    2009-04-30

    06/15/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVI CCD photometry of Carina region stars (Molina-Lera+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Lera, J. A.; Baume, G.; Gamen, R.; Costa, E.; Carraro, G.

    2016-08-01

    Photometric parameters for 62730 stars in the carina region covering 6 stellar clusters (NGC 3752, Trumpler 18, NGC 3590, Hogg 10, 11 and 12) and the surrounding field. The photometry was secured in March 2006 and March 2009 with the Y4KCAM camera attached to the Cerro Tololo Inter American Observatory (CTIO, Chile) 1.0-m telescope. (1 data file).

  7. Reproductive ecology of coypu (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782) in the Middle Delta of the Paraná River, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Courtalon, P; Bó, R F; Spina, F; Jiménez, N; Cantil, L; Fernández, R; Porini, G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare some important reproductive parameters of Myocastor coypus over time (June 2006-May 2008), in wetlands of the Middle Delta of the Paraná River (MD) Entre Ríos province, R. Argentina. Within the original coypu distribution range, the MD is among the areas of highest habitat suitability for the species. Coypus were captured and the following reproductive parameters were estimated on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis: pregnancy rate (PR), litter size (LS), gross productivity (GP) and annual production (AP). Statistical non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Additionally, the expected birth date of each embryo and fetus was estimated by assigning it to a developmental stage category and considering the gestation period of the species. All the parameters showed high values and PR and LS differed significantly between the dry (2006) and humid years (2007). Two peaks of birth were detected, one in spring and another one in mid-autumn. The implications of these results for ensuring the sustainable management of this rodent are discussed.

  8. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    PubMed

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-03

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 μL/g of boldo and 3 and 5 μL/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, α-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and β-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. © 2013.

  9. Evaluation of Boldine Activity against Intracellular Amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Salama, Isabel Cristina; Arrais-Lima, Cristina; Arrais-Silva, Wagner Welber

    2017-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. A lack of adequate and definitive chemotherapeutic agents to fight against this infection has led to the investigation of numerous compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro activity of boldine against Leishmania amazonensis murine cell infection. Boldine ((S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine) is an aporphine alkaloid found abundantly in the leaves/bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), a widely distributed tree native to Chile. The in vitro system consisted of murine macrophage infection with amastigotes of L. amazonensis treated with different concentrations from 50 to 600 μg/ml of boldine for 24 hr. Intracellular parasite destruction was assessed by morphological examination and boldine cytotoxicity to macrophages was tested by the MTT viability assay. When cells were treated with 100 μg/ml of boldine the reduction of parasite infection was 81% compared with untreated cultures cells. Interestingly, boldine-treatment caused a concentration-dependent decrease of macrophage infection that culminated with 96% of reduction when cells were submitted to 600 μg/ml of boldine. Cell cultures exposed to 100 μg/ml of boldine and 300 μg/ml of Glucantime(®) during 24 hr showed a significant reduction of 50% in parasitized cells compared with cell cultures exposed just to Glucantime(®). The study showed that treatment with boldine produces a better effect than treatment with the reference antimonial drug, glucantime, in L. amazonensis infected macrophage. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  10. Evaluation of Boldine Activity against Intracellular Amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Isabel Cristina; Arrais-Lima, Cristina; Arrais-Silva, Wagner Welber

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. A lack of adequate and definitive chemotherapeutic agents to fight against this infection has led to the investigation of numerous compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro activity of boldine against Leishmania amazonensis murine cell infection. Boldine ((S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine) is an aporphine alkaloid found abundantly in the leaves/bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), a widely distributed tree native to Chile. The in vitro system consisted of murine macrophage infection with amastigotes of L. amazonensis treated with different concentrations from 50 to 600 μg/ml of boldine for 24 hr. Intracellular parasite destruction was assessed by morphological examination and boldine cytotoxicity to macrophages was tested by the MTT viability assay. When cells were treated with 100 μg/ml of boldine the reduction of parasite infection was 81% compared with untreated cultures cells. Interestingly, boldine-treatment caused a concentration-dependent decrease of macrophage infection that culminated with 96% of reduction when cells were submitted to 600 μg/ml of boldine. Cell cultures exposed to 100 μg/ml of boldine and 300 μg/ml of Glucantime® during 24 hr showed a significant reduction of 50% in parasitized cells compared with cell cultures exposed just to Glucantime®. The study showed that treatment with boldine produces a better effect than treatment with the reference antimonial drug, glucantime, in L. amazonensis infected macrophage. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:28719960

  11. Boldine protects endothelial function in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through an antioxidant mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yeh Siang; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu; Murugan, Dharmani; Achike, Francis I; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2013-02-01

    Increased oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes. Antioxidants are therapeutically beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid present in the leaves and bark of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus Molina), with known an antioxidant activity. This study examined the protective effects of boldine against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) and its mechanisms of vasoprotection related to diabetic endothelial dysfunction. In RAEC exposed to high glucose (30 mM) for 48 h, pre-treatment with boldine reduced the elevated ROS and nitrotyrosine formation, and preserved nitric oxide (NO) production. Pre-incubation with β-NAPDH reduced the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation; this attenuation was reversed by boldine. Compared with control, endothelium-dependent relaxation in the aortas of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats was significantly improved by both acute (1 μM, 30 min) and chronic (20mg/kg/daily, i.p., 7 days) treatment with boldine. Intracellular superoxide and peroxynitrite formation measured by DHE fluorescence or chemiluminescence assay were higher in sections of aortic rings from diabetic rats compared with control. Chronic boldine treatment normalized ROS over-production in the diabetic group and this correlated with reduction of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits, NOX2 and p47(phox). The present study shows that boldine reversed the increased ROS formation in high glucose-treated endothelial cells and restored endothelial function in STZ-induced diabetes by inhibiting oxidative stress and thus increasing NO bioavailability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroinflammatory response to experimental stroke is inhibited by boldine.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Neila Maria R; Ferreira, Emerson de O; Fernandes, Mara Yone S D; Lima, Francisco Arnaldo V; Neves, Kelly Rose T; do Carmo, Marta Regina S; de Andrade, Geanne M

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of ischemic brain damage. Astrocyte activation promotes the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and iNOS. Eventually, neuronal death occurs, leading to the development of motor and memory deficits in patients. Boldine is the main alkaloid in the leaves and bark of the Peumus boldus Molina, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of boldine on neuroinflammation and memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice. Thirty minutes before pMCAO and during the next 5 days, animals received vehicle (0.025 µmol/l HCl) or boldine (8, 16 and 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The extension of the infarct area, neurological scores, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated 24 h after pMCAO. Locomotor activity, working, and aversive memory were evaluated 72 h after pMCAO, object recognition memory was tested 96 h after pMCAO, and spatial memory was tested 120 h after pMCAO. Cresyl violet, Fluoro-Jade C staining, and immunohistochemical for GFAP, TNF-α, and iNOS were also carried out. The treatment with boldine significantly decreased the infarct area, improved the neurological scores, and increased cell viability. The vertical exploratory activity and aversive, spatial, object recognition, and working memory deficits induced by pMCAO were prevented by boldine. Moreover, myeloperoxidase activity and GFAP, TNF-α, and iNOS immunoreactivity were decreased significantly by boldine. Although various mechanisms such as its antioxidant activity should be considered, these results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of boldine might be related in part to its anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enhancement of tumor cell sensitivity may help facilitate a reduction in drug dosage using conventional chemotherapies. Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants. Methods The biological activity of a fraction enriched in hydrolysable polyphenols (P2Et) obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa was evaluated using the hematopoietic cell line K562. This fraction was tested alone or in combination with the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, camptothecin and taxol. The parameters evaluated were mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 3 activation, chromatin condensation and clonogenic activity. Results We found that the P2Et fraction induced mitochondrial depolarization, activated caspase 3, induced chromatin condensation and decreased the clonogenic capacity of the K562 cell line. When the P2Et fraction was used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs at sub-lethal concentrations, a fourfold reduction in doxorubicin inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was seen in the K562 cell line. This finding suggested that P2Et fraction activity is specific for the molecular target of doxorubicin. Conclusions Our results suggest that a natural fraction extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa in combination with conventional chemotherapy in combination with natural products on leukemia cells may increase therapeutic effectiveness in relation to leukemia. PMID:22490328

  14. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    PubMed Central

    Führer, Eduardo; Rudolph, Anny; Espinoza, Claudio; Díaz, Rodrigo; Gajardo, Marisol; Camaño, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L−1 (LC50−96 hours). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L−1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L−1 stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N) ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone. PMID:22619673

  15. Escherbothrium molinae n. gen. et n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Triloculariidae) in Urotrygon chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Berman, R; Brooks, D R

    1994-10-01

    Cestodes collected in spiral valves of the stingray Urotrygon chilensis from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica represent an undescribed species of Tetraphyllidea. By possessing more than 2 loculi as well as an apical sucker on each bothridium, the new species is diagnosably distinct from all other tetraphyllidean genera; therefore, a new genus is proposed for it. The new species also possesses globular structures irregularly arranged on the surface of the bothridia. We found similar structures on the bothridial faces of Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris, possibly indicating phylogenetic relationships with the new species. This possibility is enhanced by the observation that the bothridia of T. acanthiaevulgaris comprise 2 loculi and an apical sucker, rather than 3 loculi.

  16. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-08-01

    Mario Molina has been selected to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the White House announced on 8 August. Molina, who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1995 for discovering how chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer, is a professor at the University of California, San Diego; director of the Mario Molina Center for Energy and Environment in Mexico City, Mexico; and a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.

  17. Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bluma, R; Amaiden, M R; Daghero, J; Etcheverry, M

    2008-07-01

    The antifungal effect of Pimpinella anisum (anise), Pëumus boldus (boldus), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Minthosthachys verticillata (peperina) essential oils against Aspergillus section Flavi (two isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus and two isolates of Aspergillus flavus) was evaluated in maize meal extract agar at 0.982 and 0.955 water activities, at 25 degrees C. The percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate, growth rate and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation at different essential oils concentrations were evaluated. Anise and boldus essential oils were the most inhibitory at 500 mg kg(-1) to all growth parameters of the fungus. These essential oils inhibited the percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate and fungal growth. AFB(1) accumulation was completely inhibited by anise, boldus and oregano essential oils. Peperina and peppermint essential oils inhibited AFB(1) production by 85-90% in all concentrations assayed. Anise and boldus essential oils could be considered as effective fungitoxicans for Aspergillus section flavi. Our results suggest that these phytochemical compounds could be used alone or in conjunction with other substances to control the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in stored maize.

  18. Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y Y; Song, J H; Shin, Y K; Han, E S; Lee, C S

    2000-10-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic tissue damage. Several antioxidants have been described as beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1, 10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid found in the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), and has been shown to possess antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects. From this point of view, the possible anti-diabetic effect of boldine and its mechanism were evaluated. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: control, boldine (100 mg kg(-1), daily in drinking water), diabetic [single dose of 80 mg kg(-1)of streptozotocin (STZ), i.p.] and diabetic simultaneously fed with boldine for 8 weeks. Diabetic status was evaluated periodically with changes of plasma glucose levels and body weight in rats. The effect of boldine on the STZ-induced diabetic rats was examined with the formation of malondialdehydes and carbonyls and the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in mitochondria of the pancreas, kidney and liver. The scavenging action of boldine on oxygen free radicals and the effect on mitochondrial free-radical production were also investigated. The treatment of boldine attenuated the development of hyperglycemia and weight loss induced by STZ injection in rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyls in liver, kidney and pancreas mitochondria were significantly increased in STZ-treated rats and decreased after boldine administration. The activities of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the liver, pancreas and kidney were significantly elevated in STZ-treated rats. Boldine administration decreased STZ-induced elevation of MnSOD activity in kidney and pancreas mitochondria, but not in liver mitochondria. In the STZ-treated group, glutathione peroxidase activities decreased in liver

  19. Health Issues in the Latino Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Molina, Marilyn, Ed.; Molina, Carlos W., Ed.; Zambrana, Ruth Enid, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 6 parts. Part 1, "Latino Populations in the United States," includes: (1) "Latino Health Policy: Beyond Demographic Determinism" (Angelo Falcon, Marilyn Aguirre-Molina, and Carlos W. Molina); (2) "Latino Health Status" (Olivia Carter-Pokras and Ruth Enid Zambrana); and (3)…

  20. 78 FR 37520 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Placido Molina, Jr... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Molina was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export and...

  1. Health Issues in the Latino Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Molina, Marilyn, Ed.; Molina, Carlos W., Ed.; Zambrana, Ruth Enid, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 6 parts. Part 1, "Latino Populations in the United States," includes: (1) "Latino Health Policy: Beyond Demographic Determinism" (Angelo Falcon, Marilyn Aguirre-Molina, and Carlos W. Molina); (2) "Latino Health Status" (Olivia Carter-Pokras and Ruth Enid Zambrana); and (3)…

  2. Commentary on: "Clonal evolution of chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma." Faltas BM, Prandi D, Tagawa ST, Molina AM, Nanus DM, Sternberg C, Rosenberg J, Mosquera JM, Robinson B, Elemento O, Sboner A, Beltran H, Demichelis F, Rubin MA.: Nat Genet. 2016 Oct 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3692.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byron H

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma has no uniformly curative therapy. Understanding how selective pressure from chemotherapy directs the evolution of urothelial carcinoma and shapes its clonal architecture is a central biological question with clinical implications. To address this question, we performed whole-exome sequencing and clonality analysis of 72 urothelial carcinoma samples, including 16 matched sets of primary and advanced tumors prospectively collected before and after chemotherapy. Our analysis provided several insights that are as follows: (1) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is characterized by intrapatient mutational heterogeneity, and most mutations are not shared; (2) both branching evolution and metastatic spread are very early events in the natural history of urothelial carcinoma; (3) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is enriched with clonal mutations involving L1 cell-adhesion molecule and integrin signaling pathways; and (4) APOBEC-induced mutagenesis is clonally enriched in chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma and continues to shape the evolution of urothelial carcinoma throughout its lifetime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-29

    Garranza, Rodolfo Tapia Molina, Octavio Caldera Noguera, Horacio Fernandez Raudez, Drs Cesar Amador Kuhl, Gonzalo Ramirez Morales, Ramiro Guevara...director of immigration; Antonio Ramirez Barreto, head of the legal department; Adolfo Simon, delegate at the Mexico City International Airport

  4. LAREDO: LAunching, REndezvous and DOcking Simulation Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Molina, Jose Prieto GMV – c/ Isaac Newton , 11 PTM Tres Cantos 28760 Madrid SPAIN Tel: +34 918072100; Fax: +34 918072199 mamc@gmv.es, jjpm@gmv.es...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) GMV c/ Isaac Newton , 11 PTM Tres Cantos 28760 Madrid SPAIN 8...EXOMARS09 DM,” CDF Study Report, 2002. BIOGRAPHY Miguel Angel Molina is a Senior Aeronautical Engineer currently responsible of the Flight Engineering

  5. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species.

  6. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bluma, Romina V; Etcheverry, Miriam G

    2008-04-01

    The antifungal activity of Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Pëumus boldus Mol (boldus), Hedeoma multiflora Benth (mountain thyme), Syzygium aromaticum L. (clove), and Lippia turbinate var. integrifolia (griseb) (poleo) essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus section Flavi was evaluated in sterile maize grain under different water activity (a(w)) condition (0.982, 0.955, and 0.90). The effect of EOs added to maize grains on growth rate, lag phase, and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation of Aspergillus section Flavi were evaluated at different water activity conditions. The five EOs analyzed have been shown to influence lag phase and growth rate. Their efficacy depended mainly on the essential oil concentrations and substrate water activity conditions. All EOs showed significant impact on AFB(1) accumulation. This effect was closely dependent on the water activity, concentration, and incubation periods. Important reduction of AFB(1) accumulation was observed in the majority of EO treatments at 11 days of incubation. Boldus, poleo, and mountain thyme EO completely inhibited AFB(1) at 2000 and 3000 microg g(-1). Inhibition of AFB(1) accumulation was also observed when aflatoxigenic isolates grew with different concentration of EOs during 35 days.

  7. Plant Flavonoid Content Modified by Domestication.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Seguel, Ivette; Urzúa, Alejandro; Quiroz, Andrés

    2017-07-21

    Plant domestication can modify and weaken defensive chemical traits, reducing chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against pests. We characterized and quantified the major defensive flavonols and isoflavonoids present in both wild and cultivated murtilla plants (Ugni molinae Turcz), established in a common garden. We examined their effects on the larvae of Chilesia rudis (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Insect community and diversity indices were also evaluated. We hypothesized that domestication reduces flavonoid contents and modifies C. rudis preference, the insect community, and diversity. Methanolic extracts were obtained from leaves of U. molinae plants and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed higher insect numbers (86.48%) and damage index (1.72 ± 0.16) in cultivated plants. Four new first records of insects were found associated with U. molinae. Diversity indices, such as Simpson, Shannon, and Margalef, were higher in cultivated plants than in wild plants. Furthermore, eight isoflavonoids were identified in U. molinae leaves for the first time. The five flavonols showed higher concentrations in wild U. molinae leaves (89.8 µg/g) than in cultivated plants (75.2 µg/g); however, no differences were found in isoflavonoids between wild and cultivated plants. The larvae of C. rudis consumed more leaf material of cultivated plants than wild plants in choice (3.8 vs. 0.8 mm2) and no-choice (7.5 vs. 3.0 mm2) assays. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduces the amount of flavonoids in leaves, increasing the preference of C. rudis and the insect community. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  9. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  10. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  11. Military-Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Epidemiology, Immunology, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    November 2006-January 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2;56(4):73-6. Salazar MI, Richardson JH, Sanchez- Vargas I, Olson KE, Beaty BJ. 2007. Dengue...virus type 2: replication and tropisms in orally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. BMC Microbiol. 30;7(1):9 Richardson JH, Molina-Cruz A, Salazar

  12. Pulcherrimasaponin, from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima, as adjuvant for immunization in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bernadete Pereira da; Soares, Juliana Baptista Rocha Correa; Souza, Edilma Paraguai de; Palatnik, Marcos; Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik de; Parente, José Paz

    2005-01-11

    A novel triterpenoidal saponin, called pulcherrimasaponin (CP05), isolated from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth. shows remarkable similarities to the previously described potent adjuvant, QS21 saponin (Quillaja saponaria Molina). On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, its structure was established as [3beta,16alpha,28[2E,6S[2E,6S(2E,6S)

  13. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  14. 75 FR 42485 - Additional Designation of Entities and Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... is as follows: Individuals 1. ARISTIZABAL MEJIA, Diego, c/o BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES...); (INDIVIDUAL) . 4. MEJIA MOLINA, Luis Bernardo, c/o BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES SIMPLIFICADA... (Colombia); (INDIVIDUAL) . Entities 1. BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES SIMPLIFICADA, Carrera 43A...

  15. Comment on ``A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Schäfer, Gerhard

    1988-02-01

    It is pointed out that the reduced two-particle Hamiltonian for the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics up to order c-4 was incorrectly calculated in the paper of Jaén, Llosa, and Molina. The correct expression is given, and shown to be equivalent (when e1/m1=e2/m2) to the Golubenkov-Smorodinskii Lagrangian.

  16. Telecentric Zoom Lens Designed for the Cygnus X-Ray Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Held in San Francisco , CA on 16-21 June 2013., The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT Cygnus is a high-energy radiographic x-ray...E. Maenchen, C. V. Mitton, I. Molina, H. Nishimoto, E. C. Ormond, P. A. Ortega , R. J. Quicksilver, R. N. Ridlon, E. A. Rose, D. W. Scholfield, I

  17. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furumoto, Mitchell A., Ed.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports of language research in the 1996 issue include: "Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language" (Serafin M. Coronel-Molina); "Foreign Language Planning in U.S. Higher Education: The Case of a Graduate Business Program" (Mitchell A. Furumoto); "Charting New Directions: Of Communication in a Social…

  18. An Evaluation of a Summer Treatment Program for Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Evans, Steven W.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Ross, J. Megan; Greiner, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    Although adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience serious life impairment (Molina et al., 2009; Wolraich et al., 2005), very few effective psychosocial interventions exist to treat this population (Pelham & Fabiano, 2008; Smith, Waschbusch, Willoughby, & Evans, 2000). Intensive child-directed interventions are an…

  19. Proceedings of the First Inter-American Conference on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troike, Rudolph C., Ed.; Modiano, Nancy, Ed.

    The conference papers presented here are grouped under the six topics around which the conference was organized. The section on program goals and models for bilingual education contains papers by Joshua Fishman, Salomon Nahmad, John C. Molina, Alberto Escobar, G. Kent Gooderham, and Dillon Platero. The section on teaching the second language…

  20. Identification of selected CITES-protected Araucariaceae using DART TOFMS

    Treesearch

    Philip D. Evans; Ignacio A. Mundo; Michael C. Wiemann; Gabriela D. Chavarria; Pamela J. McClure; Doina Voin; Edgard O. Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Determining the species source of logs and planks suspected of being Araucaria araucana (Molina) K.Koch (CITES Appendix I) using traditional wood anatomy has been difficult, because its anatomical features are not diagnostic. Additionally, anatomical studies of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, Araucaria...

  1. Latin America Report. No. 2738.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    Acero Espinosa; EL TIEMPO, 25 Jul 83) 23 Rodriguez Report to L.A. Economists Meeting Published (Roberto Molina; PRISMA LATINOAMERICANO, Jul 83...CUNDINAMARCA Bogota EL TIEMPO in Spanish 25 Jul 83 p 10-D [Article by special correspondent German Acero Espinosa] [Text] La Mesa, Cundinamarca—We

  2. Image Browsing and Natural Language Paraphrases of Semantic Web Annotations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    NLDB�), Manchester, UK. 10. Buyukkokten, O, Garcia -Molina, H., Paepcke, A.: "Seeing the Whole in Parts: Text Sum- marization for Web Browsing...Cambridge: MIT Press. 1999. 13. Aditya Kalyanpur, Bijan Parsia, Evren Sirin, Bernardo Cuenca-Grau, and James Hendler. Swoop - a web ontology

  3. Innovative Strategy for Treatment of Lung Cancer: Inhalatory Codelivery of Anticancer Drugs and siRNA for Suppression of Cellular Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    survive for five years, and the majority die within two years ( Minna 2008; Youlden et al. 2008). One of the main reasons for the poor survival rates...cancer. Curr Drug Targets 5:389-406. Minna JD, Schiller, JH. 2008. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill. 551-562. Molina JR, Yang PG

  4. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  5. El primer "Convidado de Piedra" No Espanol (The First Italian Drama on the Don Juan Theme).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Berrio, Antonio

    1967-01-01

    A manuscript dated 1651 and now housed at the National Library in Florence, Italy, suggests that the document may be the first Italian adaptation of the Spanish drama, "El burlador de Sevilla y Convidado de Piedra" ("The Deceiver of Seville"). The Spanish tragedy, written in 1630 by Gabriel Tellez, known as Tirso de Molina,…

  6. Ethanol-Induced Taste Aversions: Lack of Involvement of Acetaldehyde and the Area Postrema

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Bonison. H. L. Area postrema: Chemoreceptive trigger zone for 55-65. 1986. 1 vomiting-is that all. /J6h’ Stii 14: 1807-1917. 1974. 1S. Rabin. B. M...area postrema in radiation-induced taste aversion learning 7. Deutsch. J. A.. F. Molina and A. Puerto. Conditione. taste and emesis in cats . Pi’hvi

  7. Exploring Hardware-Based Primitives to Enhance Parallel Security Monitoring in a Novel Computing Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    2003. 23. IBM. How to Secure an Insecure OS. Technical report, IBM Corp., 2002. 24. Intel. LaGrande Technlogy Architectural Overview. Technology...and Ezzat A. Dabbish. “Digital Rights Management in a 3G Mobile Phone and Beyond”. DRM’03. October 2003. 40. Molina, Jesus and William Arbaugh

  8. Classification of four ordinary chondrites from Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, Klaus; Casanova, I.; Wieler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on optical microsocpy and electron microprobe analysis of mafic minerals, four previously poorly described ordinary chondrites from Spain are classified. The classifications of Guarena (H6), Olmedilla de Alarcon (H5) and Reliegos (L5) are confirmed. Molina is reclassified as H5, based on new data.

  9. Influence of vacuum drying temperature on: physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties of murta berries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Murta (Ugni molinae T.) berries were vacuum dried at a constant pressure of 15 kPa. The effects of processing temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C) on the physico-chemical characteristics, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds, the antioxidant activity (measured by DPPH and ORAC) and the sugar and ...

  10. Elucidating the Role of Truncated ErB2 Receptor (p95) in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    growth. Oncogene. 2010; 29: 325-34. 13. Saez R, Molina MA, Ramsey EE, Rojo F, Keenan EJ, Albanell J, et al. p95HER-2 predicts worse outcome...prognostic factors in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 5123-9. 15. Scaltriti M, Rojo F, Ocana A, Anido J, Guzman M, Cortes J, et al

  11. Active Data/Knowledge Base Dictionary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    maintenance of integrity asser- tions using redundant aggregate. In Proceedings of the 6th Int’l Conf. on Very Large Databases, pages 126-136, Alfonso ...Minker. Logic and Databases. Plenum Press, New York, 1978. [GM83] Hector Garcia- Molina . Using semantic knowledge for transaction processing in a dis

  12. Study protocol for the Maule Cohort (MAUCO) of chronic diseases, Chile 2014-2024.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Roa, Juan Carlos; Bambs, Claudia; Vives, Alejandra; Corvalán, Alejandro H; Cortés, Sandra; Foerster, Claudia; Acevedo, Johanna; Huidobro, Andrea; Passi, Alvaro; Toro, Pablo; Covacevich, Yerko; de la Cruz, Rolando; Koshiol, Jill; Olivares, Mauricio; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Cruz, Francisco; Silva, Raúl; Quest, Andrew F; Kogan, Marcelo J; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-02-04

    Maule Cohort (MAUCO), a Chilean cohort study, seeks to analyze the natural history of chronic diseases in the agricultural county of Molina (40,000 inhabitants) in the Maule Region, Chile. Molina´s population is of particular interest because in the last few decades it changed from being undernourished to suffering excess caloric intake, and it currently has the highest national rates of cardiovascular diseases, stomach cancer and gallbladder cancer. Between 2009 and 2011 Molina´s poverty rate dropped from 24.1 % to 13.5 % (national average 20.4 %); in this period the county went from insufficient to almost complete basic sanitation. Despite these advances, chemical pollutants in the food and air are increasing. Thus, in Molina risk factors typical of both under-developed and developed countries coexist, generating a unique profile associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and chronic diseases. MAUCO is the core project of the recently established Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Universidad de Chile & Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. In this study, we are enrolling and following 10,000 adults aged 38 to 74 years over 10 years. All eligible Molina residents will be enrolled. Participants were identified through a household census. Consenting individuals answer an epidemiological survey exploring risk factors (psycho-social, pesticides, diet, alcohol, and physical activity), medical history and physical and cognitive conditions; provide fasting blood, urine, and saliva samples; receive an electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound and bio-impedance test; and take a hand-grip strength test. These subjects will be re-interviewed after 2, 5 and 7 years. Active surveillance of health events is in place throughout the regional healthcare system. The MAUCO Bio-Bank will store 30 to 50 aliquots per subject using an NIH/NCI biorepository system for secure and anonymous linkage of samples with data. MAUCO´s results will help design public health

  13. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique.

  14. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens.

  15. Genotoxicity of the boldine aporphine alkaloid in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

    PubMed

    Moreno, P R; Vargas, V M; Andrade, H H; Henriques, A T; Henriques, J A

    1991-06-01

    The aporphine alkaloid boldine, present in Peumus boldus (boldo-do-Chile) widely used all over the world, was tested for the presence of genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic activities in microorganisms. This alkaloid did not show genotoxic activity with or without metabolic activation in the SOS chromotest and Ames tester strains TA100, TA98 and TA102. It was not able to induce point and frameshift mutations in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. However, mitotic recombinational events such as crossing-over and gene conversion were weakly induced in diploid yeast cells by this alkaloid. Also, boldine was able to induce weakly cytoplasmic 'petite' mutation in haploid yeast cells.

  16. Thermochemical stabilities and vibrational spectra of isomers of the chlorine oxide dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, M. P.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Rowland, F. S.; Hehre, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular orbital calculations were performed to determine the relative thermochemical stabilities and IR vibrational spectra of isomers of the ClO dimer. Two straight-chain isomers (ClOOCl and ClOClO) and one branched species (ClClO2) were identified as energy minima on the Cl2O2 potential surface. It is shown that ClOOCl and ClClO2 are comparable in terms of stability, while ClOClO is about 11 kcal/mol higher in energy. The IR spectra obtained by Molina and Molina (1987) as a result of the reaction of chlorine atoms with ClO precursors are consistent with the production of the two most stable forms of Cl2O2.

  17. Temperature dependence of the ClONO2 UV absorption spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ClONO2 absorption spectrum has been measured between 220 and 298 K and between 195 and 430 nm using a diode array spectrometer. The absorption cross sections were determined using both: (1) absolute pressure measurements at 296 K and (2) measurements at various temperatures relative to 296 K using a dual absorption cell arrangement. The temperature dependence of the ClONO2 absorption spectrum shows very broad structure. The amplitude of the temperature dependence relative to that at 296 K is weak at short wavelengths, less than 2% at 215 nm and 220 K, but significant at the wavelengths important in the stratosphere, about 30% at 325 nm and 220 K. Our ClONO2 absorption cross section data are in good general agreement with the previous measurements of Molina and Molina (1979).

  18. A full-coordinate model of the polymerase domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its interaction with a nucleic acid substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlik, R. F.; Meyer, D. J.; Shibata, M.; Roskwitalski, R.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present a full-coordinate model of residues 1-319 of the polymerase domain of HIV-I reverse transcriptase. This model was constructed from the x-ray crystallographic structure of Jacobo-Molina et al. (Jacobo-Molina et al., P.N.A.S. USA 90, 6320-6324 (1993)) which is currently available to the degree of C-coordinates. The backbone and side-chain atoms were constructed using the MAXSPROUT suite of programs (L. Holm and C. Sander, J. Mol. Biol. 218, 183-194 (1991)) and refined through molecular modeling. A seven base pair A-form dsDNA was positioned in the nucleic acid binding cleft to represent the template-primer complex. The orientation of the template-primer complex in the nucleic acid binding cleft was guided by the positions of phosphorus atoms in the crystal structure.

  19. A full-coordinate model of the polymerase domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its interaction with a nucleic acid substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlik, R. F.; Meyer, D. J.; Shibata, M.; Roskwitalski, R.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present a full-coordinate model of residues 1-319 of the polymerase domain of HIV-I reverse transcriptase. This model was constructed from the x-ray crystallographic structure of Jacobo-Molina et al. (Jacobo-Molina et al., P.N.A.S. USA 90, 6320-6324 (1993)) which is currently available to the degree of C-coordinates. The backbone and side-chain atoms were constructed using the MAXSPROUT suite of programs (L. Holm and C. Sander, J. Mol. Biol. 218, 183-194 (1991)) and refined through molecular modeling. A seven base pair A-form dsDNA was positioned in the nucleic acid binding cleft to represent the template-primer complex. The orientation of the template-primer complex in the nucleic acid binding cleft was guided by the positions of phosphorus atoms in the crystal structure.

  20. Coupling 2D Finite Element Models and Circuit Equations Using a Bottom-Up Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    EQUATIONS USING A BOTTOM-UP METHODOLOGY E. G6mezl, J. Roger-Folch2 , A. Gabald6nt and A. Molina’ ’Dpto. de Ingenieria Eldctrica. Universidad Polit...de Ingenieria Elictrica. ETSII. Universidad Politdcnica de Valencia. PO Box 22012, 46071. Valencia, Spain. E-mail: iroger adie.upv.es ABSTRACT The...Engineering. He has held teaching and Spain. From 1971 to 1978 he worked in research positions at Universidad the Electrical Industry as Project

  1. Worldwide Report, Nuclear Development and Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    transfers from July 1 following over five years of tests on programming instructions , Hideo Ikegami, a professor at the institute said Wednesday. The... gram also anticipates using VVER-440 reactors to supply heat. Since 1983 a 22 kilometer line has been in operation from the Nord power plant to...the Swiss-Italian Bank. Molinas added that "in accordance with the instructions of said Jose Ber Gelbard," the funds in question "were transferred from

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-28

    HI Candace Nachman, Office of Protected Resources, Silver Spring, MD John Naughton, Pacific Islands Regional Office, Honolulu, HI US Army...Michael Molina, Pacific Islands Office, Honolulu, HI Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA Amena Atta, 30 CES/CEVR James Carucci, 30 CES/CEVNC Andrew...Environmental Defense Center, Santa Barbara, CA La Purisima Audubon Society, Lompoc, CA Sierra Club, Santa Barbara, CA Libraries Alele Museum

  3. Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    HI Candace Nachman, Office of Protected Resources, Silver Spring, MD John Naughton, Pacific Islands Regional Office, Honolulu, HI US Army...Michael Molina, Pacific Islands Office, Honolulu, HI Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA Amena Atta, 30 CES/CEVR James Carucci, 30 CES/CEVNC Andrew...Environmental Defense Center, Santa Barbara, CA La Purisima Audubon Society, Lompoc, CA Sierra Club, Santa Barbara, CA Libraries Alele Museum

  4. Extended hatching periods in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Lithodidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, S.; Calcagno, J. A.; Lovrich, G. A.; Sartoris, F. J.; Anger, K.

    2003-06-01

    Temporal pattern of hatching was studied in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Molina) and Paralomis granulosa (Jaquinot) from the Argentine Beagle Channel. In both species, larval hatching occurred in low daily numbers over an extended period of up to several weeks, depending on hatch size. Low daily hatching activity and low oxygen-consumption rates in freshly hatched P. granulosa larvae are discussed as life history adaptations to, and/or physiological constraints by, the environmental conditions of high latitudes.

  5. Development of a Computational Assay for the Estrogen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    W . Castleman, J . Phys. Chem. 88, 3329 (1984). 6 C . E . Kolb, J . T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, M. L . Molina, R. F . Meads, and A. A...Review E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 2003, 68, 041505/1-041505/7. (71) Grossman, J . C .; Schwegler, E .; Draeger, E . W .; Gygi, F .; Galli...103) Scuseria, G. E .; Janssen, C . L .; Schaefer, H. F ., III J . Chem. Phys. 1988, 89, 7382-7. (104)

  6. Deficits in the Sensitivity of Striatal Muscarinic Receptors Induced by 56Fe Heavy-Particle Irradiation: Further ’Age-Radiation’ Parallels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Joseph and G. S . Roth, Altered striatal dopaminergic and cho- ’ R. Villalobos-Molina, I. A. Joseph, B. Rabin, S . Kandasamy , T. Dal- ton, and G. S ...inta -nuE~u.E.SC~I ibg4BSt 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS (see title on reprint) PE: NWED QAXM WU: 00157 6. AUTHOR( S ) Joseph et al. 7...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute 8901 Wisconsin Ave

  7. DU Fragment Carcinogenicity: Extrapolation of Findings in Rodents to Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    transcription of MDM2 by p53 (Momand et al., 1992). Overexpression of the MDM2 gene interferes with 7 transcriptional activation of wild-type p53... overexpression of MDM2 (Cordon-Cardo et al., 1994; Leach et al., 1993; Reid et al., 1996; Molina et al., 1999; Szadowska etal., 1999). The average percentage of...Immunohistochemical Analysis for Molecular Changes p_3: Analyses for overexpression of p53 protein were performed on 5-micra, paraffin-embedded tissue sections

  8. The Civil-Military Gap in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    Hernandez in USA, Colonel Arturo Molina studied in Mexico . After this period, civilians were presidents and had similar experiences: Napoleon...1 Peace Agreement January 16, 1992, Chapultepec Mexico , available from http://www. elsalvador.com /noticias/especiales/acuerdosdepaz 2002...http://es. wikisource.org/wiki/ Proclama_de_la_Fuerza_Armada de la Republica de ElSalvador; Internet; accessed 14 November 2006. 6 Revolutionary

  9. Multi-Method Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Soar group, including Jose-Luis Ambite-Molina, Bonghan Cho, Randy Hill, Lewis Johnson, Jihie Kim , Hidemi Oga- sawara, Miran Park, Karl Schwamb, Ben...Minton for their helpful comments on my work. I would like to thank my friends at USC, including Sanghoi Koo, Sungbok Kim , and Daeyeon Park who have made...planation [ Kim and Rosenbloom, 1991]. This approach can solve expensive chunk problem without restricting expressiveness. Learned rules can be used

  10. Trust in Social Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-07

    T. Schlosser, and H. Garcia-Molina. The eigentrust algorithm for reputation management in p2p networks . In Proceedings of the 12th international...demonstrate real-world applications where trust is explicitly used. As a new 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12...Mining, TrustModeling, Trust Measurements, Trust Applications , Dis-trust REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10

  11. Distributed Database Control and Allocation. Volume 1. Frameworks for Understanding Concurrency Control and Recovery Algorithms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    No. 4, Oct. 1979, pp. 631-653. [Reed] Reed, D.P. "Naming and Synchronization a Decentralized Computer System," Ph.D. Thesis , MIT Department of...93 [GM, 79] Garcia-Molina, H., Performance of Update Algorithms for Replicated Data in a Distributed Database, Ph.D. Thesis , Computer Science Dept...CACM 23,10 (1980) 584-593. S [153 CR, 79] Ries, D., The Effect of Concurrency Control on Database Management System Performance, Ph.D. Thesis

  12. Napping, Stimulant, and Four Choice Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-14

    accumulated sleep loss during a contin- uous work period. Pemoline was reported to be an eftective drug in preventing attention deficit wile performing a...ated in this study (but not discussed in this chapter), methylphenidate , required dosing every 6 hours. Pemoline is an oxizolidine compound. It has...less sympathomimetic cardi- ovascular effects than methylphenidate (Abbott, 1975) and acts primarily through the dopaminergic system (Molina and

  13. Defining the Role of BTLA in Breast Cancer Immunosurveillance and Selective Targeting of the BTLA-HVEM-LIGHT Costimulatory System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    doi:10.1182/ blood.V97.4.1123 McSweeney, P.A., D. Niederwieser, J.A. Shizuru, B.M. Sandmaier, A.J. Molina, D.G. Maloney , T.R. Chauncey, T.A. Gooley...vaccination Lijin Li1, John Herndon1, Peter S. Goedegebuure1, 3, Timothy P. Fleming1, 3, Kenneth M. Murphy2, William E. Gillanders1, 3 1 Department

  14. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-09

    New Republic Discussed (0 ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, 28 Jul 85) 35 Piranha Air-to-Air Missile To Be Marketed in 1986 (Dalton Moreira; FOLHA DE SAO...Hernan Rodriguez Molina; EXCELSIOR, 2 Jul 85) 120 Pemex Head Cites Recovery of Oil Markets Through Price Tiers (EXCELSIOR, 19 Jul 85) 122 Briefs...nosed as /lower demand for energy/ on the domestic market , /the failure to meet targets for incorporating new consumers/ (which points to a future

  15. A Distributed Object-Oriented Database Application Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Hector Garcia- Molina and Bruce Lindsay, "Research Directions for Distributed Databases ", SIGMOD RECORD, vol. 1, pp.9 8 -10 3 ,1990. 48. Servio Logic...management in Distributed Infor- mation Systems" in "Research Foundations in Object-Oriented and Semantic Database Systems" Edited by: Cardenas, Alfonso F...Object-Oriented and Semantic Database Systems" Edited by: Cardenas, Alfonso F., Dennis McLeod, Prentice-Hall, 1990. 103. Martin, James and James J

  16. STUDY OF SOIL AMPLIFICATION BASED ON MICROTREMOR AND SEISMIC RECORDS IN LIMA PERU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Diana; Sekiguchi, Toru; Nakai, Shoichi; Aguilar, Zenon; Lazares, Fernando

    The dynamic characteristics of the ground in Lima, capital of Peru, specifically the amplification are investigated. By using the small and large microtremor array measurements we estimated the soil velocity profiles with depths to the bedrock in many cases. These profiles were used to estimate the amplification factors. Important results are the large amplification factors at EMO, VSV, CAL and CMA (La Molina, Villa El Salvador, El Callao and Bellavista district, respectively).

  17. Ground Motion in Lima: Pisco Earthquake of August 15, 2007 (Mw7.9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, I.; Tavera, H.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 of August of 2007 at 06h 40min, local time, the central region of Peru was shooked by an earthquake magnitude Mw=7.9 with epicenter at 13.49°S and -76.85°W; this is, 74 km west of the city of Pisco. The earthquake was recorded by a total of fourteen accelerometers that operate in the city of Lima which show clearly the development of a complex process of rupture formed by two sources (R1 and R2) separated by 60-70 seconds. Maximum acceleration registered in the city of Lima was of 115.2 cm/seg² (0.12g) in the Urb. The Rinconada of the district the Molina located 155 km northwest from the epicenter. The periods associated to the maximum spectral acceleration appear to be between 0.1 to 0.4s in RIN and MOL, both located in the La Molina District; for ANC, CSM, MAY located in the Ancon, Rímac and Ate Vitarte district, are within the range of 0.1-0.6s; for CER, ANR, PUCP, CLD-CIP located in the San Borja, Santiago de Surco, San Miguel and San Isidro district the range is of 0.1-1.2s, and for CAL in Callao it is of 0.1-1.6s. The predominant periods have values close to 0.1s in the Molina and San Miguel distric, of 0.2s in Ate Vitarte and Rimac, of 0.3s in the Molina, Rimac, Ate Vitarte and Ancon, and of 0.5s in Santiago de Surco disctrict. In the Molina district, two acelerometric stations are located at less than 2 km away from each other, and present predominant periods next to 0.1s and 0.3s, which implies a strong variation of the physical properties of the ground at short distances. Shear wave velocity estimates, using the unidimensional method at stations MOL, MAY and ANC, give values of 80 m/s (with thicknesses less than 2 m), 200 m/s (with thicknesses less than 9 m) and of 690 m/s for the halfspace, values that suggest a compacted ground with respect to the rest of stations. Stations CAL and RIN show velocities of 60 of m/s (with thicknesses of 11 and 3 m respectively), a second layer of 140 m/s (with thicknesses of 12 and 7 m) over a halfspace of 450 m

  18. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the alkaloid boldine in mammalian cell systems in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tavares, D C; Takahashi, C S

    1994-05-01

    Boldine is an alkaloid present in Peumus boldus (popularly called "boldo-do-chile" in Brazil) which has healing properties and is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The possible clastogenic effect of the drug was tested in vitro on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by evaluating the induction of chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs). Cultures from different individuals were treated with boldine at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 micrograms/ml of culture medium. The effect of the alkaloid was also tested in an in vivo assay using BALB/c mouse bone marrow cells. Boldine was administered to the animals by gavage at the concentrations of 225, 450 and 900 mg/kg body weight. Under the conditions used, boldine did not induce a statistically significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations or SCEs in either test system.

  19. Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Horn, Ana Paula; Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Henriques, Amélia T; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the central nervous system. Currently no efficient treatment is available. This study evaluated the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on glioma proliferation and cell death. Boldine decreased the cell number of U138-MG, U87-MG and C6 glioma lines at concentrations of 80, 250 and 500 muM. We observed that cell death caused by boldine was cell-type specific and dose-dependent. Exposure to boldine for 24 h did not activate key mediators of apoptosis. However, it induced alterations in the cell cycle suggesting a G(2)/M arrest in U138-MG cells. Boldine had no toxic effect on non-tumor cells when used at the same concentrations as those used on tumor cells. Based on these results, we speculate that boldine may be a promising compound for evaluation as an anti-cancer agent.

  20. Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development.

    PubMed

    Speisky, H; Cassels, B K

    1994-01-01

    Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a Chilean tree traditionally employed in folk medicine and recognized as a herbal remedy in a number of pharmacopoeias, mainly for the treatment of liver ailments, has recently been the subject of increasing attention. Boldine, in particular, the major and most characteristic alkaloidal constituent of this plant species, now emerges as its most interesting active principle from the pharmacological viewpoint. The recent demonstration that boldine is an effective antioxidant in both biological and non-biological systems has opened up the perspective of a broad range of uses in medicine and industry. Given the toxicological data on this alkaloid, its antioxidative properties situate it as a potentially useful substance in many disease states featuring free-radical related oxidative injury. This review attempts to cover and discuss the studies conducted over the last four decades on the chemical and pharmacological properties of boldo and its main constituent.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Givernau, M; Cassels, B K; Valenzuela, A; Speisky, H

    1994-10-01

    Boldine, an antioxidant alkaloid isolated from Peumus boldus, exhibits a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced guinea pig paw edema test with an oral ED50 of 34 mg/kg. Boldine also reduces bacterial pyrogen-induced hyperthermia in rabbits to an extent which varied between 51% and 98% at a dose of 60 mg/kg p.o. In vitro studies carried out in rat aortal rings revealed that boldine is an effective inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, promoting 53% inhibition at 75 microM. The latter in vitro effect may be mechanistically linked to the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine exerted in vivo.

  2. Interactions in the patterns of vegetative growth and reproduction in woody dioecious plants.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A J; Alliende, M C

    1984-01-01

    Interactions between vegetative growth and reproduction were evaluated in Peumus boldus, Lithraea caustica and Laretia acaulis, three woody dioecious species in central Chile. Phenological observations were made periodically on marked branches of male and female plants, and biomass allocation (dry weight) to vegetative and reproductive tissues was measured. The magnitude of flowering was evaluated in groups of plants in three successive seasons. The patterns of activities are species- and sex-dependent, and cycles of 2-4 years have been established. Branches that produce flowers either do not grow or grow less than branches without flowers, and males and females have differential resource allocation: male branches attain higher biomass values. Groups of plants show seasonal behavior that suggest synchrony in their reproductive activities.

  3. Boldo prevents UV light and nitric oxide-mediated plasmid DNA damage and reduces the expression of Hsp70 protein in melanoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Caggia, Silvia; Gunther, Germán; Troncoso, Nicolas; Garbarino, Juan

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of a methanolic extract of Peumus boldus leaves on UV light and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated DNA damage. In addition, we investigated the growth inhibitory activity of this natural product against human melanoma cells (M14). Boldine, catechin, quercetin and rutin were identified using a HPLC method. The extract was incubated with plasmid DNA and, before irradiating the samples with UV-R, H(2) O(2) was added. For analysis of DNA single-strand breaks induced by NO, the experiments were performed by incubating the extract with Angeli's salt. In the study on M14 cell line, cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Release of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of membrane breakdown, was also measured. For the detection of apoptosis, the evaluation of DNA fragmentation (COMET assay) and caspase-3 activity assay were employed. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was detected by Western blot analysis. Generation of reactive oxygen species was measured by using a fluorescent probe. The extract (demonstrating the synergistic effect of the constituents boldine and flavonoids), showed a protective effect on plasmid DNA and selectively inhibited the growth of melanoma cells. But a novel finding was that apoptosis evoked by this natural product in M14 cells, appears to be mediated, at least in part, via the inhibition of Hsp70 expression, which may be correlated with a modulation of redox-sensitive mechanisms. These results confirm the promising biological properties of Peumus boldus and encourage in-vivo investigations into its potential anti-cancer activity. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Effect of a bitter bolus on oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Secaf, Marie; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea), and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m). There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  5. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    PubMed

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Commentary on "Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy." Ryan CJ, Smith MR, de Bono JS, Molina A, Logothetis CJ, de Souza P, Fizazi K, Mainwaring P, Piulats JM, Ng S, Carles J, Mulders PF, Basch E, Small EJ, Saad F, Schrijvers D, Van Poppel H, Mukherjee SD, Suttmann H, Gerritsen WR, Flaig TW, George DJ, Yu EY, Efstathiou E, Pantuck A, Winquist E, Higano CS, Taplin ME, Park Y, Kheoh T, Griffin T, Scher HI, Rathkopf DE; COU-AA-302 Investigators, Genitourinary Medical Oncology Program, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA. N Engl J Med 2013;368(2):138-48 [Epub 2012 Dec 10]; N Engl J Med 2013;368(6):584.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L

    2013-11-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned 1088 patients to receive abiraterone acetate (1000 mg) plus prednisone (5mg twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone. The coprimary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. The study was unblinded after a planned interim analysis that was performed after 43% of the expected deaths had occurred. The median radiographic progression-free survival was 16.5 months with abiraterone-prednisone and 8.3 months with prednisone alone (hazard ratio for abiraterone-prednisone vs. prednisone alone, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.62; P<0.001). Over a median follow-up period of 22.2 months, overall survival was improved with abiraterone-prednisone (median not reached, vs. 27.2 months for prednisone alone; hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93; P = 0.01) but did not cross the efficacy boundary. Abiraterone-prednisone showed superiority over prednisone alone with respect to time to initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy, opiate use for cancer-related pain, prostate-specific antigen progression, and decline in performance status. Grade 3 or 4 mineralocorticoid-related adverse events and abnormalities on liver-function testing were more common with abiraterone-prednisone. Abiraterone improved radiographic progression-free survival, showed a trend toward improved overall survival, and significantly delayed clinical decline and initiation of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The coypu as a rodent reservoir of leptospira infection in Great Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Waitkins, S. A.; Wanyangu, S.; Palmer, M.

    1985-01-01

    The coypu (Myocastor coypus Molina) is an aquatic rodent that has become a widespread pest in the south-east of England. Since the natural habitat of this animal is aquatic, the possibility of infection with leptospires was investigated. Twenty-nine coypu were trapped and examined by serological, histological and cultural methods. Of these, there was serological evidence of infection in seven coypus and Leptospira interrogans var. Wolffii was isolated from a further animal. This appears to be the first report of the isolation of leptospira from a coypu in Great Britain. PMID:4067296

  8. Collecting Longitudinal Data Through Childhood, Adolescence, and Young Adulthood: Methodological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Faden, Vivian B.; Day, Nancy L.; Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca; Grube, Joel W.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Wilson, Tracey K.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2003 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The organizers and chairs were Vivian Faden and Nancy Day. The presentations were (1) Lessons Learned From the Lives Across Time Longitudinal Study, by Michael Windle and Rebecca Windle; (2) Methodological Issues in Longitudinal Surveys With Children and Adolescents, by Joel Grube; (3) The Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study: Methodological and Conceptual Challenges, by Brooke Molina, William Pelham, Elizabeth Gnagy, and Tracey Wilson; and (4) Lessons learned in Conducting Longitudinal Research on Alcohol Involvement: If Only I Had Known Before Hand! by Kristina Jackson and Kenneth Sher. PMID:15112941

  9. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  10. Automated Virtual Machine Introspection for Host-Based Intrusion Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Xen 3.1.4 / XenLinux 2.6.18.8 root(hd0,1) kernel /xen-3.1.gz console =vga dom0_mem=512M module /vmlinux-2.6.18.8-xen root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 \\ ro... console =tty0 module /initrd-2.6.18.8-xen.img The boot menu will now contain the option to boot the Xen kernel. The Xen kernel does not support the...Fraser, Jesus Molina, and William A. Arbaugh. Copilot - a coprocessor-based kernel runtime integrity monitor. In Proceedings of the 13th USENIX Security

  11. Defining the Role of BTLA in Breast Cancer Immunosurveillance and Selective Targeting of the BTLA-HVEM-LIGHT Costimulatory System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Gillanders, M.D. Kenneth Murphy, M.D. Simon Goedegebuure, Ph.D. Timothy Fleming, Ph.D. John Herndon, B.S. Narendra Sankpal Xiuli Zhang...Shizuru, B.M. Sandmaier, A.J. Molina, D.G. Maloney , T.R. Chauncey, T.A. Gooley, U. Hegenbart, R.A. Nash, et al. 2001. Hematopoietic cell...Peter Goedegebuurea,c, Brian A. Belta, Ansuman T. Satpathyb, Timothy P. Fleminga,c, Ted H. Hansenb,c, Kenneth M. Murphyb,c,d, and William E. Gillandersa,c

  12. The Ozone Hole -- a Mystery Reborn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hobe, M.; Grooß, J.; Müller, R.; Stroh, F.

    2007-12-01

    In 1985, Farman et al. discovered the near complete disappearance of the stratospheric ozone layer over Antarctica in spring. This 'Ozone Hole' took the atmospheric research community by surprise as it could not be explained by the known catalytic cycles removing ozone in the stratosphere. McElroy et al. (1986) and Molina and Molina (1987) seemed to have solved the enigma by proposing two new catalytic cycles -- the ClO-BrO-cycle and the ClO dimer cycle -- that could rapidly destroy ozone at cold temperatures and high zenith angles. Subsequent work describing the kinetics of these cycles as well as stratospheric observations of chlorine and bromine compounds supported their theory and led to atmospheric chemistry models reproducing observed ozone loss reasonably well. Today, more than 20 years after the discovery of the ozone hole and the ratification of the Montreal Protocol, a new laboratory study (Pope et al., 2007) -- suggesting much smaller absorption cross sections and hence photolysis rates of the ClO dimer -- seriously calls into question our understanding of how ozone is destroyed in the spring polar stratosphere. With the new cross sections, both the dimer cycle and the ClO-BrO-cycle run much slower, and observations of neither chlorine compounds nor ozone loss are reproduced by model simulations (von Hobe et al., 2007): the known catalytic cycles cannot cause an ozone hole. Obviously, this also calls into question our ability to predict future polar ozone depletion. In search for an explanation, we discuss possible shortcomings of the Pope et al. experiment that could lead to an underestimation of the dimer absorption and examine various new chemical processes for their likelihood to influence chlorine partitioning and cause significant ozone loss in the atmosphere and at the same time go undetected in laboratory based kinetic studies. A strategy is presented for designing the tests needed to unambiguously confirm or rule out proposed solutions to the

  13. Collecting longitudinal data through childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Faden, Vivian B; Day, Nancy L; Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca; Grube, Joel W; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Tracey K; Jackson, Kristina M; Sher, Kenneth J

    2004-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2003 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The organizers and chairs were Vivian Faden and Nancy Day. The presentations were (1) Lessons Learned From the Lives Across Time Longitudinal Study, by Michael Windle and Rebecca Windle; (2) Methodological Issues in Longitudinal Surveys With Children and Adolescents, by Joel Grube; (3) The Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study: Methodological and Conceptual Challenges, by Brooke Molina, William Pelham, Elizabeth Gnagy, and Tracey Wilson; and (4) Lessons learned in Conducting Longitudinal Research on Alcohol Involvement: If Only I Had Known Before Hand! by Kristina Jackson and Kenneth Sher.

  14. The primary structure of skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain: IV. Sequence of the rod, and the complete 1,938-residue sequence of the heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Maita, T; Yajima, E; Nagata, S; Miyanishi, T; Nakayama, S; Matsuda, G

    1991-07-01

    In the preceding paper [Maita, T., Miyanishi, T., Matsuzono, K., Tanioka, Y., & Matsuda, G. (1991) J. Biochem. 110, 68-74], we reported the amino-terminal 837-residue sequence of the heavy chain of adult chicken pectoralis muscle myosin. This paper describes the carboxyl terminal 1,097-residue sequence and the linkage of the two sequences. Rod obtained by digesting myosin filaments with alpha-chymotrypsin was redigested with the protease at high KCl concentration, and two fragments, subfragment-2 and light meromyosin, were isolated and sequenced by conventional methods. The linkage of the two fragments was deduced from the sequence of an overlapping peptide obtained by cleaving the rod with cyanogen bromide. The rod contained 1,039 amino acid residues, but lacked the carboxyl-terminal 58 residues of the heavy chain. A carboxyl-terminal 63-residue peptide obtained by cleaving the whole heavy chain with cyanogen bromide was sequenced. Thus, the carboxyl terminal 1,097-residue sequence of the heavy chain was completed. The linkage of subfragment-1 and the rod was deduced from the sequence of an overlapping peptide between the two which was obtained by cleaving heavy meromyosin with cyanogen bromide. Comparing the sequence of the adult myosin thus determined with that of chicken embryonic myosin reported by Molina et al. [Molina, M.I., Kropp, K.E., Gulick, J., & Robbins, J. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 6478-6488], we found that the sequence homology is 94%.

  15. Sylvatic echinococcosis in Argentina. II. Susceptibility of wild carnivores to Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) and host-induced morphological variation.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; Colli, C; Cruz-Reyes, A; Prezioso, U

    1976-03-01

    Domestic dogs and cats, 3 fox species, Dusicyon culpaeus (Molina,1782), D, griseus (Gray, 1837) and D. gymnocercus (Thomas, 1914), Geoffroy's cats, Felis geoffroyi (D'Orbigny and Gervais, 1843), and grisons, Galictus cuja (Molina, 1782) were fed larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) from domestic sheep in Argentina. Dogs and the 3 species of foxes became infected. The susceptibility of D. culpaeus compared favorably to that of dogs. Most D. griseus and D. gymnocercus were less susceptible than dogs but gravid strobilae were recovered from some animals of both species. Eggs from strobilae in dogs and Dusicyon spp. were infective to CF1 mice. The mean strobilar length and the diameters of the rostellar pad and suckers of worms in foxes were significantly reduced when compared with previously reported data for strobilae from dogs. The potential significance of Dusicyon spp. as reservoir hosts of E. granulosus in Argentina is discussed as is the confusion surrounding the taxonomic identification of cestode infections previously reported from these wild carnivores. It is suggested that Echinococcus spp. reported from Argentine foxes are E. granulosus and that foxes become infected by killing and scavenging on sheep in localities where E. granulosus is endemic.

  16. Stratospheric ozone - Impact of human activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    1989-01-01

    The current knowledge of the chemistry of the stratosphere is reviewed, with particular consideration given to the measurements from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment and from the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Analysis of the ATMOS data at 30 deg N suggests that the current understanding of the contemporary-stratosphere chemistry at mid-latitudes is relatively complete, except for possible problems with the diurnal variations of N2O5 at low altitudes, and with ClNO3 at higher altitudes. Except for some difficulties with these two compounds, the data from ATMOS agree well with the gas phase models for nitrogen and chlorine species at 30 deg N in spring. It is emphasized that, in addition to the HOCl mechanism proposed by Solomon et al. (1986), the ClO-BrO scheme proposed by McElroy et al. (1986), and the ClO dimer mechanism introduced by Molina and Molina (1987), other processes exist that are responsible for ozone removal.

  17. Why does large ice supersaturation persist in cold cirrus clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, A.; Molina, M. J.; Loerting, T.

    2009-04-01

    )2SO4, NH4NO3, and (NH4)3H(SO4)2 may also consist of the mixed-phase particles. In the absence of any deep convective water vapor sources, the temperature of the onset of the freezing of UT aqueous droplets will determine the highest clear-sky Si. Assuming that the UT droplets have a composition similar to that of the laboratory droplets, we calculated the Si which would exist immediately prior to the formation of cold cirrus. The calculations were performed using the measured freezing temperatures of ice, Ti, and the thermodynamic model of the system 7 H+ - NH4+ - SO42-- NO3-- H2O. The calculations show that Si > 100 % can be formed prior to the formation of cold ice cirrus by homogeneous freezing of aqueous droplets containing H2SO4, HNO3, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)HSO4, NH4NO3, and (NH4)3H(SO4)2. In the UT, the growth rate of coated ice crystals will differ from that of uncoated ones since the coating can serve as a 'shield' reducing the flux of H2O molecules to the ice surface. The uncoated ice crystals experience rapid growth due to fast deposition of H2O directly on the ice surface. In the case of coated ice, H2O molecules first condense on the coating, dilute it, diffuse to the ice core, and only then become incorporated into the ice lattice. The calculations of the thickness of the coating around ice crystals and the impact of the coating on the rate of ice growth, and consequently on the rate of the consumption of moisture inside cold cirrus, were made for H2SO4/H2O droplets. The H2SO4/H2O system has been well studied and its thermodynamic data are well documented. We find that the coating can slow down the rate of ice growth by ~103 in comparison with uncoated ice and this can be a reason for the persistent in-cloud Si >> 0 %. 1. Jensen, E. J. et al. (2005), Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 851-862. 2. Koop, T., Ng, H.P., Molina, L.T. and Molina, M.J. (1998), J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 8924-8931. 3. Koop, T., Bertram, A.K., Molina, L.T. and Molina, M.J. (1999), J. Phys. Chem. A, 103

  18. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  19. Carbon Cycle in Subduction Zones: Experimental Constraints in Fluid-Saturated MORB Eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crottini, A.; Poli, S.; Molina, J. F.

    2003-04-01

    Graphite and/or carbonates are stable in eclogite mafic systems, according to both natural evidences and experimental and computed data (Yaxley and Green, 1994; Molina and Poli, 2000). In this work, the stability of C-bearing phases in metamorphosed oceanic crust is discussed as a function of fO2, expected to be the main factor controlling fluid speciation in subduction zone. We performed experiments using a piston-cylinder apparatus, at pressures up to 3 GPa and temperatures to 730^oC. Experiments were carried out on seeded gels in the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 , in the presence of a C-O-H fluid at variable C-O-H ratios generated from mixtures of oxalic acid dihydrate and silver oxalate. The double capsule technique was employed to control fH2 with Ni-NiO (NNO) and hematite-magnetite (HM) buffers. In agreement with Molina and Poli (2000), a large amphibole-carbonate phase field is present at NNO oxygen fugacities at P <= 2 GPa. At 2.5-2.6 GPa amphibole breaks down. Omphacite is stable up to 3.0 GPa, coexisting with fassaite at 2.2 GPa in CO2 -rich bulk compositions, where garnet is absent. A fine-grained Na-melilite is stable at 2.2-2.4 GPa, containing up to 15 wt.% Na2O. Graphite is ubiquitous at P >= 2.2 GPa, with dolomite and aragonite at HM oxidation conditions and aragonite at NNO-buffered conditions. At pressures above 2.4 GPa carbonates disappear, being graphite the only C-bearing solid phase. Thermodynamic computations on fluid speciation in graphite buffered systems support experimental results, suggesting that carbonates can be stable at values of log fO2 close to NNO buffer at P <= 2.0 GPa, whereas at higher pressures their stability is permitted only by highly oxidizing conditions (3-4 log units lower than HM) in H2 O-poor bulk compositions. The experimental results demonstrate that transfer of carbon from the subducting slab to either the deep slab or to the mantle wedge via fluid flow is strongly related to the actual oxygen fugacity

  20. Protective effects of boldine against free radical-induced erythrocyte lysis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, I; Garrido, A; Bannach, R; Gotteland, M; Speisky, H

    2000-08-01

    Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid extracted from the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), has been shown to exhibit strong free-radical scavenger and antioxidant properties. Here, we report the in vitro ability of boldine to protect intact red cells against the haemolytic damage induced by the free radical initiator 2, 2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH). Boldine concentration-dependently prevented the AAPH-induced leakage of haemoglobin into the extracellular medium. Substantial and similar cyto-protective effects of boldine were observed whether the antioxidant was added 1 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the azo-compound. The delayed addition of boldine, by 1 h relative to AAPH, diminished but did not abolish its cytoprotective effect. However, negligible effects of boldine were observed after its addition to erythrocytes previously incubated with AAPH for 2 h. The data presented demonstrate that, in addition to its well-established antioxidant effects, boldine also displays time-dependently strong cytoprotective properties against chemically induced haemolytic damage. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Boldine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cell line via regulation of ERK, AKT, and GSK-3β.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Bertola, Gabriela; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Figueiró, Fabrício; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira Fonseca, José Cláudio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Barrios, Carlos Henrique; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Salbego, Christianne G

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most prevalent genitourinary malignancies. Despite active chemotherapy regimens, patients with bladder cancer suffer from a high rate of tumor recurrence. Thus, new approaches and agents to improve quality of life and survival still need to be developed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on bladder cancer proliferation and cell death. Sulforhodamine B assay, Tetrazolium reduction assay, Flow Cytometry Analysis, Ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity and Western blot assay were performed. The results showed that boldine was able to reduce cell viability and cell proliferation in T24 cells. In addition, boldine arrests the cell cycle at G2/M-phase and cause cell death by apoptosis. Boldine-induced inhibition of cell growth and cell cycle arrest appears to be linked to inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein (ERK). Additionally, the efficacy of boldine in apoptosis-induced in T24 cells is correlated with modulation of AKT (inactivation) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) (activation) proteins. The present findings may, in part, explain the therapeutic effects of boldine for treatment of urinary bladder cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between nutritional composition of plant species and infestation levels of thrips.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Simmonds, Monique S J; Blaney, Walter M

    2002-12-01

    Levels of soluble protein and carbohydrate (raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in leaves from a selection of plant species were measured to determine if a relationship existed between these nutrients and infestation by Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. Most species of host plant examined contained a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrates, and overall, leaves from species of plants that supported populations of thrips had greater levels of protein than leaves from nonhost species. New leaves and flowers that supported F. occidentalis contained high levels of carbohydrate and protein. The quantity of protein in leaves at the top of the tree, Peumus boldus, was greater than in leaves from lower levels, and the amount of feeding damage accrued by H. haemorrhoidalis was greater on the upper foliage than lower foliage. Oviposition by H. haenmorrhoidalis was positively correlated to levels of protein in host plants but not to levels of carbohydrates. Overall, levels of soluble protein in plants influenced their susceptibility to thrips more than levels of carbohydrates.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  4. Studies on neuromuscular blockade by boldine in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Kang, J J; Cheng, Y W; Fu, W M

    1998-02-01

    The effects of boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxyl-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine], a major alkaloid in the leaves and bark of Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), on neuromuscular transmission were studied using a muscle phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation. Boldine at concentrations lower than 200 microM preferentially inhibited, after an initial period of twitch augmentation, the nerve-evoked twitches of the mouse diaphragm and left the muscle-evoked twitches unaffected. The twitch inhibition could be restored by neostigmine or washout with Krebs solution. The twitches evoked indirectly and directly were both augmented initially, suggesting that the twitch augmentation induced by boldine was myogenic. Boldine inhibited the acetylcholine-induced contraction of denervated diaphragm dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 13.5 microM. At 50 microM, boldine specifically inhibited the amplitude of the miniature end plate potential. In addition, boldine was similar to d-tubocurarine in its action to reverse the neuromuscular blocking action of alpha-bungarotoxin. These results showed that the neuromuscular blockade by boldine on isolated mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm might be due to its direct interaction with the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

  5. Dry plant extracts loaded on fumed silica for direct compression: preparation and preformulation.

    PubMed

    Palma, S D; Manzo, R H; Allemandi, D A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to load fumed silica with vegetal material (solid residue) from a liquid extract to obtain a solid loaded silica product (LSP) with satisfactory flow properties and compressibility to be processed by direct-compression technology. Extracts of Melissa officinalis L. (M.o.), Cardus marianus L. (C.m.), and Peumus boldus L. (P.b.) were used to load silica support. The release of boldine from LSP (P.b.) reached 100% in HCl 0.1 N solution and only approximately 70% in water. Some physical-mechanical properties of LSP (M.o. and C.m.) alone and LSP-excipient mixtures were determined. The densities (bulk and tap) of LSP were higher than those of fumed silica alone. Consequently, good flow properties of LSP products were observed. On the other hand, flowability, densities, and compactibility of directly compressible excipients (lactose, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose) were not adversely affected when mixed with LSP.

  6. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    PubMed

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.

  7. Computer-Aided (13)C NMR Chemical Profiling of Crude Natural Extracts without Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, Ali; Hubert, Jane; Reynaud, Romain; Lanthony, Sylvie; Harakat, Dominique; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc

    2017-05-26

    A computer-aided, (13)C NMR-based dereplication method is presented for the chemical profiling of natural extracts without any fractionation. An algorithm was developed in order to compare the (13)C NMR chemical shifts obtained from a single routine spectrum with a set of predicted NMR data stored in a natural metabolite database. The algorithm evaluates the quality of the matching between experimental and predicted data by calculating a score function and returns the list of metabolites that are most likely to be present in the studied extract. The proof of principle of the method is demonstrated on a crude alkaloid extract obtained from the leaves of Peumus boldus, resulting in the identification of eight alkaloids, including isocorydine, rogersine, boldine, reticuline, coclaurine, laurotetanine, N-methylcoclaurine, and norisocorydine, as well as three monoterpenes, namely, p-cymene, eucalyptol, and α-terpinene. The results were compared to those obtained with other methods, either involving a fractionation step before the chemical profiling process or using mass spectrometry detection in the infusion mode or coupled to gas chromatography.

  8. A novel alkaloid antioxidant, Boldine and synthetic antioxidant, reduced form of RU486, inhibit the oxidation of LDL in-vitro and atherosclerosis in vivo in LDLR(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Santanam, N; Penumetcha, M; Speisky, H; Parthasarathy, S

    2004-04-01

    A corollary to the oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis is that the consumption of antioxidants is beneficial. However, the literature is divided in support of this conclusion. In this study, Boldine, an alkaloid of Peumus boldus and reduced form of RU486, was tested for their antioxidant potency both in, in vitro oxidation system and in mouse models. Boldine decreased the ex-vivo oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Two different in vivo studies were performed to study the effect of these compounds on the atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDLR(-/-) mice. In study I, three groups of LDLR(-/-) mice (N = 12 each) were fed an atherogenic diet. Group 1 was given vehicle and group 2 and 3 were given 1mg of Boldine or Red RU per day for 12 weeks. In study II, two groups of LDLR(-/-) mice N = 10 each) were fed an atherogenic diet. Group 1 was given vehicle and group 2 was given 5mg of Boldine per day. The results indicated that there was a decrease in lesion formation reaching a 40% reduction due to Boldine and 45% reduction by Red RU compared to controls. The in vivo tolerance of Boldine in humans (has been used as an herbal medicine in other diseases) should make it an attractive alternative to Vitamin E.

  9. Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-05-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage.

  10. Effects of boldine on mouse diaphragm and sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kang, J J; Cheng, Y W

    1998-02-01

    The effects of boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxyaporphine], a major alkaloid in the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), on skeletal muscle were studied using mouse diaphragm and isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles. Boldine, at 10-200 microM, has little effect on the muscle-evoked twitches; however, the ryanodine-induced contracture was potentiated dose-dependently. At higher concentrations of 300 microM, boldine by itself induced muscle contracture of two phases, which were caused by the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and induction of Ca2+ release from the internal Ca2+ storage site, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, respectively. When tested with isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles, boldine dose-dependently induced Ca2+ release from actively loaded sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle of rabbit or rat which was inhibited by ruthenium red, suggesting that the release was through the Ca2+ release channel, also known as the ryanodine receptor. Boldine also dose-dependently increased apparent [3H]-ryanodine binding with the EC50 value of 50 microM. In conclusion, we have shown that boldine could sensitize the ryanodine receptor and induce Ca2+ release from the internal Ca2+ storage site of skeletal muscle.

  11. Medicinal plants profile used by the 3rd District population of Maceió-AL.

    PubMed

    Griz, S A S; Matos-Rocha, T J; Santos, A F; Costa, J G; Mousinho, K C

    2017-11-01

    Herein the use of medicinal plants by the population of the 3rd Sanitary District of Maceió-AL city is reported. Transversal description was conducted from February 2013 to January 2014, with a sample of 116 individuals of both Gender Genders aged over 18 years. The ethnobotanical information interviews ethnobotanical information were obtained through semi - structured questionnaire featuring the use of medicinal plants and social and economical data. Descriptive statistics was applied for quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation and proportions for qualitative variables in the frequency table format. The results showed that 85.34% of the interviewees used plants for medicinal purposes. As the majority of these were (73.28%) females in the age group between 30-60 years of old. Among a total of 45 identified plant species, the highest use frequency were for Boldus Peumus (bilberry), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), and Mentha piperita (mint). The most widely used plant foliage part was (53.53%) prepared as an infusion (55.5%). The use of medicinal plants in Maceió cityis widespread, highlighting the importance of ethnobotanical knowledge for the study of medicinal plants.

  12. QS-21 Adjuvant: Laboratory-Scale Purification Method and Formulation Into Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Livia; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Collin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    QS-21, a saponin extracted from the tree Quillaja saponaria Molina, is a vaccine adjuvant which has been shown to elicit robust antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in a variety of preclinical and clinical studies [1]. Its purification from the natural source is a lengthy and difficult process. The commercially available saponin mixture Quil-A(®) is a fraction of the bark extract containing a variety of saponins, including QS-21. In order to facilitate access to QS-21 at laboratory-scale amounts, we propose here a method of purification of QS-21 starting from Quil-A(®). In addition, we describe a protocol to appropriately formulate QS-21 into cholesterol-containing, neutral liposomes which are known to decrease QS-21's hemolytic activity while retaining the adjuvant effect. Methods for the physicochemical characterization of purified QS-21 and of the QS-21/liposome formulations are also described.

  13. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  14. Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE dipping fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.

    2014-08-01

    On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE dipping fault. We investigate the physical processes related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.

  15. High-Sensitivity Optical Techniques for Atmospheric Spectroscopy, Kinetics and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A principal objective of the work supported by this Grant has been to use IntraCavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (ICLAS) to acquire data on weakly absorbing species of atmospheric interest that are not accessible, or cannot be determined with sufficient precision, using conventional spectroscopic instrumentation. The principal focus has been to adapt the existing instrument to carry out Kinetic studies using IntraCavity Absorption Spectroscopy (KICAS) in order to measure rate parameters for weakly absorbing, environmentally significant species. Additional related work has been carried out in collaboration with Prof. M.J. Molina's program on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area on modeling the role of these species in atmospheric chemistry.

  16. Efficiency of box-traps and leg-hold traps with several bait types for capturing small carnivores (mammalia) in a disturbed area of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Fernanda; Crawshaw, Peter G; Oliveira, Tadeu G de; Fabián, Marta E

    2007-03-01

    Capturing small carnivores is often necessary for obtaining key ecological data. We compared the efficiency of box and leg-hold traps, using live and dead bait, to capture six carnivore species (Herpailurus yagouaroundi (E. Geoffroyi, 1803), Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775), Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758), and Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782)). The use of leg-hold traps significantly increased the capture rate of carnivores (5.77%) and non-target species (non-carnivores, 11.54%). Dead bait significantly attracted more non-carnivores than carnivores and live bait was more efficient for capturing carnivores (2.56%) than non-carnivores (0.77%). Both box and leg-hold traps caused some minor injuries (swelling and claw loss). We provide recommendations for the ethical use of these trap and bait types.

  17. Mixed-phased particles in polar stratospheric ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.; Loerting, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone depletion, differential scanning calorimeter. The rate of chlorine activation reactions, which lead to ozone depletion in the winter/spring polar stratosphere (Molina, 1994), depends on the phase state of the surface of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) ice crystals (McNeil et al., 2006). PSCs are thought to consist of solid ice and NAT (nitric acid trihydrate, HNO3× 3H2O) particles and supercooled HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. The corresponding PSCs are called Type II, Ia, and Ib PSCs, respectively (Zondlo et al., 1998). Type II PSCs are formed in the Antarctic region below the ice frost point of 189 K by homogeneous freezing of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets (Chang et al., 1999) with the excess of HNO3. The PSC ice crystals are thought to be solid. However, the fate of H+, NO3-, SO42- ions during freezing was not investigated. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of freezing emulsified HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets of sizes and compositions representative of the polar stratosphere demonstrate that during the freezing of the droplets, H+, NO3-, SO42- are expelled from the ice lattice. The expelled ions form a residual solution around the formed ice crystals. The residual solution does not freeze but transforms to glassy state at ~150 K (Bogdan et al., 2010). By contrast to glass-formation in these nitric-acid rich ternary mixtures the residual solution freezes in the case of sulphuric-acid rich ternary mixtures (Bogdan and Molina, 2009). For example, we can consider the phase separation into ice and a residual solution during the freezing of 23/3 wt% HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. On cooling, ice is formed at ~189 K. This is inferred from the fact that the corresponding melting peak at ~248 K exactly matches the melting point of ice in the phase diagram of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O containing 3 wt % H2SO4. After the ice has formed, the glass transition occurs at Tg ≈ 150 K. The appearance of the glass transition indicates that the

  18. How Do We See Art: An Eye-Tracker Study

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art. PMID:21941476

  19. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations.

  20. Reaction of ClONO{sub 2} with HCl on NAT, NAD, and frozen sulfuric acid and hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ClONO{sub 2} on frozen sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.R.; Ravishankara, A.R. |

    1993-12-20

    The reaction of ClONO{sub 2} with HCl on the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and dihydrate (NAD) and on frozen sulfuric acid solutions was studied as functions of reactant concentration and temperature representative of the stratosphere. A flow tube reactor equipped with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer detector was used. The measured reactive uptake coefficient shows a strong dependence on temperature at constant H{sub 2}O partial pressure. These results for NAT are qualitatively similar to but quantitatively different from those of Abbatt and Molina. The hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ClONO{sub 2} on frozen sulfuric acid were measured to be far less efficient than that in liquid solutions. The implications of these results to the heterogeneous chemistry of the stratosphere are discussed. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. New isotonic drinks with antioxidant and biological capacities from berries (maqui, açaí and blackthorn) and lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Villaño, Débora; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz], açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following on from previous research. Quality parameters - including colour (CIELab parameters), minerals, phytochemical identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH• and [Formula: see text] assays) and biological activities (in vitro alpha-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects) - were tested in the samples and compared to commercially available isotonic drinks. The new isotonic blends with lemon and anthocyanins-rich berries showed an attractive colour, especially in maqui samples, which is essential for consumer acceptance. Significantly higher antioxidant and biological effects were determined in the new blends, in comparison with the commercial isotonic beverages.

  2. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in aquatic birds. Case study: Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Livers from 108 birds found prostrate or dead in Ilha Grande Bay between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed for 16 PCB congeners (IUPAC numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180). The species analyzed were Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus 1758), Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus 1758), Egretta thula (Molina 1782), and Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus 1766). The analysis were performed using Origin software (7.5, 2004) with a significant level of p<0.05. Data were checked for adherence to the standard assumptions of parametric tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. This has revealed differences in concentration for some congeners. Results indicate relatively low PCBs contamination in aquatic birds, but it is implied the close relationship of environmental contamination, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  4. A system to evaluate fire impacts from simulated fire behavior in Mediterranean areas of Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Miguel E; Molina, Juan R; Rodríguez Y Silva, Francisco; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Garfias, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Wildfires constitute the greatest economic disruption to Mediterranean ecosystems, from a socio-economic and ecological perspective (Molina et al., 2014). This study proposes to classify fire intensity levels based on potential fire behavior in different types of Mediterranean vegetation types, using two geographical scales. The study considered >4 thousand wildfires over a period of 25years, identifying fire behavior on each event, based on simulations using "KITRAL", a model developed in Chile in 1993 and currently used in the entire country. Fire intensity values allowed results to be classified into six fire effects categories (levels), each of them with field indicators linking energy values with damage related to burned vegetation and wildland urban interface zone. These indicators also facilitated a preliminary assessment of wildfire impact on different Mediterranean land uses and, are therefore, a useful tool to prioritize future interventions.

  5. A QTAIM topological analysis of the P3HT⿿PCBM dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Juan I.; Matta, Chérif F.; Uribe, Emilbus A.; Götz, Andreas W.; Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.; Molina-Brito, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    In order to cast some light onto the nature of the chemical bonding between a 8-unit oligomer of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in the two stables isomers reported recently [I. Gutiérrez-González, B. Molina-Brito, A.W. Götz, F.L. Castillo-Alvarado, J.I. Rodríguez, Chem. Phys. Lett. 612, 234 (2014)], we have performed a Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis. According to QTAIM, no covalent bonds are formed between P3HT and PCBM, and hydrogen and stacking interactions account for about 90% and 10% of the total number of bonds between P3HT and PCBM, respectively.

  6. Fleas and Ticks in Carnivores From a Domestic-Wildlife Interface: Implications for Public Health and Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Poo-Muñoz, Daniela A; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Escobar, Luis E; Astorga, Francisca; Bermúdez, Sergio E; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Abarca, Katia; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    Fleas and ticks are parasites of wild and domestic mammals, and can be vectors of several pathogens. In rural areas, domestic carnivores such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris L.), may act as a "bridge" between natural areas and human settlements where ectoparasites can be used as a metric of such link. The aim of this study was to identify fleas, ticks, and Rickettsia spp., collected from domestic and wild carnivores in a natural reserve and surrounding human settlements in Central Chile, using morphological keys and molecular analysis. We surveyed 170 households from which 107 dogs and eight cats were sampled. From the natural reserve, we sampled two chilla foxes (Pseudalopex griseus Gray), two lesser grison (Galictis cuja Molina), three kodkods (Leopardus guigna Molina), and four dogs. From dogs, we collected Ctenocephalides felis Bouché, Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans L., and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. Latreille; C. felis was the most frequent ectoparasite. Cats were infested only by C. felis and Rh. sanguineus s.l. From wild carnivores, we obtained C. canis and P. irritans, the latter being most frequent. Molecular analysis of P. irritans detected 10 haplotypes and two main clades, which tended to separate fleas from wild and domestic hosts. Molecular analysis of ompA and ompB genes confirmed the presence of Rickettsia felis in fleas collected from owned dogs and cats, which could represent a potential risk factor of R. felis transmission in the area. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease.

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Looi, Chung Yeng; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2014-01-01

    To date, plants have been the major source of anticancer drugs. Boldine is a natural alkaloid commonly found in the leaves and bark of Peumus boldus. In this study, we found that boldine potently inhibited the viability of the human invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (48-hour IC50 46.5±3.1 μg/mL) and MDA-MB-468 (48-hour IC50 50.8±2.7 μg/mL). Boldine had a cytotoxic effect and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells as indicated by a higher amount of lactate dehydrogenase released, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, we demonstrated that boldine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The anticancer mechanism is associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in MDA-MB-231. Boldine selectively induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7, but not caspase-8. We also found that boldine could inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation, a key molecule in tumor progression and metastasis. In addition, protein array and Western blotting analysis showed that treatment with boldine resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 and upregulation of Bax in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. An acute toxicity study in rats revealed that boldine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of boldine (50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24944509

  9. The Aporphine Alkaloid Boldine Induces Adiponectin Expression and Regulation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (100 μM) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5–100 μM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARγ, and C/EBPα to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or TNFα and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5–25 μM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50–100 μM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H2O2 or TNFα was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  10. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Croteau, R

    1984-11-15

    Ascaridole, an asymmetric monoterpene endoperoxide with anthelmintic properties, occurs as a major constituent (60-80%) in the volatile oil of American wormseed fruit (Chenopodium ambrosioides: Chenopodiaceae), and as a lesser component in the leaf pocket oil of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus: Monimiaceae). Determination of optical activity and chromatographic resolution of naturally occurring ascaridole, and several synthetic derivatives, showed that both wormseed and boldo produce ascaridole in racemic form. The biosynthesis of ascaridole from the conjugated, symmetrical diene alpha-terpinene (a major component of the oil from wormseed) was shown to be catalyzed by a soluble iodide peroxidase isolated from homogenates of C. ambrosioides fruit and leaves. The enzymatic synthesis of ascaridole was confirmed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the product, which was also shown to be racemic. Optimal enzymatic activity occurred at pH 4.0 in the presence of 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM NaI. Soluble enzyme extracts were fractionated by gel filtration on both Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-100, and were shown to consist of a high-molecular-weight peroxidase component (Mr greater than 1,000,000, 30% of total activity) and two other peroxidase species having apparent molecular weights of 62,000 and 45,000 (major component). Peroxidase activity was susceptible to proteolytic destruction only after periodate treatment, suggesting an association of the enzyme(s) with polysaccharide material. Ascaridole biosynthesis from alpha-terpinene was inhibited by cyanide, catalase, and reducing agents, but not by compounds that trap superoxide or quench singlet oxygen. A peroxide transfer reaction initiated by peroxidase-generated I+ is proposed for the conversion of alpha-terpinene to ascaridole.

  11. Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Peter; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán

    2006-01-05

    The increasing recognition of the participation of free radical-mediated oxidative events in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular, tumoural, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, has given rise to the search for new antioxidant molecules. An important source of such molecules has been plants for which there is an ethno-cultural base for health promotion. An important example of this is boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a chilean tree whose leaves have been traditionally employed in folk medicine and is now widely recognized as a herbal remedy by a number of pharmacopoeias. Boldo leaves are rich in several aporphine-like alkaloids, of which boldine is the most abundant one. Research conducted during the early 1990s led to the discovery that boldine is one of the most potent natural antioxidants. Prompted by the latter, a large and increasing number of studies emerged, which have focused on characterizing some of the pharmacological properties that may arise from the free radical-scavenging properties of boldine. The present review attempts to exhaustively cover and discuss such studies, placing particular attention on research conducted during the last decade. Mechanistic aspects and structure-activity data are discussed. The review encompasses pharmacological actions, which arise from its antioxidant properties (e.g., cyto-protective, anti-tumour promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic actions), as well as those that do not seem to be associated with such activity (e.g., vasorelaxing, anti-trypanocidal, immuno- and neuro-modulator, cholagogic and/or choleretic actions). Based on the pharmacological and toxicological data now available, further research needs and recommendations are suggested to define the actual potential of boldine for its use in humans.

  12. Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Looi, Chung Yeng; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2014-01-01

    To date, plants have been the major source of anticancer drugs. Boldine is a natural alkaloid commonly found in the leaves and bark of Peumus boldus. In this study, we found that boldine potently inhibited the viability of the human invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (48-hour IC₅₀ 46.5±3.1 μg/mL) and MDA-MB-468 (48-hour IC₅₀ 50.8±2.7 μg/mL). Boldine had a cytotoxic effect and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells as indicated by a higher amount of lactate dehydrogenase released, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, we demonstrated that boldine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The anticancer mechanism is associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in MDA-MB-231. Boldine selectively induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7, but not caspase-8. We also found that boldine could inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation, a key molecule in tumor progression and metastasis. In addition, protein array and Western blotting analysis showed that treatment with boldine resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 and upregulation of Bax in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. An acute toxicity study in rats revealed that boldine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of boldine (50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Spatial variability of the active layer thickness at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica) and the role of snow cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Molina, Antonio; Ramos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    research also required developing a qualitative grain-size analyses and geomorphological cartography of the ground at the CALM-S site. Here we show the first results of our analyses and how some factors correlate by the spatial evolution of the thaw depth in the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site. de Pablo, M.A., Blanco, J.J., Molina, A., Ramos, M., Quesada, A., and Vieira, G. 2013. Interannual active layer variability at the Limnopolar Lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 25(2). 167-180. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2014. Thermal characterization of the active layer at the Limnopolar lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island), Antarctica. Solid Earth, 5. 721-739. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2016. Snow cover evolution at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica, 2009-2014. Catena. Submitted. Lewkowicz, A. G. 2008. Evaluation of miniature temperature-loggers to monitor snowpack evolution at mountain permafrost sites, northwestern Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19. 323-331.

  14. Porosity characterization of fresh and altered stones by ultrasound velocity and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Porosity is the main physical feature dealing with rocks durability and storage capacity. The analysis of this parameter is key factor in predicting rock performances (Molina et al., 2011). There are several techniques that can be applied to acquire the widest information range possible about pores (e.g. size, shape, distribution), leading to a better understanding of decay processes and trapping capacity. The coupling of a detailed minero-petrographic analysis with physical measures such as ultrasounds and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) proved to be a valid tool for understanding the porous network and its evolution during weathering processes. Both fresh and salt-weathered samples were analysed to investigate the modification triggered in the porous network by crystallization. The ageing process was induced using a Na2SO4 saturated saline solution with the partial continuous immersion method (Benavente et al., 2001). The study was addressed to four sedimentary lithotypes: 1) Arenaria Macigno, a greywacke made up of thickened clasts of quartz, plagioclase and K-feldspar cemented by micritic calcite and phyllosilicates; 2) Breccia Aurora, a calcareous breccia with nodules of compact limestone and micritic cement joints; 3) Rosso Verona, a biomicrite where the compact bio-micrite matrix is cut by clay minerals veins; and 4) Vicenza Stone, an organogenic limestone rich in micro- and macro foraminifera, algae, bryozoans and remains of echinoderms, with iron oxides. An appropriate description of the porous network variation and recognition of the origin of secondary porosity was attained. The study defined that the pore shape and distribution (anisotropy coefficient K) has a fluctuation up to the 50% after weathering treatments and pore-size distribution (defined in a range between 0,0025 - 75 μm), allowing modelling the mechanisms of water transport and evaluating decay susceptibility of these lithotypes. Molina E, Cultrone G, Sebastián E, Alonso FJ, Carrizo L

  15. Glacialmorphological reconstruction of glacier advances and glacial lake outburst floods at the Cachapoal glacier in the Dry Central Andes of Chile (34°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam; Charrier, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the Andes Mountain range of South America a general trend of glacier shrinkage has taken place in the last century. Only a few glaciers have shown a rather non-continuous trend of glacier retreat and temporally advanced or even surged during the mid-19th to 20th century. One of the earliest assumed glacier surges has occurred in the upper Cachapoal catchment area at the homonymous glacier. In climatic respect the Cachapoal glacier is located in the transition zone from the most southern part of the Dry Central Andes of Chile to the more humid zone of the Wet Andes. The region is affected mainly by winter precipitation deriving from the Westerlies. The debris-covered, 12 km-long Cachapoal glacier represents one of the largest valley glaciers in the Central Andes. It is an avalanche-fed glacier with an almost 1500 m-high head wall in its upper catchment area flowing down from Picos del Barroso (5180 m) and terminates at an elevation of 2630 m a.s.l. with a bifurcated glacier tongue. A large moraine complex, almost 2 km in length and 500 m in width, separates the two glacier lobes. During times of advanced glacier tongue positions the Ríos Molina and Cachapoal may be have blocked independently at two distinct localities which are situated about 2300 m apart from each other. A blockage with temporal lake formation has occurred at least in the years 1848, 1955 and 1981 (cf. Plagemann 1887, Peña 1981), from which the rupture of the earliest glacier barrier has been the most devastating. This event is locally reminded as "la gran avenida en seco" in the historical record. Geomorphological evidence of the past historical and modern glacier expansions is given in the proglacial area by a fresh dead-ice hummocky topography and glacial trimlines at the valley flanks. More down valley broad outwash plains and boulder clusters indicate past high energy floods produced by glacier lake outbursts. Regarding the small size of the catchment area of the Río Molina

  16. Geochemical signatures of bedded cherts of the upper La Luna Formation in Táchira State, western Venezuela: Assessing material provenance and paleodepositional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbán, G.; Martínez, M.; Márquez, G.; Rey, O.; Escobar, M.; Esquinas, N.

    2017-01-01

    Here we undertook an inorganic geochemical study of Cenomanian-Campanian bedded cherts (the Táchira Ftanita Member of the La Luna Formation) in the western region of the Táchira State, Venezuela. The aim of this study was to determine the paleo-oceanographic and paleo-environmental conditions that governed the deposition of chert beds and put forward a sedimentation model for the Táchira Ftanita Member in the study area. Seventy-two chert samples were collected and trace/rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Rb, Cs, Th, U, Y, Co, and Sc) and major/trace elements (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Mn, Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, and V) were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES, respectively. On the basis of the stratigraphic abundance and distribution of relatively immobile elements, as well as the distribution of rare earth elements, we established that the detrital sediments associated with the sequences studied have matching characteristics with distinct continental materials, with an intermediate composition, thus pointing to the Guayana Massif as the main source of sediments. In addition, we also determined the influence of hydrothermal input on the chemical composition of some cherts from La Molina Mine. On the basis of geochemistry, we found a biological influence regarding the uptake of dissolved silica for forming chert beds. The application of parameters for relatively immobile elements allowed us to establish a still proximal continental-margin (hemipelagic) for most samples from the Zorca River and a continental-margin for almost all the cherts from the Delicias-Villa Páez section and the remaining samples from La Molina Mine. Finally, we propose that the rhythmicity that accompanies the sequence of bedded cherts is related to changes in the intensity of upwelling patterns of water and/or to variability in the supply of silica dissolved in the Táchira sub-basin.

  17. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  18. Magnetotelluric investigation across the Agri Valley: preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasco, Marianna; Romano, Gerardo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Alfredo Stabile, Tony

    2017-04-01

    The Agri Valley is an axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain with a strong seismogenic potential where two important energy technologies responsible for inducing/triggering seismicity are active: (1) the disposal at the Costa Molina 2 injection well of the wastewater produced during the exploitation of the biggest onshore oil field in west Europe (27 wells producing more than 80,000 barrels of crude oil per day), managed by the Eni S.p.A., and (2) the water loading and unloading operations in the Pertusillo artificial reservoir. It is recognized the possibility that the fluctuation of the water level inside the reservoir, due to the hydrological cycle for example, produces pressure perturbations at the bottom of reservoir, causing induced seismicity. Furthermore it is even more known the role of fluids in the rupture processes which could cause an increase of pore pressure specially at high rate of injection fluids and/or for the presence of weakening of preexisting faults. With the aim to better characterize and understand the physical processes involved in the observed induced/triggered seismicity, in 2016 a broadband seismic network, covering an area of about 20 km x 20 km nearby the Pertusillo Dam and Costa Molina2 well has been installed in the framework of SIR-MIUR project INSIEME (INduced Seismicity in Italy: Estimation, Monitoring, and sEismic risk mitigation) and a MagnetoTelluric (MT) survey has been performed. The MT investigation consists of 25 soundings aligned along 30 km profile oriented at about N40 direction, orthogonal with the strike of the major and noticeable geological structures and crossing both of the source that may induce/trigger seismicity. In this work, we present the preliminary 2D resistivity model which provides useful deep geophysical information for understanding the geological and structural setting of the Agri Valley. Moreover, the comparison of the resistivity model with the earthquake location as inferred from

  19. Early evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the origin of the pervasive salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawver, L. A.; Norton, I. O.; Gahagan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The final stage of formation of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is fairly well constrained, while the earlier evolution is still debated. During the final stage, Yucatan rotated about a Florida Straits Euler pole that created most of the oceanic crust in the GOM. From observations of salt overlying seaward-dipping reflectors (diagnostic of volcanism during the rift to drift transition) in the northeast GOM we suggest that salt was deposited at the onset of sea floor spreading, which coincides with initiation of the rotational motion of Yucatan. Salt is Callovian or earliest Oxfordian in age, and the next oldest rocks known from the northern GOM are Late Triassic redbeds found in what are generally regarded as grabens formed during early rifting. Since there was a long-lived, strikingly linear, continental margin arc in Mexico that lasted from the Permian through the Middle Jurassic (Barboza-Gudino et al., 2012), a lot of the rocks of this age seen in Mexico that are linked to GOM rifting are in fact associated with this earlier arc. This arc places major constraints on a pre-rift reconstruction involving North America, Africa, South America, Yucatan and the Tampico block of Mexico and defines the space available for Yucatan. In this presentation we will review reconstructions of the region and develop a tectonic model that forms the basis for further understanding of rifting in the GOM. A consequence of our new model involves a back-arc basin that is represented by the compressed Juarez or Cuicateco terrane of southeastern Mexico. The opening of this basin, coupled with the early opening of the Central Atlantic and the motion of South America away from Yucatan, not only allowed Yucatan to begin its rotation but may also be part of the "western" seaway that brought the necessary sea water into the Gulf to form the thick salt deposits. Barboza-Gudino, J.R., Molina-Garza. R.S., and Lawton, T.E., 2012. Sierra de Cato-: Remnants of the ancient western equatorial margin of

  20. Spatial distribution of Aerosol Surface Area, OVOC, and Halogens during TORERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Rogers, D. C.; Pierce, B.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory [Rudich, 2003; Molina et al., 2004; Thornberry and Abbatt, 2004] and field studies [Kwan et al., 2006] suggest that the organics on the aerosol or droplet surface or liquid monolayer could react with oxidants (e.g. OH and O3) and release carbonyls into the gas-phase. However, free tropospheric measurements of OVOC have been pulled in question because of known measurement artifacts [Millet et al., 2010]. The TORERO field campaign measured an array of OVOCs measured using optical spectroscopic techniques (CU Airborne Multi AXis DOAS) and on-line mass spectrometry (Trace Organic Gas Analyzer) in the free troposphere. The optical spectroscopic measurements reveal unambiguously that selected OVOCs are present in significantly higher concentrations then can be explained by atmospheric models. In this work we examine the horizontal and vertical distributions of aerosol surface area, collision rates of oxidants, and OVOC production rates to investigate the hypothesis of a heterogeneous formation mechanism for OVOCs on aerosol surfaces in the free troposphere. Air mass history is assessed by means of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), a global meteorological, chemical and aerosol assimilation/forecasting system that assimilates real-time stratospheric ozone retrievals from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), total column ozone from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Finally, a photochemical box-model is developed to evaluate the heterogeneous formation of OVOCs on aerosol surface, and test the role of OVOC for the budgets of HOx, and possibly halogen radicals. Reference [1] Rudich, Y. (2003), Chem. Rev., 103, 5097 - 5124. [2] Molina, M. J., et al. (2004), Geophys. Res. Lett., 31,L22104. [3] Thornberry, T., and J. P. D. Abbatt (2004), Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 6, 84 - 93. [4] Kwan, A. J., et al. (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33,L15815. [5] Millet, D. B

  1. Midwife to the greens: the electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, J E

    1997-03-01

    James E. Lovelock makes an account of the path he has followed since he started his scientific research at the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) in London in the 1940s, emphasizing the aspects related to environmental sciences. Lovelock explains the origins of the electron capture detector (ECD). So far, the ECD is the most sensitive, easily portable and inexpensive analytical apparatus capable of detecting substances present in the atmosphere at concentrations as low as parts per trillion (10(-12)). It has been the first device specifically sensitive to pollutants, and its use has provided the grounds for the development of environmental sciences, and green politics. The data gathered by the ECD about the persistence of pesticides in the environment led American biologist Rachel Carson to write her seminal book Silent Spring; data regarding the global presence of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in the atmosphere led Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina to develop their theory of ozone depletion. The results of his research over the years led Lovelock himself to the development of the Gaia theory.

  2. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  3. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  4. High Time Resolution Measurements of Methane Fluxes From Enteric Fermentation in Cattle Rumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Roscioli, J. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Castelán, O.; Ku Vera, J.; Castillo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Methane accounts for roughly 20% of the global radiative climate forcing in the last two and a half centuries. Methane emissions arise from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In some areas enteric fermentation in livestock produces over 90% of agricultural methane. In the spring of 2013, as a part of the Short Lived Climate Forcer-Mexico field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory in partnership with the Molina Center for the Environment studied methane production associated with enteric fermentation in the rumen of cattle. A variety of different breeds and stocks being raised in two agricultural and veterinary research facilities located in different areas of Mexico were examined. Methane fluxes were quantified using two methods: 1) an atmospherically stable gaseous tracer release was collocated with small herds in a pasture, allowing tracer ratio flux measurements; 2) respiratory CO2 was measured in tandem with methane in the breath of individual animals allowing methane production to be related to metabolism. The use of an extensive suite of very high time response instruments allows for differentiation of individual methane producing rumination events and respiratory CO2 from possible background interferences. The results of these studies will be presented and compared to data from traditional chamber experiments.

  5. What Would Have Happened to the Ozone Layer if Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been Regulated?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Fleming, E. L.; Frith, S. M.; Hurwitz, M. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Krotkov, N. A.; Nash, E. R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the sci entific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depl eting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory m easurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements t hat largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fu lly-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an ann ual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation 1.7 % of the globa lly-average column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed b y 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observ ed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower strat osphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near ze ro by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as curren tly observed in the Antarctic ozone hole). The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increa ses, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  6. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  7. Isolation of phytosterols and antihyperlipidemic activity of Lagenaria siceraria.

    PubMed

    Kalsait, Ravi P; Khedekar, Pramod B; Saoji, Ashok N; Bhusari, Kishor P

    2011-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl in the Cucurbitaceae family is a large, pubescent, climbing, or trailing herb cultivated throughout India and the tropical regions of the world. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract obtained from the fruits of the plant L. siceraria showed a positive Liebermann-Burchard test for sterols. The white sterol crystals or phytosterols from the methanol extract were isolated for the first time and identified as a mixture of four sterols, including fucosterol (1), racemosol (2), stigmasterol (3), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,4β-diol (4). These compounds were identified by spectroscopic evidence including FTIR, (1)H-NMR, MS, and GC. The white sterol crystals, which are the mixture of four sterols, were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Wistar rats. The blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus and serum was separated and analyzed for lipid profiles. These sterol crystals (30 mg/kg) showed significant reductions in lipid profiles which included cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL. In addition, a significant increase in HDL cholesterol observed, which is a good cholesterol that protects hearts from coronary artery diseases. These sterol crystals or phytosterols can be used as an antihyperlipidemic agent to treat the hyperlipidemic.

  8. Recalibration of the Viyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.; Carr, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) antenna and receiver system provides an indication of the sense of elliptical or circular polarization of radiation that is not correct for all directions of incidence. The true sense could be determined for all directions if accurate calibration data were available. It was not feasible to make the calibration before the Voyagers were launched. Lecacheux & Ortega-Molina (1987), however, were able to derive such calibration data from planetary radio observations made in flight. They expressed their results in terms of the tilt of a plane (the E-plane) that divides the incident ray directions for which the indicated polarization sense is correct from those directions for which the indicated sense is reversed. We demonstrate that there are certain directions for which this calibration is itself in error, and that the surface dividing the two sets of incident rays is more complex than a tilted plane. We are able to make a crude approximation to the true surface from the limited data available.

  9. Functional insights into the testis transcriptome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Sánchez, Roland; Bruning, Paulina; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2016-11-02

    The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates.

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of an endornavirus from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) in California, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun-Jung; Tan, Shih-Hua; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The full-length nucleotide sequence and genome organization of an Endornavirus isolated from ornamental hard shell bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) in California (CA), USA tentatively named L. siceraria endornavirus-California (LsEV-CA) was determined. The LsEV-CA genome was 15088 bp in length, with a G + C content of 36.55 %. The lengths of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions were 111 and 52 bp, respectively. The genome of LsEV-CA contained one large ORF encoding a 576 kDa polyprotein. The predicted protein contains two glycosyltransferase motifs, as well as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and helicase domains. LsEV-CA was detected in healthy-looking field-grown gourd plants, as well as plants expressing yellows symptoms. It was also detected in non-symptomatic greenhouse-grown gourd seedlings grown from seed obtained from the same field sites. These preliminary data indicate that LsEV-CA is likely not associated with the gourd-yellows syndrome observed in the field.

  11. What Roles Can Scientists Play in Public Discourse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    What is a useful and proper role for scientists in the public arena? How can we best discriminate where the boundary lies between expert knowledge and values or political opinion, and how can we properly honor that line? What can we expect in the way of reception for our interventions, and how can we increase their efficacy? Involvement in public policy debates is a common and accepted role for scientists in many disciplines. In the sciences related to public health, it is taken for granted that experts will talk about the implications of their research for public policy, whether in regard to smoking, diet, or disease spread. There is also a remarkable track record of geoscientists taking a lead role in the public arena and actually affecting public policy—F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina collaborated on ozone depletion research at the Department of Chemistry at University of California, Irvine and then went on to make outstanding public contributions, as have James Hansen (at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies); Robert Watson (first at NASA, then at the University of East Anglia); and, of course, the late Stephen Schneider (first at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, then Stanford) on climate. Some “public” geoscientists have restricted their activities to interpreting science for the wider public, while others have endorsed specific policy initiatives (see Figure 1). I firmly believe that the quality of public discourse and the information reaching policy makers were better for their interventions.

  12. Functional insights into the testis transcriptome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Sánchez, Roland; Bruning, Paulina; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates. PMID:27805042

  13. Changes in the nesting populations of colonial waterbirds in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, 1974-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, K.M.; Tims, J.L.; Erwin, R.M.; Richmond, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (JBWR) represents the largest protected area for over 300 species of migratory and resident birds on Long Island (LI), New York, and occupies a key position along the Atlantic flyway. We identified changes in nesting populations for 18 species of colonial waterbirds in JBWR and on LI, during 1974 - 1998, to provide a basis for future wildlife management decisions in JBWR and also at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport. None of the populations was stable over the past 25 years in JBWR or on LI. Some populations in JBWR increased (Laughing Gull L. atricilla Linnaeus, Great Black-backed Gull L. marinus Linnaeus, Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Nuttall) while others decreased (Herring Gull Larus argentatus Coues, Snowy Egret Egretta thula Molina), but only Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus) have disappeared from the refuge. Common Tern (S. hitundo Linnaeus), Least Tern (S. antillarum Lesson), Roseate Tern (S. dougallii Montagu), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger Linnaeus), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax Linnaeus) and Great Egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus) populations all increased on LI over the sampling period although the Common Tern colonies in JBWR have been declining since 1986. The continued protection of the colony sites, particularly saltmarsh islands, in JBWR will be important to the conservation efforts of many colonial waterbird populations on Long Island. The JBWR colonies may serve as a source of emigrants to other Long Island colonies, and in some cases, act as a 'sink' for birds immigrating from New Jersey and elsewhere.

  14. Chilean clinic serves more than medical needs.

    PubMed

    Blaney, C L

    1993-10-01

    The experience of staff in treating adolescent pregnancy and the formidable problems (medical, educational, nutritional, and emotional) these girls face are discussed. The implementing agency was the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva del Adolescente (CEMERA) in Santiago, Chile. One 15-year old girl is reported to have felt comfortable at CEMERA because of friendships with other similarly pregnant girls. The director, Dr. Ramiro Molina, established CEMERA with a comprehensive approach to adolescent reproductive health; there was also sex education, medical student training, and research. The program began in 1981 as a research project and included a center of 1990. Presently, CEMERA treats about 1800 low-income adolescents/year, of whom 80% are female. The problem of teenage sexuality and pregnancy was identified in a 1988 survey, which revealed that 70% of first births in the 15-24 year old age group were out of wedlock, and 20% or fewer used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. The program currently not only provides care for adolescents, but also gives workshops and assistance to partners and parents, and contraceptive counseling to young men and women. Most services are free. There has been an increase in clinics addressing adolescent reproductive health from 2 in 1981 to more than 95 presently; most of the health personnel in the current settings have been trained by CEMERA CEMERA is located in converted row houses in central Santiago, and provides an informal setting less threatening to adolescents. The traditional white medical clothes are not used very often.

  15. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  16. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  17. Analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 sequences in Ensis razor shells: suitability as molecular markers at the population and species levels, and evolution of these ribosomal DNA spacers.

    PubMed

    Vierna, Joaquín; Martínez-Lage, Andrés; González-Tizón, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) sequences were analysed in Ensis razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae). We aimed to (1) test ITS1 and ITS2 as molecular markers at the population level in the successful alien E. directus (Conrad, 1843); (2) test these spacers at the species level in E. directus and three other Ensis species, E. siliqua (L., 1758), E. macha (Molina, 1782), and E. magnus (Schumacher, 1817); and (3) analyse the evolutionary processes that may be shaping Ensis ITS1 and ITS2 extant variation. In E. directus, despite the intragenomic divergence detected, ITS1 and ITS2 were informative in differentiating the geographic areas considered (Denmark and Canada) by means of both the insertion-deletion polymorphism and the nucleotide polymorphism. In this species, the 5.8S ribosomal gene (5.8S) showed scarce polymorphism. At the species level, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses revealed that ITS1 and ITS2 may be suitable to reconstruct Ensis phylogenetic relationships. Finally, the evolutionary models that best fit the long-term evolution of Ensis ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 are discussed. A mixed process of concerted evolution, birth-and-death evolution, and selection is chosen as an option that may reconcile the long-term evolution of Ensis ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 5S ribosomal DNA.

  18. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  19. Clustering Information of Non-Sampled Area in Small Area Estimation of Poverty Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, V. Y.; Kurnia, A.; Sadik, K.

    2017-03-01

    Empirical Bayes (EB) is one of indirect estimates methods which used to estimate parameters in small area. Molina and Rao has been used this method for estimates nonlinear small area parameter based on a nested error model. Problems occur when this method is used to estimate parameter of non-sampled area which is solely based on synthetic model which ignore the area effects. This paper proposed an approach to clustering area effects of auxiliary variable by assuming that there are similarities among particular area. A simulation study was presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. All estimations were evaluated based on the relative bias and relative root mean squares error. The result of simulation showed that proposed approach can improve the ability of model to estimate non-sampled area. The proposed model was applied to estimate poverty indicators at sub-districts level in regency and city of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. The result of case study, relative root mean squares error prediction of empirical Bayes with information cluster is smaller than synthetic model.

  20. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  1. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  2. Improving Software Performance for Peptide Electron Transfer Dissociation Data Analysis by Implementation of Charge State- and Sequence-Dependent Scoring*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Peter R.; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Chalkley, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation for analysis of peptides eluting in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry experiments is increasingly common and can allow identification of many peptides and proteins in complex mixtures. Peptide identification is performed through the use of search engines that attempt to match spectra to peptides from proteins in a database. However, software for the analysis of ETD fragmentation data is currently less developed than equivalent algorithms for the analysis of the more ubiquitous collision-induced dissociation fragmentation spectra. In this study, a new scoring system was developed for analysis of peptide ETD fragmentation data that varies the ion type weighting depending on the precursor ion charge state and peptide sequence. This new scoring regime was applied to the analysis of data from previously published results where four search engines (Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), Spectrum Mill, and X!Tandem) were compared (Kandasamy, K., Pandey, A., and Molina, H. (2009) Evaluation of several MS/MS search algorithms for analysis of spectra derived from electron transfer dissociation experiments. Anal. Chem. 81, 7170–7180). Protein Prospector identified 80% more spectra at a 1% false discovery rate than the most successful alternative searching engine in this previous publication. These results suggest that other search engines would benefit from the application of similar rules. PMID:20513802

  3. Model Selection in the Analysis of Photoproduction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landay, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Scattering experiments provide one of the most powerful and useful tools for probing matter to better understand its fundamental properties governed by the strong interaction. As the spectroscopy of the excited states of nucleons enters a new era of precision ushered in by improved experiments at Jefferson Lab and other facilities around the world, traditional partial-wave analysis methods must be adjusted accordingly. In this poster, we present a rigorous set of statistical tools and techniques that we implemented; most notably, the LASSO method, which serves for the selection of the simplest model, allowing us to avoid over fitting. In the case of establishing the spectrum of exited baryons, it avoids overpopulation of the spectrum and thus the occurrence of false-positives. This is a prerequisite to reliably compare theories like lattice QCD or quark models to experiments. Here, we demonstrate the principle by simultaneously fitting three observables in neutral pion photo-production, such as the differential cross section, beam asymmetry and target polarization across thousands of data points. Other authors include Michael Doring, Bin Hu, and Raquel Molina.

  4. [Claudio Costa Casaretto M.D. (1914-1999) in Revista Medica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Goic, A

    1999-10-01

    The work of Dr. Claudio Costa Casaretto covers a broad field in the history of Medicine in Chile. He contributed with the historical aspects in the Centennial issue of Revista Médica de Chile in July, 1972. He published 85 papers in this journal in a lapse of 20 years. In his works, he investigated about medical personalities with the highest relevance for Chilean medicine such as Dr. William Blest, graduated in Edinburgh and director of the first Medicine Course in Chile in 1833, the French obstetrician Dr. Lorenzo Sazie, first Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile in 1843 and Dr. Eloisa Díaz, first physician graduated in Chile and South America in 1887. He published the translation from Latin of Juan Ignacio Molina's verses "Elegies to smallpox", Chilean writer and erudite of the XVIII century. He also undertook the origins of Universidad de San Felipe (1737), Universidad de Chile (1842) and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (1889) and the main educational events occurred in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, during the past century. He also published about the public health situation and sanitary care during the XIX century, about the conflict between private and public teaching and other political events of the past century. The work of Dr. Costa as a whole, is a real history textbook of Chilean Medicine. Dr. Costa and Dr. Enrique Laval are the most important Chilean medical historians of the XX century.

  5. Inbreeding and true seed in tetrasomic potato. III. Early selection for seedling vigor in open-pollinated populations.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaie, A; Ortiz, R

    2002-01-01

    Tuber yield in open-pollinated (OP) offspring of potato cultivars appears to be correlated with the proportion of hybrids within each population. OP true potato seed (TPS) from ten selected clones was tested in an experiment at two Peruvian locations, San Ramón (mid-altitude warm tropics) and Huancayo (highland cool tropics), to investigate the early selection effect on OP populations. Another experiment in La Molina (dry coast) was included to confirm the results from these other two locations. The results clearly showed that plant survival, tuber yield and berry number can be increased by a strong early selection. Likewise, the results suggested that the most-promising OP offspring for TPS production could be derived from tetraploid clones with a high rate of outcrossing. This experiment demonstrates that high tuber yield may be obtained in OP TPS cultivars with little effort, using early selection for seedling vigor in the nursery. Genetic interpretation of this response to early selection indicates that both the intensity of selection and non-additive genetic variation for tuber yield account for these observed gains.

  6. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration.

  7. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-04

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases.

  8. Ectoparasites of the black-chinned siskin Spinus barbatus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Castillo, Danny; Cicchino, Armando; Mironov, Sergey; Moreno, Lucila; Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Barrientos, Carlos; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a bird with a broad and extensive distribution in Chile, the black-chinned siskin, Spinus barbatus Molina, 1782 is not well studied in relation to its parasites. This paper aims to describe the ectoparasite fauna of S. barbatus in central and southern Chile. A total of 125 individuals caught with mist nets were examined alive; a total of 22 parasites were found dead and were exposed to parasit autopsy. The extracted parasites were preserved in 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identification. Ectoparasites were found in 56 black-chinned siskins (38%); 48 of them (33%) had 870 mites - 680 feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea) were identified as Proctophyllodes spini, 167 as Knemidokoptes jamaicensis, 19 as Strelkoviacarus critesi, and one as Analges passerinus. Moreover, three mites were chiggers belonging to the tribe Schoengastiini (Prostigmata: Trombiculidae). In 21 birds (14%), 54 lice were found, 21 of which were identified as Philopterus roehreri, 18 as Myrsidea serini, and 15 as Ricinus carolynae. Endoparasites were not found in the necropsied individuals. All of the parasites that were found represent new records for Chile, and they also serve as new records of host-parasite associations for S. barbatus.

  9. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Rakesh P.; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K.; Sheth, Navin R.

    2010-01-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated. PMID:21731373

  10. F. Sherwood “Sherry” Rowland (1927-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.

    2012-10-01

    Frank Sherwood Rowland, known to his friends and colleagues as Sherry, died at his home in Corona del Mar, Calif., on 10 March 2012. He was 84. A Nobel Prize-winning atmospheric chemist, Sherry codiscovered the role of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in stratospheric ozone depletion, researched the accumulation of greenhouse gases on a planetary scale, and tirelessly communicated the global consequences of human activity to policy makers and the public. Sherry had a calm, gentle demeanor and was as respected for his integrity and humility as for his groundbreaking scientific achievements. Sherry was a long-time member and Fellow (1980) of AGU and received the AGU Roger Revelle Medal in 1994 for his substantial contributions to the awareness of global change. The following year, he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Mario Molina and Paul Crutzen for their pioneering contributions to atmospheric chemistry, particularly the formation and decomposition of stratospheric ozone. In its citation, the Nobel Committee commended them for contributing to "our salvation from a global environmental problem that could have catastrophic consequences."

  11. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    PubMed

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae.

  12. Frequency distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in an ecosystem of the "Red Forest" area in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Makliuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Chizhevsky, Igor; Caldwell, Eric F; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the "Red Forest" site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m(2) was characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants), and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values was close to a logarithmically-normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or "hot spots," including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometric mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometric means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  13. Hypopi (Acari:Hypoderatidae) from owls (Aves:Strigiformes:Strigidae).

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Bergan, J F

    1996-09-01

    Hypopi (deutonymphs) of the family Hypoderatidae were found in a barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli), and a burrowing owl, Speotyto cunicularia (Molina), from Texas. A redescription is provided for mature specimens of the hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) tyto Fain from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region in the barn owl. The hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) speotyto n. sp. is described from specimens in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region and in the adipose tissues of the intermuscular fasciae of the ankle in the burrowing owl. T. (T.) speotyto appears most similar in size and chaetotaxy to T. (T.) glaucidii Cerný described from the Cuban pygmy owl, Glaucidium siju (d'Orbigny), in Cuba, but differs in the presence of a spine on tibia IV, which also occurs in T. (T.) tyto. Both of the former species have the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a simple V and lack a sternum. They differ from T. (T.) tyto which has the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a Y and there is a well developed sternum. Based on the above 3 described hypopi, the hypoderatids of owls represent an assemblage of small closely related, but easily differentiated, species. The occurrence of a few specimens of Neottialges evansi Fain in the barn owl and Hypodectes (Hypodectoides) propus (Nitzsch) in the burrowing owl probably represent examples of host capture by hypopi that normally occur in cormorants and pigeons, herons or egrets, respectively.

  14. Virtual special issue on IODP Expedition 339: The Mediterranean outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    IODP Expedition 339 had two inter-related objectives to recover continuous sedimentary sequences for: (i) studying the Contourite Depositional System formed by the MOW; and (ii) reconstructing North Atlantic climate variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. This Elsevier Virtual Special Issue (VSI) ;Mediterranean Outflow; is comprised of two volumes that are roughly divided along these lines with Marine Geology devoted to (i) and Global and Planetary Change to (ii), although some papers overlap the two themes. The Marine Geology volume contains 9 contributions addressing specific aspects of IODP Expedition 339 related to contourite deposits including sedimentology, seismic interpretation, stratigraphy, physical properties, downhole logging and ichnofacies (Hernández-Molina et al., 2015; Lofi et al., 2015; Ducassou et al., 2015; Alonso et al., 2015; Takashimizu et al., 2016; Nishida, 2015; Dorador and Rodríguez-Tovar, 2015a, 2015b; Kaboth et al., 2015). The Global and Planetary Change volume consists of 18 papers described below, highlighting paleoclimatic results from sites drilled on the SW Iberian Margin and in the Gulf of Cadiz. The two volumes provide a sample of emerging results of Expedition 339 and foretell of the promising research yet to come.

  15. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  16. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g.

  17. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an explicit contingency between nose-poking behavior and intraoral delivery of either water or 3.75% v/v ethanol (paired groups). Yoked controls (pups receiving either reinforcer independently of their behavior) were also included. Paired subjects reinforced with ethanol exhibited rapid and robust operant conditioning leading to blood ethanol concentrations in the 25–48 mg% range. In Experiment 2, a higher ethanol concentration (7.5% v/v) provided significant reinforcement. During adolescence, animals originally reinforced with 3.75% v/v ethanol exhibited greater ingestion of ethanol than control animals without prior ethanol reinforcement. These results indicate that, without extensive initiation to ethanol, infant rats rapidly learn to gain access to ethanol and that this experience has a significant impact upon later ethanol intake patterns. PMID:18571224

  18. Sylvatic echinococcosis in Argentina. I. On the morphology and biology of strobilar Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) from domestic and sylvatic animal hosts.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; Cruz-Reyes, A; Colli, C; Lord, R D

    1975-09-01

    Dogs were fed larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) recovered from sheep in Argentina. The morphological characteristics of strobilae recovered from dogs at 28, 60 and 76 days postexposure were compared with those of Echinococcus spp. recovered from naturally infected foxes, Dusicyon clupaeus (Molina) and D. griseus (Gray), and those of worms reared in dogs from larvae in European hares, Lepus europaeus (L.). Only slight differences were observed in characters of taxonomic importance and it was concluded that all cestodes represented a single species, E. granulosus. The results are discussed as they bear on the speciation controversy and the potential epidemiology importance of Dusicyon spp. as hosts of E. granulosus. It was suggested that E. patagonicus Szidat, 1960 previously described from D. culpaeus is conspecific with E. granulosus. E. cepanzoi Szidat, 1971 is probably also a synonym of E. granulosus and the subspecies E. g. dusicyontis Blood and Lelijveld, 1969, is rejected on the grounds that there is no evidence for host specificity and ecological or other segregation from the nominate form. Foxes appear to become infected from scavenging on dead sheep in localities where E. granulosus is endemic in domestic animals. There is still no evidence that E. granulosus is maintained in Argentina in sylvatic cycles.

  19. Stopping power of GaAs for swift protons: Dielectric function and optical-data model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, N.; Kyriakou, I.; Emfietzoglou, D.; Pathak, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    The energy-loss-function (ELF) of GaAs determined from optical data has been used to calculate the electronic stopping power (SP) of swift protons in the Born approximation. Along the lines of the Ritchie-Howie scheme, a sum of Drude-type ELFs with finite damping was used to obtain an analytic representation of the experimental data at the optical limit of zero momentum transfer. Consistency was ensured by satisfying both the KK- and f-sum-rule to better than 1%. The mean excitation energy ( I-value) of GaAs was calculated at 349 eV which is about 3% higher than the recent estimate of Heredia-Avalos and co-workers [S. Heredia-Avalos, J.C. Moreno-Marin, I. Abril, R. Garcia-Molina, Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 230 (2005) 118]. A simple quadratic dispersion relation used to extend the ELF to arbitrary momentum transfers was found adequate for SP calculations above ˜300 keV where our results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and other sources in the literature. The limitation of the present scheme at lower proton energies is discussed.

  20. Recalibration of the Viyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.; Carr, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) antenna and receiver system provides an indication of the sense of elliptical or circular polarization of radiation that is not correct for all directions of incidence. The true sense could be determined for all directions if accurate calibration data were available. It was not feasible to make the calibration before the Voyagers were launched. Lecacheux & Ortega-Molina (1987), however, were able to derive such calibration data from planetary radio observations made in flight. They expressed their results in terms of the tilt of a plane (the E-plane) that divides the incident ray directions for which the indicated polarization sense is correct from those directions for which the indicated sense is reversed. We demonstrate that there are certain directions for which this calibration is itself in error, and that the surface dividing the two sets of incident rays is more complex than a tilted plane. We are able to make a crude approximation to the true surface from the limited data available.

  1. Seismic and infrasound monitoring at Cotopaxi volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Yepes, H.; Palacios, P.; Troncoso, L.; Mothes, P.; Kumagai, H.

    2012-04-01

    Cotopaxi is an active ice-capped volcano (5967m) located 60 km SE from Quito and is one of the largest and more hazardous volcanoes in the Northern Andes. Monitoring of Cotopaxi, using seismic and infrasound techniques has improving significantly since 1976, when three short-period stations were deployed temporarily in response to an increase of fumarolic activity. Later in May 1977, a short-period vertical seismometer was installed on the NW flank at 7 km from the crater. Since 1986 a short-period seismic station is working at the northern flank of Cotopaxi and transmitting analog data to the Instituto Geofisico. In 1993 a network of 4 short-period seismic stations were installed on all flanks of the volcano. Between March 1996 and June 1997 a temporal network of 16 stations were deployed for several months in order to study local seismicity and internal structure (Metaxian et al., 1999). Since 2006, a network of five broad band stations (0.02-60 s) and low-frequency infrasound sensors (0.01-10 s) were installed through a JICA Cooperation Project (Kumagai et al., 2007). Data is transmitted to the Instituto Geofisico via a digital radio system. Through this network, LP and VLP events have been recorded and analyzed (Molina et al., 2008). VLP events were located beneath the north and north-eastern flank using waveform inversion and amplitude distribution methods (Kumagai et al., 2010).

  2. Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical origin, cultivar and ripening stage.

    PubMed

    Romero, Nalda; Saavedra, Jorge; Tapia, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Betsabet; Aparicio, Ramón

    2016-01-30

    This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Varieties from the Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (P < 0.05) between volatile compounds and climate indicated that the compounds produced via the lipoxygenase cascade were affected by the maximum temperature and, to a lesser extent, by evapo-transpiration and irrigation. The selection of different individual phenolic and volatile compounds independently allowed the significant differentiation of EVOOs, principally by geographical origin, crop season, fruit ripeness stage and, in a few cases, by cultivar. Soil and climate of the Chilean regions have much more influence than cultivars on the concentration of sensory quality compounds. Difference in latitude between orchards increases the importance of the geographical origin on the virgin olive oil chemical composition while full irrigation decreases the impact of the cultivar. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The phylogenetic position of Ixodes stilesi Neumann, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae): morphological and preliminary molecular evidences from 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, Alberto A; Venzal, José M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Nava, Santiago; Hinojosa, Ana; Mangold, Atilio J

    2006-09-01

    The female of Ixodes stilesi Neumann, 1911 (Acari Ixodidae) is redescribed and the male and nymph are described from specimens collected from Pudu puda (Molina) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Chile. Both sexes of I. stilesi have characteristics of the subgenera Ixodes Latreille, 1795 and Ixodiopsis Filippova, 1957. The females of I. stilesi are peculiar in having the combination of the sinuous scutum outline, rounded porose areas with distinct borders separated by the width of one area, slender and long palpi, and two subequal spurs on coxa I. The male is unique in having a combination of a posteriorly wrinkled marginal folder, a basis capituli longer than wide, a non-crenulate hypostome toothed portion, two spurs on coxa II to IV and the presence of a pseudoscutum. The nymph of I. stilesi has blunt anterior and posterior processes on palpal article I (characteristics of the subgenus Ixodiopsis and some Pholeoixodes Schulze, 1942) and a wing-shaped basis capituli with a prominent triangular cornua. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S mitochondrial rDNA sequences of 12 Neotropical and two Australian Ixodes species, plus three argasids, were carried out to clarify the position of I. stilesi. The results of phylogenetic analyses and morphological characters indicate a close relationships between I. stilesi and two other Neotropical species of uncertain subgeneric status, I. neuquenensis Ringuelet, 1947 and I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford & Corwin, 1976.

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    PubMed

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana.

  5. Computing biological functions using BioΨ, a formal description of biological processes based on elementary bricks of actions

    PubMed Central

    Pérès, Sabine; Felicori, Liza; Rialle, Stéphanie; Jobard, Elodie; Molina, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: In the available databases, biological processes are described from molecular and cellular points of view, but these descriptions are represented with text annotations that make it difficult to handle them for computation. Consequently, there is an obvious need for formal descriptions of biological processes. Results: We present a formalism that uses the BioΨ concepts to model biological processes from molecular details to networks. This computational approach, based on elementary bricks of actions, allows us to calculate on biological functions (e.g. process comparison, mapping structure–function relationships, etc.). We illustrate its application with two examples: the functional comparison of proteases and the functional description of the glycolysis network. This computational approach is compatible with detailed biological knowledge and can be applied to different kinds of systems of simulation. Availability: www.sysdiag.cnrs.fr/publications/supplementary-materials/BioPsi_Manager/ Contact: sabine.peres@sysdiag.cnrs.fr; franck.molina@sysdiag.cnrs.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20448138

  6. [The concept of identity in relation to motherhood in the discourse of teenagers who attend a pregnancy from a linguistic and psychoanalytical perspective].

    PubMed

    Pardo, María L

    2013-01-01

    My aim in this paper is to briefly discuss the notion of identity and how can unify the Psychoanalytical concept with the discursive, in order to carry out multidisciplinary research on this topic. This work is based on life stories collected in the Hospital Larcade, from 2008 to 2011, from teenagers who attend a pregnancy. Through the linguistic analysis of the guarantees, following the model of Toulmin (17), as it has been redefined by Pardo (14) and Molina (12), I intend to give an account of the discursive and psychological bases of what will then form an identity for these young women on maternity. They live in extreme poverty in the Buenos Aires suburbs and are combined with a large dose of family violence that links their identities as mothers to the image (or identities of the other) who have over their own mothers, parents, couples in these contexts of violence. These data are also confronted with domestic violence cases that appear in the media and how they are dealt with discursively at these. Thus realizes the contradictions imposed the cultural identity of a group (the viewers or readers of means, which are a large part of society) against the experience of violence of these mothers. This research has as theoretical framework the Critical Discourse Analysis and the methodology is qualitative.

  7. Prosocial/hostile roles and emotion comprehension in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Belacchi, Carmen; Farina, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    Bullying occurs at approximately the same rate in kindergarten as in elementary school, but few studies inquired into preschool years [Alsaker and Nägele, 2008; Stassen Berger, 2007]. This study aimed at: (1) verifying the presence in preschoolers of two additional participant roles (Consoler and Mediator), besides the six traditional roles detected by Salmivalli et al. [1996], grouped in four latent macroroles, by means of teacher report version of the Eight Participant Roles Questionnaire (PRQ) [Belacchi, 2008]; (2) linking prosocial and hostile behaviors to age and gender; and (3) investigating the relationship between roles and emotion understanding. Two hundred and nineteen children (54% boys; aged 3-6 years: mean age 4;10) were administered the Italian version of the Test of Emotion Comprehension [Albanese and Molina, 2008]; 20 teachers (2 for each class) filled in the questionnaire, attributing frequency scores on 24 items (3 for each role) to each pupil. A confirmatory analysis supported the fit of the hetero-report version of the Eight PRQ, revealing four macroroles: Hostile Roles (Bully, Reinforcer and Assistant), Prosocial Roles (Defender, Consoler, and Mediator), Victim, and Outsider. Satisfactory interteachers agreement not only confirms the macroroles hypothized, but also their expected distribution for gender and age. Moreover, the Prosocial roles presented a significant positive correlation with all subdimensions of emotion comprehension (External, Mental, and Reflective). The Victim and Outsider roles negatively correlated only with the External subdimension. The implications of these results for prevention and intervention purposes are discussed.

  8. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches including genetic, developmental, pharmacological, behavioral, and psychophysical studies. The presentations were as follows: (1) Introduction and overview of the chemical senses (Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov); (2) Taste reactivity as a measure of alcohol palatability and its relation to alcohol consumption in rats (Stephen W. Kiefer); (3) Early learning about the sensory properties of alcohol in laboratory animals (Juan Carlos Molina); (4) Early learning about the sensory properties of alcohol in humans (Julie A. Mennella); (5) Genetic dissection of the ethanol-sweet taste relationship in mice (Alexander A. Bachmanov and Michael Tordoff); and (6) Human genetic variation in taste: connections with alcohol sensation and intake (Valerie B. Duffy and Linda M. Bartoshuk). The symposium concluded with a general discussion. PMID:12605071

  9. Will droplet digital PCR become the test of choice for detecting and quantifying ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection? Maybe not.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julius

    2013-11-01

    Evaluation of: Roberts CH, Last A, Molina-Gonzalez S et al. Development and evaluation of a next-generation digital PCR diagnostic assay for ocular chlamydia trachomatis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(7), 2195-2203 (2013). Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in developing countries. Currently, there is no program to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health problem. We need better diagnostic tests for research and to assess progress in control programs. Roberts et al. adapted droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids, to detect and quantify Chlamydia trachomatis infections. They compared the results with ddPCR on conjunctival swab specimens collected in trachoma-endemic area to results using Roche's Amplicor® C. trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) PCR and found that ddPCR sensitivity was 73.3%. The authors concluded that 'ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections'. This reviewer disagrees, feeling that if the stated sensitivity is accurate, it is too low, and suggests there may be good reasons to adapt commercially available tests for this purpose.

  10. Ploidy Levels among Species in the ‘Oxalis tuberosa Alliance’ as Inferred by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    EMSHWILLER, EVE

    2002-01-01

    The ‘Oxalis tuberosa alliance’ is a group of Andean Oxalis species allied to the Andean tuber crop O. tuberosa Molina (Oxalidaceae), commonly known as ‘oca’. As part of a larger project studying the origins of polyploidy and domestication of cultivated oca, flow cytometry was used to survey DNA ploidy levels among Bolivian and Peruvian accessions of alliance members. In addition, this study provided a first assessment of C‐values in the alliance by estimating nuclear DNA contents of these accessions using chicken erythrocytes as internal standard. Ten Bolivian accessions of cultivated O. tuberosa were confirmed to be octoploid, with a mean nuclear DNA content of approx. 3·6 pg/2C. Two Peruvian wild Oxalis species, O. phaeotricha and O. picchensis, were inferred to be tetraploid (both with approx. 1·67 pg/2C), the latter being one of the putative progenitors of O. tuberosa identified by chloroplast‐expressed glutamine synthetase data in prior work. The remaining accessions (from 78 populations provisionally identified as 35 species) were DNA diploid, with nuclear DNA contents varying from 0·79 to 1·34 pg/2C. PMID:12102530

  11. Soil moisture under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role on the recently abandoned agriculture land where determine the recovery and the erosion rates (Cerdà, 1995), on the soil water repellency degree (Bodí et al., 2011) and on the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999), the plant development (García Fayos et al., 2000) and the seasonality of the geomorphological processes (Cerdà, 2002). Moreover, Soil moisture is a key factor on the semiarid land (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013), on the productivity of the land (Qadir et al., 2013) and soils treated with amendments (Johnston et al., 2013) and on soil reclamation on drained saline-sodic soils (Ghafoor et al., 2012). In previous study (Azorin-Molina et al., 2013) we investigated the intraannual evolution of soil moisture in soils under different land managements in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain, and concluded that soil moisture recharges are much controlled by few heavy precipitation events; 23 recharge episodes during 2012. Most of the soil moisture recharge events occurred during the autumn season under Back-Door cold front situations. Additionally, sea breeze front episodes brought isolated precipitation and moisture to mountainous areas within summer (Azorin-Molina et al., 2009). We also evidenced that the intraanual evolution of soil moisture changes are positively and significatively correlated (at p<0.01) with the amount of measured precipitation. In this study we analyze the role of other crucial atmospheric parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, global solar radiation, and wind speed and wind direction) in the intraanual evolution of soil moisture; focussing our analyses on the soil moisture discharge episodes. Here we present 1-year of soil moisture measurements at two experimental sites in the Valencia region, one representing rainfed orchard typical from the Mediterranean mountains (El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera), and a second site corresponding to an irrigated orange crop (Alcoleja). Key Words: Soil Moisture Discharges

  12. A network analysis of plant-pollinator interactions in temperate rain forests of Chiloé Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Albornoz, Abraham A; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Arim, Matías; Armesto, Juan J; Marquet, Pablo A

    2009-07-01

    This study characterizes the structure of a plant-pollinator network in a temperate rain forest of Chiloé Island, southern Chile, where woody species are strongly dependent on biotic pollinators, and analyzes its robustness to the loss of participating species. Degree distribution, nestedness, and expected species persistence were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the roles of predefined subsets of plants (classified by life forms) and pollinators (grouped by taxonomic orders) in the network's structure and dynamics. For this, we simulated the complete removal of each plant and pollinator subset and analyzed the resultant connectivity patterns, as well as the expected long-term species losses by running a stochastic model. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of the network structure to the loss of single species in order to identify potential targets for conservation. Our results show that the plant-pollinator network of this Chilean temperate rain forest exhibits a nested structure of interactions, with a degree distribution best described by a power law model. Model simulations revealed the importance of trees and hymenopterans as pivotal groups that maintain the core structure of the pollination network and guarantee overall species persistence. The hymenopterans Bombus dahlbomii and Diphaglossa gayi, the shrubs Tepualia stipularis and Ugni molinae, the vines Mitraria coccinea and Asteranthera ovata, and the entire set of tree species exerted a disproportionately large influence on the preservation of network structure and should be considered as focal species for conservation programs given current threats from selective logging and habitat loss.

  13. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  14. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  15. Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    have been conducted with pyrite and quantified by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results indicate that catalysis induced by the mineral surface under hydrothermal conditions does not stop with the production of HCN, but the reaction continues leading to more complex nitriles. The experiments also reveal a clear trend between time and the production of more complex molecules, which are measurable by the chromatographic method. Brandes, J.A., Boctor, N.Z., Cody, G.D., Cooper, B. A., Hazen, R. M. and Yoder Jr, H.S. (1998). Abiotic nitrogen reduction on the early Earth. Nature 395, 365-367. Kasting J.F. (1993) Earth's early atmosphere. Science 259, 920-926. Mather, T.A., Pyle, D.M., and Allen, A.G. (2004) Volcanic source of fixed nitrogen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geology 32, 905-908. Navarro-Gonźlez, R., Molina, M.J. and. Molina, L.T. (1998) Nitrogen fixation by volcanic a lightning in the early Earth. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3123-3126. Navarro-Gonźlez, R., McKay, C.P. and Nna Mvondo, D. ( 2001) A possible nitrogen crisis for a Archean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning. Nature 412, 61-64. Stribling, R., and Miller, S.L. (1987) Energy yields for the hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde synthesis: the HCN and amino acid concentrations in the primitive ocean. Origins Life 17, 261-273.

  16. Interaction of on-site and near real time measured turbidity and enzyme activity in stream water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    On-site and on-line systems that provide an integrated surveillance of physicochemical and microbiological parameters gain significance in water quality monitoring. Particular relating to diffuse pollution from agricultural areas and use-orientated protection of waters the detection of faecal pollution is a fundamental part. For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological faecal pollution of water, the beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter. Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the sensitivity and specificity concerning the faecal indication capacity of GLUC in relation to standard assays (Cabral 2010). Interference effects of physicochemical parameters on the enzymatic activity respectively fluorescence have been discussed (Molina-Munoz et al. 2007; Tryland and Fiksdal 1998, Biswal et al. 2003). Results from a monitoring of a rivulet in an agricultural catchment in Lower Austria (HOAL - Hydrological Open Air Laboratory) are presented here. The HOAL offers technical resources that allow measurements at high temporal and spatial resolution and to apply various hydrological methods in one catchment. Two automated enzymatic measuring devices (Coliguard, mbOnline, Austria) and physicochemical in-stream measurements are used, as well as in-stream spectroscopy (spectrolyser, s::can, Austria). Accuracy of both enzymatic measuring devices is compared through diverse hydrological and seasonal conditions. Reference analyses by cultivation based determination were performed. Data from Coliguard devices is combined with physicochemical and spectroscopy data to gain information about the

  17. Links between extreme UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and cloudiness: An analysis of 30 years of data from Switzerland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Weihs, P.; Vuilleumier, L.; Blumthaler, M.; Holawe, F.; Lindfors, A.; Maeder, J. A.; Simic, S.; Wagner, J. E.; Walker, D.; Ribatet, M.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion in the early 1970s (e.g. Molina and Rowland, 1974; Farman et al., 1985) the interest in stratospheric ozone trends and solar UV-B increased within the scientific community and the general public because of the link between reduced total column ozone and increased UV-radiation doses. Stratospheric ozone (e.g. Koch et al., 2005) and erythemal UV-radiation (e.g. Rieder et al., 2008) in the northern mid-latitudes are characterized by strong temporal variability. Long-term measurements of UV-B radiation are rare and datasets are only available for few locations and most of these measurements do not provide spectral information on the UV part of the spectra. During strong efforts in the reconstruction of erythemal UV, datasets of past UV-radiation doses became available for several measurement sites all over the globe. For Switzerland and Austria reconstructed UV datasets are available for 3 measurement sites (Davos, Sonnblick and Vienna) (Lindfors and Vuilleumier, 2005; Rieder et al., 2008). The world's longest ozone time series dating back to 1926 is available from Arosa, Switzerland, and is discussed in detail by Staehelin et al. (1998a,b). Recently new tools from extreme value theory have been applied to the Arosa time series to describe extreme events in low and high total ozone (Rieder et al., 2009). In our study we address the question of how much of the extremes in UV-radiation can be attributed to extremes in total ozone, high surface albedo and cloudiness. An analysis of the frequency distributions of such extreme events for the last decades is presented to gain a better understanding of the links between extreme erythemal UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and clouds. References: Farman, J. C., Gardiner, B. G., and Shanklin, J. D.: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction, Nature, 315, 207-210, 1985. Koch, G., Wernli, H., Schwierz, C., Staehelin, J., and Peter, T

  18. EBSD analysis of eclogitized rocks form the Marun-Keu complex, Polar Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; Leech, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The transitions from amphibolite, gabbro, and quartzofeldspathic gneiss to eclogite in the high-pressure Marun-Keu complex in the Polar Urals, Russia, make this complex a good candidate for using mineral chemistries and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to study the interplay between metamorphism and deformation and more broadly understand the orogenic evolution of eclogites in high-pressure subduction zone complexes. The Marun-Keu complex results from the deep crustal processes during the Uralian Orogeny formed by collision of the east European platform with Siberian-Kazakhian terranes in the Devonian to Triassic. Eclogite-facies rocks containing garnet, omphacite, and rutile occur in the central and southern part of the complex and the blueschist-facies and low-T eclogitization are found in the north part of the complex. Based on Glodny et al. (2004), Rb/Sr protolith ages for the gabbros are about 500 Ma which is near the crystallization age from U-Pb zircon data and the eclogite-facies metamorphism was occurred about 355 Ma. Field and microscopic observation of the rocks from the Marun-Keu complex show a sharp contact between the host rocks (gabbro and amphibolite) and the eclogite-facies rocks. This study will mainly focus on the chemistry and different microstructures of the minerals in the samples PU-62, J12, J26 and PU-34 which are showing the transition of the host rocks to the eclogite. Samples PU-62 and J-26 including garnets, omphacite and quartz, show the complete transformation from the gabbro to eclogite and the corona textures and replaced minerals in these two samples indicate incomplete reactions (Molina et al., 2002). Samples J12 and PU-34 - boudins in a quartz/white mica vein- are showing the transitions between the amphibolites and eclogites. There is a sharp contact between the amphibolite core and the eclogite rim in these samples. The major minerals in the eclogite rim are omphacite, garnet, phengite and quartz and the transitional part

  19. The Offlap Break Position Vs Sea Level: A Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropeano, M.; Pieri, P.; Pomar, L.; Sabato, L.

    Sedimentary lithosomes with subhorizontal topsets, basinward prograding foresets and subhorizontal bottomsets are common in the geologic record, and most of them display similar bedding architectures and/or seismic reflection patterns (i.e. Gylbert- type deltas and shelf wedges). Nevertheless, in shallow marine settings these bodies may form in distinct sedimentary environments and they result from different sed- imentary processes. The offlap break (topset edge) occurs in relation to the posi- tion of baselevel and two main groups of lithosomes can be differentiated with re- spect to the position of the offlap break within the shelf profile. The baselevel of the first group is the sea level (or lake level); the topsets are mainly composed by continental- or very-shallow-water sedimentary facies and the offlap break practi- cally corresponds to the shoreline. Exemples of these lithosomes are high-constructive deltas (river-dominated deltas) and prograding beaches. For the second group, base- level corresponds to the base of wave/tide traction, and their topsets are mostly composed by shoreface/nearshore deposits. Examples of these lithosomes are high- destructive deltas (wave/tide-dominated deltas) and infralittoral prograding wedges (i.e Hernandez-Molina et al., 2000). The offlap break corresponds to the shelf edge (shoreface edge), which is located at the transition between nearshore and offshore set- tings, where a terrace prodelta- or transition-slope may develop (Pomar &Tropeano, 2001). Two main problems derive from these alternative interpretations of shallow- marine seaward prograding lithosomes: 1) both in ancient sedimentary shallow-marine successios (showing seaward prograding foresets) and in high resolution seismic pro- files (showing shelf wedges), the offlap break is commonly considered to correspond to the sea-level (shoreline) and used to inferr paleo sea-level positions and to construct sea-level curves. Without a good facies control, this use of

  20. Extensional Detachment faulting in melange rocks. Plurikilometres migration by W the External Zone (Cordillera Bética, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez, Jose; Mateos, Rosa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis and correlation of units carried out in the continuous geological map (Roldán et al., 2012), has revealed a fragmentation of the carbonate outcrops belong to the Subbetic Domain (García-Hernández et al., 1980). Subbetic NW verging thrust and fold axial traces have not lateral continuity and Jurassic carbonate outscrops appear as klippes on the olistotromic unit. These ductile structures that can be observed in the internal structure of these jurassic blocks are unrelated to the brittle-ductile deformation bands observed at the basal pelitic levels. Basal detachments are rooted in: a) the Olistostromic unit, a Upper Langhian-Lower Serravallian breccia constituted by gypsum-bearing clay and marls; b) Cretaceous-Tertiary marly sedimentary rocks (Rodríguez-Fernández, et al., 2013) . In both kind of rocks, cataclastic structures allows to infer a top-to-the WSW displacement. Paleostress measurements, made on these detachments levels, are compatible with a extensional regime (Roldán et al., 2012). At the same time, the analysis and interpretation of subsurface data (seismic surveys and borehole testing) shows that the Subbetic Domain (External Subbetic, Molina 1987) are affected by westward low-angle normal faults. A balanced cross-section, based on morphological and cartographic data in the area between Sierra de Cabra and Sierra de Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén), shows plurikilometric displacements which has been produced during Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times. References: García-Hernández, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Rivas, P., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Vera, J.A. (1980): Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the zones of the Betic Cordillera. Geol. Mijnb. 59 (2). 155-168. Molina, J.M. (1987). Análisis de facies del Mesozoico en el Subbético. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Granada. 518 p. Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldán, F. J., Azañón, J.M. y García-Cortés, A. (2013). El colapso gravitacional del frente orogénico a lpino en el Dominio Subb

  1. Special Judo Fitness Test Level and Anthropometric Profile of Elite Spanish Judo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Casals, Cristina; Huertas, Jesús R; Franchini, Emerson; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Escobar-Molina, Raquel

    2017-05-01

    Casals, C, Huertas, JR, Franchini, E, Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Sterkowicz, S, Gutiérrez-García, C, and Escobar-Molina, R. Special judo fitness test level and anthropometric profile of elite spanish judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1229-1235, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric variables that best predict Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance. In addition, anthropometric profiles of elite Spanish judo athletes were compared by sex and age category (seniors and juniors). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 51 (29 females) athletes from the Spanish National Judo Team were evaluated during a competitive period. All athletes performed the SJFT and underwent an anthropometric assessment through skinfold thickness measurements. Mann-Whitney comparisons by sex and age category showed that males had significantly higher muscle mass and lower fat mass than females (p < 0.001), whereas juniors and seniors exhibited few differences in body composition. Linear regression analyses (stepwise method) were performed to explore the relationships between anthropometric characteristics and SJFT variables. Model 1 included sex, age category, and body mass as predictors. Body mass and sex significantly predicted the SJFT index (R = 0.27, p < 0.001); thus, both criteria should be considered before interpreting the test. The predictors of model 2 were quick-assessment variables, including skinfolds, breadths, girths, and height. This regression model showed that the biceps skinfold significantly predicted the SJFT index in elite athletes (R = 0.31, p < 0.001). Model 3 included body compositions and somatotypes as predictors. Higher muscle and bone masses and lower ectomorphy were associated with better SJFT performance (R = 0.44, p < 0.001). Hence, training programs should attempt to increase the muscle mass percentage and reduce the upper arm fat, whereas the bone percentage could be considered in the selection of talented athletes in

  2. Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, E.A.; Roke, L.; Hallett, F.

    1991-12-31

    In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth`s temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

  3. Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, E.A. ); Roke, L. ); Hallett, F. )

    1991-01-01

    In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth's temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

  4. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family

    PubMed Central

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae. PMID:23717188

  5. Estimation of erosion and sedimentation yield in the Ucayali river basin, a Peruvian tributary of the Amazon River, using ground and satellite methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, William; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Espinoza, Raul; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the works of HYBAM observatory (www.ore-hybam.org) has allowed to quantify with accuracy, precision and over a long period Amazon's main rivers discharges and sediments loads. In Peru, a network of 8 stations is regularly gauged and managed in association with the national meteorological and Hydrological service (SENAMHI), the UNALM (National Agrological University of La Molina) and the National Water Agency (ANA). Nevertheless, some current processes of erosion and sedimentation in the foreland basins are still little known, both in volumes and in localization. The sedimentary contributions of Andean tributaries could be there considerable, masking a very strong sedimentation in subsidence zones localized between the control points of the HYBAM's network. The development of spatial techniques such as the Altimetry and reflectance measurement allows us today to complete the ground's network: HYBAM's works have allowed establishing a relation between surface concentration and reflectance in Amazonian rivers (Martinez et al., 2009, Espinoza et al., 2012) and reconstituting water levels series (Calmant et al., 2006, 2008). If the difficulty of calibration of these techniques increases towards the upstream, their use can allow a first characterization of the tributaries contributions and sedimentation zones. At world level, erosion and sedimentation yields in the upper Ucayali are exceptional, favored by a marked seasonality in this region (Espinoza et al., 2009, Lavado, 2010, Pépin et al., 2010) and the presence of cells of extreme precipitation ("Hotspots") (Johnson et al., 1976, Espinoza et al, 2009a). The upper Ucayali drainage basin is a Piggyback where the River run with a low slope, parallel to the Andean range, deposing by gravity hundred millions a year of sands, silts and clays. In this work, we thus propose an estimation of sedimentation and erosion yield in the Ucayali river basin using ground and satellite methods.

  6. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences--an ongoing science and policy success story.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most, ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C.

  7. Aggregation and adsorption properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate in water-acetamide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Ismail, K

    2008-11-01

    The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of sodium dodecyl sulfate was determined in water + acetamide media from 0 to 70 wt% of acetamide and at temperatures in the range from 20 to 40 degrees C by using conductance, surface tension, and fluorescence methods. The cmc increases with increase in acetamide concentration and the reported [M.S. Akhter, Colloids Surf. A 121 (1997) 103] decrease in cmc was not observed. The limiting surface tension at the cmc does not have any dependence on the amount of acetamide added. The cmc data as a function of temperature were used to estimate the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy terms for micellization. Enthalpy-entropy compensation takes place during micellization. Counterion binding constant, surface excess, and aggregation number of SDS decrease with increasing acetamide concentration and become almost constant for weight percentages of acetamide greater or equal to 30. Pyrene appears to move from the interior of the SDS micelle to the micellar interface at about 30 wt% acetamide. The empirical relations reported by Aguiar et al. [J. Aguiar, P. Carpena, J.A. Molina-Bolivar, C. Carnero Ruiz, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 258 (2003) 116] between the parameters of a sigmoid-type expression for the ratio of fluorescence emission intensities of pyrene and surfactant properties are found to be applicable to SDS in water + acetamide medium below 20 wt% acetamide only. Standard free energy of micellization has linear correlations with reciprocal of dielectric constant and Gordon parameter of the solvent. The water + acetamide medium behaves similar to mixed solvents containing water and any polar liquid nonaqueous solvent and this study highlights the significance of solvophobicity.

  8. Evaluating simplistic methods to understand current distributions and forecast distribution changes under climate change scenarios: An example with coypu (Myocastor coypus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E; Sheffels, Trevor R.; Carter, Jacoby; Systma, Mark D.; Talbert, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species provide a unique opportunity to evaluate factors controlling biogeographic distributions; we can consider introduction success as an experiment testing suitability of environmental conditions. Predicting potential distributions of spreading species is not easy, and forecasting potential distributions with changing climate is even more difficult. Using the globally invasive coypu (Myocastor coypus [Molina, 1782]), we evaluate and compare the utility of a simplistic ecophysiological based model and a correlative model to predict current and future distribution. The ecophysiological model was based on winter temperature relationships with nutria survival. We developed correlative statistical models using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling and biologically relevant climate data with a global extent. We applied the ecophysiological based model to several global circulation model (GCM) predictions for mid-century. We used global coypu introduction data to evaluate these models and to explore a hypothesized physiological limitation, finding general agreement with known coypu distribution locally and globally and support for an upper thermal tolerance threshold. Global circulation model based model results showed variability in coypu predicted distribution among GCMs, but had general agreement of increasing suitable area in the USA. Our methods highlighted the dynamic nature of the edges of the coypu distribution due to climate non-equilibrium, and uncertainty associated with forecasting future distributions. Areas deemed suitable habitat, especially those on the edge of the current known range, could be used for early detection of the spread of coypu populations for management purposes. Combining approaches can be beneficial to predicting potential distributions of invasive species now and in the future and in exploring hypotheses of factors controlling distributions.

  9. Cluster information of non-sampled area in small area estimation of poverty indicators using Empirical Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Vinny Yuliani; Sadik, Kusman; Kurnia, Anang

    2017-03-01

    Survey is one of data collection method which sampling of individual units from a population. However, national survey only provides limited information which impacts on low precision in small area level. In fact, when the area is not selected as sample unit, estimation cannot be made. Therefore, small area estimation method is required to solve this problem. One of model-based estimation methods is empirical Bayes which has been widely used to estimate parameter in small area, even in non-sampled area. Yet, problems occur when this method is used to estimate parameter of non-sampled area which is solely based on synthetic model which ignore the area effects. This paper proposed an approach to cluster area effects of auxiliary variable by assuming that there are similar among particular area. Direct estimates in several sub-districts in regency and city of Bogor are zero because no household which are under poverty in the sample that selected from these sub-districts. Empirical Bayes method is used to get the estimates are not zero. Empirical Bayes method on FGT poverty measures both Molina & Rao and information clusters have the same estimates in the sub-districts selected as samples, but have different estimates on non-sampled sub-districts. Empirical Bayes methods with information cluster has smaller coefficient of variation. Empirical Bayes method with cluster information is better than empirical Bayes methods without cluster information on non-sampled sub-districts in regency and city of Bogor in terms of coefficient of variation.

  10. Evaluation of groundwater quality and selected hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Santa Isabel area, Puerto Rico, 2008–09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The source of drinking water in the Santa Isabel and Coamo areas of Puerto Rico (Molina and Gómez-Gómez, 2008) is the South Coast aquifer (hereafter referred to as the aquifer), which supplies about 30,700 cubic meters per day (m³/d) to Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) public-supply wells. In addition, approximately 45 wells provide an estimated 33,700 m³/d of groundwater to irrigate crops in the area. In 1967, baseline nitrate concentrations in groundwater throughout most of the aquifer were generally less than 6 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as nitrogen in collected water samples (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). In 2007, elevated nitrate concentrations were detected in the aquifer, near Santa Isabel and the foothills north of the coastal plain at Santa Isabel as part of a regional groundwater-quality assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2007 (Rodríguez and Gómez-Gómez, 2008). The increase in nitrate concentrations has been of concern to local government agencies because of its potential effect on public supply. To address public-supply concerns, the USGS, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PRDNER), evaluated groundwater quality in the aquifer near the Santa Isabel area between January 2008 and May 2009. The objectives of the study were to (1) define the groundwater-quality conditions of the aquifer, with emphasis on the distribution of nitrate concentrations; (2) identify potential sources leading to elevated nitrate concentrations; (3) estimate the nitrate loads from major sources identified; and (4) estimate the groundwater withdrawals by principal-use categories in the area. Results of this study will be used by Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Federal agencies in developing strategies that can result in containment of high nitrate groundwater to minimize degradation of fresh groundwater in the aquifer.

  11. Novel role of C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) ubiquitin ligase on inhibiting cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction via regulating ERK5-mediated degradation of inducible cAMP early repressor

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Chang-Hoon; Le, Nhat-Tu; Shishido, Tetsuro; Chang, Eugene; Lee, Hakjoo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Mickelsen, Deanne M.; Lu, Yan; McClain, Carolyn; Spangenberg, Thomas; Yan, Chen; Molina, Carlos A.; Yang, Jay; Patterson, Cam; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a critical role of ubiquitin-proteosome system in apoptosis regulation. A cardioprotective effect of ubiquitin (Ub) ligase of the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) on myocytes has been reported. In the current study, we found that the cardioprotective effect of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was mediated by ERK5-CHIP signal module via inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) destabilization. In vitro runoff assay and Ub assay showed ICER as a substrate of CHIP Ub ligase. Both disruption of ERK5-CHIP binding with inhibitory helical linker domain fragment (aa 101–200) of CHIP and the depletion of ERK5 by siRNA inhibited CHIP Ub ligase activity, which suggests an obligatory role of ERK5 on CHIP activation. Depletion of CHIP, using siRNA, inhibited IGF-1-mediated reduction of isoproterenol-mediated ICER induction and apoptosis. In diabetic mice subjected to myocardial infarction, the CHIP Ub ligase activity was decreased, with an increase in ICER expression. These changes were attenuated significantly in a cardiac-specific constitutively active form of MEK5α transgenic mice (CA-MEK5α-Tg) previously shown to have greater functional recovery. Furthermore, pressure overload-mediated ICER induction was enhanced in heterozygous CHIP+/− mice. We identified ICER as a novel CHIP substrate and that the ERK5-CHIP complex plays an obligatory role in inhibition of ICER expression, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction.—Woo, C.-H., Le, N.-T., Shishido, T., Chang, E., Lee, H., Heo, K.-S., Mickelsen, D. M., Lu, Y., McClain, C., Spangenberg, T., Yan, C., Molina, C. A., Yang, J., Patterson, C., Abe, J.-I. Novel role of C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) ubiquitin ligase on inhibiting cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction via regulating ERK5-mediated degradation of inducible cAMP early repressor. PMID:20724525

  12. Comparison of PAN and Black Carbon Levels in Mexico City: 1997 and 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2004-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a secondary oxidant formed by the oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. PAN is a good indicator compound for hydrocarbon reactivity that leads to ozone formation. Black carbon (BC) is formed by incomplete combustion processes such as diesel soot formation and is a good indicator of primary carbonaceous aerosols in urban areas. We used a fast-response luminol method to measure PAN and BC during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study in April 2003. We compare these results with our previous PAN measurements in Mexico City during February 1997, made with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. The decreased PAN levels observed in 2003 are consistent with the application of emissions controls on spark ignition gasoline-fueled vehicles, leading to lower levels of the nitrogen oxides and reactive volatile hydrocarbons needed to form PAN. Black carbon data for Mexico City in 2003, taken with a seven-channel aethalometer, are compared with data from 1997, estimated from thermal analyses as elemental carbon (EC). The comparison indicates little change in the levels of BC/EC over the six-year period. This observation is consistent with the application of minimal controls to diesel engines, the likely major source of BC in the Mexico City megacity complex during this period. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  13. Extracellular adenosine levels are associated with the progression and exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fayong; Le, Ngoc-Bao; Mills, Tingting; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Molina, Jose G.; Davies, Jonathan; Philip, Kemly; Volcik, Kelly A.; Liu, Hong; Xia, Yang; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating lung disease with limited treatment options. The signaling molecule adenosine is produced in response to injury and serves a protective role in early stages of injury and is detrimental during chronic stages of disease such as seen in lung conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis. Understanding the association of extracellular adenosine levels and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis is critical for designing adenosine based approaches to treat pulmonary fibrosis. The goal of this study was to use various models of experimental lung fibrosis to understand when adenosine levels are elevated during pulmonary fibrosis and whether these elevations were associated with disease progression and severity. To accomplish this, extracellular adenosine levels, defined as adenosine levels found in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid, were determined in mouse models of resolvable and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. We found that relative bronchioalveolar lavage fluid adenosine levels are progressively elevated in association with pulmonary fibrosis and that adenosine levels diminish in association with the resolution of lung fibrosis. In addition, treatment of these models with dipyridamole, an inhibitor of nucleoside transporters that potentiates extracellular adenosine levels, demonstrated that the resolution of lung fibrosis is blocked by the failure of adenosine levels to subside. Furthermore, exacerbating adenosine levels led to worse fibrosis in a progressive fibrosis model. Increased adenosine levels were associated with elevation of IL-6 and IL-17, which are important inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that extracellular adenosine levels are closely associated with the progression of experimental pulmonary fibrosis and that this signaling pathway may mediate fibrosis by regulating IL-6 and IL-17 production.—Luo, F., Le, N.-B., Mills, T., Chen, N.-Y., Karmouty-Quintana, H., Molina, J. G., Davies

  14. HIF1A up-regulates the ADORA2B receptor on alternatively activated macrophages and contributes to pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Philip, Kemly; Mills, Tingting Weng; Davies, Jonathan; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Luo, Fayong; Molina, Jose G; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Sinha, Neeraj; Guha, Ashrith; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R

    2017-07-12

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly chronic lung disease. Extracellular accumulation of adenosine and subsequent activation of the ADORA2B receptor play important roles in regulating inflammation and fibrosis in IPF. Additionally, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) expressing ADORA2B have been implicated in mediating adenosine's effects in IPF. Although hypoxic conditions are present in IPF, hypoxia's role as a direct modulator of macrophage phenotype and identification of factors that regulate ADORA2B expression on AAMs in IPF is not well understood. In this study, an experimental mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis and lung samples from patients with IPF were used to examine the effects and interactions of macrophage differentiation and hypoxia on fibrosis. We demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1A) inhibition in late stages of bleomycin-induced injury attenuates pulmonary fibrosis in association, with reductions in ADORA2B expression in AAMs. Additionally, ADORA2B deletion or pharmacological antagonism along with HIF1A inhibition disrupts AAM differentiation and subsequent IL-6 production in cultured macrophages. These findings suggest that hypoxia, through HIF1A, contributes to the development and progression of pulmonary fibrosis through its regulation of ADORA2B expression on AAMs, cell differentiation, and production of profibrotic mediators. These studies support a potential role for HIF1A or ADORA2B antagonists in the treatment of IPF.-Philip, K., Mills, T. W., Davies, J., Chen, N.-Y., Karmouty-Quintana, H., Luo, F., Molina, J. G., Amione-Guerra, J., Sinha, N., Guha, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackburn, M. R. HIF1A up-regulates the ADORA2B receptor on alternatively activated macrophages and contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. © FASEB.

  15. Deletion of ADORA2B from myeloid cells dampens lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Philip, Kemly; Acero, Luis F.; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Weng, Tingting; Molina, Jose G.; Luo, Fayong; Davies, Jonathan; Le, Ngoc-Bao; Bunge, Isabelle; Volcik, Kelly A.; Le, Thanh-Thuy T.; Johnston, Richard A.; Xia, Yang; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal, fibroproliferative disease. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can develop secondary to IPF and increase mortality. Alternatively, activated macrophages (AAMs) contribute to the pathogenesis of both IPF and PH. Here we hypothesized that adenosine signaling through the ADORA2B on AAMs impacts the progression of these disorders and that conditional deletion of ADORA2B on myeloid cells would have a beneficial effect in a model of these diseases. Conditional knockout mice lacking ADORA2B on myeloid cells (Adora2Bf/f-LysMCre) were exposed to the fibrotic agent bleomycin (BLM; 0.035 U/g body weight, i.p.). At 14, 17, 21, 25, or 33 d after exposure, SpO2, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and histologic analyses were performed. On day 33, lung function and cardiovascular analyses were determined. Markers for AAM and mediators of fibrosis and PH were assessed. Adora2Bf/f-LysMCre mice presented with attenuated fibrosis, improved lung function, and no evidence of PH compared with control mice exposed to BLM. These findings were accompanied by reduced expression of CD206 and arginase-1, markers for AAMs. A 10-fold reduction in IL-6 and a 5-fold decrease in hyaluronan, both linked to lung fibrosis and PH, were also observed. These data suggest that activation of the ADORA2B on macrophages plays an active role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and PH.—Karmouty-Quintana, H., Philip, K., Acero, L. F., Chen, N.-Y., Weng, T., Molina, J. G., Luo, F., Davies, J., Le, N.-B., Bunge, I., Volcik, K. A., Le, T.-T. T., Johnston, R. A., Xia, Y., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackburn, M. R. Deletion of ADORA2B from myeloid cells dampens lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25318478

  16. Hypoxia-induced deoxycytidine kinase expression contributes to apoptosis in chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Tingting; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Garcia-Morales, Luis J.; Molina, Jose G.; Pedroza, Mesias; Bunge, Raquel R.; Bruckner, Brian A.; Loebe, Matthias; Seethamraju, Harish; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent inflammation and tissue remodeling and is a leading cause of death in the United States. Increased apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells is thought to play a role in COPD development and progression. Identification of signaling pathways resulting in increased apoptosis in COPD can be used in the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Deoxyadenosine (dAdo) is a DNA breakdown product that amplifies lymphocyte apoptosis by being phosphorylated to deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP). dAdo is maintained at low levels by adenosine deaminase (ADA). This study demonstrated that mice lacking ADA developed COPD manifestations in association with elevated dAdo and dATP levels and increased apoptosis in the lung. Deoxycitidine kinase (DCK), a major enzyme for dAdo phosphorylation, was up-regulated in mouse and human airway epithelial cells in association with air-space enlargement. Hypoxia was identified as a novel regulator of DCK, and inhibition of DCK resulted in diminished dAdo-mediated apoptosis in the lungs. Our results suggest that activating the dAdo-DCK-dATP pathway directly results in increased apoptosis in the lungs of mice with air-space enlargement and suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of COPD.—Weng, T., Karmouty-Quintana, H., Garcia-Morales, L. J., Molina, J. G., Pedroza, M., Bunge, R. R., Bruckner, B. A., Loebe, M., Seethamraju, H., and Blackburn, M. R. Hypoxia-induced deoxycytidine kinase expression contributes to apoptosis in chronic lung disease. PMID:23392349

  17. Evaluating Floodplain Controls on Paleo-channel Avulsion and Migration: Wasatch Formation (Paleocene/Eocene, Piceance Basin, CO, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, T.; Hajek, E. A.; Chamberlin, E.; Toms, L.; Foreman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Comparing ancient channel and floodplain deposits provides insight into long-term channel and floodplain dynamics in alluvial basins. Channel lateral migration and avulsion behavior may be affected by floodplain characteristics, including sediment cohesion, vegetation cover, and floodplain-drainage conditions. Channel-deposit architecture reflects paleo-channel dynamics; for example, channel form, migration, and reworking can be inferred from bar deposits, while multi-storied sand bodies can indicate a complex history of channel avulsion, reoccupation and migration. Furthermore, associated floodplain deposits can be used to reconstruct some aspects of floodplain sedimentation patterns, drainage, and soil development. In order to better understand how channel mobility may be linked to floodplain conditions, we compare the three members of the Paleocene-Eocene Wasatch Formation, which were deposited under broadly similar basin subsidence conditions, and straddle the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) climate-change event. These ancient deposits show varying styles of channel and floodplain deposits. The Atwell Gulch (pre-PETM) and Shire (post-PETM) members of the Wasatch Formation are both mud-stone dominated, with abundant, well-developed paleosol deposits. In contrast, the middle Molina Member is sand-rich and contains more weakly developed paleosols. Using terrestrial lidar scans and high-resolution photo panels of outcrops, along with detailed field measurements, we identify key surfaces (including bar-accretion, and story-bounding surfaces) and facies within channel deposits, and describe floodplain deposits within each member. Concurrent changes in paleo-channel architecture and floodplain deposits observed within the succession suggest that floodplain conditions are important controls on channel mobility in Wasatch rivers.

  18. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in non-patients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Silton, Rebecca L.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Crocker, Laura D.; Edgar, J. Christopher; Mimnaugh, Katherine J.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two non-patients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (Meyer et al., 1990; Molina and Borkovec, 1994) and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (Watson et al., 1995a,1995b). Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only), high levels of depression and anxiety (combined), or low levels of both (control) completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression. PMID:24782804

  19. Antiproliferative activity of yatein isolated from Austrocedrus chilensis against murine myeloma cells: cytological studies and chemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Fierro, César; Tiezzi, Antonio; Ovidi, Elisa; Ceccarelli, Donatella; Triggiani, Doriana; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Taddei, Anna Rita; Pérez, Claudia; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Passarella, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina) I. M. Johnst. and Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic.Serm. & Bizzarri are two Chilean Cupressaceae that are naturally resistant to biodegradation. Secondary metabolites from these species display a variety of biological activities. To evaluate the antiproliferative activity of two lignans, a diterpene and a flavonol isolated from A. chilensis and F. cupressoides, to elucidate their cytological effects on P3X murine myeloma cells. The antiproliferative activity of yatein, isotaxiresinol, ferruginol, and isorhamnetin was evaluated in vitro using the MTT assay. The effect of yatein at the cellular level, due to its high antiproliferative activity was evaluated. P3X cells treated for 24 h with 12.5 and 25 µg/mL of yatein were also examined at the cytological level using immunofluorescence and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Yatein, a lignan isolated from A. chilensis, potentially inhibited P3X murine myeloma cell proliferation, resulting in approximately 75% cell death in response to a 25 µg/mL treatment with the lignan. P3X cells lost membrane integrity at the nuclear and cytoplasmic levels, including organelles, in response to yatein treatment (12.5 µg/mL), and we observed changes in the cytoplasmic organization and distribution of microtubules. The other compounds tested had low activity. Yatein is a lignan precursor of podophyllotoxin, a key agent in anticancer drugs. Due to its structural similarities to podophyllotoxin, yatein could have similar cytoplasmic target(s), such as the microtubular apparatus. These findings suggest that yatein may be of potential pharmacological interest and warrants further investigation in human cell lines.

  20. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences-An ongoing science and policy success story.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after, scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C. [Box

  1. DNA barcodes and phylogenetic affinities of the terrestrial slugs Arion gilvus and A. ponsi (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae).

    PubMed

    Breugelmans, Karin; Jordaens, Kurt; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Cardona, Josep Quintana; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-12-30

    The Iberian Peninsula is a region with a high endemicity of species of the terrestrial slug subgenus Mesarion. Many of these species have been described mainly on subtle differences in their proximal genitalia. It therefore remains to be investigated 1) whether these locally diverged taxa also represent different species under a phylogenetic species concept as has been shown for other Mesarion species outside the Iberian Peninsula, and 2) how these taxa are phylogenetically related. Here, we analysed DNA sequence data of two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) genes, and of the nuclear ITS1 region, to explore the phylogenetic affinities of two of these endemic taxa, viz. Arion gilvus Torres Mínguez, 1925 and A. ponsi Quintana Cardona, 2007. We also evaluated the use of these DNA sequence data as DNA barcodes for both species. Our results showed that ITS did not allow to differentiate among most of the Mesarion molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) / morphospecies in Mesarion. Yet, the overall mean p-distance among the Mesarion MOTUs / morphospecies for both mtDNA fragments (16.7% for COI, 13% for 16S) was comparable to that between A. ponsi and its closest relative A. molinae (COI: 14.2%; 16S: 16.2%) and to that between A. gilvus and its closest relative A. urbiae (COI: 14.4%; 16S: 13.4%). Hence, with respect to mtDNA divergence, both A. ponsi and A. gilvus, behave as other Mesarion species or putative species-level MOTUs and thus are confirmed as distinct 'species'.

  2. The recent findings of the "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010" and the World Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, P. A.; Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol

    2011-12-01

    The ozone layer is the Earth's natural sunscreen, blocking harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland proposed that the ozone layer could be depleted by chlorine released from human-produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Follow-up science investigations supported this hypothesis, leading to the landmark 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer). One of the Montreal Protocol provisions is that science assessments on ozone depletion be written and submitted to the signatory Parties every 4 years. In this talk, I will primarily focus on the science findings from the recently published "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010". This assessment is written and reviewed (multiple times) by the international science community. The 2010 assessment is the latest in a long series of reports that provide the science foundation for the Montreal Protocol. This assessment demonstrates that the Montreal Protocol is working, and that there are early signs that ozone is beginning to respond to decreasing CFC levels. There are now state-of-the-art simulations that show that the ozone layer would have been largely destroyed if CFCs had not been regulated, and therefore extreme levels of UV radiation have been avoided. The 2010 assessment also spotlights new insights into the impact of ozone depletion on surface climate, and climate impacts on ozone. However, the assessment also reveals that greenhouse gases are modifying the stratosphere and that the ozone layer will evolve into a different state than its pre-industrial values - you can't go home again.

  3. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure).

    PubMed

    López-Rivera, Américo; Pinto, Maricela; Insinilla, Andrea; Suárez Isla, Benjamín; Uribe, Eduardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2009-11-01

    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (DA) the principal toxic component of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Significant DA concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent ASP outbreak in Bahía Inglesa, an important scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) farming area. Several infaunal species were tested for the presence of DA, in addition to the usual scallop monitoring programme. DA was found at sub-toxic levels in filtering bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus chilensis), large mussels (Aulacomya ater) and clams (Protothaca thaca) (6.4, 5.4 and 4.7 microg DA/g tissue respectively). Of particular interest was the observation of significant accumulations of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. diatoms in the internal siphon and atrium spaces of the tunicate. Toxin distribution within major tunicate organs was heterogeneous with 8.7-15.5 microg DA/g in edible tissues, 14.9-17.9 microg DA/g in the fecal material and 13.6-32.7 microg DA/g in the gut content. DA was determined by HPLC-UV and confirmed by diode-array detection and LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first report of the presence of DA in a tunicate that is regularly consumed by coastal populations. These results confirm the need to include these organisms in sanitation programs for marine toxins.

  4. DNA barcodes and phylogenetic affinities of the terrestrial slugs Arion gilvus and A. ponsi (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breugelmans, Karin; Jordaens, Kurt; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Cardona, Josep Quintana; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Iberian Peninsula is a region with a high endemicity of species of the terrestrial slug subgenus Mesarion. Many of these species have been described mainly on subtle differences in their proximal genitalia. It therefore remains to be investigated 1) whether these locally diverged taxa also represent different species under a phylogenetic species concept as has been shown for other Mesarion species outside the Iberian Peninsula, and 2) how these taxa are phylogenetically related. Here, we analysed DNA sequence data of two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) genes, and of the nuclear ITS1 region, to explore the phylogenetic affinities of two of these endemic taxa, viz. Arion gilvus Torres Mínguez, 1925 and A. ponsi Quintana Cardona, 2007. We also evaluated the use of these DNA sequence data as DNA barcodes for both species. Our results showed that ITS did not allow to differentiate among most of the Mesarion molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) / morphospecies in Mesarion. Yet, the overall mean p-distance among the Mesarion MOTUs / morphospecies for both mtDNA fragments (16.7% for COI, 13% for 16S) was comparable to that between A. ponsi and its closest relative A. molinae (COI: 14.2%; 16S: 16.2%) and to that between A. gilvus and its closest relative A. urbiae (COI: 14.4%; 16S: 13.4%). Hence, with respect to mtDNA divergence, both A. ponsi and A. gilvus, behave as other Mesarion species or putative species-level MOTUs and thus are confirmed as distinct ‘species’. PMID:24453553

  5. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  6. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  7. Compound I formation in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase is modulated by the equilibrium between pentacoordinated and 6-aquo hexacoordinated forms of the heme and by calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Hiner, Alexander N P; Sidrach, Lara; Chazarra, Soledad; Varón, Ramón; Tudela, José; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2003-07-29

    Basic artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase (AKP-C), when purified from the plant, has an unusually intense and sharp Soret absorption peak. The resonance Raman spectrum [López-Molina, D., et al. (2003) J. Inorg. Biochem. 94, 243-254] suggested a mixture of pentacoordinate high-spin (5cHS) and 6-aquo hexacoordinate high-spin (6cHS) ferric heme species. The rate constant (k(1)) of compound I formation with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was also lower than expected. Further stopped-flow studies have shown this reaction to be biphasic: a nonsaturating fast phase and a slow phase with complex H(2)O(2) concentration dependence. Addition of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) changed the absorption spectrum, suggesting the formation of a fully 5cHS species with a k(1) more than 5 orders of magnitude greater than that in the absence of Ca(2+) using the chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Ca(2+) titrations gave a dissociation constant for a single Ca(2+) of approximately 20 microM. The circular dichroism spectrum of AKP-C was not significantly altered by Ca(2+), indicating that any structural changes will be minor, but removal of Ca(2+) did suppress the alkaline transition between pH 10 and 11. A kinetic analysis of the reaction of Ca(2+)-free AKP-C with H(2)O(2) supports an equilibrium between a slow-reacting 6cHS form and a more rapidly reacting 5cHS species, the presence of which was confirmed in nonaqueous solution. AKP-C, as purified, is a mixture of Ca(2+)-bound 5cHS, 6-aquo 6cHS, and Ca(2+)-free 5cHS species. The possibility that Ca(2+) concentration could control peroxidase activity in the plant is discussed.

  8. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  9. UV-B Measurements in Mexico City: Comparison with Modeled UVB and Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Frederick, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) represents a chemically important region of the sun's spectrum. At the earth's surface, UV-B can initiate a number of important photochemical reactions (e.g., ozone photolysis) that lead to the formation of OH radicals. Where levels of nitrogen oxides are high and reactive hydrocarbons are found, as in Mexico City and other megacities, UV-B can initiate photochemical smog formation. We used a broadband instrument to obtain UV-B measurements in Mexico City during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study. We then used a simple radiation model for the Mexico City latitude, altitude, and time of year to construct UV-B contours for comparison with our results. Early morning discrepancies involve reductions in UV-B that are consistent with the presence of significant levels of BC in the Mexico City environment. During most afternoons, UV-B reductions were dominated by clouds. The results are discussed in terms of the potential impacts of BC on UV-B and downwind photochemical processes. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program (Marley and Gaffney), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Frederick). We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  10. Deployment of broadband seismic and infrasonic networks on Tungurahua and Cotopaxi Volcanoes, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Yepes, H.; Vaca, M.; Caceres, V.; Nagai, T.; Yokoe, K.; Imai, T.; Miyakawa, K.; Yamashina, T.; Arrais, S.; Vasconez, F.; Pinajota, E.; Cisneros, C.; Ramos, C.; Paredes, M.; Gomezjurado, L.; Garcia-Aristizabal, A.; Molina, I.; Ramon, P.; Segovia, M.; Palacios, P.; Enriquez, W.; Inoue, I.; Nakano, M.; Inoue, H.

    2006-12-01

    Tungurahua and Cotopaxi are andesitic active volcanoes in Ecuadorian Andes. Tungurahua continues its eruptive activity since 1999, in which explosive eruptions accompanying pyroclastic flows occurred in July- August, 2006. Cotopaxi is one of the world's highest glacier-clad active volcanoes, and its seismic activity remains high since 2001. To enhance the monitoring capability of these volcanoes, we have installed broadband seismometers (Guralp CMG-40T: 60 s-50 Hz) and infrasonic sensors (ACO TYPE7144/4144: 10 s- 100 Hz) on these volcanoes through the technical cooperation program of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Three and five stations are currently installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi, respectively, and additional two stations will be installed at Tungurahua. Both seismic and infrasonic waveform data at each station are digitized by a Geotech Smart24D datalogger with a sampling frequency of 50 Hz, and transmitted by a digital telemetry system using 2.4 GHz Wireless LAN to the central office in Quito. The Tungurahua's eruptive activity accompanying pyroclastic flows in July-August 2006 was monitored in real-time by the network. The observed waveforms show a wide variety of signatures in response to various eruption styles: intermittent tremor during Strombolian eruptions, five-hour-long continuous strong tremor during heightened eruptions, very-long-period (VLP) seismic signals (10-50 s) associated with pyroclastic flows, and impulsive seismic and infrasonic events of explosions. At Cotopaxi Volcano, VLP signals (2 s) accompanying long- period signals (1-2 Hz) were detected by our network. Similar events occurred in 2002, and are interpreted as gas-release process from magma in an intruded dike beneath Cotopaxi (Molina et al, submitted to JGR). The present observation of the same type of events suggests that the intruded dike is still active beneath Cotopaxi. These signals detected by our networks are highly useful to understand volcanic processes

  11. Mono-energetic mono-directional resonance neutron activation of natural indium metal target

    SciTech Connect

    Ertek, C.; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    1994-12-31

    The mono-energetic neutrons of 1.456eV energy are obtained from 2 MWth TR-I swimming pool type research reactor using double collimated beams and BRAGG reflection of pure Beryllium mono-crystal with extremely fine energy resolution. Foil thickness for 3 foils were 26., 28, and 44.10-4 cm and they were perpendicular to the beam of mono-energetic neutrons and were irradiated in sandwich form. After irradiation, the saturation activities were obtained using Phillips two-pie special beta-ray detector in a well controlled and shielded geometry. Counting reproducibility was excellent (better than 0.1%). Special Attention was paid to the irradiated (side A) and non-irradiated (side B) sides of the foils. Usual irradiation and decay corrections were applied to obtain the saturation activities. In this work, the preliminary calculations of reaction rates using Nakazawa M. et al., JENDL Dosimetry file, JAERI 1325, (1992) were performed. Considerable differences are found between the calculations and experiment and possible reasons are still under investigation. The preliminary calculations of reaction rates using ENDFB/VI are in agreement with JENDL-3 estimates. Absolute reaction rate estimates are not yet ready. Considerable numbers of research centers are interested in the experiment and very constructive inputs are expressed and obtained from Hiroyuki Oigawa, Shigeaki Okajima and T. Mukaiyama, JAERI, Japan; N.P. Baumann and K.O. Ott, USA; E. Zsolnay and E. Szondy, Hungary; M.C. Lopes and J. Molina, Portugal; F. Bensch, H. Boeck Austria; and M. Turgut and A. Isyar, Turkey. Investigations using collision theory, multiple scattering and monte-carlo techniques have been undertaken.

  12. [The examination of men's wits by Juan Huarte de San Juan, and the dawn of the neurobiology of intelligence in the Spanish renaissance].

    PubMed

    Martín-Araguz, A; Bustamante-Martínez, C

    The Spanish renaissance doctor Juan Huarte de San Juan (1529-1588) was the author of a unique and immortal work, The Examination of Men's Wits, the edition princeps of which was printed in Baeza in 1575. Since then it has been reprinted at least 80 times and translated into seven languages, which makes it the most influential Spanish contribution to medicine ever published. In this paper we review the unjustly little-known figure of Huarte as the founder of Neuropsychology, and we also analyse his works from a historical and neuroscientific point of view. Huarte's writings deal with the problem of the organic relations between the brain and understanding, and accept the possible influences exerted by temper on the will within the field of the Neurobiology of Intelligence. Thus, over four centuries ago Huarte became the founder of Differential or Physiological Psychology, Neuropsychology, Eugenics and Career Guidance. Huarte's work not only played a fundamental role in the history and development of the body of neuroscientific knowledge, but has also been a clear (although not always cited) influence on scientists, philosophers and men of letters such as Alarcón, Bacon, Cabanis, Cervantes (whose Don Quixote was inspired by him), Charron, Chomsky, Gall, Goethe, Hume, Kant, Kretchmer, Lessing, Lope de Vega, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Nietzsche, Quevedo, Rousseau, Schopenhauer, Thomasius, Tirso de Molina and Ziegler. In the middle of the 16th century, Huarte and his Examination of Men's Wits, together with the works of the naturalist philosophers Gómez Pereira (Antoniana Margarita, 1554) and Miguel Sabuco (New Philosophy, 1587), constituted the prestigious triumvirate of Spanish Renaissance scholars who, for the first time in history, contemplated the workings of the brain from a point of view that had more to do with science than the supernatural.

  13. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    PubMed

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention.

  14. Women pioneers in basal ganglia surgery.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Gun-Marie; Rehncrona, Stig; Blomstedt, Patric; Limousin, Patricia; Hamberg, Katarina; Hariz, Marwan

    2014-02-01

    Stereotactic functional neurosurgery on basal ganglia has a long history and the pioneers are mostly men. We aimed at finding out if there were women who have contributed pioneering work in this field. The literature was searched to identify women who have been first to publish innovative papers related to human basal ganglia surgery. Six women fulfilling our criteria were found: Marion Smith, a British neuropathologist, made unique observations on stereotactic lesions of basal ganglia and thalamus on autopsied brains, and the lesions' relation to the reported clinical outcome. Natalia Bechtereva, a Russian neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of therapeutic chronic deep brain stimulation to treat various brain disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Denise Albe-Fessard, a French neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of microelectrode recording (MER) in stereotactic functional neurosurgery. Gunvor Kullberg, a Swedish neurosurgeon, contributed in early CT imaging as well as early functional imaging of stereotactic lesions in PD and psychiatric patients. Hilda Molina, a Cuban neurosurgeon, established the Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica (CIREN) and pioneered there MER-guided transplant surgery in PD patients. Veerle Vandewalle, a Belgian neurosurgeon, pioneered in 1999 deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Tourette Syndrome. Although men constitute the great majority of neurosurgeons, neurologists and other neuro-specialists who have made groundbreaking contributions in basal ganglia surgery, there are women who have made equally important and unique contributions to the field. The principal two techniques used today in functional stereotactic neurosurgery, MER and DBS, have once upon a time been pioneered by women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vineyard, E. A.; Roke, L.; Hallett, F.

    In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth's temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

  16. Embryo implantation during the short luteal phase of the corn mouse, Calomys musculinus, and the apparent lack of a lactational diapause in South American murid rodents.

    PubMed

    Buzzio, O L; Koninckx, A; Carreno, N B; Castro-Vazquez, A

    2001-05-01

    As the corn mouse, Calomys musculinus, has a short luteal phase (2-3 days) that is not prolonged after copulation, it was hypothesized that (i) implantation would occur at the end of this phase, that is, earlier than it occurs in most murid species that have been studied, and (ii) a lactational embryonic diapause would not occur during the luteal phase. These hypotheses were tested in females that had copulated during postpartum oestrus and were either lactating or not lactating. Data were recorded from day 3 to day 5 of pregnancy (day 1 = day after coitus), at both 03:00-05:00 h and 17:00-19:00 h. Evidence of implantation in both non-lactating and lactating animals was apparent at 03:00-05:00 h on day 4 (endometrial 'blue reaction' in all cases and failure to recover free uterine embryos in some cases) and implantation swellings appeared within 24 h in both groups. In another experiment, the increase in duration of interbirth intervals in continuously mated females and their correlation with the number of suckling young were compared among C. musculinus, C. laucha, Akodon molinae (South American murid species) and Peromyscus maniculatus (a North American murid in which a lactational embryonic diapause has been shown). The results were indicative of a lactational embryonic diapause in the North American species, but not in the South American species. It was concluded that in C. musculinus (i) implantation occurs at the end of the spontaneous luteal phase, and (ii) that a lactational embryonic diapause does not occur: the absence of a lactational embryonic diapause may be common to other South American murid rodents.

  17. Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

  18. Borehole Tiltmeter and CGPS Response to VLP Seismic Events under Cotopaxi Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothes, P. A.; Lisowski, M.; Ruiz, M. C.; Ruiz, A.; Palacios Palacios, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    VLP (Very Long Period) (period > 2s) seismic events have been recorded at Cotopaxi volcano irregularly since a major seismic crisis occurred in 2001-2002, when a small magma volume was emplaced under the cone’s NE flank (Molina et al., 2008) and an accompanying inflationary deformation signal was detected. In 2006 a broadband seismic network of 5 stations (collaboration JICA & IG) made detection of subsequent seismic activity more accurate. Later, 3 surface tiltmeters, 6 CGPS and 3 borehole tiltmeters were added to the instrumentation array to constrain the deformation response. VLP signals associated with eruptions have been observed at Tungurahua, Popocatépetl and Mount St. Helens volcanoes-- their sources were characterized by volumetric changes interpreted to be the result of degassing processes in magma or signifying a major slug movement of fluids (magma) from depth to shallow levels. Since VLP events may be precursors to future eruptive activity at Cotopaxi, their continual monitoring with robust seismic and geodetic arrays is important, as is the integrated evaluation of the data. At Cotopaxi one such VLP/LP event, registered on 14 January, 2009, had its source mechanism and location constrained using a waveform inversion method on data from the 5 BB stations (Kumagai, et. al., 2010). Its waveform registered a strong oscillating deformation pattern related to the VLP’s shallow location in an inclined crack under the NE flank of the volcano. The 3 borehole tiltmeters recorded strong inflationary tilt starting two days before the 14 January VLP event, with tilt strongest at station CAME located about 10 km from the VLP’s source. At CAME the radial component of tilt totaled 10 microradians, but another 5 microradians accumulated in the tangential component of tilt. The displacements of CGPS stations are more subtle and difficult to interpret. In 2009 and 2010 about 25 VLP’s with magnitudes > Mw 2.0 were recorded by our Cotopaxi monitoring network. For

  19. Differential Motivational Properties of Ethanol During Early Ontogeny as a Function of Dose and Postadministration Time

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Juan Carlos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Norman

    2007-01-01

    While appetitive reinforcement effects of ethanol (EtOH) are easily detected in rat neonates, such phenomena rarely have been observed in older infants. Recently, Molina et al. (2006) reported such effects of ethanol in 14-days olds using a second-order conditioning procedure. Infants also appear to be sensitive to biphasic reinforcement or general motivational effects of ethanol, with appetitive effects seeming to occur early in the state of intoxication and aversive effects predominant during late stages, but tests have been inconclusive. The present study examined the possibility of biphasic motivational effects of ethanol during infancy through the use of second-order conditioning procedures. Preweanling rats (14 days old) experienced intraoral water infusions (conditioned stimulus, CS) either 5-20 or 30-45 min after administration of 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg i.g. ethanol. Pups were then exposed to the CS while over a novel texture (second-order phase). Tests of tactile preference for that texture followed. Locomotive, thermal, hormonal (corticosterone release) and pharmacokinetic patterns likely to underlie the acquisition of ethanol-mediated conditioning were also examined in subsequent experiments. Intraoral CSs paired with either early or late effects of low dose ethanol [0.5 g/kg, blood ethanol concentration (BEC): 40 mg%] became positive second-order reinforcers. Appetitive effects were also exhibited by pups exposed to the CS during commencement of the toxic episode induced by a 2.0 g/kg EtOH dose, 5-20 min after administration of ethanol, whereas aversions emerged when CS presentation occurred 30-45 min postadministration time (BECs: 157 and 200 mg%, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that infants rapidly detect differential motivational properties of ethanol as a function of dose or drug postadministration time. Relatively neutral stimuli associated with these properties are later capable of acting as either positive or aversive reinforcers. Thermal

  20. "On the Possibilities of Climate Control" in 1962: Harry Wexler on Geoengineering and Ozone Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    In 1962, in the early days of GCMs and satellites, Harry Wexler, Chief of the Scientific Services Division of the U.S. Weather Bureau and one of the most influential meteorologists of the 20th century, turned his attention to techniques that could raise or lower the overall temperature of the planet or rearrange its thermal structure. He also investigated possible inadvertent and purposeful damage to the ozone layer involving catalytic reactions of chorine and bromine. This work pre-dated the Nobel Prize-winning work on ozone depletion of P. Crutzen, M. Molina, and S. Rowland by about a decade. Wexler revealed his concerns about geoengineering and ozone destruction in a series of lectures "On the Possibilities of Climate Control" presented to technical audiences in Boston, Hartford, and Los Angeles in 1962. Using newly available results from GCMs and satellite heat budget experiments, Wexler pointed out that strategic manipulations of the Earth's shortwave and longwave radiation budgets could result in rather large-scale effects on general circulation patterns in short or longer periods, even approaching that of climatic change. These techniques, included increasing world temperature by several degrees by detonating up to ten H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean; decreasing world temperature by launching powder into an equatorial orbit to shade the Earth and make it look somewhat like Saturn and its rings; warming the lower atmosphere and cooling the stratosphere by artificial injections of water vapor or other substances; and notably, destroying all stratospheric ozone above the Arctic circle or near the equator using a relatively small amount of a catalytic agent such as chlorine or bromine. Wexler was preparing a new lecture in the summer of 1962 on "The Climate of Earth and Its Modifications," and might, under normal circumstances, have prepared his ideas for publication, as he had done earlier. However, he was cut down in his prime by a sudden heart attack on August 11

  1. Sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, March–April 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-10-31

    IntroductionLago La Plata is operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District. The reservoir serves a population of about 425,000 people. During 2013 the reservoir provided 0.307 million cubic meters (Mm3 ) of water per day (about 81 million gallons per day), which is equivalent to 31 percent of the total water demand for the metropolitan area (Wanda L. Molina, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2015). The dam was constructed in 1974 and is located about 5 kilometers (km) south of the town of Toa Alta and 5 km north of the town of Naranjito (fig. 1). The drainage area upstream from the Lago La Plata dam is about 469 square kilometers (km2 ). The storage capacity at construction in 1974 was 26.84 Mm3 with a spillway elevation of 47.12 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl). Storage capacity was increased to 40.21 Mm3 in 1989 after the installation of bascule gates to provide a normal dam pool elevation at 52 m above msl (Puerto Rico Electric and Power Authority, 1979). The maximum height of the dam is about 40 m above the river bottom near the dam, and the intake structure consists of six 1.82-m-diameter ports facing upstream, with 6-m vertical spacing that begins at an elevation of 19 m above msl. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lago La Plata reservoir during March and April 2015. The hydrographic survey was designed to provide an update of the reservoir storage capacity and sedimentation rate. Areas with substantial sediment accumulation are also discussed in this report. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom (fig. 2) referenced with respect to the spillway elevation. This report also includes a summary of a previous bathymetric survey conducted in 2006 (Soler-López, 2008).

  2. Use of Damage Data for Calibration of GMPE's in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Y.; Molina, S.; Navarro, M.; Benito, B.

    2013-05-01

    After the 12 January 2010 earthquake that occurred in the south of Haiti, the Earthquake Engineering Researching Group (GIIS) of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM, Spain) set up a cooperative line with the National Observatory of the Environment and Vulnerability of Haiti (ONEV), under the Ministry of the Environment. Within the frame of that working line, the project SISMO-HAITI was launched to estimate the seismic hazard in the country and the seismic risk in Port-au-Prince, the capital city. It was financed by the UPM. In the frame of the seismic risk study, an approach aimed at calibrating the Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE`s) using damage data, was proposed and applied. This approach is presented here and may be useful in absence of strong motion data. The seismic risk estimation was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires two main inputs: classification of the building stock into predominant building typologies and a ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) to estimate the seismic demand. We found six building typologies in the city, and were assigned capacity and fragility curves (damage functions) taken from HAZUS and RISK-UE, which account for their vulnerability. Regarding the GMPE, as there are not relationships developed specifically for Haiti, we decided to use the next four: Boore & Atkinson (2008-2011), Abrahamson & Silva, (2008), Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008), Chiou & Youngs (2008). All of them belong to the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models and allow including several parameters to define the seismic scenario, the source and the soil geotechnical characteristics. In this paper we present the results of the GMPE's calibration, a step aimed at figure out which is the most suitable relationship for the study area. We could not use acceleration records, since there were no accelerometers at the moment of the earthquake occurrence. Instead

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  4. Variation in Screening Mammography Rates Among Medicare Advantage Plans.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Fleming, Margaret; Duszak, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have shown higher screening mammography rates for beneficiaries in capitated managed care Medicare Advantage (MA) plans compared with traditional fee-for-service Medicare. The aim of this study was to explore variation in screening mammography rates at the level of MA managed care plans. Using the 2016 MA Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set Public Use File, screening mammography rates were identified for all 385 reporting MA plans. Associations were explored with a range of plan characteristics from this file, as well as from the CMS Part C and Part D Medicare Star Ratings Data File, Medicare Advantage Plan Directory, and Medicare Monthly Enrollment by Plan File. Overall MA plan screening rates were high (mean, 72.6 ± 9.4%) but varied substantially among plans (range, 14.3%-91.8%). Screening rates were higher in nonprofit versus for-profit plans (77.3% versus 71.8%, P < .001), as well as in health maintenance organization or local preferred provider organization plans versus private fee-for-service or regional preferred provider organization plans (71.9%-73.2% versus 65.5%-66.8%, P = .001). Among parent organizations with five or more plans, screening rates were highest for Kaiser Foundation (median, 88.4%) and lowest for Molina Healthcare (median, 65.3%). Screening rates showed small but significant associations with plans' contract lengths, enrolled populations, and counties served. Screening rates showed strong associations (r = 0.796-0.798) with colorectal cancer screening and annual flu vaccine rates and showed moderate associations (r = 0.283-0.365) with ambulatory and preventive care visits, osteoporosis screenings, body mass index assessments, and nonrecommended prostate-specific antigen screenings after age 70. Screening mammography rates vary considerably among MA plans. With increased federal interest in promoting the MA program, enhanced transparency will be necessary to ensure appropriate Medicare beneficiary

  5. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  6. Persistence of Metal-rich Particles Downstream Zones of Acid Drainage Mixing in Andean Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, P.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Dabrin, A.; Coquery, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Andes mountain range provides the setting for watersheds with high natural background of metals and for mining operations that enhance contaminant mobilization, notably in Northern and Central Chile. Dissolved and solid metal species are actively transported by streams to the Pacific Ocean from area and point sources, like acid drainage. We examine the response of metal rich particle suspensions downstream zones of mixing where shifts in the chemical environment occur. We propose a conceptual model which is used to analyze the fate of copper in the upper Mapocho watershed. The main source of copper is the Yerba Loca river, a naturally impacted stream with pH ranging from 3 to 7 and high concentrations of Cu (0.8 - 6.3 mg/L), Al (1.3 - 7.6 mg/L) and Fe (0.4 - 4.2 mg/L). Steep chemical shifts occur after the confluences with the San Francisco and the Molina rivers. We characterized stream chemistry, hydrological variables and suspended particles, including particle size distribution (PSD), turbidity, and total suspended solids. A marked seasonal behavior was observed, with a higher total Cu flux during smelting periods and a shift towards the dissolved phase during summer. When acid drainage is discharged into a receiving stream, incomplete mixing occurs thereby promoting the formation of a range of metal-rich solids with a characteristic PSD. Similarly, areas of chemical heterogeneity control the partition of metals associated to suspended geomaterials coming from bank and slope erosion. A highly dynamic process ensues where metastable phases shift to new equilibria as fully mixed conditions are reached. Depending on the reaction kinetics, some particles persist despite being exposed to thermodynamically unfavorable chemical environments. The persistence of metal-rich particles downstream zones of acid drainage mixing is important because it ultimately controls the flux of metals being delivered to the ocean by watersheds impacted by acid drainage. Funding from

  7. Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and Kinetics of HO_2+HCHO: Detection of the ν_1 and {A}- {X} Bands of HOCH_2OOCAVITY Ringdown Spectroscopy and Kinetics of HO_2+HCHO: Detection of the ν_1 and {A}- {X} Bands of HOCH_2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Matthew K.; Okumura, Mitchio; Sander, Stanley P.

    2011-06-01

    The reactions of HO_2 with carbonyl compounds are believed to be a sink for carbonyl compounds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These reactions proceed through a hydrogen bound intermediate before isomerizing. The reaction of HO_2 + formaldehyde (HCHO) serves as a prototype for this class of reactions, forming the isomerization product hydroxymethylperoxy (HOCH_2OO, HMP). Previous studies measured the spectrum and kinetics of HMP using either FTIR detection of the end products or direct detection of HMP by the unstructured tilde{B}-tilde{X} transition. Despite these studies, considerable uncertainty exists in the rate constant of HMP formation (±80%, 2σ). In this talk, we report the first detection of the ν_1 (OH stretch) and tilde{A}-tilde{X} electronic spectra of the HMP radical. The OH stretch spectrum is broad and featureless, while the tilde{A}(0)-tilde{X}(0) origin and combination band with the OOCO torsion tilde{A}(NOOCO=1)-tilde{X}(0) are rotationally resolved. Quantum chemistry calculations have been performed on both the tilde{A} and tilde{X} states as a function of the OOCO and HOCO dihedral angles to estimate the tilde{A}-tilde{X} transition frequency and to assess the coupling between the two torsional modes. We also present kinetics data showing the rates of production and destruction of HMP. I. Hermans, J. F. Muller, T. L. Nguyen, P. A. Jacobs, and J. Peeters. J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 4303. F. Su, J. G. Calvert, and J. H. Shaw J. Phys. Chem. 1979, 83, 3185. B. Veyret, R. Lesclaux, M. T. Rayez, J. C. Rayez, R. A. Cox, and G. K. Moortgat J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 2368. J. P. Burrows, G. K. Moortgat, G. S. Tyndall, R. A. Cox, M. E. Jenkin, G. D. Hayman, and B. Veyret J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 2375 S. P. Sander, B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, D. M. Golden, R. E. Huie, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, et al. Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation Number 16, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2009 I

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists attenuate biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Brahmchetna; Maurice, Nicholas M; Ciavatta, Vincent T; Lynn, K Sabrina; Yuan, Zhihong; Molina, Samuel A; Joo, Myungsoo; Tyor, William R; Goldberg, Joanna B; Koval, Michael; Hart, C Michael; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2017-08-01

    PPARγ in host defense against P. aeruginosa Strategies that activate PPARγ can provide a therapeutic complement for treatment of resistant P. aeruginosa infections.-Bedi, B., Maurice, N. M., Ciavatta, V. T., Lynn, K. S., Yuan, Z., Molina, S. A., Joo, M., Tyor, W. R., Goldberg, J. B., Koval, M., Hart, C. M., Sadikot, R. T. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists attenuate biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. © FASEB.

  9. Thiol adsorption at gold surfaces: self-assembly, chiral recognition, and enantioselective adsorption at chiral surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Bjork

    2003-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations are presented for the adsorption of thiol containing molecules on to Au(111), Au(110), and Au(17 11 9). The thiol group becomes dehydrogenated during the adsorption process and the resulting thiolate group shows a strong preference for the Au-Au bridging adsorption site.[1] For methylthiolate adsorption, a restructuring of the Au(111) surface in to a honeycomb pattern with every 3rd Au atom missing is found to lead an overall strengthening of the thiolate-gold bonding.[2] Since the surface restructuring must happen through-out the system, it represents a net attractive interaction between the adsorbates and it is speculated to have implications for the self-assembly of alkanethiols found at close packed gold surfaces. Adsorption studies of the naturally occuring amino acid, cysteine, at Au(110) also reveal enhanced thiolate-gold bonding at restructured Au sites.[3] The cysteine molecules are found to interact pairwise forming dimers that are hydrogen bonded through the cysteine carboxyl groups. The gold surface restructuring required to hold this complex involves the creation of a four Au atom wide vacancy in the outermost close packed row of the Au(110) surface. The binding of the the cysteine dimer to this vacancy site causes chiral recognition -- only cysteine dimers formed between like cysteine enantiomers are able to bind to the surface. For cysteine adsorption over the chiral (kinked) Au(17 11 9) surface no enantiospecific adsorption is found since the molecule only binds through the thiolate and amino groups.[4] Modifying the adsorbate by substituting the noninteracting carboxyl group with a dimethylphosphino group provides a third strong adsorbate-surface bond thereby enabling the discrimination during adsorption of two molecular enantiomers by one particular chiral Au surface. [1] J. Gottschalck and B. Hammer, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 784 (2002). [2] L.M. Molina and B. Hammer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 360, 264 (2002). [3] A

  10. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M.; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J.; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    , Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042–1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334 PMID:26942716

  11. Intensity-distance attenuation law in the continental Portugal using intensity data points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Boris; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Hazard Analysis. [1] Lopez Casado, C., Molina Palacios, S., Delgado, J., and Pelaez, J.A., 2000, BSSA, 90, 1, pp. 34-47 [2] Sousa, M. L., and Oliveira, C. S., 1997, Natural Hazard, 14: 207-225 [3] Bakun, W. H., and Wentworth, C. M., 1997, BSSA, vol.87, No. 6, pp. 1502-1521

  12. Solid-State Chemistry as a Formation Mechanism for C 4N 2 Ice and Possibly the Haystack (220 cm -1 ice emission feature) in Titan's Stratosphere as Observed by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert E.; McLain, Jason L.; Nna Mvondo, Delphine; Romani, Paul; Flasar, F. Michael

    2016-10-01

    A profusion of organic ices containing hydrocarbons, nitriles, and combinations of their mixtures comprise Titan's complex stratospheric cloud systems, and are typically formed via vapor condensation. These ice particles are then distributed throughout the mid-to-lower stratosphere, with an increased abundance near the winter poles (see Anderson et al., 2016). The cold temperatures and the associated strong circumpolar winds that isolate polar air act in much the same way as on Earth, giving rise to compositional anomalies and stratospheric clouds that provide heterogeneous chemistry sites.Titan's C4N2 ice emission feature at 478 cm-1 and "the Haystack," a strong unidentified stratospheric ice emission feature centered at 220 cm-1, share a common characteristic. Even though both are distinctive ice emission features evident in Cassini Composite InfraRed (CIRS) far-IR spectra, no associated vapor emission features can be found in Titan's atmosphere. Without a vapor phase, solid-state chemistry provides an alternate mechanism beside vapor condensation for producing these observed stratospheric ices.Anderson et al., (2016) postulated that C4N2 ice formed in Titan's stratosphere via the solid-state photochemical reaction HCN + HC3N → C4N2 + H2 can occur within extant HCN-HC3N composite ice particles. Such a reaction, and potentially similar reactions that may produce the Haystack ice, are specific examples of solid-state chemistry in solar system atmospheres. This is in addition to the reaction HCl + ClONO2 → HNO3 + Cl2, which is known to produce HNO3 coatings on terrestrial water ice particles, a byproduct of the catalytic chlorine chemistry that produces ozone holes in Earth's polar stratosphere (see for example, Molina et al., 1987 Soloman, 1999).A combination of radiative transfer modeling of CIRS far-IR spectra, coupled with optical constants derived from thin film transmittance spectra of organic ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes

  13. PREFACE: 16th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Nellist, P. D.; Hutchison, J. L.; Cullis, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Bender, E Carlino, D Cherns, D Cooper, A J Craven, R E Dunin-Borkowski, D Gerthsen, V Grillo, E Grünbaum, M Hecker, K Honda, R Hull, CJ Humphreys, M Jepson, H Kirmse, S Molina, A Norman, R Oliver, B Pecz, P Pongratz, F M Ross , K Tillmann, S Tsukamoto and E Verleysen. We would also like to thank the staff of the Royal Microscopical Society for expert assistance in planning and organising this conference and in particular Victoria Lee for her great help during the event. December 2009 T Walther P D Nellist J L Hutchison A G Cullis

  14. Revised preliminary geologic map of the Rifle Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    andesitic conglomerate clasts abundant in the upper part of the Atwell Gulch Member was Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary andesitic igneous rocks, remnants of which are present southeast of the Piceance Basin (Tweto, 1979). Thinning of the Atwell Gulch and Molina Members to the northwest also suggests a southeastern source of sediments, ruling out a northeastern source related to earlier deformation of the Upper Cretaceous Mesa Verde Group.

  15. Inclination Correction for the Moenave Formation and Wingate Sandstone: Implications for North America's Apparent Polar Wander Path and Colorado Plateau Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, A. M.; Kodama, K. P.

    2010-12-01

    The ~ 201 Ma paleopole for North America at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is observed in two widely different locations; one paleopole is determined from the Mesozoic rift basins in the northeastern US (67°N, 93.8°E [Kent & Olsen, 2008]) and the other from the Colorado Plateau (CP) (58.8°N, 60.9°E [Molina-Garza et al., 2003]). The discrepancy in paleopole positions has been attributed to large amounts of clockwise vertical axis rotation of the CP (>10°) combined with inclination shallowing of the paleomagnetism; however, structural, geologic, and some paleomagnetic data indicate less than 5° of vertical axis clockwise rotation for the CP. Inclination shallowing was corrected for the sedimentary rocks of the northeastern US rift basins, but has not been corrected for the sedimentary rocks from the CP. Without an inclination shallowing correction for the CP rocks, simple vertical axis rotation of the CP alone cannot reconcile the difference between the paleopoles. We resampled the Moenave Formation and laterally equivalent Wingate Sandstone, which span the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, from several widely spread localities on the CP to determine if there was flattening of the paleomagnetism and if so, to determine the amount of flattening and correct for it. Based on high field isothermal remanence anisotropy measurements, the Moenave and Wingate rocks on the CP have experienced inclination shallowing of their paleomagnetic remanence, and the inclination corrected paleopole for the CP at ~ 201 Ma is 62.5°N, 69.4°E (N = 20 sites, α95 = 5.5°). When the inclination shallowing corrected paleopole is rotated 11.5° about an Euler pole local to the CP, the longitudes come into agreement, but there is still a difference ~ 5° in paleopole latitude, although it is not statistically significant. The amount of translation of the CP along the rotational arc based on the corrected paleopole’s comparison to the northeastern US paleopole agrees with independent

  16. Immunisation of Sheep with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, E2 Protein Using a Freeze-Dried Hollow Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticle Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Donna; Mody, Karishma T.; Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Hu, Qiuhong; Mahony, Timothy J.; Qiao, Shizhang; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA), to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogenicity of the E2 nanoformulation before and after freeze-drying processes. The optimal excipient formulation for freeze-drying of the E2 nanoformulation was determined to be 5% trehalose and 1% glycine. This excipient formulation preserved both the E2 protein integrity and HMSA particle structure. Sheep were immunised three times at three week intervals by subcutaneous injection with 500 μg E2 adsorbed to 6.2 mg HMSA as either a non-freeze-dried or freeze-dried nanoformulation. The capacity of both nanovaccine formulations to generate humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated responses in sheep were compared to the responses in sheep immunisation with Opti-E2 (500 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A (1 mg), a saponin from the Molina tree (Quillaja saponira). The level of the antibody responses detected to both the non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulations were similar to those obtained for Opti-E2 plus Quil-A, demonstrating the E2 nanoformulations were immunogenic in a large animal, and freeze-drying did not affect the immunogenicity of the E2 antigen. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the long term cell-mediated immune responses were detectable up to four months after immunisation. The cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all sheep immunised with the freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation (>2,290 SFU/million cells) compared to the non-freeze-dried nanovaccine formulation (213–500 SFU/million cells). This

  17. Volatile transfer and recycling at UHP metamorphism; constraint from CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Iizuka, Y.; Jahn, B.; Tzeng-Fu, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Study of dehydration and decarbonation processes of subducting oceanic crust is important to understand the island arc volcanism and recycling of water and carbon to deep mantle. Recent UHP experiments in C-O-H fluid-bearing MORB system have revealed that phase change and fluid composition depend on oxygen fugacity (e.g. Molina and Poli, 2002; Crottini and Poli, 2004). If oxygen fugacities represented by the equilibrium NNO (Ni-NiO) or FMQ (fayalie-magnesite-quartz) are assumed to be the average condition of UHP metamorphism, then the phase assemblages of UHP rocks are expected to have graphite/diamond only, graphite/diamond +carbonates, or carbonates only depending on the bulk compositions (Poli and Fumagalli, 2004, EMU notes in miner. vol. 5). C-species are well described in Chinese UHP eclogites (e.g. Zhang and Kai, 1996). However, carbonates can be easily leached from outcrop. Therefore in the worst case, only graphite could be recognized from surface exposures although drilled core samples represent carbonates with graphite (e.g. Sanbagawa schist in Japan, Goto et al., 2000, Ann. Meet. Japan. Petrol. Miner. Mining Geol. Assoc.). From this point of view, CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) samples are probably the best for identification of C-species in UHP rocks. We investigated nine eclogites from various depths (170 to 2000 m). Two types of eclogite can be distinguished; dry- and phengite-eclogite. The phengite eclogite is associated with orthogneiss. Under the microscope, the dry eclogites contain relative coarse-grained (> 500 microns across) garnet, clinopyroxene and rutile with or without graphite, quartz, apatite, zircon, and pyrite. The phengite eclogites exhibit garnet, clinopyroxene, rutile, quartz, and phengite with or without graphite, pyrite, talc, apatite, zircon, and K-feldspar. Graphite is always recognized with pyrite, suggesting oxygen fugacity was low (NNO) at UHP stage. Estimated P, T conditions based on the assemblage garnet

  18. Ground as a Critical Factor for Schumann Resonances on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakiewicz, J.; Kulak, A.; Mlynarczyk, J.

    2011-12-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are global resonances of electromagnetic waves in the range of extremely low frequency (ELF) propagating in a cavity formed by a planetary surface and a lower ionosphere. SR are induced by electrical discharges, which on Earth are associated mainly with lightning. SR were predicted by Winfried Otto Schumann in 1952. Recently, there have been proposed several estimations of the SR parameters on Mars, for example in the works of: Pechony and Price (2004), Molina-Cuberos et al. (2006), Soriano et al. (2007). All techniques used in those studies were adopted from terrestrial models. However, they did not consider any influence of the ground, as the Earth's surface is characterized by high electrical conductivity and has very weak effect on ELF waves propagation. It is commonly assumed that the Martian crust is composed mainly of basaltic materials. On Mars water, which causes significant increase in electrical conductivity of rocks, does not exist in liquid state at the surface. Therefore the Martian ground is believed to be low-conductive one, even to a depth of tens of kilometers. The conductivity profile of the Martian ionosphere also leads to greater than on Earth attenuation of propagating ELF waves. In our study we have developed an analytical method based on the characteristic altitudes formalism that has allowed us to take into consideration the Martian ground. We carried out simulations of two cases, assuming adequately: wet and dry basaltic ground. The results demonstrate that there is a huge difference between these two situations. In the wet case the obtained SR parameters do not considerably differ from those presented in the previous works, which considered only finite ionosphere conductivity, whereas in the dry case they indicate that SR cannot occur on Mars. These results point out the importance of studying SR on Mars and the need for further research in propagation of ELF waves in the Martian environment. SR can be used not

  19. Water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity in a natural Mediterranean oak forest: impacts of hydrology-oriented silviculture on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Cerdà, Artemi; Cullotta, Sebastiano; del Campo, Antonio; González-Sanchis, María; Iovino, Massimo; Maetzke, Federico

    2016-04-01

    In the last years researchers reported an increasing need to have more awareness on the intimate link between land use and soil hydrological properties (soil organic matter storage, water infiltration, hydraulic conductivity) and their possible effects on water retention (e.g., Bens et al., 2006; del Campo et al., 2014; González-Sanchis et al., 2015; Molina and del Campo, 2012). In the Mediterranean ecosystems, special attention needs to be paid to the forest-water relationships due to the natural scarcity of water. Adaptive forest management (AFM) aims to adapt the forest to water availability by means of an artificial regulation of the forest structure and density in order to promote tree and stand resilience through enhancing soil water availability (del Campo et al., 2014). The opening of the canopy, due to the removal of a certain number of trees, is an important practice for the management of forests. It results in important modifications to the microclimatic conditions that influence the ecophysiological functioning of trees (Aussenac and Granier, 1988). However, the effect of thinning may vary depending on the specific conditions of the forest (Andréassian, 2004; Brooks et al., 2003; Cosandey et al., 2005; Lewis et al., 2000; Molina and del Campo, 2012). Different authors reported that a reduction in forest cover increases water yield due to the subsequent reduction in evapotranspiration (Brooks et al., 2003; González-Sanchis et al., 2015; Hibbert, 1983; Zhang et al., 2001). On the other hand, the water increase may be easily evaporated from the soil surface (Andréassian, 2004). In this context, determining soil hydraulic properties in forests is essential for understanding and simulating the hydrological processes (Alagna et al., 2015; Assouline and Mualem, 2002), in order to adapt a water-saving management to a specific case, or to study the effects of a particular management practice. However, it must be borne in mind that changes brought about by

  20. Status Report on the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb Dating of Tuffs in the Dewey Lake Formation of West Texas Towards Constraining the Permo-Triassic Magnetostratigraphic Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.

    2007-12-01

    A detailed magnetic polarity time scale for the Permo-Triassic Boundary interval, critical for correlating events in marine and terrestrial paleoenvironments, is not yet well-established. Recently, late Permian magnetostratigraphic studies have been reported for non-marine sections in Europe and South Africa (Szurlies et al., 2003; Nawrocki, 2004; Ward et al., 2005). However, these sections are devoid of index fossil suitable for correlation with marine successions and also lack age constraints from radioisotopic dating methods. In other words, it is dubious to correlate these magnetostratigraphic data with the GSSP Permo-Triassic boundary and mass extinction. The Dewey Lake red beds formation of West Texas, believed to be the youngest Permian formation in North America, has yielded high-quality paleomagnetic data (Molina-Garza et al., 1989; Steiner, 2001) and contains several silicic tuffs potentially enabling high-resolution calibration of the magnetic polarity time scale in this critical age range. The tuffs have yet to be placed into a regional stratigraphic or magnetostratigraphic framework, and it is unclear exactly how many distinct eruptive units are represented by the 7 distinct samples collected to date from widely separated (>160 km) localities. 40Ar/39Ar (sanidine and biotite) and U/Pb (zircon) studies reveal that all 7 sampled tuffs were probably erupted within several hundred ka of the Permo-Triassic boundary as dated at the Meishan GSSP section (Renne et al., 1995; Mundil et al., 2004) but results thus far are inadequate to convincingly resolve age differences between the various samples. U/Pb dating of some samples is severely challenged by Pb-loss from the zircons despite application of the Mattinson (2005) annealing/chemical abrasion technique. 40Ar/39Ar data have been obtained from as many as four different irradiations in order to reduce neutron fluence related error. We observe the familiar ~1% bias between U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Biotite

  1. Theoretical study of atmospheric clusters: HNO3:HCl:H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, P. C.; Escribano, R. M.; Galvez, O.

    2009-04-01

    Water, nitric acid and hydrogen chloride play an important role in several atmospheric processes, as individual species, and also interacting in the complex reactions related to ozone depletion in polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). The atmospheric importance of the ternary system HCl:HNO3:H2O was recognized long ago [1]. It is also known that HCl attaches to the surface of PSC particles formed by nitric acid hydrates in what can be considered the first step of the heterogeneous reactions leading to the release of the active chlorine molecule [2]. Recently, HCl was detected dissolved in liquid particles with HNO3/H2O by in situ measurements in the Artic stratosphere [3]. The study of simple models including these three species at a high level of theory can be the first step towards the understanding of all possible kinds of bonding and structures that can arise among these molecules, and can constitute the embryo of more complex mixtures with higher amounts of water or variable proportions of their constituents. This kind of calculations have been successfully performed in the past [4,5]. We present in this contribution our results on the structure and spectroscopical properties of the many different ways that these molecules can be bonded in what are predicted to be thermodynamically stable species. The calculations are performed by density functional methods (B3LYP) using Dunning's quadruple-zeta augmented correlated consisted basis sets (aug-cc-pVQZ). This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Projects FIS2007-61686 and CTQ2008-02578/BQU. We wish to thank also CESGA (Centro de Supercomputacion de Galicia), where some of these calculations were carried out. References: [1] O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto. Geophys. Res. Lett. 1986, 13, 1284. [2] Molina, M. J.; Zhang, R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; McMahon, J. R.; Kim, J. E.; Chang, H. Y.; Beyer, K. D. Science 1993, 261,1418. [3] C. Weiser, K. Mauersberger, J. Schreiner, N. Larsen, F

  2. P, T conditions of the CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites; importance of ferric estimation based on Mössbauer and micro-XANES analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Jahn, B.; Yui, T.; Akasaka, M.; Xu, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Recent UHP experiments in C-O-H fluid-bearing MORB system have revealed that phase change and fluid composition depend on oxygen fugacity (e.g. Molina and Poli, 2000). If oxygen fugacities represented by the equilibrium NNO (Ni-NiO) or FMQ (fayalie-magnetite-quartz) are assumed to be the average condition of UHP metamorphism, then the phase assemblages of UHP rocks are expected to have graphite/diamond only, graphite/diamond +carbonates, or carbonates only depending on the bulk compositions (Poli and Fumagalli, 2004). CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) samples are probably the best for identification of C- species in UHP rocks. We investigated nine eclogites from various depths (170 to 2000 m). Under the microscope, the eclogites contain garnet, clinopyroxene. quartz and rutile with or without phengite, graphite, apatite, zircon, pyrite, talc, and K-feldspar. Graphite is always recognized with pyrite, suggesting oxygen fugacity was low (NNO) at UHP stage. The presence of graphite suggests that the eclogites released H2O-rich (CO2- poor) fluids and melt at UHP stage. The studied eclogites contain CaEs component in clinopyroxene. Therefore, Fe3+ content can not be calculated based on EPMA analysis. We estimated Fe3+/Fe2+ based on Mossbauer and micro-XANES analysis. With ignoring the Fe3+, P-T conditions based on the assemblage of phengite-garnet-cpx- (coesite) can be estimated as P=3-5 GPa, and T = 850-950 oC. However, the Fe3+ estimation from the clinopyroxenes based on Mössbauer and micro-XANES analysis corrects the P, T condition as 3-4 GPa, and 650 -780 oC. The geothermobarometry based on the kyanite-garnet-cpx- phengite-coesite assemblage (Ravna and Terry, 2004) is reliable because temperature estimation is independent from Fe3+ content in clinopyroxene. The estimation from one eclogite gives P=3.4 GPa, and T=750oC, quite consistent with the above estimation. The thermometry based on Zr concentration from rutile also gives estimated as 600 to 730 o

  3. Immunisation of Sheep with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, E2 Protein Using a Freeze-Dried Hollow Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticle Formulation.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Donna; Mody, Karishma T; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Hu, Qiuhong; Mahony, Timothy J; Qiao, Shizhang; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA), to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogenicity of the E2 nanoformulation before and after freeze-drying processes. The optimal excipient formulation for freeze-drying of the E2 nanoformulation was determined to be 5% trehalose and 1% glycine. This excipient formulation preserved both the E2 protein integrity and HMSA particle structure. Sheep were immunised three times at three week intervals by subcutaneous injection with 500 μg E2 adsorbed to 6.2 mg HMSA as either a non-freeze-dried or freeze-dried nanoformulation. The capacity of both nanovaccine formulations to generate humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated responses in sheep were compared to the responses in sheep immunisation with Opti-E2 (500 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A (1 mg), a saponin from the Molina tree (Quillaja saponira). The level of the antibody responses detected to both the non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulations were similar to those obtained for Opti-E2 plus Quil-A, demonstrating the E2 nanoformulations were immunogenic in a large animal, and freeze-drying did not affect the immunogenicity of the E2 antigen. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the long term cell-mediated immune responses were detectable up to four months after immunisation. The cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all sheep immunised with the freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation (>2,290 SFU/million cells) compared to the non-freeze-dried nanovaccine formulation (213-500 SFU/million cells). This study

  4. Geologic map of the Silt Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Silt 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift, the Grand Hogback, and the eastern Piceance Basin. The Wasatch Formation was subdivided into three formal members, the Shire, Molina, and Atwell Gulch Members. Also a sandstone unit within the Shire Member was broken out. The Mesaverde Group consists of the upper Williams Fork Formation and the lower Iles Formation. Members for the Iles Formation consist of the Rollins Sandstone, the Cozzette Sandstone, and the Corcoran Sandstone Members. The Cozzette and Corcoran Sandstone Members were mapped as a combined unit. Only the upper part of the Upper Member of the Mancos Shale is exposed in the quadrangle. From the southwestern corner of the map area toward the northwest, the unfaulted early Eocene to Paleocene Wasatch Formation and underlying Mesaverde Group gradually increase in dip to form the Grand Hogback monocline that reaches 45-75 degree dips to the southwest (section A-A'). The shallow west-northwest-trending Rifle syncline separates the northern part of the quadrangle from the southern part along the Colorado River. Geologic hazards in the map area include erosion, expansive soils, and flooding. Erosion includes mass wasting, gullying, and piping. Mass wasting involves any rock or surficial material that moves downslope under the influence of gravity, such as landslides, debris flows, or rock falls, and is generally more prevalent on steeper slopes. Locally, where the Grand Hogback is dipping greater than 60 degrees and the Wasatch Formation has been eroded, leaving sandstone slabs of the Mesa Verde Group unsupported over vertical distances as great as 500 m, the upper part of the unit has collapsed in landslides, probably by a process of beam-buckle failure. In

  5. Middle Jurassic Topawa group, Baboquivari Mountains, south-central Arizona: Volcanic and sedimentary record of deep basins within the Jurassic magmatic arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haxel, G.B.; Wright, J.E.; Riggs, N.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; May, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Among supracrustal sequences of the Jurassic magmatic arc of the southwestern Cordillera, the Middle Jurassic Topawa Group, Baboquivari Mountains, south-central Arizona, is remarkable for its lithologic diversity and substantial stratigraphic thickness, ???8 km. The Topawa Group comprises four units (in order of decreasing age): (1) Ali Molina Formation-largely pyroclastic rhyolite with interlayered eolian and fluvial arenite, and overlying conglomerate and sandstone; (2) Pitoikam Formation-conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and sandstone overlain by interbedded silt- stone and sandstone; (3) Mulberry Wash Formation-rhyolite lava flows, flow breccias, and mass-flow breccias, with intercalated intraformational conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and sandstone, plus sparse within-plate alkali basalt and comendite in the upper part; and (4) Tinaja Spring Porphyry-intrusive rhyolite. The Mulberry Wash alkali basalt and comendite are genetically unrelated to the dominant calcalkaline rhyolite. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon from volcanic and intrusive rocks indicate the Topawa Group, despite its considerable thickness, represents only several million years of Middle Jurassic time, between approximately 170 and 165 Ma. Sedimentary rocks of the Topawa Group record mixing of detritus from a minimum of three sources: a dominant local source of porphyritic silicic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, identical or similar to those of the Topawa Group itself; Meso- proterozoic or Cambrian conglomerates in central or southeast Arizona, which contributed well-rounded, highly durable, polycyclic quartzite pebbles; and eolian sand fields, related to Middle Jurassic ergs that lay to the north of the magmatic arc and are now preserved on the Colorado Plateau. As the Topawa Group evidently represents only a relatively short interval of time, it does not record long-term evolution of the Jurassic magmatic arc, but rather represents a Middle Jurassic "stratigraphic snapshot" of the arc

  6. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    analysis. Further members of the "Grupo de trabajo: Investigaciones aplicadas a la gestion integral del riesgo en espacios urbanos" are: Oscar Andrés López, Milgreya Cerrada, Rafael Torres, Oscar Ramírez, Elieser Sanzonetti, José Heredia, Jaime Avendaño, Fernando Mazuera, Luis Molina, Alexi Suárez, Víctor Rocabado, Mónica Paolini, Luis Yegres, Leonardo Alvarado, Herbert Rendón, Luz Rodríguez, Jorge González.

  7. German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    During his current tour of countries in South America, the Honourable Foreign Minister of Germany, Mr. Joschka Fischer, stopped over at the ESO Paranal Observatory Wednesday night (March 6 - 7, 2002). Arriving in Antofagasta, capital of the II Chilean region, the Foreign Minister and his suite was met by local Chilean officials, headed by Mr. Jorge Molina, Intendente of the Region, as well as His Excellency, the German Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Georg CS Dick and others. In the afternoon of March 6, the Foreign Minister, accompanied by a distinguished delegation from the German Federal Parliament as well as by businessmen from Germany, travelled to Paranal, site of the world's largest optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The delegation was welcomed by the Observatory Director, Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi, the VLT Programme Manager, Professor Massimo Tarenghi, the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt and ESO staff members, and also by Mr. Reinhard Junker, Deputy Director General (European Co-operation) at the German Ministry for Education and Research. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at this remote desert site, some of which have been constructed by German firms. Moreover, most of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes, several of these in Germany. One of the latest arrivals to Paranal, the CONICA camera (cf. ESO PR 25/01 ), was built under an ESO contract by the Max-Planck-Institutes for Astronomy (MPIA, in Heidelberg) and Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE, in Garching). The guests had the opportunity to enjoy the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the terrace of the new Residencia building ( Photos 05/02 ). At the beginning of the night, the Minister was invited to the Control Room for the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) from where this unique new facility ( ESO PR 23/01 ) is now being thoroughly tested

  8. Modeling of Sporadic Layers Meteoritic in Origin in the Mars' Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Cuberos, G. J.; Peter, K.; Witasse, O. G.; Nuñez, M. J.; Paetzold, M.

    2011-12-01

    . (2008), J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12314. [2] Patzold et al. (2005), Science 310, 837-838. [3] Pesnell et al. (2000), J. Geophys. Res.105, 1695. [4] Molina-Cuberos et al. (2003), Planet. and Space Sci. 51, 239

  9. Measurements of Natural Radioactivity in Submicron Aerosols in Mexico City.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Sterling, K.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2003-12-01

    measurements taken during the study. The authors wish to thank the researchers at CENICA. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  10. The Austrian UVB monitoring network: 12 years of observations and 25 years of reconstructed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Weihs, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Simic, S.; Schmalwieser, A. W.; Wagner, J. E.; Schallhart, B.; Schauberger, G.; Fitzka, M.; Holawe, F.; Laube, W.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion in the early 1970s (e.g. Molina and Rowland, 1974; Farman et al., 1985) the interest in stratospheric ozone trends and solar UV-B increased within the scientific community and the general public because of the link between reduced total column ozone and increased UV-radiation doses. In 1996, the setup of an Austrian UVB monitoring network was initiated by the Federal Department of Environment (Blumthaler and Schauberger, 2001). Now it consists of 12 broadband detectors for measuring erythemally weighted solar UV irradiance at locations between 153 m and 3106 m above sea level. The locations of the stations were selected by objective criteria as spatial coverage and cover the whole altitude range of Austria. With that inter-stational correlation is close to 0.9 (Schmalwieser and Schauberger, 2001). All detectors are calibrated each year in the laboratory of the Division for Biomedical Physics, Innsbruck Medical University. First the relative spectral response of each detector is determined. Then by comparison with a double monochromator spectroradiometer the absolute calibration function is derived in dependence on solar zenith angle and on total atmospheric ozone (Blumthaler, 2004). The uncertainty of the calibration is about ±7% (at 95% confidence level) for solar zenith angles <75°, which is dominated by the uncertainty of the calibration lamp for the spectroradiometer (±4%). During routine operation, the measurements of all detectors are transmitted in near real time to the laboratory and then converted to UV-Indices, the internationally agreed unit for erythemally weighted solar irradiance. The results are then published on the internet (www.uv-index.at) every 15 minutes, together with a regional map showing the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria by combining the information from the measurement detectors with cloud information from Meteosat Second Generation. Recently reconstructed UV-data became

  11. In vivo delivery of bovine viral diahorrea virus, E2 protein using hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, D.; Cavallaro, A. S.; Mody, K. T.; Xiong, L.; Mahony, T. J.; Qiao, S. Z.; Mitter, N.

    2014-05-01

    Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 μg Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 μg dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 μg HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 μg) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 μg). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine.Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral

  12. Oxidation and cyclization of organics in Mars-like soils during evolved gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Iñiguez, Enrique; de La Rosa, Jose; McKay, Chris

    , doi:10.1029/2009GL040454. Navarro-González, R., Navarro, K.F., de la Rosa, J., Molina, P., Iñiguez, E., Miranda, L.D., a n Morales, P., Cienfuegos, E., Coll, P., Raulin, F., Amils, R. and McKay, C.P.: 2006. The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and their implications for the Viking results. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 16089-16094. Navarro-González, R., Iñiguez, E., de la Rosa, J. and McKay, C.P.: 2009, Characterization of a n organics, microorganisms, desert soils and Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization coupled to mass spectrometry and their implications for the search of organics on Mars by Phoenix and future space missions. Astrobiology 9, 703-715, doi: 10.1089/ast.2008.0284.

  13. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case–Control Study in Spain and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    control study population. Negative associations with chloroform concentrations and ingestion suggest differences among specific THMs, but these findings should be confirmed in other study populations. Citation: Villanueva CM, Gracia-Lavedan E, Bosetti C, Righi E, Molina AJ, Martín V, Boldo E, Aragonés N, Perez-Gomez B, Pollan M, Gomez Acebo I, Altzibar JM, Jiménez Zabala A, Ardanaz E, Peiró R, Tardón A, Chirlaque MD, Tavani A, Polesel J, Serraino D, Pisa F, Castaño-Vinyals G, Espinosa A, Espejo-Herrera N, Palau M, Moreno V, La Vecchia C, Aggazzotti G, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Kogevinas M. 2017. Colorectal cancer and long-term exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water: a multicenter case–––control study in Spain and Italy. Environ Health Perspect 125:56–65; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP155 PMID:27383820

  14. Runoff experiment and adapted SfM photogrammetry to assess rill erosion in Mediterranean agricultural fields from a holistic point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronz, Oliver; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Seeger, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    , S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., Jordán, A., Cerdà, A., 2016. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Sci. Total Environ. 551-552, 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Marzolff, I., Poesen, J., 2009. The potential of 3D gully monitoring with GIS using high-resolution aerial photography and a digital photogrammetry system. Geomorphology, GIS and SDA applications in geomorphology 111, 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.05.047 Poesen, J., Nachtergaele, J., Verstraeten, G., Valentin, C., 2003. Gully erosion and environmental change: importance and research needs. Catena, Gully Erosion and Global Change 50, 91-133. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00143-1 Rodrigo Comino, J., Brings, C., Lassu, T., Iserloh, T., Senciales, J., Martínez Murillo, J., Ruiz Sinoga, J., Seeger, M., Ries, J., 2015. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany). Solid Earth 6, 823-837. doi:10.5194/se-6-823-2015 Wirtz, S., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2012. Field experiments for understanding and quantification of rill erosion processes. Catena 91, 21-34. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.12.002 Wirtz, S., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2010. The rill experiment as a method to approach a quantification of rill erosion process activity. Z. Für Geomorphol. NF 54, 47-64. Wirtz, S., Seeger, M., Zell, A., Wagner, C., Wagner, J.-F., Ries, J.B., 2013. Applicability of Different Hydraulic Parameters to Describe Soil Detachment in Eroding Rills. PLoS ONE 8, 1-11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064861

  15. "Piedra Dorada": a natural stone as an intrinsic part of two World Heritage Cities in Andalusia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sánchez-Valverde, Josefina; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    "Piedra Dorada" was used to construct some of the most important heritage buildings in the cities of Úbeda and Baeza, in Jaén (Spain). UNESCO declared these cities World Heritage Cities in 2003. Although there are some Iberian or Roman ruins in which is already possible to see the use of this stone, it is from the XVI century when "Piedra Dorada" is extensively used in the construction of the main historical buildings. Some of well-known monuments are Vázquez de Molina Palace or chain Palace (XVI), San Salvador Church (Sacred Chapel of El Salvador) (XVI) o the Royal Colegiata of Santa María la Mayor de los Reales Alcázares (XVI) in Úbeda or the Justice House-The House of the Corregidor (XVI), the Saint Cathedral of the Natividad de Nuestra Señora (XVI) or Jabalquinto Palace (XV), in Baeza, among many others. "Piedra Dorada" includes several varieties with similar mineralogical and chemical characteristics, called "Piedra Viva" or "Jabaluna", more cemented and used mainly with structural purposes (ashlars, columns, etc) and "Piedra Franca", less cemented and used mainly with decorative purposes (façades, statues, etc). From a geological point of view, "Piedra Dorada" is a medium to fine grain size bioclastic calcarenite, part of the upper Miocene-Pliocene deposits of the Guadalquivir Basin (Post Orogenic Neogene Basins of the Betic Chains). It is made up of quartz (8% to 29%), calcite and/or dolomite (34% to 80%), and some feldspar. The intergranular calcite cement proportion varies between 7% and 33%. Physical and mechanical properties are highly variable depending on the variety. "Piedra Viva" has an open porosity of 5,2%, bulk density of 2,63 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric pressure between 1,5-2,7 %, compressive strength (dry) between 20,1-18,0 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 87,3-77,0 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 2,5%. "Piedra Franca" has an open porosity of 24,3%, bulk density of 2,00 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric

  16. Deep-water Circulation: Processes & Products (16-18 June 2010, Baiona): introduction and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Molina, Francisco Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Llave, Estefanía; Rebesco, Michele; Ercilla, Gemma; van Rooij, David; Mena, Anxo; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Voelker, Antje H. L.

    2011-12-01

    Deep-water circulation is a critical part of the global conveyor belt that regulates Earth's climate. The bottom (contour)-current component of this circulation is of key significance in shaping the deep seafloor through erosion, transport, and deposition. As a result, there exists a high variety of large-scale erosional and depositional features (drifts) that together form more complex contourite depositional systems on continental slopes and rises as well as in ocean basins, generated by different water masses flowing at different depths and at different speeds either in the same or in opposite directions. Yet, the nature of these deep-water processes and the deposited contourites is still poorly understood in detail. Their ultimate decoding will undoubtedly yield information of fundamental importance to the earth and ocean sciences. The international congress Deep-water Circulation: Processes & Products was held from 16-18 June 2010 in Baiona, Spain, hosted by the University of Vigo. Volume 31(5/6) of Geo-Marine Letters is a special double issue containing 17 selected contributions from the congress, guest edited by F.J. Hernández-Molina, D.A.V. Stow, E. Llave, M. Rebesco, G. Ercilla, D. Van Rooij, A. Mena, J.-T. Vázquez and A.H.L. Voelker. The papers and discussions at the congress and the articles in this special issue provide a truly multidisciplinary perspective of interest to both academic and industrial participants, contributing to the advancement of knowledge on deep-water bottom circulation and related processes, as well as contourite sedimentation. The multidisciplinary contributions (including geomorphology, tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, physical oceanography, and deep-water ecology) have demonstrated that advances in paleoceanographic reconstructions and our understanding of the ocean's role in the global climate system depend largely on the feedbacks among disciplines. New insights into the link between the biota of

  17. Drought impacts on vegetation dynamics in the Mediterranean based on remote sensing and multi-scale drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Gouveia, Celia M.; Beguería, Santiago; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45. Vicente-Serrano S.M., López-Moreno J.I., Beguería S., Lorenzo-Lacruz J., Sanchez-Lorenzo A., García-Ruiz J.M., Azorin-Molina C., Móran-Tejeda E., Revuelto J., Trigo R., Coelho F., Espejo F.: Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe. Environmental Research Letters, 9, 044001, 2014. Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  18. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    time between drought events, although no clear pattern has emerged. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C. (2012) "Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012. Hoerling, M., Eischeid, J., Perlwitz, J., Quan, X., Zhang, T., and Pegion, P. (2012). On the increased frequency of Mediterranean drought. J. Clim., 25, 2146-2161. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45. Vicente-Serrano S.M., López-Moreno J.I., Beguería S., Lorenzo-Lacruz J., Sanchez-Lorenzo A., García-Ruiz J.M., Azorin-Molina C., Móran-Tejeda E., Revuelto J., Trigo R., Coelho F., Espejo F.: Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe. Environmental Research Letters, 9, 044001, 2014. Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  19. PASCOS 2012 - 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The XVII International Conference on Strings, Particles and Cosmology, PASCOS 2012, was held in the City of Mérida, Mexico, from June 3-8, 2012. The conference series is aimed at exploring the interface and interplay between particle physics, string theory and cosmology. With the advent of new data, the emphasis of the XVIII edition of PASCOS was on phenomenology and the interpretation of recent observational and experimental results. The conference followed the format of previous conferences in this series, with plenary reviews and contributed presentations in parallel sessions. The lectures covered a wide range of subjects which included: Dark matter and dark energy, flavor physics and CP violation, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, Higgs physics, baryogenesis and EDMs, supergravity, high energy cosmic rays, string and F-theory GUTs, and string phenomenology. This is the first time that PASCOS was held in Latin America. The aim to do it in Mexico was to engage the Latin American community and thus to bring the conference to a wider and different audience, a goal which was thoroughly achieved. The venue was held at the Hotel Fiesta Americana in the beautiful city of Mérida. The social events included a reception with typical local food at the Katun restaurant, conference dinner at the historical Quinta Montes Molina, and an excursion to the archeological site of Dzibilchaltún including a swim at the famous cenote. PASCOS 2012 was possible thanks to the generous support of the following sponsors: CONACyT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología), UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Consejo Técnico de la Investigación Científica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Instituto de Física), Cinvestav, (Centro de Estudios Avanzados del IPN: U. Zacatanco, U. Mérida and Secretaría General), ICyTDF (Instituto Científico y Tecnológico del D.F.), PIFI (Programa Integral de Fortalecimiento Institucional, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León), SMF

  20. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  1. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    where necessary. In the end, 61 manuscripts were accepted for publication. The Editors are very grateful to the following colleagues for their rapid and careful reviewing of manuscripts: M Albrecht, J S Barnard, R Beanland, G A Botton, D Cooper, L Clement, A J Craven, A G Cullis, N Daneu, V Grillo, E Grünbaum, A Gustafsson, P-H Jouneau, O L Krivanek, D Larson, M Luysberg, S I Molina, F A Ponce, A Rosenauer, F M Ross, I M Ross, J-L Rouviere, and Z L Wang. Prizes for student presentations at the conference were awarded to Mr Alberto Eljarrat, Universitat de Barcelona, and Mr Thibaud Denneulin, CEA-LETI Grenoble, both of whom are presenting their results also as contributions to this proceedings volume. Entertainment during the conference dinner was provided by the college's string quartet, and after the meal we held the now traditional friendly competition between teams of microscopists; this year teams were asked to construct models of scientific instruments using only cardboard, paper, sticky tape and glue. By unanimous vote, the team who presented the 'Atomic Food Microscope (AFM)' prototype won first prize - the deft 'dipping mode' of the cardboard cantilever (see photo) was a highlight! Figure 2 Figure 2. The prize winning 'Atomic Food Microscope (AFM)' in action! The organisers are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the meeting by presenting trade stands during an exhibition on the evening of 5 April: Agar Scientific, Bruker, CamScan, FEI, Gatan, Hitachi High Technologies, HREM Research, IOP Publishing, JEOL, Leica Microsystems and MICOS. Finally, we would like to thank the staff of the Institute of Physics for their expert assistance in planning and organising this conference and in particular Claire Garland for her dedicated professional support and her always joyful approach to any issues that arose. October 2011 T Walther P A Midgley

  2. Splash erosion. A bibliometric Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Raga, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Ellison (1944) developed the splash board as a system for measuring splash erosion that was both cheap and reliable. Bollinne (1975), Morgan (1978, 1981). Mutchler (1967) described another different type of splash detectors according to whether they were passive or could register data. In the study mentioned above these authors included bottles, funnels, glasses, photography, markers. After that several devices has been made up like the splash sampler (Leguedois et al., 2005), soil tray (Van Dijk et al., 2002), splash funnel (Terry, 1989) and several rain cups (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010; Molina and Llinares, 1996; Torri et al., 1987). Splash erosion research has materialized in the form of a number of papers published in international journals. The database of bibliographic references employed has been one of the most prestigious ones: theWeb of Science (ISI). The search was carried out on January 27th 2012. Among the 3x10^8 scholarly documents included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) 1899 to present , the searching engine located 439 containing the word "splash erosion*", where the asterisk acts as a wildcard for any letter or group of letters. Of these, 383 were classified as articles, 87 as proceeding papers, 5 as editorial material, 2 as notes and 1 as correction. These documents have been published in 163 different journals, although four are particularly recurrent: Earth surface processes and Landforms, Catena, Soil Science Society of America Journal and Hydrological processes, with 41, 35, 35 and 26 published documents respectively. A geographic analysis of these articles has been carried out in an attempt to determine in what parts of the world research projects were making use of splash erosion. The results are that anglo-saxon countries, as USA, England and Australia dominate, particularly USA, with 130 articles. China and Japan are large communities of researches too, and some Central European countries as Belgium, France Germany

  3. Seismic Risk Scenarios in Puerto Principe (haiti). a Tool for Reconstruction and Emergency Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Palacios, S.; Torres-Fernandez, Y.; Moise, J.; Benito-Oterino, B.; Haiti Working Group

    2011-12-01

    The 12 January 2010, an earthquake hit the city of Port-au-Prince, capital of Haiti. The earthquake reached a magnitude Mw 7.0 and the epicenter was located near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km west of the capital. The earthquake occurred in the boundary region separating the Caribbean plate and the North American plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression, and accommodates about 20 mm/y slip, with the Caribbean plate moving eastward with respect to the North American plate (DeMets et al., 2000). Initially the location and focal mechanism of the earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system (EPGFZ), however Hayes et al., (2010) combined seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process involved slip on multiple faults. Besides, the authors showed that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the EPGFZ. On December 2010, a Spanish cooperation project financed by the Politechnical University of Madrid started with a clear objective: Evaluation of seismic hazard and risk in Haiti and its application to the seismic design, urban planning, emergency and resource management. One of the tasks of the project was devoted to vulnerability assessment of the current building stock and the estimation of seismic risk scenarios. The study was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires a detailed classification of the building stock in predominant building typologies (according to the materials in the structure and walls, number of stories and age of construction) and the use of the building (residential, commercial, etc.). Later, the knowledge of the soil characteristics of

  4. Aqueous aerosol may build up large upper tropospheric ice supersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: ice supersaturation, upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, freezing of aqueous aerosol. Observations often reveal enhanced and persistent upper tropospheric (UT) ice supersaturation, Si up to 100%, independently of whether cirrus ice clouds are present or not (Krämer et al., 2009; Lawson et al., 2008). However, a water activity criterion (WAC) (Koop et al., 2000) does not allow the formation of Si > ~67% by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous droplets even at the lowest atmospheric temperature of ~185 K. For aqueous aerosol the WAC predicts the existence of a so called homogeneous ice nucleation threshold which, being expressed as Si, is between ~52 and 67% in the temperature range of ~220 - 185 K. The nature of the formation of large Si remains unclear. Since water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas it is important to know the nature of the accumulation and persistence of water vapor in the UT. We studied the freezing behavior of micrometer-scaled 3-, 4-, and 5-component droplets, which contain different weight fractions of H2O, H2SO4, HNO3, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)HSO4, NH4NO3, and (NH4)3H(SO4)2. The study was performed between 133 and 278 K at cooling rates of 3, 0.1, and 0.05 K/min using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Bogdan and Molina, 2010). The cooling rates of 0.1 and 0.05 K/min (6 and 3 K/h) are similar to the smallest reported synoptic temperature change of ~2 K/h (Carslaw et al., 1998). Using the measured freezing temperature of ice, Ti, and the thermodynamic E-AIM model of the system of H+ - NH4+ - SO42-- NO3-- H2O (Clegg et al., 1998), we calculated the corresponding clear-sky Si which would be built up immediately prior to the formation of ice cirrus clouds by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosol of similar composition. We found that our calculated values of Si are both larger and smaller than the homogeneous ice nucleation threshold. For example, for the droplets of compositions of 15/10 and 20/10 wt % (NH4)3H(SO4)2/H2SO4, which

  5. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  6. Atmospheric Science and the CFC Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Industry involvement with developing atmospheric science and subsequent regulations to protect ozone was unusual. Chlorofluorocarbon manufacturers were research-based businesses accustomed to understanding the science behind product-related issues. When Lovelock's measurements in 1971 implied most of the cumulative production of CFCs remained in the atmosphere, global CFC producers funded academic research to identify natural sinks for the materials. The Fluorocarbon Program Panel (FPP) began in 1972, but changed focus to atmospheric photochemistry following Rowland and Molina's work in 1974. Despite early vociferous opposition, especially by the CFC-using aerosol industry, to any regulations, leaders among the producers worked to build their scientific understanding, expanding FPP funding and launching internal work in modeling and ozone trend analysis. The key first question for industry was not how much depletion might occur, but whether it would occur at all. If so, regardless of the amount, regulations and a major transition would be required in CFC-using industries, and the response would need to be global and prompt. So long as that basic question was in doubt, some businesses and countries would resist the economic cost of action. In the meantime, the producing industry worked to identify potential alternatives and to communicate atmospheric science to the downstream industries. Although the industry science effort was often disparaged as an attack on "real" science, my only assignment when I joined DuPont's Central Research Department in 1979 was to understand and contribute to the science, keeping both the company and our customers informed. Our modeling results were published freely. FPP funding led to better knowledge of the ClO + O rate constant, significantly increasing depletion in model calculations; supported the development of the techniques used to measure in situ atmospheric ClO, so important in later strengthening the case for chlorine

  7. Estimation of slip scenarios of mega-thrust earthquakes and strong motion simulations for Central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, N.; Tavera, H.; Aguilar, Z.; Chlieh, M.; Calderon, D.; Sekiguchi, T.; Nakai, S.; Yamazaki, F.

    2012-12-01

    all scenario slips for central Andes, and for an average soil condition, exhibit similar amplitudes and attenuation characteristics with distance as the PGA and PGV values observed during the 2010 Maule (Mw 8.8), and 2011 Tohoku-oki (Mw 9.0) earthquakes. Our results clearly indicate that the simulated ground motions for scenarios with deep rupture nucleations (~40 km) are consistently smaller than the ground motions obtained for shallower rupture nucleations. We also performed strong ground motion simulations in metropolitan Lima by using the aforementioned slip scenarios, and incorporating site amplifications obtained from several microtremors array surveys conducted at representative geotechnical zones in this city. Our simulated PGA and PGV in Lima reach values of 1000 cm/s^2 and 80 cm/s. Our results show that the largest values of PGA (at Puente Piedra district, Northern Lima) are related with short period site effects, whereas the largest values of PGV are related with large site amplifications for periods from 1s to 1.5s (at Callao, Villa el Salvador and La Molina districts). Our results also indicate that the simulated PGA and PGV in central Lima (Parque de la Reserva) are in average 2~3 times larger than the values recorded by a strong motion instrument installed at this location, during the 1974 (Mw8.0) and 1966 (Mw8.0) earthquakes off-shore Lima.

  8. In depth analysis of the role of the mountain gap south of the Valley of Mexico on the air quality in Mexico City.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo Ruiz Suarez, Luis

    2010-05-01

    , evidence of emissions from Tula point sources (refinery and or thermoelectric power plant) was observed very early in the day. Later in the day, plumes coming from biomass burning activities were detected by instruments at TENAI. The role of the crop lands in the mountain gap as a source of PM10 by wind erosion is highlighted both, by the ultra light plane and the coupled models WEPS-MCCM. Note: The Tenango Team members are; L. G. Ruiz-Suárez (1) , R. Torres-Jardón (1), Henry Woehrnschimmel (2), R. Steinbrecher (3), W. Junkerman (3), E. Ningenda (1), A. García-Reynoso (1), M. Melamed (1), A. Jazcilevich (1), B. E. Mar-Morales (1), M. Grutter (1) and L. Molina (4,5)

  9. Geologic map of the Horse Mountain Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, W.J.; Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.; Maldonado, Florian

    2003-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Horse Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, summarizes available geologic information for the quadrangle. It provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Paleocene and early Eocene Wasatch Formation down through Ordovician and Cambrian units into Precambrian hornblende tonalite. The Wasatch Formation includes the Shire, Molina and Atwell Gulch Members which are mapped separately. The underlying Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group is subdivided into the Willams Fork and Iles Formations. The Cameo-Fairfield clinker zone within the Williams Fork Formation is mapped separately. The Iles Formation includes the Rollins Sandstone Member at the top, mapped separately, and the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale consists of four members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, the Juana Lopez Member, and a lower member, undivided. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and Jurassic Entrada Sandstone are mapped separately. The Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is mapped with the Entrada in the Horse Mountain Quadrangle. The upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Permian and Triassic(?) State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is undivided. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Evaporite are diapiric, intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group consists of the Dyer Dolomite and the underlying Parting Quartzite, undivided. Locally, the Lower Ordovician

  10. The SunCloud project: An initiative for a development of a worldwide sunshine duration and cloudiness observations dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2010-09-01

    (martin.wild@env.ethz.ch) E. Pallé, Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, Spain (epalle@iac.es) J. Calbó, Group of Environmental Physics, University of Girona, Spain (josep.calbo@udg.edu) M. Brunetti, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council, Italy (m.brunetti@isac.cnr.it) G. Stanhill, Department of Environmental Physics and Irrigation, The Volcani Center, Israel (gerald@volcani.agri.gov.il) R. Brázdil, Institute of Geography, Masaryk University, Czech Republic (brazdil@sci.muni.cz) M. Barriendos, Department of Modern History, University of Barcelona, Spain (mbarriendos@ub.edu) C. Deser, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA (cdeser@ucar.edu) P. Pereira, Department of Environmental Protection, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania (pereiraub@gmail.com) C. Azorin-Molina, The CEAM Foundation (Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo), Spain (cazorin@ceam.es) Q. You, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (yqingl@126.com)

  11. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing the main oxidants O3 and its photolysis product OH and directly, e.g., by reactions of the Cl radical with hydrocarbons (e.g., CH4).Already by the middle of the nineteenth century, Marchand (1852) reported the presence of bromine and iodine in rain and other natural waters. He also mentions the benefits of iodine in drinking water through the prevention of goitres and cretinism. In a prophetic monograph "Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology," Smith (1872) describes measurements of chloride in rain water, which he states to originate partly from the oceans by a process that he compares with the bursting of "soap bubbles" which produces "small vehicles" that transfer small spray droplets of seawater to the air. From deviations of the sulfate-to-chloride ratio in coastal rain compared to seawater, Smith concluded that chemical processes occur once the particles are airborne.For almost a century thereafter, however, atmospheric halogens received little attention. One exception was the work by Cauer (1939), who reported that iodine pollution has been significant in Western and Central Europe due to the inefficient burning of seaweed, causing mean gas phase atmospheric concentrations as high as or greater than 0.5 μg m-3. In his classical textbook Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, Junge (1963) devoted less than three pages to halogen gas phase chemistry, discussing chlorine and iodine. As reviewed by Eriksson (1959a, b), the main atmospheric source of halogens is sea salt, derived from the bursting of bubbles of air which are produced by ocean waves and other

  12. Risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water.

    PubMed

    Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2009-01-01

    P. aeruginosa is part of a large group of free-living bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment. This organism is often found in natural waters such as lakes and rivers in concentrations of 10/100 mL to >1,000/100 mL. However, it is not often found in drinking water. Usually it is found in 2% of samples, or less, and at concentrations up to 2,300 mL(-1) (Allen and Geldreich 1975) or more often at 3-4 CFU/mL. Its occurrence in drinking water is probably related more to its ability to colonize biofilms in plumbing fixtures (i.e., faucets, showerheads, etc.) than its presence in the distribution system or treated drinking water. P. aeruginosa can survive in deionized or distilled water (van der Jooij et al. 1982; Warburton et al. 1994). Hence, it may be found in low nutrient or oligotrophic environments, as well as in high nutrient environments such as in sewage and in the human body. P. aeruginosa can cause a wide range of infections, and is a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals. In particular, it can be a serious pathogen in hospitals (Dembry et al. 1998). It can cause endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, and meningitis, and is a leading cause of septicemia. P. aeruginosa is also a major cause of folliculitis and ear infections acquired by exposure to recreational waters containing the bacterium. In addition, it has been recognized as a serious cause of keratitis, especially in patients wearing contact lenses. P. aeruginosa is also a major pathogen in burn and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a high mortality rate in both populations (MOlina et al. 1991; Pollack 1995). P. aeruginosa is frequently found in whirlpools and hot tubs, sometimes in 94-100% of those tested at concenrations of <1 to 2,400 CFU/mL. The high concentrations found probably result from the relatively high temperatures of whirlpools, which favor the growth of P. aeruginosa, and the aeration which also

  13. The importance of rainfall drop size characteristics for splash erosion on terraced eucalyptus plantations in north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Raga, M.; Marques, R.; Fraile, R.; Varela, M. E.; Castro, A.; Keizer, J. J.

    2009-09-01

    monitor was installed in the immediate surroundings of the Soutelo site, together with a Davis Weather Monitor II which includes an automated rainfall gauge. A further PRONAMIC automated rainfall gauge was installed in the Pessegueiro area. One or more totaliser rainfall gauges were used to check the nearby automated gauges. Splash erosion was measured using two designs, namely a funnel- and a cup-type model. The funnel model, following the design by Terry, comprises two funnels with a space between them to insert a filter to gather the soil released. The sampling diameter is 12 cm. This twin-funnel system ensures that the soil particles captured by the device will not be lost again, as it protects the filter from washout. The cup model, following the design by Molina and Llinares, consists of a 7 cm-long aluminium cylinder with a diameter of 10 cm. A 0.5 cm opening wire mesh is fixed inside the cylinder. The filter is secured on top of the mesh, and another mesh is fixed on top of the filter, this time a movable one with a much larger opening. The aim is to reduce the likelihood of the raindrops washing out the filters that have already collected samples of splashed soil particles. The device is fixed to the ground with legs instead of with long cylinders to avoid runoff water swirling down the slope and contaminating the filters with suspended and un-splashed soil particles. At each of the three study sites, five terraces were selected for the installation of two cups and two funnels per terrace, at distances of at least one meter. At the Soutelo site, the cups and funnels at each terrace were placed in neighbouring pairs, whereas at the Pessegueiro sites they were placed in a totally random manner. The installation of the splash devices took place at different periods, ranging from May 2007 in the case of the Soutelo area and November 2007 in the case of the Pessegueiro area, although their monitoring ended at the same time, in May 2008. During the monitoring period

  14. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  15. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project). J. Rodrigo-Comino, was awarded with a scholar grant (FPU) by Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte de España (Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, Spain). References Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, Ó., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., Orenes, F.G., Ritsema, C.J. 2016. Use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency-high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research 54, 154-165. Keesstra, S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., Jordán, A., Cerdà, A. 2016. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment 551-552, 357-366. Mwango, S.B., B.M. Msanya, P. . Mtakwa, D.N. Kimaro, J. Deckers, and J. Poesen. 2016. Effectiveness of Mulching Under Miraba in Controlling Soil Erosion, Fertility Restoration and Crop Yield in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1266-1275. doi:10.1002/ldr.2332. Novara, A., Gristina, l., Saladino, S.S., Santoto, S., Cerdà, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140-147. García-Díaz, A., Allas, R.B., Gristina, L., Cerdà, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A. 2016. Carbon input threshold for soil carbon budget optimization in eroding vineyards. Geoderma 271, 144-149. Prosdocimi M., Burguet M., Di Prima S., Sofia G., Terol E., Rodrigo Comino, J., Cerdà A., Tarolli P. 2017. Rainfall simulation and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry for the analysis of soil water erosion in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 574, 204-215. Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A., Tarolli, P. 2016a. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1

  16. Time since plantation is the most important determining factor for soil erosion rates in vineyards. A case study in the valley of Les Alcusses valley, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrígo Comino, Jesús; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; García Díaz, Andrés; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    simulated rainfall events. Soil Res, 54, 2, 154-165 DOI: 10.1071/SR15092 Keesstra S, Pereira P, Novara A, Brevik EC, Azorin-Molina C, Parras-Alcántara L, Jordán A, Cerdà A. 2016. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment 551-552: 357-366. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Novara, A., A. Cerdà, D. Carmelo, L. P. Giuseppe, S. Antonino, and G. Luciano. 2015. Effectiveness of Carbon Isotopic Signature for Estimating Soil Erosion and Deposition Rates in Sicilian Vineyards. Soil and Tillage Research 152: 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.still.2015.03.010. Novara, A., L. Gristina, F. Guaitoli, A. Santoro, and A. Cerdà. 2013. Managing Soil Nitrate with Cover Crops and Buffer Strips in Sicilian Vineyards. Solid Earth 4 (2): 255-262. doi:10.5194/se-4-255-2013. Novara, A., L. Gristina, S. S. Saladino, A. Santoro, and A. Cerdà. 2011. Soil Erosion Assessment on Tillage and Alternative Soil Managements in a Sicilian Vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117: 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007. Prosdocimi, M., A. Cerdà, and P. Tarolli. 2016a. Soil Water Erosion on Mediterranean Vineyards: A Review. Catena 141: 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.02.010. Prosdocimi, M., A. Jordán, P. Tarolli, S. Keesstra, A. Novara, and A. Cerdà. 2016b. The Immediate Effectiveness of Barley Straw Mulch in Reducing Soil Erodibility and Surface Runoff Generation in Mediterranean Vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 547: 323-330. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076. Rodrigo Comino J, Iserloh T, Morvan X, Malam Issa O, Naisse C, Keesstra SD, Cerdà A, Prosdocimi M, Arnáez J, Lasanta T, Ramos MC, Marqués MJ, Ruiz Colmenero M, Bienes R, Ruiz Sinoga JD, Seeger M, Ries JB 2016a. Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France. Hydrology, 3 (1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology3010006 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Lassu, T., Cerdà, A., Keesstra, S

  17. Laboratory studies of peroxy radical reactions using the turbulent flow chemical ionisation mass spectrometer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacak, A.; Bardwell, M.; Percival, C.

    2003-04-01

    longrightarrow RO_2^- + X 210Po emitting a particles is used to ionise N_2 used as a carrier gas, thus creating secondary electrons. These electrons attach rapidly to the neutral precursor X (e.g. SF6) of the donor to produce X^-. The X^- ion can then react via a charge transfer with the RO_2 species of interest. The resultant RO_2^- is then passed to the mouth of a quadrupole-mass filter via a set of ion optics and detected by an ion multiplier. References (1) Wennberg, P.O., T.F. Hanisco, L. Jaegle, D.J. Jacob, E.J. Hintsa, E.J. Lazendorf, J.G. anderson, R.-S. Gao, E.R. Keim, S.G. Donnelly, L.A. Del Negro, D.W. Fahey, S.A. Mckeen, R.J. Salawitch, C.R. Webster, R.D. May, R.L. Herman, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, E.L. Atlas, S.M. Schauffler, F. Locke, C.T. McElroy and T.P. Bui, Science, 79, 49 (1999). (2) Brown S.S., R.K. Talukdar and A.R. Ravishankara, Chem. Phys. Lett., 99, 277 (1999). (3) Gao, R.S., D.W. Fahey, L.A. Del negro, S.G. Donnelly, E.R. Keim, J.A. Neuman, E. Teverovskaia, P.O. Wennberg, T.F. Hanisco, E.J. Lazendorf, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, J.C. Wilson, J.W. Elkins, R.M. Stimpfle, R.C. Cohen, C.T. McElroy, T.P. Bui, R.J. Salawitch, S.S. Brown, A.R. Ravishankara, R.W. Portmann, M.K.W. Ko D.K. Weisenstein and P.A. Newman, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 1153 (1999). (4) Seeley, J.V., J.T. Jayne and M.J. Molina, J. Phys. Chem., 00, 4019 (1996).

  18. Use of local pastoral species to increase fodder production of the saline rangelands in southern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlili, Abderrazak; Tarhouni, Mohamed; Cardà, Artemi; Neffati, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) References Anaya-Romero, M., S. K. Abd-Elmabod, M. Muñoz-Rojas, G. Castellano, C. J. Ceacero, S. Alvarez, M. Méndez, and D. De la Rosa. 2015. Evaluating Soil Threats Under Climate Change Scenarios in the Andalusia Region, Southern Spain. Land Degradation and Development 26 (5): 441-449. doi:10.1002/ldr.2363. Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2016. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res, 54, 2, 154-165 DOI: 10.1071/SR15092 Eskandari, H., Borji, M., Khosravi, H., Mesbahzadeh, T. Desertification of forest, range and desert in Tehran province, affected by climate change. (2016) Solid Earth, 7 (3), pp. 905-915. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/se-7-905-2016 Keesstra, S., P. Pereira, A. Novara, E. C. Brevik, C. Azorin-Molina, L. Parras-Alcántara, A. Jordán, and A. Cerdà. 2016. Effects of Soil Management Techniques on Soil Water Erosion in Apricot Orchards. Science of the Total Environment 551-552: 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182. Mengistu, D., W. Bewket, and R. Lal. 2016. Conservation Effects on Soil Quality and Climate Change Adaptability of Ethiopian Watersheds. Land Degradation and Development 27 (6): 1603-1621. doi:10.1002/ldr.2376. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T.E., Martini, D., Dixon, K.D., Merritt, D.J (2016) Climate and soil factors influencing seedling recruitment of plant species used for dryland restoration. SOIL 2:1-11, DOI: 10.5194/soil-2016-25 Prosdocimi, M., A. Jordán, P. Tarolli, S. Keesstra, A. Novara, and A. Cerdà. 2016. The Immediate Effectiveness of Barley Straw Mulch in Reducing Soil Erodibility and Surface

  19. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in urban parks of Valencia City, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Burguet, María; Pereira, Paulo; Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    .W., Sutherland, R.A., Mudd, R.G., Nullet, M.A., Ziegler, A.D. 2015.Erosion potential under miconia calvescens stands on the island of hawai'i. Land Degradation and Development, 26 (3), pp. 218-226. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2200 Pereira, P., Giménez-Morera, A., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Jordán, A., Masto, R. E., Brevik, E., Azorin-Molina, C. Cerdà, A. 2015. The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 12, 12947-12985. Prosdocimi,M., Jordán, A., Tarolli, P., Keesstra, S., Novara, A., Cerdà, A. 2016. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of The Total Environment, 547, 15 ,323-330, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076 Wang Y., Fan J., Cao L., Liang Y. 2015. Infiltration and Runoff Generation Under Various Cropping Patterns in the Red Soil Region of China. Land Degradation and Development. DOI: 10. 1002/ldr. 2460 Zhao, C., Gao, J., Huang, Y., Wang, G., Zhang, M. 2015. Effects of Vegetation Stems on Hydraulics of Overland Flow Under Varying Water Discharges. Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2423

  20. Liquid Chromatography Applied to Space System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinot, Pauline; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; Sternberg, Robert; Carbonnier, Benjamin

    , etc.) which are good examples for one of the two intrinsic features of life (i.e. complexity) would then be searched for. Although these methods are very promising as they have already demonstrated real benefits in terms of sensitivity towards specific compounds of middle/high molecular weight, they cannot be used to detect in one pot a wide range of biopolymer targets with very diverse nature, such as peptides or oligonucleotides. In this context, it would be interesting to develop a “micro-lab” equipped with a miniaturized HPLC-MS as the ones currently developed in the field of biological and medicinal sciences. The objective is to demonstrate unequivocally the presence or absence in space of a wide range of biopolymers thanks to a “one step one pot” instrumentation. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility and the validity of such a concept. For that, we optimize the chromatographic conditions and the mass spectrometer parameters to detect in the range of ppb, proteins and polypeptides biomarkers, while taking into account the space constraints. On a UPLC-HRMS (Q-Exactive and Qq-TOF), different stationary phases (laboratory-made or commercially available), different eluents, gradient flows, temperatures, pressures, and the use of a pre-concentration stage are tested. Dual detection (MS and diode array) is also considered. First experiments have highlighted the ability of such a technique to find ultra-traces level of organic matters under definite space constraints (elution flow, solvents, temperature...). This work is funded by the French Space Agency (CNES) References Glavin DP, Schubert Ml, Botta O, Kminek G, Bada JL (2001) Detecting pyrolysis products from bacteria on Mars. Earth Planet Sc Lett 185:1-2. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00370-8 Navarro-González R, Navarro KF, de la Rosa J, Iñliguez E, Molina P, Mira LD (2006) The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and their implications for the

  1. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    ,5-dimethylfuran, 4-methylpyridine, ethylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, styrene, methylbenze-neamine, 2,4-hexadienal, phenol, 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, benzonitrile, cyclopropyliden-emethylbenzene, 2,3-dihydro-1-H-indene, 1-methylethenylbenzene, 3-methylphenol, and 1-propenyl-benzene. The carbon isotopic composition of the organic fraction of the stromatolites is deter-mined by a δ 13 C=-24.28 whereas the inorganic fraction, hydromagnesite, is determined by a δ 13 C=5.86. Our data shows two interesting chemical signatures that can used to detect extant life in Martian carbonates: (1) organics are not oxidized by mineral matrix during TV-MS and TV-GC-MS analysis; and (2) distinctive carbon isotopic fractionation occurs in the or-ganic and inorganic fraction of stromatolites. Future work should center on studying fossilized stromatolites to determine if these chemical signatures are lost with time. References: Ehlmann, B.L., Mustard, J.F., Murchie, S.L. Poulet, F., Bishop, J.L., Brown, A.J., Calvin, W.M., Clark, R.N., Des Marais, D.J., Milliken, R.E., Roach, L.H., Roush, T.L., Swayze, G.A., and Wray, J.J.: 2008, Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars. Science 322, 1828-1832. Escobar-Briones, E., Alcocer, J., Cienfuegos, E., and Morales P.: 1998, Carbon stable isotopes ratios of pelagic and litoral communities in Alchichica crater-lake, Mexico, Internat J Salt Lake Res 7, 345-355. Falcón, L.I., Escobar-Briones, E., and Romero, D.: 2002, Nitrogen fixation patterns displayed by cyanobacterial consortia in Alchichica crater-lake, Mexico, Hydrobiol 467, 71-78. Navarro-González, R., Navarro, K.F., de la Rosa, J., Molina, P., Iñiguez, E., Miranda, L.D., a n Morales, P., Cienfuegos, E., Coll, P., Raulin, F., Amils, R. and McKay, C.P.: 2006. The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and their implications for the Viking results. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 16089-16094. Navarro-González, R., Iñiguez, E., de

  2. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    .; Andreae, M.O.; Kadereit, J.W.; Esper, J.; Scholz, D.; Pöschl, U.; Jacob, D.E.; Schöne, B.R.; Schreg, R.; Vött, A.; Jordan, D.; Lelievld, J.: Weller, C.G.; Alt, K.W.; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S.; Bruhn, K.C.; Tost, H.; Sirocko, F.; Crutzen, P.J. (2013), The Paleoanthropocene - The beginnings of anthropogenic environmental change, Anthropocene, 3: 83-88. Hoang, H.T.T.; Vanacker, V.; Van Rompaey, A.; Vu, K.C.; Nguyen, A.T. (2014), Changing human-landscape interactions after development of tourism in the nothern Vietnamese Highlands, Anthropocene, 5: 42-51 Matteo, G.; Lingua, E.; Marzano, R.; Urbinati, C.; Bhuju, D.; Carrer, M. (2014), Human interactions with forest landscape in the Khumbu valley, Nepal, Anthropocene, 6: 39-47 Sanderson, E.W.; Jaiteh, M.; Levy, M.A.; Redford, K.H.; Wannebo, A.V.; Woolmer, G. (2002), The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild. Bioscience 52: (10).891-904 Steffen, W.; Persson, A.; Deutsch, L.; Zalasiewicz, J.; Williams, M.; Richardson, K.; Crumley, C.; Crutzen, P.; Folke, C.; Gordon, L.; Molina, M.; Ramanathan, V., Rockström, J.; Scheffer, M.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Svedin, U. (2011), The Anthropocene: From Global Change to Planetary Stewardship, AMBIO, 40: 739-761 Web-1 http://www.anthropocene.info/en/home Zalasiewicz, J.; Williams, M.; Smith, A.; L. Barry, T.; L. Coe, A.; R. Bown, P.; Brenchley, P.; Cantrill, D.; Gale, A.; Gibbard, P.; Gregory, F.J.; Hounslow, M.W.; Kerr, A.C.; Pearson, P.; Knox, R.; Powell, J.; Waters, C.; Marshall, J.; Oates, M.; Rawson, P.; Stone, P. (2008), Are we now living in the Anthropocene? GSA Today 18 (2): 4-8.

  3. The positive impact of European subsidies on soil erosion rates in orange plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Taguas, Tani; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Development. doi:10.1002/ldr.2553. Nishigaki, T., M. Shibata, S. Sugihara, A. D. Mvondo-Ze, S. Araki, and S. Funakawa. 2016. Effect of Mulching with Vegetative Residues on Soil Water Erosion and Water Balance in an Oxisol Cropped by Cassava in East Cameroon. Land Degradation and Development. doi:10.1002/ldr.2568. Novara, A., L. Gristina, S. S. Saladino, A. Santoro, and A. Cerdà. 2011. Soil Erosion Assessment on Tillage and Alternative Soil Managements in a Sicilian Vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117: 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007. Ochoa, P. A., A. Fries, D. Mejía, J. I. Burneo, J. D. Ruíz-Sinoga, and A. Cerdà. 2016. Effects of Climate, Land Cover and Topography on Soil Erosion Risk in a Semiarid Basin of the Andes. Catena 140: 31-42. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.01.011. Pereira, P., Giménez-Morera, A., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Jordán, A., Masto, R.E., Brevik, E., Azorin-Molina, C., Cerdà A., 2015. The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 12947-12985, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-12947-2015, 2015 Prosdocimi, M., A. Jordán, P. Tarolli, S. Keesstra, A. Novara, and A. Cerdà. 2016. The Immediate Effectiveness of Barley Straw Mulch in Reducing Soil Erodibility and Surface Runoff Generation in Mediterranean Vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 547: 323-330. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076. Rodrigo Comino J, Iserloh T, Morvan X, Malam Issa O, Naisse C, Keesstra SD, Cerdà A, Prosdocimi M, Arnáez J, Lasanta T, Ramos MC, Marqués MJ, Ruiz Colmenero M, Bienes R, Ruiz Sinoga JD, Seeger M, Ries JB (2016). Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France. Hydrology, 3 (1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology3010006 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Lassu, T., Cerdà, A., Keesstra, S.D., Prosdocimi, M., Brings, C., Marzen, M., Ramos, M.C., Senciales, J.M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2016

  4. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    .1016/j.earscirev.2014.07.005 Bodí, M. B., Martin, D. A., Balfour, V. N., Santín, C., Doerr, S. H., Pereira, P., . . . Mataix-Solera, J. (2014). Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.12.007 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., . . . Ritsema, C. J. (2016). Use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in eastern spain under low frequency-high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research, 54(2), 154-165. doi:10.1071/SR15092 Cerdà, A., Lavee, H., Romero-Díaz, A., Hooke, J., & Montanarella, L. (2010). Preface: Soil erosion and degradation in mediterranean type ecosystems. Land Degradation and Development, 21(2), 71-74. doi:10.1002/ldr.968 Dlapa, P., Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., & Doerr, S. H. (2015). Organic matter and wettability characteristics of wildfire ash from mediterranean conifer forests. Catena, 135, 369-376. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.018 Keesstra, S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E. C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., . . . Cerdà, A. (2016). Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment, 551-552, 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Lucas-Borja, M. E., Hedo, J., Cerdá, A., Candel-Pérez, D., & Viñegla, B. (2016). Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in mediterranean spanish black pine(pinus nigra ar. ssp. salzmannii) forest. Science of the Total Environment, 562, 145-154. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.160 Novara, A., Cerdà, A., Carmelo, D., Giuseppe, L. P., Antonino, S., & Luciano, G. (2015). Effectiveness of carbon isotopic signature for estimating soil erosion and deposition rates in sicilian vineyards. Soil and

  5. The impact of agriculture terraces on soil organic matter, aggregate stability, water repellency and bulk density. A study in abandoned and active farms in the Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Di Prima, Simone; Brevik, Erik; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    -192. Cited 3 times. DOI: 10. 1002/ldr. 1160 Lieskovský, J., Kenderessy, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: A case study in vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM Land Degradation and Development, 25 (3), 288-296. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2162 Mekonnen, M., Keesstra, S. D., Baartman, J. E., Ritsema, C. J., & Melesse, A. M. (2015). Evaluating sediment storage dams: structural off-site sediment trapping measures in northwest Ethiopia. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica, 41(1), 7-22. DOI: 10.18172/cig.2643 Mekonnen, M., Keesstra, S.D., Stroosnijder, L., Baartman, J.E.M., Maroulis, J., 2015. Soil conservation through sediment trapping: a review. Land Degradation and Development, 26, 544-556. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2308 Musinguzi, P., Ebanyat, P., Tenywa, J.S., Basamba, T.A., Tenywa, M.M., Mubiru, D. 2015. Precision of farmer-based fertility ratings and soil organic carbon for crop production on a Ferralsol. Solid Earth, 6 (3), pp. 1063-1073. DOI: 10.5194/se-6-1063-2015 Mwango, S.B., Msanya, B.M., Mtakwa, P.W., Kimaro, D.N., Deckers, J., Poesen, J. 2016.Effectiveness of mulching under miraba in controlling soil erosion, fertility restoration and crop yield in the usambara mountains, Tanzania. Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2332 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S.S., Santoro, A., Cerdà, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research, 117, pp. 140-147. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007 Parras-Alcántara L., Lozano-García B. Conventional tillage versus organic farming in relation to soil organic carbon stock in olive groves in Mediterranean rangelands (southern Spain). (2014) Solid Earth, 5 (1), pp. 299-311. Cited 6 times. DOI: 10. 5194/se-5-299-2014 Pereira, P., Giménez-Morera, A., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Jordán, A., Masto, R. E., Brevik, E., Azorin-Molina, C. Cerdà, A. 2015. The impact of road and railway

  6. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    hundreds of TeV. At the other extreme of the energy scale is the field of the study of fundamental symmetries with novel experiments with ultra-cold neutrons. In this session, there were proposals by the NPDGamma collaboration (Gillis) and the abBA collaboration (Barr´on-Palos) to use polarized neutrons to study the weak hadronic interaction and neutron beta-decay, respectively. In another talk, there was a discussion on the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron which is of fundamental importance to the standard model (Crawford). Finally, there was a session dedicated to quantum chaos where various proposals were discussed to identify chaotic behaviour in quantum systems, such as spectral fluctuations, time series and 1/f noise (Molina). Applications were presented to many-body systems in nuclear physics (Stránský) and the dripping-laser system as a quantum realization of the dripping faucet, one of the paradigms of classical chaos (Fossion). Many of the participants spent the free afternoon in the "magic village" of Tepoztlán to visit the arts and crafts market, the church, the convent or just to enjoy the good food. The most daring persons climbed the nearby cliff Tepozteco and the pyramid built on top of it to contemplate the spectacular view over the valley. As always, some of the participants of the conference prolonged their stay in Mexico to establish, to develop or to consolidate their collaborations with the local nuclear physics community. At the annual reunion of the Nuclear Physics Division which was held during the meeting, there was a long discussion on the future of the Symposium and, more generally, of the field of nuclear physics in Mexico and Latin America. Libertad Barr´on Palos, Roelof Bijker, Ruben Fossion and David Lizcano were re-elected as members of the Local Organizing Committee of the next Symposium which will be held at the Hacienda Cocoyoc from January 4-7, 2011, but now with Libertad as Chair. Libertad Barr

  7. Soil erosion measurements by means of experimental plots to determine best land management strategies in vineyards and olive orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordan, Antonio; Brevik, Erik; Nova, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Azorín-Molina, César; Yazdanpanah, Najme; Mahmoodabadi, Majid; Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    ., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Jordán, A., & Martínez-Zavala, L. 2008. Soil loss and runoff rates on unpaved forest roads in southern Spain after simulated rainfall. Forest Ecology and Management, 255(3), 913-919. Keesstra, S.D. 2007. Impact of natural reforestation on floodplain sedimentation in the Dragonja basin, SW Slovenia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32(1): 49-65. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1360 Ligonja, P.J., Shrestha, R.P. 2015. Soil erosion assessment in kondoa eroded area in Tanzania using universal soil loss equation, geographic information systems and socioeconomic approach (2015) Land Degradation and Development, 26 (4), pp. 367-379. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2215 Nanko, K., Giambelluca, T.W., Sutherland, R.A., Mudd, R.G., Nullet, M.A., Ziegler, A.D. 2015.Erosion potential under miconia calvescens stands on the island of hawai'i. Land Degradation and Development, 26 (3), pp. 218-226. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2200 Pereira, P., Giménez-Morera, A., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Jordán, A., Masto, R. E., Brevik, E., Azorin-Molina, C. Cerdà, A. 2015. The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 12, 12947-12985. Prosdocimi,M., Jordán, A., Tarolli, P., Keesstra, S., Novara, A., Cerdà, A. 2016. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of The Total Environment, 547, 15 ,323-330, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076 Seutloali, K.E., Beckedahl, H.R. 2015. Understanding the factors influencing rill erosion on roadcuts in the south eastern region of South Africa. Solid Earth, 6 (2) 633-641. DOI: 10.5194/se-6-633-2015

  8. The impact of olive leaves, mosses and the burrowing of wild boars on soil erosion in olive orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Brevik, Eric C.; Pulido, Manuel; Maestre, Fermando T.; Taguas, Tani; Novara, Agata; Keesstra, Saskia; Cammeraat, Erik; Parras-Alcantara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    negligible. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n_ 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Cerdà, A. (1996). Seasonal variability of infiltration rates under contrasting slope conditions in southeast spain. Geoderma, 69(3-4), 217-232. Cerdà, A., & Doerr, S. H. (2005). Influence of vegetation recovery on soil hydrology and erodibility following fire: An 11-year investigation. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 14(4), 423-437. doi:10.1071/WF05044 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., . . . Ritsema, C. J. (2016). Use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in eastern spain under low frequency-high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research, 54(2), 154-165. doi:10.1071/SR15092 Giménez-Morera, A., Ruiz Sinoga, J. D., & Cerdà, A. (2010). The impact of cotton geotextiles on soil and water losses from mediterranean rainfed agricultural land. Land Degradation and Development, 21(2), 210-217. doi:10.1002/ldr.971 Keesstra, S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E. C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., . . . Cerdà, A. (2016). Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment, 551-552, 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Mwango, S. B., Msanya, B. M., Mtakwa, P. W., Kimaro, D. N., Deckers, J., & Poesen, J. (2016). Effectiveness OF mulching under miraba in controlling soil erosion, fertility restoration and crop yield in the usambara mountains, tanzania. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 1266-1275. doi:10.1002/ldr.2332 Nawaz, A., Farooq, M., Lal, R., Rehman, A., Hussain, T., & Nadeem, A. (2016). Influence of sesbania brown manuring and rice residue mulch on soil health, weeds and

  9. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulling, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    classes of systems: quantum mechanics, linear (free) fields, and interacting fields. DeWitt's characteristic tools of effective actions, heat kernels, and ghost fields are developed. Chapters 26 and 31 outline new approaches developed in collaboration with DeWitt's recent students C Molina-Paris and C Y Wang, respectively. The first of these is a ghost-free formulation of gauge theory built on ideas of G A Vilkovisky. The second is a systematic attempt (following J Schwinger, L V Keldysh, and others) to replace the in-out matrix elements by expectation values in a single (initial) state. Most of parts VI and VII consist of special topics, such as anomalies, particle creation by external fields, Unruh acceleration temperature, black holes, and Euclideanization. Chapter 30, on black holes and Hawking radiation, will be very familiar to readers of DeWitt's influential review article [4]. Chapter 28, on anomalies, makes a careful distinction (missing from many treatments) between 'critical' anomalies, which render equations of motion inconsistent in the (would-be) quantum theory, and harmless anomalies that merely invalidate predictions that would classically follow from certain symmetries. The trace anomalies in the stress tensor of matter and the axial-current anomaly in quantum electrodynamics are harmless. Examples of critical anomalies are the chiral anomaly of a spinor field coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field and the anomaly in the conservation law of the stress tensor of certain pathological theories [5]. DeWitt's chapter calculates the trace and chiral anomalies in detail. The axial anomaly is mentioned only in a one-line summary (and not defined or indexed—generally speaking, I found the book's long index surprisingly unhelpful), and the Alvarez Witten anomaly is not mentioned at all. The last two chapters of part VII treat the most important particular quantum field theories. Chapter 34 develops many of the textbook predictions of quantum eletrodynamics from De

  10. The use of straw to reduce the soil and water losses in agriculture and forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Type-Ecosystem. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Hedo, Javier; Brevik, Eric; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnacion

    2016-04-01

    -944. Jordán, A., & Martínez-Zavala, L. 2008. Soil loss and runoff rates on unpaved forest roads in southern Spain after simulated rainfall. Forest Ecology and Management, 255(3), 913-919. Jordán, A., Tarolli, P., Keesstra, S., Novara, A., Cerdà, A. 2016. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of The Total Environment, 547, 15 ,323-330, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076 Keesstra, S.D. 2007. Impact of natural reforestation on floodplain sedimentation in the Dragonja basin, SW Slovenia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32(1): 49-65. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1360 Keesstra, S.D. Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., Jordán, A., Cerdà, A., in press. Agricultural soil management affects soil erosion vulnerability of rainfed apricot orchards. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Science of The Total Environment Keesstra, S.D., Geissen, V., van Schaik, L., Mosse., K., Piiranen, S., 2012. Soil as a filter for groundwater quality. Current Opinions in Environmental Sustainability 4, 507-516.doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2012.10.007 Li X. H., Yang J., Zhao C. Y., Wang B. 2014. Runoff and sediment from orchard terraces in southeastern China. Land Degradation and Development, 25 (2), pp. 184-192. Cited 3 times. DOI: 10. 1002/ldr. 1160 Lieskovský, J., Kenderessy, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in: A case study in vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM Land Degradation and Development, 25 (3), 288-296. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2162 Ligonja P. J., Shrestha R. P. 2015. Soil erosion assessment in kondoa eroded area in Tanzania using universal soil loss equation, geographic information systems and socioeconomic approachLand Degradation and Development, 26 (4), 367-379. DOI: 10. 1002/ldr. 2215 Martínez-Zavala, L., Jordán, A. 2008. Effect of rock fragment cover on interrill soil erosion

  11. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    . Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1432A (November 1998). Workshop?yes Booth?could show properties of pre-made gluep Notes:Need access to water. Can be messy. People usually enjoy the activity. Works well. Activity:CD Light: An Introduction to Spectroscopy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1568A (December 1998). Workshop?yes Booth?yes, with colored plastic onlynot solutions Notes:Can be difficult to measure and cut cardboard for spectroscope. Pre-made spectroscopes and partially constructed ones to show method could be provided. Needs good light source to work well. Activity:Cleaning Up with Chemistry: Investigating the Action of Zeolite in Laundry Detergent. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1461A (October 1999). Workshop?yes Booth?could demonstrate tubes of soapy water with and without zeolite Notes:Need access to water. Quick and easy. More information about JCE Classroom Activities is available on JCE Online at: http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/AboutJCE/Features/JCE_CA/. Here you will find the notes described above and a list of all published Classroom Activities. The site is updated regularly.

    Awards Announced

    United Nations Environment Program The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has selected Mario J. Molina, professor of earth, atmosphere, and planetary sciences at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as the winner of the 1999 UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize. The prize, worth $200,000, is for his outstanding global contributions in the field of atmospheric chemistry. ACS Northeastern Section The Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society has awarded the Henry A. Hill Award to Morton Z. Hoffman, professor of chemistry at Boston University. The award is given annually to a member of the section for outstanding service.

    Award Deadlines

    Mettler-Toledo Thermal Analysis Education Grant Mettler-Toledo has established a grant to honor Edith A. Turi of the Polymer Research Institute, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY, for her lifelong contribution to the cause