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Sample records for boll weevil

  1. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  2. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) bait sticks: Toxicity and malathion content

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Villavaso; Joseph E. Mulrooney; William L. Mcgovern

    2003-01-01

    Assays of malathion content and toxicity to boll weevil, Anll~onorni~gsr andis granrlis Boheman, were conducted on boll weevil bait sticks, now marketed as Boll Weevil Attract ancl Control Tubes (BWACTs: Plato Industries, Houston, TX). In general. the longer BWACTs were in the field, the lower the mortality of weevils that were exposed to them. Bioassays of weevil...

  3. Three Boll Weevil Diapause Myths in Perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonmus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originated in Mesoamerica but its contemporary distribution extends from the United States Cotton Belt to Argentina, throughout which it is a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. While research on the boll weev...

  4. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through cotton gin trash fans.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-10-01

    There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash fan. Marked adult weevils were distributed in gin trash and fed through a 82.6-cm (32.5-in.) diameter centrifugal fan operated across a range of fan-tip speeds. A small number of boll weevils were recovered alive immediately after passage through the fan, but all were severely injured and did not survive 24 h. In another experiment, green bolls infested with both adult- and larval-stage weevils were fed through the fan. Several teneral adults survived 24 h, and there was no evidence that fan-tip speed affected either initial survival of weevils, or the number of unbroken boll locks that could harbor an infesting weevil. Thus, designating a minimum fan-tip speed for ensuring complete kill is not possible for the boll weevil. Experiments suggest that a device installed in a gin that partially crushes or cracks bolls open before entering a trash fan will increase mortality, possibly enough that further precautions would be unnecessary.

  5. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  6. The conundrum of chemical boll weevil control in subtropical regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a tropical Mesoamerican insect that invaded the United States in 1893, spreading across the Cotton Belt as the key pest of cotton and causing billions of dollars in yield losses and insecticide-based control efforts;...

  7. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  8. Reducing boll weevil populations by clipping terminal buds and removing abscised fruiting bodies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) punctures cotton squares and young bolls during feeding and oviposition, causing abscission of flower buds (squares) in the instance of oviposition. Fallen squares are a source of next generation adult boll weevils that...

  9. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  10. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  11. Comparative efficacy of selected insecticide alternatives for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) control using laboratory bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman), is a major cotton pest responsible for an estimated $300 million in annual crop losses. Boll weevil eradication programs depend on malathion ULV to achieve and maintain eradication status. Should this effective and economical insecticide become ...

  12. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  13. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Treesearch

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  14. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M; Mata, R A; Venzon, M; Cunha, D N C; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S; Sujii, E R

    2016-06-01

    Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus' flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  15. Continued pheromone release by boll weevils (Coleoptera: curculionidae) following host removal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  16. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  17. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap orientation and distance from brush lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestat...

  18. Susceptibility of the boll weevil to Steinernema riobrave and other entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Enrique Cabanillas, H

    2003-03-01

    The susceptibility of the boll weevil (BW), Anthonomus grandis Boheman, to Steinernema riobrave and other nematode species in petri dishes, soil (Hidalgo sandy clay loam), and cotton bolls and squares was investigated. Third instar weevils were susceptible to entomopathogenic nematode (EN) species and strains in petri dish bioassays at 30 degrees C. Lower LC(50)'s occurred with S. riobrave TX- 355 (2 nematodes per weevil), S. glaseri NC (3), Heterorhabditis indicus HOM-1 (5), and H. bacteriophora HbL (7) than H. bacteriophora IN (13), S. riobrave TX (14), and H. bacteriophora HP88 (21). When infective juveniles (IJs) of S. riobrave were applied to weevils on filter paper at 25 degrees C, the LC(50) of S. riobrave TX for first, second, and third instars, pupae, and 1-day-old and 10-days-old adult weevils were 4, 5, 4, 12, 13, and 11IJs per weevil, respectively. The mean time to death, from lowest to highest concentration, for the first instar (2.07 and 1.27days) and second instar (2.55 and 1.39days) weevils were faster than older weevil stages. But, at concentrations of 50 and 100IJs/weevil, the mean time to death for the third instar, pupa and adult weevils were similar (1.84 and 2.67days). One hundred percent weevil mortality (all weevil stages) occurred 3days after exposure to 100IJs per weevil. Invasion efficiency rankings for nematode concentration were inconsistent and changed with weevil stage from 15 to 100% when weevils were exposed to 100 and 1IJs/weevil, respectively. However, there was a consistent relationship between male:female nematode sex ratio (1:1.6) and nematode concentration in all infected weevil stages. Nematode production per weevil cadaver increased with increased nematode concentrations. The overall mean yield of nematodes per weevil was 7680IJs. In potted soil experiments (30 degrees C), nematode concentration and soil moisture greatly influenced the nematode efficacy. At the most effective concentrations of 200,000 and 400,000IJs/m(2) in

  19. Mass propagation of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    The USDA and the DOE production facility at Kansas City managed by AlliedSignal have partnered to redirect defense technologies to the development of specialized agricultural equipment. The initial use of the equipment will be for mass rearing of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis, however, by reprogramming and altering fixtures, the equipment can be used for other insect species. The process flow diagrams for the following systems have been developed: (1) Mechanized Host Larvae Washing/Drying, Capsule Forming, Larvae Placement, Sealing, and Labeling; (2) Mechanized in vivo Preoviposition, Oviposition, and Developing; (3) Mechanized Placement in Release Containers; (4) Automated Packaging and Storage/Retrieval; (5) Mechanized System for Field Release; (6) Mechanized System for Adult Colony Maintenance, Egg Laying, and Egg Retrieval; (7) Mechanized System for in vitro Diet Manufacturing; (8) Mechanized System for in vitro Mass Propagation with Diet Dispensing, Egg Placement, and Developing of Parasite Pupae. Conceptual designs using ProEngineer software have been developed for four of the eight systems. The initial hardware will include the elements of the systems considered to be the most technologically challenging and those necessary to establish the feasibility of commercial mass rearing. The most important of these are mechanized in vitro diet manufacturing, egg laying/retrieval, egg placement and diet dispensing.

  20. Effects of Temperature and Adult Diet on Development of Hypertrophied Fat Body in Prediapausing Boll Weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temperature and adult diet on the development of hypertrophied fat bodies in prediapausing adult boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. Simulation models derived from this work are used to estimate the minimal ages at which male and female boll weevils exhibit diapause morphology, based on conditions...

  1. Efficacy of fipronil aerially applied in oil adjuvants and drift retardants against boll weevils, Anthonomus Grandis Boheman (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2002-01-01

    Results of aerial application tests in the field and insecticide transfer tests in the laboratory showed that cottonseed oil was the most effective oil adjuvant to use with fipronil for controlling boll weevils under field conditions and for transferring fipronil from cotton leaf surfaces to boll weevils. The mineral oil and mineral oil + drift retardant more...

  2. Impact of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas on predation of Lepidopteran eggs, 2005-2006.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predation on eggs of the lepidopteran pests (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) in cotton was monitored before and during the first two seasons of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas (2005-2006). Mortality of eggs was reduced after malathion sprays for boll weevil...

  3. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  4. Quantification of dichlorvos released from kill strips used in boll weevil eradication programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two types of kill strips, Hercon Vaportape II and Plato Insecticide Strip, are used by boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), eradication programs in the U.S. Both types utilize dichlorvos as the killing agent and are marketed to last up to a month in traps. Consequently, programs typically re...

  5. Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) population genomics as a tool for monitoring and management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the success of eradication efforts across most of the cotton-producing regions of the U.S., the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) remains a major pest of cotton in much of the New World. The area along the Texas border with northern Mexico has been a particularly troub...

  6. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  7. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Seasonal Occurrence in Mississippi Populations

    Treesearch

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response among boll weevils collected as immatures in squares at different times of the summer and held under simulated field photoperiods and temperatures of northern Mississippi. The percentage of adults exhibiting prediapause increased seasonally, starting with the 1st generation in July and achieving a maximal rate of 96.7% late in...

  8. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  9. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis. PMID:21906288

  10. Remote identification of potential boll weevil host plants: Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regrowth cotton plants can serve as potential hosts for boll weevils during and beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these host plants are critically needed to expedite eradication in south Texas. We acquired airborne multispectral images of experimental...

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae.

    PubMed

    Artico, Sinara; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Silveira, Sylvia; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Martinelli, Adriana Pinheiro; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2014-10-04

    Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae. The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD). A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These

  12. Dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from cotton modules before ginning.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Thomas W; Arnold, Mark D; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Knutson, Allen E; Norman, John W

    2006-02-01

    We characterized the level of risk of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, reintroduction to an eradication zone posed by dispersal from cotton modules during and after transport to the gin. Mark-release-recapture experiments in August and September in Texas indicated that most weevils disperse rapidly from the module surface, temperature permitting, unless confined under a module tarp, where most died. Nevertheless, 1-5% of released weevils were recovered alive after 24 h on the side and top surfaces of modules, representing potential dispersants. Mortality of boll weevils caged on the top surface of a module was 95-100% after 1-4 d when maximum air temperatures were > or = 33 degrees C and 72-100% when minimum temperatures were -7 degrees C or lower, but a few survived even after experiencing a minimum daily temperature of -12 degrees C. Under warm (daily maximum temperatures > or = 25 degrees C) and cold (daily minimum temperatures < or = 0 degrees C) weather conditions, survival was higher under the tarp than on the open surface of the module (20 versus 7% and 42 versus 26%, respectively), but mortality was 100% in both locations when temperatures reached 34 degrees C. Our results indicate that although the threat to an eradication zone posed by boll weevil dispersal from an infested module is very low under most environmental conditions, it is probably greatest when 1) a module is constructed and transported from an infested zone during weather too cool for flight, followed by warm weather favorable for flight at the gin yard; or 2) such a module is transported immediately after construction in moderate-to-warm weather.

  13. Efficacy of the organic-certified insecticide Diatect II against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in cotton.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Thomas W

    2002-10-01

    The efficacy of the organic insecticide Diatect II against boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas were assessed in small-plot field trials and greenhouse cage tests using azinphos-methyl treatments as a standard for comparison. Plastic sheets were placed in the furrows of the treated plots to retrieve boll weevils which dropped from the plants after being killed by the insecticides. Samples of live weevils taken by a tractor-mounted vacuum sampler revealed a modest, but significant, reduction in boll weevil populations in Diatect II plots. However, samples of dead weevils indicated that this reduction was due to movement of weevils out of the plots rather than to mortality. This interpretation is supported by greenhouse cage studies, where mortality in Diatect II treated cages was no greater than that in untreated control cages. The effects of insecticide treatments in small plots can be confounded easily and quickly by interplot movement of target insects. Although the relative effects of various compounds can usually be assessed by sampling the populations in plots soon after treatment, the best measure of efficacy is obtained by directly sampling insects that have died in the plot. This parameter is insulated from the effects of interplot movement, unless the toxicant is slow to immobilize the target insect. Taken together, our results indicate little efficacy by Diatect II against boll weevil under our test conditions.

  14. Dispersal of the cotton boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in South America: evidence of RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Scataglini, M A; Confalonieri, V A; Lanteri, A A

    2000-01-01

    RAPD technique provides useful information on the geographic origin and dispersal of the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis in South America. Nine populations from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico and USA were analyzed. Weevils were captured on native plants (Misiones province, Argentina) and on cotton cultures, except the sample from the United States (USDA laboratory-reared colony). A sample of the 'Peruvian square weevil', A. vestitus, from Ecuador, was included in the analysis in order to compare interspecific variation. The four primers used in the analysis revealed 41 'anonymous loci'. The neighbor-joining tree based on Nei's distances and values of Nm (migrants per generation), indicate that genetic similarity between samples from Tecomán (Mexico) and Puerto Iguazú (Argentina), is higher than among remaining South American populations. This result supports an hypothesis of natural occurrence of the boll weevil in South America, prior to extensive cotton cultivation. Population outbreaks of the species would be associated with increase of agricultural lands.

  15. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volitilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Boll weevil extended-life pheromone lures, impregnated with 25 mg grandlure and 30 mg eugenol, are replacing standard pheromone lures (10 mg grandlure) in boll weevil eradication programs, to increase the changing interval from 2 weeks, to 3 or 4 weeks, which reduces labor and material costs. The a...

  16. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  17. Genetic structuring of boll weevil populations in the US based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Sappington, T W

    2004-06-01

    Abstract Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed to infer the magnitude and pattern of genetic differentiation among boll weevil populations from eighteen locations across eight US states and north-east Mexico. Sixty-seven reproducible bands from six random primers were analysed for genetic variation within and between weevil populations. Genetic and geographical distances among all populations were positively correlated, reflecting a pattern of isolation by distance within a larger metapopulation. Gene flow between south-central, western and eastern regions is limited, but migration between locations within regions appears to be relatively frequent up to distances of approximately 300-400 km. However, estimates of effective migration were much lower than those estimated from mtDNA-RFLP data reported previously.

  18. Diversity of boll weevil populations in South America: a phylogeographic approach.

    PubMed

    Scataglini, María A; Lanteri, Analia A; Confalonieri, Viviana A

    2006-03-01

    A phylogeographic approach was conducted to assess the geographic structure and genetic variation in populations of the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, which is the most harmful insect pest of cotton in the Americas. COI and COII mitochondrial gene sequences were analyzed to test a former hypothesis on the origin of the boll weevil in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, using samples from Mexico and USA as putative source populations. The analysis of variability suggests that populations from South American cotton fields and nearby disturbed areas form a phylogroup with a central haplotype herein called A, which is the most common and widespread in USA and South America. The population from Texas has the A haplotype as the most frequent and gathers in the same group as the South American populations associated with cotton. The sample from Tecomán (México) shows high values of within-nucleotide divergence, shares no haplotype in common with the South American samples, and forms a phylogroup separated by several mutational steps. The sample from Iguazú National Park (Misiones Province, Argentina) has similar characteristics, with highly divergent haplotypes forming a phylogroup closer to the samples from cotton fields, than to the Mexican group. We propose that in South America there are: populations with characteristics of recent invaders, which would be remnants of "bottlenecks" that occurred after single or multiple colonization events, probably from the United States, and ancient populations associated with native forests, partially isolated by events of historical fragmentation.

  19. Population structure and genetic diversity of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Gossypium in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been identified as one of the most devastating pests in U.S. history, its origin and activity in Mexico, both on wild and cultivated cotton hosts (genus Gossypium), is poorly understood. Three forms (geographical or host-associated races) of A. grandis ...

  20. Temporal changes in genetic variation of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations, and implications for population assignment in eradication zones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic differentiation among 10 populations of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis, sampled in 2009, in Texas and Mexico, was determined using ten microsatellite loci. In addition, temporal changes in genetic composition were examined in the eight populations for which samples were available fr...

  1. Molecular genetic variation of boll weevil populations in North America estimated with microsatellites: implications for patterns of dispersal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W

    2006-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) is an insect pest of cotton that underwent a well-documented range expansion across the southeastern U.S. from Mexico beginning about 110 years ago. Eleven microsatellite loci were surveyed to infer the magnitude and pattern of genetic differentiation among boll weevil populations from 18 locations across eight U.S. states and northeast Mexico. Estimates of genetic diversity (allelic diversity and heterozygosity) were greater in Southern than Northern populations, and were greater in the west than the east among Northern populations. Boll weevil populations were genetically structured as a whole across the geographic range sampled, with a global F (ST) of 0.241. South-central populations exhibit classic isolation by distance, but evidence suggests that populations within the Eastern and Western regions have not yet reached genetic equilibrium. Gene flow appears to be relatively high among populations within the Eastern region. Population assignment data and estimates of gene flow indicate that migration between locations separated by < 300 km is frequent. The database of microsatellite genotypes generated in this study now makes it possible, through population assignment techniques, to identify the most likely geographic source of a boll weevil reintroduced to an eradication zone, which will help action agencies decide the most appropriate mitigation response.

  2. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The reproductive potential on cotton squares of overwintered boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November, and January and after feeding them one, three, and five weeks on plant pollens was determined in the laboratory at 27ºC, 65% ...

  3. Residues of Malathion and Metabolites in and on the Cotton Leaf vs. Toxicity to the Boll Weevil

    Treesearch

    D.A. Wolfenbarger

    2002-01-01

    Malathion was applied at 12 and 16 oz [A.l.]/a to cotton near Mercedes, TX, in 1995 and sampled on 0, 2, 4 and 6 d posttreatment to determine residues of malathion, malaoxon, and iso-malathion. Residues were then compared to determine toxicity to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Residues of malathion comprised 99% of the leaf washes and 100% of the leaf...

  4. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Robério C. S.; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B.; Santos, Roberta L.; Bastos, Cristina S.

    2014-01-01

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. PMID:26462942

  5. Genetic profiling to determine potential origins of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) captured in a Texas eradication zone: endemicity, immigration, or sabotage?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W; Allen, Charles T

    2008-12-01

    Thirty-seven boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were captured in pheromone traps near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone during August-October 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earlier in the year, and only very low numbers had been captured in neighboring zones to the south and east. Therefore, the captures near Lubbock were unexpected. Five of the weevils captured the last week of August were preserved and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci for comparison with a database of genotypes for 22 boll weevil populations sampled from eight U.S. states and four locations in Mexico. The Lubbock population itself is an unlikely source, suggesting that the captured weevils probably did not originate from a low-level endemic population. Populations from eastern states, Mexico, and Big Spring, TX, can be confidently excluded as potential source regions. Although the Weslaco and Kingsville, TX, areas cannot be statistically excluded, they are unlikely sources. The most likely sources are nearby areas in New Mexico, TX, or southwest Oklahoma, or from areas of eastern Texas represented by Waxahachie and El Campo populations. Together, genetic and circumstantial evidence suggest either that the trapped boll weevils are the offspring of alone mated female that immigrated from eastern Texas earlier in the summer or that weevils originally captured near Waxahachie but now long-dead were planted in the traps by a disgruntled employee of the eradication program.

  6. Stable integration and expression of a cry1Ia gene conferring resistance to fall armyworm and boll weevil in cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carliane Rc; Monnerat, Rose; Lima, Liziane M; Martins, Érica S; Melo Filho, Péricles A; Pinheiro, Morganna Pn; Santos, Roseane C

    2016-08-01

    Boll weevil is a serious pest of cotton crop. Effective control involves applications of chemical insecticides, increasing the cost of production and environmental pollution. The current genetically modified Bt crops have allowed great benefits to farmers but show activity limited to lepidopteran pests. This work reports on procedures adopted for integration and expression of a cry transgene conferring resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm by using molecular tools. Four Brazilian cotton cultivars were microinjected with a minimal linear cassette generating 1248 putative lines. Complete gene integration was found in only one line (T0-34) containing one copy of cry1Ia detected by Southern blot. Protein was expressed in high concentration at 45 days after emergence (dae), decreasing by approximately 50% at 90 dae. Toxicity of the cry protein was demonstrated in feeding bioassays revealing 56.7% mortality to boll weevil fed buds and 88.1% mortality to fall armyworm fed leaves. A binding of cry1Ia antibody was found in the midgut of boll weevils fed on T0-34 buds in an immunodetection assay. The gene introduced into plants confers resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm. Transmission of the transgene occurred normally to T1 progeny. All plants showed phenotypically normal growth, with fertile flowers and abundant seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Susceptibility of the boll weevil to malathion when collected from the Lower Rio Grande Valley Texas and Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico using the standard topical assay. Part 1: South Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Boll weevils were tested for susceptibility to malathion using a method that was standardized many years ago so that lethal dose values could be compared across years of monitoring. The lethal dose values as derived from probit analysis indicate that the boll weevil has been consistently susceptibl...

  8. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  9. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  10. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  11. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

  13. Employing in vitro directed molecular evolution for the selection of α-amylase variant inhibitors with activity toward cotton boll weevil enzyme.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Del Sarto, Rafael Perseghini; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Rigden, Daniel John; Teixeira, Fabíola Rodrigues; Bezerra, Caroline de Andrade; Albuquerque, Erika Valéria Saliba; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-09-20

    Numerous species of insect pests attack cotton plants, out of which the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main insect in Brazil and must be controlled to avert large economic losses. Like other insect pests, A. grandis secretes a high level of α-amylases in the midgut lumen, which are required for digestion of carbohydrates. Thus, α-amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) represent a powerful tool to apply in the control of insect pests. Here, we applied DNA shuffling and phage display techniques and obtained a combinatorial library containing 10⁸ α-AI variant forms. From this library, variants were selected exhibiting in vitro affinity for cotton boll weevil α-amylases. Twenty-six variant sequences were cloned into plant expression vectors and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformed plant extracts were assayed in vitro to select specific and potent α-amylase inhibitors against boll weevil amylases. While the wild type inhibitors, used to create the shuffled library, did not inhibit the A. grandis α-amylases, three α-AI mutants, named α-AIC3, α-AIA11 and α-AIG4 revealed high inhibitory activities against A. grandis α-amylases in an in vitro assay. In summary, data reported here shown the potential biotechnology of new α-AI variant genes for cotton boll weevil control.

  14. Efficiency of Tank-Mixing Insecticide with Defoliant Against Adult Boll Weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) Populations as Determined by Late-Season Field Disturbance Trapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large commercial field plots were used to assess the effect of tank-mixing cyfluthrin with a defoliant applied in preparation for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., harvest on adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, populations in south Texas during 2002 and 2003. The defoliant-insectici...

  15. Different processing of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus (Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis (Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our ...

  16. Susceptibility of Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll weevil) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) to a cry1ia-type toxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

    PubMed

    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Quezado de Magalhaes, Mariana; Silva, Marilia Santos; Silva, Shirley Margareth Buffon; Dias, Simoni Campos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; Brunetta, Patricia Sanglard Felipe; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Neto, Osmundo Brilhante de Oliveira; Sampaio de Oliveira, Raquel; Soares, Luis Henrique Barros; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zachia; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu; Figueira, Edson L Z

    2007-09-30

    Different isolates of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce multiple crystal (Cry) proteins toxic to a variety of insects, nematodes and protozoans. These insecticidal Cry toxins are known to be active against specific insect orders, being harmless to mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Due to these characteristics, genes encoding several Cry toxins have been engineered in order to be expressed by a variety of crop plants to control insectpests. The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, are the major economically devastating pests of cotton crop in Brazil, causing severe losses, mainly due to their endophytic habit, which results in damages to the cotton boll and floral bud structures. A cry1Ia-type gene, designated cry1Ia12, was isolated and cloned from the Bt S811 strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the cry1Ia12 gene revealed an open reading frame of 2160 bp, encoding a protein of 719 amino acid residues in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Cry1Ia12 is 99% identical to the known Cry1Ia proteins and differs from them only in one or two amino acid residues positioned along the three domains involved in the insecticidal activity of the toxin. The recombinant Cry1Ia12 protein, corresponding to the cry1Ia12 gene expressed in Escherichia coli cells, showed moderate toxicity towards first instar larvae of both cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm. The highest concentration of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 tested to achieve the maximum toxicities against cotton boll weevil larvae and fall armyworm larvae were 230 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL, respectively. The herein demonstrated insecticidal activity of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 toxin against cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm larvae opens promising perspectives for the genetic engineering of cotton crop resistant to both these devastating pests in Brazil.

  17. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Wanderley, Paulo A; Malaquias, José B; Fernandes, Francisco S; Nascimento, Antônio R B; Zanuncio, José C

    2011-09-01

    This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman) at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs) in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs) and 30ºC (49.60 eggs). The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75) was greater than at 20ºC (31.40) and 30ºC (25.15). The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m) were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133% in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC) or 20 day old (at 20ºC) should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.

  18. Chemical cotton stalk destruction for maintenance of host-free periods for the control of overwintering boll weevil in tropical and subtropical climates.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Shoil M; Sparks, Alton N; Norman, John W; Coleman, Randy; Bradford, Joe M; Yang, Chenghai; Sappington, Thomas W; Showler, Allan

    2007-04-01

    In the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, cotton regrows and produces fruit from undestroyed stalks throughout the winter, and in spring weevils from such locations become a serious threat. The success of the boll weevil eradication program, which was reintroduced in the LRGV in 2005, will be dependent on thorough stalk destruction following harvest. However, adverse weather conditions and conservation tillage often impede immediate and complete stalk destruction using typical tool implements, and alternative stalk control methods are needed. This study provides an examination of the efficacy for cotton stalk destruction of different herbicides (thifensulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl, dicamba-diolamine, 2,4-D-dimethylammonium, flumioxazin, 2,4-DB-dimethylammonium and carfentrazone-ethyl) and their rates, spray volumes and application timings on shredded or standing cotton stalks after stripper or picker harvest. None of the tested herbicides, except 2,4-D-dimethylammonium, stopped post-harvest cotton regrowth and fruiting. 2,4-D-dimethylammonium sprayed once (0 or 7 days) after cotton was harvested at 1 lb AE acre(-1) (1.12 kg ha(-1)), in a spray volume of 10 gal water acre(-1) (93.5 L ha(-1)) with 5 mL L(-1) surfactant, was highly effective in stalk destruction (72-90%). The best results were achieved when the herbicide was applied immediately after the cotton was shredded, followed by standing stripper-harvested and standing picker-harvested cotton. 2,4-D-dimethylammonium applied twice, 0 and 14 (or 21) days after cotton harvest, was 100% effective in killing stalks, regardless of whether they were shredded or standing, or whether harvest was by stripper or picker. These findings showed that 2,4-D-dimethylammonium cotton stalk destruction eliminated food and reproductive opportunities for managing overwintering boll weevils [Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

  19. Effect of Different Lignocellulosic Diets on Bacterial Microbiota and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in the Gut of the Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Soria, Marcelo; Salvador, Ricardo; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Campos, Eleonora; Brodie, Eoin L.; Talia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the gut microbiota followed by Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and a small number of unclassified phyla in CM and NG microbiomes. In the CS feeding group, members of Spirochaetes were the most prevalent, followed by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bray–Curtis distances showed that the samples from the CS community were clearly separated from those samples of the CM and NG diets. Gut extracts from all three diets exhibited endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and pectinase activities. These activities were significantly affected by pH and temperature across different diets. We observed that the larvae reared on a CM showed significantly higher activities than larvae reared on NG and CS. We demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial community structure varies depending on diet composition. Diets with more variable and complex compositions, such as CS, showed higher bacterial diversity and richness than the two other diets. In spite of the detected changes in composition and diversity, we identified a core microbiome shared between the three different lignocellulosic diets. These results suggest that feeding with diets of different lignocellulosic composition could be a viable strategy to discover variants of hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems. PMID:28082962

  20. Effect of Different Lignocellulosic Diets on Bacterial Microbiota and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in the Gut of the Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    PubMed

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Soria, Marcelo; Salvador, Ricardo; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Campos, Eleonora; Brodie, Eoin L; Talia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the gut microbiota followed by Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and a small number of unclassified phyla in CM and NG microbiomes. In the CS feeding group, members of Spirochaetes were the most prevalent, followed by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bray-Curtis distances showed that the samples from the CS community were clearly separated from those samples of the CM and NG diets. Gut extracts from all three diets exhibited endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and pectinase activities. These activities were significantly affected by pH and temperature across different diets. We observed that the larvae reared on a CM showed significantly higher activities than larvae reared on NG and CS. We demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial community structure varies depending on diet composition. Diets with more variable and complex compositions, such as CS, showed higher bacterial diversity and richness than the two other diets. In spite of the detected changes in composition and diversity, we identified a core microbiome shared between the three different lignocellulosic diets. These results suggest that feeding with diets of different lignocellulosic composition could be a viable strategy to discover variants of hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems.

  1. Different processing of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus (Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis (Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Neupert, Susanne; Marciniak, Pawel; Köhler, Rene; Nachman, Ronald J; Suh, Charles P-C; Predel, Reinhard

    2017-08-31

    Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs. With the differential processing of the CAPA-precursor in Z. atratus we found a perfect example of completely different products cleaved from a single neuropeptide precursor in different cells. The CAPA precursor in abdominal ganglia of this species yields primarily periviscerokinins (PVKs) whereas processing of the same precursor in neurosecretory cells of the subesophageal ganglion results in CAPA-tryptoPK and a novel CAPA-PK. Particularly important was the detection of CAPA-PK which has never been observed in the CNS of insects before. The three different types of CAPA peptides (CAPA-tryptoPK, CAPA-PK, PVK) each represent potential ligands which activate different receptors. In contrast to the processing of the CAPA precursor from Z. atratus, no indications of a differential processing of the CAPA precursor were found in A. g. grandis. These data suggest that rapid evolutionary changes regarding the processing of CAPA precursors were still going on when the different beetle lineages diverged. The sequence of the single known PVK of A. g. grandis occupies a special position within the known PVKs of insects and might serve as a basis to develop lineage-specific peptidomimetics capable of disrupting physiological processes regulated by PVKs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Attraction of milkweed stem weevils, Rhyssomatus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculiondae), to grandlure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A trapping study was initiated in the spring of 2010 to compare the attraction of boll weevils to standard grandlure (synthesized boll weevil pheromone) and a new experimental formulation of grandlure. Both formulations contained the same four pheromone components, but differed in the proportion of...

  3. Pales Weevil

    Treesearch

    John C. Nord; Iral Ragenovich; Coleman A. Doggett

    1984-01-01

    The pales weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst),4 is the most serious insect pest of pine seedlings in the Eastern United States. Great numbers of adult weevils are attracted to freshly cutover pine lands where they breed in stumps and old root systems. Seedlings planted in freshly cut areas are injured or killed by adult weevils that feed on the stem bark. It is not...

  4. White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Abdul Hamid; Thomas M. O' Dell; Steven Katovich

    1995-01-01

    The white pine weevil - Pissodes strobi (Peck) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - is a native insect attacking eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The latest cytogenetic and breeding studies indicate that two other North American pine weevil species - the Sitka spruce weevil and the Engelmann spruce weevil-also should be classified as Pissodes strobi. The present...

  5. Respiration Rates of Resproductively Active and Diapausing Boll Weevils

    Treesearch

    Terence L. Wagner; E.J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    Low metabolism is a primary index of diapause in insects. Thus. rates of oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production are lower in diapausing than reproductive insects. To test this hypothesis, a respirometer was used to examine the age-, sex-, and food-dependent respiration rates of reproductive and...

  6. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    PubMed

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  7. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls characterized by boll age, size, and damage ratings.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J

    2013-02-01

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls <04 accumulating daily degree-days (ACDD), or a boll diameter of 1.3 cm were subject to 60-70% higher boll abscission when compared with the noninfested controls. Significantly higher boll abscission occurred from verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint

  8. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  9. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  10. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  11. Enhancement of Transfer of Technical Malathion From Cotton Leaves to Boll Weevils Using Cottonseed Oil

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2001-01-01

    Transfer tests of technical malathion alone and in mixtures of different ratios of cottonseed oil (CSO) were conducted in the laboratory. A Potter spray tower was used to treat cotton leaves excised from plants grown in a greenhouse. Mixtures of malathion:CSO were applied first at constant volume and then at constant rate. CSO was found to enhance transfer of malathion...

  12. Alternating tandem array of histone and ribosomal RNA gene blocks in the boll weevil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histones are the major protein component of the ncleosome. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and the clust...

  13. Biological control of Diaprepes root weevil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Diaprepes root weevil is an important invasive insect pest of citrus and many other plant species in Florida. Following first discovery of the weevil in the 1960s near Apopka, the weevil has spread to many new areas in Florida. We present a summary of research activities conducted in Florida to ...

  14. Stink bug feeding induces fluorescence in developing cotton bolls.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jinjun; Mustafic, Adnan; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A

    2011-08-04

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  15. 26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. Bacillus seed and boll rot of cotton: Symptoms and transmission by Hemiptera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bolls affected by seed rot and internal boll rot were sampled from various geographical areas over three years and examined for organisms capable of causing disease. After Pantoea species and Nematospora coryli, Bacillus species were one of the microorganisms often associated with seed and boll rot...

  17. Waterlogging during flowering and boll forming stages affects sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll and its relationship with boll weight.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Jie; Liu, Zhaowei; Wang, Youhua; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2014-06-01

    The work explored sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll (SBL) and its role in boll weight after waterlogging in cotton. Results showed that net photosynthesis rate (Pn), relative water content, contents of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b, initial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and cytosolic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (cy-FBPase) activity decreased with waterlogging in the SBL on fruiting branches 2-3 (FB2-3) and FB6-7. Activities of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) increased to the maximum up to 6 days of waterlogging then decreased with prolonged waterlogging. Rubisco activation and specific leaf weight increased and gene expressions of SuSy, SPS and rubisco activase (RCA) were all up-regulated with the duration of waterlogging, especially for the SBL on FB6-7. The induction of activity and gene expression of SuSy was most significant indicating its crucial role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging. For the SBL in the later period of boll development on upper FB10-11 and FB14-15, the pattern seemed opposite to that of FB2-3 and FB6c7 as compensation effect in vegetative growth existed. Correlation analysis revealed that initial Rubisco activity and cy-FBPase activity were the main limitation to Pn reduction after waterlogging. Reduction in Pn, sucrose transformation rate and initial Rubisco activity directly decrease boll weight in waterlogged cotton. Besides the role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging, SuSy also had a positive significant correlation with the duration of rapid-accumulation period for seed fiber weight (P<0.05). These findings elucidated mechanisms to waterlogging that affected seed fiber weight, which resulted from alteration in carbohydrates, enzymes and genes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Metabolism of aflatoxin B-1 in cotton bolls

    SciTech Connect

    Mellon, J.E.; Lee, L.S. )

    1989-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungus capable of producing the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (AFB-1) when it infects developing cotton seed. Although high levels of toxin can readily be isolated from internal tissues of infected seeds, very low toxin levels are observed in the fiber-linter matrix. In order to test the hypothesis that constituents associated with the lint of the host plant are metabolizing aflatoxin, {sup 14}C-AFB-1 was introduced into cotton bolls (30 days postanthesis). Other sets of bolls received inoculations of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus plus exogenous {sup 14}C-AFB-1. In addition to the exogenously applied {sup 14}C-AFB-1, at least two new labelled metabolites were recovered from the test bolls. One of these metabolites was very polar and remained on the origin of the thin layer analysis system. Test bolls which received both A. flavus and AFB-1 produced significantly lower levels of this polar metabolite. Results indicated that some constituent(s) associated with cotton fiber may metabolize fungal-produced aflatoxin, rather than inhibit its formation.

  19. Palm Weevil Pheromones - Discovery and Use.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, A C

    2016-07-01

    Male-produced aggregation pheromones of seven major pest species of weevils in the subfamily Rhynchophorinae have been identified as a closely related set of methyl-branched secondary alcohols. Although the weevils produce only one stereoisomer of these alcohols, no instances of isomeric inhibition have been observed, enabling stereoisomeric mixtures to be used in traps. Addition of fermenting plant material to traps synergizes attraction of weevils to the pheromones. The weevils are large, have long life cycles, and are strong fliers. These characteristics make mass trapping a suitable tactic to add to existing management strategies. When coupled with good phytosanitary practices, mass trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum at 1 trap/5-ha significantly lowered the incidence of red ring nematode infection vectored by the weevil in commercial oil palm plantations in the Americas. Similarly, trap densities of 1-10 traps/ha have significantly lowered R. ferrugineus infestation of date palm throughout the Middle East. Although management of R. ferrugineus in urban areas is more problematic, trapping is an integral part of most programs aimed at protection of ornamental Canary palms in Europe. Overall, semiochemically-based management of these large weevils is now a mature and usually economically feasible control technology.

  20. Bacteria on closed-boll and commercially harvested cotton.

    PubMed Central

    Millner, P D; Ericson, K E; Marsh, P B

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial content of specially treated cottons used by other investigators to test human pulmonary responses to cotton dust was examined. Cotton from Lubbock, Tex. and Stoneville, Miss. were either (i) harvested by machine and handled as commercial bale cotton, (ii) harvested as closed bolls with bracts intact and opened under special conditions, (iii) harvested as closed bolls, with bracts being removed and opened under special conditions, or (iv) harvested by (stoneville only). Bacillus spp. were isolated from all samples and predominated in cotton from Stoneville. Enterobacter agglomerans was isolated from all but one sample, the Stoneville closed-boll bract-removed cotton, and predominated in Lubbock samples. Aerogenic and anaerogenic biogroups of E. agglomerans were isolated; only aerogenic strain b of E. agglomerans was present in samples from both locations. Klebsiella ozaenae and K. pneumoniae were isolated only from Lubbock samples. Cotton from Lubbock yielded 100 to 1,000 times more bacteria, both total and gram negative, than did comparably treated cotton from Stoneville. Thus, differences in growing and processing conditions at the two locations were associated with large differences in the bacterial content of the cotton, but harvesting green bolls and removing bracts had little effect. The bacterial content of Stoneville washed cotton, and it paralleled the differences reported (Boehlecke et al., Am. Rev. Respir, Dis. 123:152, 1981) in pulmonary function responses when subjects were exposed to dust (0.6 mg/m3) from these two cottons. Levels of gram-negative and total bacteria on all samples were comparable to those previously reported for field-weathered cottons from various locations throughout the world. PMID:6751230

  1. Adsorption of Cu(II) ions on cotton boll.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, H Duygu; Kumbur, Halil

    2006-08-25

    In this study, cotton boll was used as an adsorbent for the aim of removing of the Cu(II) ions from the aqueous solutions. The adsorption process was carried out in a batch process and the effects of contact time (2-24h), adsorbent concentration (1-20 g l(-1)), initial pH (2.0-6.0), initial metal ion concentration (20-160 mg l(-1)) and temperature (20-45 degrees C) on the adsorption were investigated. Experimental results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was determined at pH 5.0 and adsorbed Cu(II) ion concentration was increased with increasing adsorbent concentration and contact time. The isothermal data of cotton boll could be well described by the Langmuir equations and the Langmuir monolayer capacity had a mean value of 11.40 mg g(-1). Experimental results indicated that the pseudo-second order reaction model provided the best description of the data with a correlation coefficient 0.99 for different initial metal concentrations and therefore it was explained that chemical sorption was the basic mechanism in this system. FT-IR results showed that oxygen and nitrogen atoms in structure of cotton boll were involved in Cu(II) ions adsorption.

  2. Histone and Ribosomal RNA Repetitive Gene Clusters of the Boll Weevil are Linked in a Tandem Array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and ...

  3. Recombinant Cry1Ia protein is highly toxic to cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    PubMed

    Martins, E S; Aguiar, R W D S; Martins, N F; Melatti, V M; Falcão, R; Gomes, A C M M; Ribeiro, B M; Monnerat, R G

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the activity of cry1Ia gene against cotton pests, Spodoptera frugiperda and Anthonomus grandis. Had isolated and characterized a toxin gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis S1451 strain which have been previously shown to be toxic to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. The toxin gene (cry1Ia) was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into the genome of a baculovirus. The Cry1Ia protein was expressed in baculovirus infected insect cells, producing protein inclusions in infected cells. The Cry1Ia protein has used in bioassays against to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. Bioassays using the purified recombinant protein showed high toxicity to S. frugiperda and A. grandis larvae. Molecular modelling of the Cry1Ia protein translated from the DNA sequence obtained in this work, showed that this protein possibly posses a similar structure to the Cry3A protein. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from A. grandis incubated with the Cry1Ia toxin, showed loss of microvilli integrity. The results indicate that the cry1Ia is a good candidate for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to these important cotton pests.

  4. Combining ability analysis for within-boll yield components in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Imran, M; Shakeel, A; Azhar, F M; Farooq, J; Saleem, M F; Saeed, A; Nazeer, W; Riaz, M; Naeem, M; Javaid, A

    2012-08-24

    Cotton is an important cash crop worldwide, accounting for a large percentage of world agricultural exports; however, yield per acre is still poor in many countries, including Pakistan. Diallel mating system was used to identify parents for improving within-boll yield and fiber quality parameters. Combining ability analysis was employed to obtain suitable parents for this purpose. The parental genotypes CP-15/2, NIAB Krishma, CIM-482, MS-39, and S-12 were crossed in complete diallel mating under green house conditions during 2009. The F₀ seed of 20 hybrids and five parents were planted in the field in randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010. There were highly significant differences among all F₁ hybrids and their parents. Specific combining ability (SCA) variance was greater than general combining ability (GCA) variance for bolls per plant (9.987), seeds per boll (0.635), seed density (5.672), lint per seed (4.174), boll size (3.69), seed cotton yield (0.315), and lint percentage (0.470), showing predominance of non-additive genes; while seed volume (3.84) was controlled by additive gene action based on maximum GCA variance. Cultivar MS-39 was found to be the best general combiner for seed volume (0.102), seeds per boll (0.448), and lint per seed (0.038) and its utilization produced valuable hybrids, including MS-39 x NIAB Krishma and MS-39 x S-12. The parental line CIM-482 had high GCA effects for boll size (0.33) and seeds per boll (0.90). It also showed good SCA with S-12 and NIAB Krishma for bolls per plant, with CP- 15/2 for boll size, and with MS-39 for seeds per boll. The hybrids, namely, CP-15/2 x NIAB Krishma, NIAB Krishma x S-12, NIAB Krishma x CIM-482, MS-39 x NIAB Krishma, MS-39 x CP-15/2, and S-12 x MS-39 showed promising results. Correlation analysis revealed that seed cotton yield showed significant positive correlation with bolls per plant, boll size and seeds per boll while it showed negative correlation with lint

  5. Boll wall thickness in four cotton species and susceptibility to stink bug feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), adults can introduce pathogens into cotton bolls while feeding. Stylet penetration estimates of southern green stink bugs are known, and knowledge of boll wall thickness in cotton species may aid in determining susceptibility...

  6. Actual and simulated injury of Creontiades signatus (Heteroptera: Miridae) feeding on cotton bolls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The actual feeding injury of Creontiades signatus (Distant) was compared to a simulated technique for study years 2005, 2006 and 2008 by injecting varying dilutions of pectinase into cotton bolls at different boll sizes (ages) in an effort to determine if such a technique could be used to reduce the...

  7. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rot and associated microorganisms from fields in south Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased cotton production losses in areas of south Texas have been generally associated with a rise in boll rot that reduces lint quality and causes deteriorated seed. Here, we measured boll rot incidence during two growing seasons (2011 and 2012) at a south Texas variety trial in research plots ...

  8. Internal Boll Rots Associated with Feeding by Hemipterous Insects: A Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When stink bugs, plant bugs and cotton fleahoppers feed on bolls and buds, the locks within the boll often become discolored or rotted. Such symptoms are usually caused by microbial pathogens introduced by insects. The roles of pathogens have been determined by antiseptically isolating microorgani...

  9. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  10. Comparison of cotton square and boll damage and resulting lint and seed loss caused by verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Retention of bolls and squares (referred to as fruit retention), boll damage, and resulting cotton lint and seed weight loss were assessed when two (2010) and three (2011) age classes of sympodial fruiting branches with different ages of squares and bolls where exposed to verde plant bug, Creontiade...

  11. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  12. A developmental stage-specific switch from DAZL to BOLL occurs during fetal oogenesis in humans, but not mice.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Stewart, Kayleigh; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Childs, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The Deleted in Azoospermia gene family encodes three germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins (DAZ, DAZL and BOLL) that are essential for gametogenesis in diverse species. Targeted disruption of Boll in mice causes male-specific spermiogenic defects, but females are apparently fertile. Overexpression of human BOLL promotes the derivation of germ cell-like cells from genetically female (XX), but not male (XY) human ES cells however, suggesting a functional role for BOLL in regulating female gametogenesis in humans. Whether BOLL is expressed during oogenesis in mammals also remains unclear. We have therefore investigated the expression of BOLL during fetal oogenesis in humans and mice. We demonstrate that BOLL protein is expressed in the germ cells of the human fetal ovary, at a later developmental stage than, and almost mutually-exclusive to, the expression of DAZL. Strikingly, BOLL is downregulated, and DAZL re-expressed, as primordial follicles form, revealing BOLL expression to be restricted to a narrow window during fetal oogenesis. By quantifying the extent of co-expression of DAZL and BOLL with markers of meiosis, we show that this window likely corresponds to the later stages of meiotic prophase I. Finally, we demonstrate that Boll is also transiently expressed during oogenesis in the fetal mouse ovary, but is simultaneously co-expressed within the same germ cells as Dazl. These data reveal significant similarities and differences between the expression of BOLL homologues during oogenesis in humans and mice, and raise questions as to the validity of the Boll(-/-) mouse as a model for understanding BOLL function during human oogenesis.

  13. LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a moderate level of experience to obtain accurate estimates. To improve detection of stink bug feeding, we present here a method based on fluorescent imaging and subsequent image analyses to determine the likelihood of stink bug damage in cotton bolls. Results Damage to different structures of cotton bolls including lint and carpal wall can be observed under blue LED-induced fluorescence. Generally speaking, damaged regions fluoresce green, whereas non-damaged regions with chlorophyll fluoresce red. However, similar fluorescence emission is also observable on cotton bolls that have not been fed upon by stink bugs. Criteria based on fluorescent intensity and the size of the fluorescent spot allow to differentiate between true positives (fluorescent regions associated with stink bug feeding) and false positives (fluorescent regions due to other causes). We found a detection rates with two combined criteria of 87% for true-positive marks and of 8% for false-positive marks. Conclusions The imaging technique presented herein gives rise to a possible detection apparatus where a cotton boll is imaged in the field and images processed by software. The unique fluorescent signature left by stink bugs can be used to determine with high probability if a cotton boll has been punctured by a stink bug. We believe this technique, when integrated in a suitable device, could be used for more accurate detection in the field and allow for more optimized application of pest control. PMID:23421982

  14. LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls.

    PubMed

    Mustafic, Adnan; Roberts, Erin E; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-02-20

    Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a moderate level of experience to obtain accurate estimates. To improve detection of stink bug feeding, we present here a method based on fluorescent imaging and subsequent image analyses to determine the likelihood of stink bug damage in cotton bolls. Damage to different structures of cotton bolls including lint and carpal wall can be observed under blue LED-induced fluorescence. Generally speaking, damaged regions fluoresce green, whereas non-damaged regions with chlorophyll fluoresce red. However, similar fluorescence emission is also observable on cotton bolls that have not been fed upon by stink bugs. Criteria based on fluorescent intensity and the size of the fluorescent spot allow to differentiate between true positives (fluorescent regions associated with stink bug feeding) and false positives (fluorescent regions due to other causes). We found a detection rates with two combined criteria of 87% for true-positive marks and of 8% for false-positive marks. The imaging technique presented herein gives rise to a possible detection apparatus where a cotton boll is imaged in the field and images processed by software. The unique fluorescent signature left by stink bugs can be used to determine with high probability if a cotton boll has been punctured by a stink bug. We believe this technique, when integrated in a suitable device, could be used for more accurate detection in the field and allow for more optimized application of pest control.

  15. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    PubMed

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury.

  16. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Reisig, Dominic D.; Reay-Jones, F. P. F.; Meijer, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. PMID:26411787

  17. How to control the white pine weevil with a hand sprayer

    Treesearch

    David Crosby

    1954-01-01

    The white pine weevil is the most serious insect enemy of white pine in the Northeast, where more than 75 percent of these valuable trees are weeviled. Weevil larvae feed just beneath the bark; this kills the leader, causing folks, crooks, and a subsequent degrade of timber. In fact, widespread damage by the weevil has reduced the demand for white pine planting stock...

  18. Oviposition on and mining in bolls of Bt and non-Bt cotton by resistant and susceptible pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Dennehy, Timothy J; Carrière, Yves; Sims, Maria A; Meyer, Susan K

    2002-02-01

    Transgenic cotton that produces insecticidal crystal protein Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been effective in controlling pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). We compared responses to bolls of Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton by adult females and neonates from susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant strains of pink bollworm. In choice tests on caged cotton plants in the greenhouse, neither susceptible nor resistant females laid fewer eggs on Bt cotton bolls than on non-Bt cotton bolls, indicating that the Bt toxin did not deter oviposition. Multiple regression revealed that the number of eggs laid per boll was negatively associated with boll age and positively associated with boll diameter. Females also laid more eggs per boll on plants with more bolls. The distribution of eggs among bolls of Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton was clumped, indicating that boll quality rather than avoidance of previously laid eggs was a primary factor in oviposition preference. Parallel to the results from oviposition experiments, in laboratory no-choice tests with 10 neonates per boll, the number of entrance holes per boll did not differ between Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton for susceptible and resistant neonates. Also, like females, neonates preferred younger bolls and larger bolls. Thus, acceptance of bolls by females for oviposition and by neonates for mining was affected by boll age and diameter, but not by Bt toxin in bolls. The lack of discrimination between Bt and non-Bt cotton bolls by pink bollworm from susceptible and resistant strains indicates that oviposition and mining initiation are independent of susceptibility to Cry1Ac.

  19. Contact toxicity of 38 insecticides to pales weevil adults

    Treesearch

    Jacqueline L. Robertson; Robert L. Lyon; Nancy L. Gillette

    1975-01-01

    The pales weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst), attacks all pine species in Eastern North America and is considered the most destructive pest of pine reproduction in the Eastern United States (Speers and Rauchenberger 1971). Large numbers of seedlings are damaged or killed by the adult weevils, which feed on the inner bark.

  20. Stability of Spatial Distributions of Stink Bugs, Boll Injury, and NDVI in Cotton.

    PubMed

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Bauer, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]). Using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). NDVI values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with the majority of significant indices occurring in July and August. Paired NDVI datasets from different sampling dates were frequently associated (86.5% for weekly intervals among datasets). Spatial distributions of both stink bugs and boll injury were less stable than for NDVI, with positive associations varying from 12.5 to 25% for adult stink bugs for weekly intervals, depending on species. Spatial distributions of boll injury from stink bug feeding were more stable than stink bugs, with 46% positive associations among paired datasets with weekly intervals. NDVI values were positively associated with boll injury from stink bug feeding in 11 out of 22 analyses, with no significant negative associations. This indicates that NDVI has potential as a component of site-specific management. Future work should continue to examine the value of remote sensing for insect management in cotton, with an aim to develop tools such as risk assessment maps that will help growers to reduce insecticide inputs.

  1. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    PubMed

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone.

  2. Transmission of the opportunistic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll pathogen Pantoea agglomerans by the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus Say)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Damage to developing cotton bolls by piercing-sucking insects such as stink bugs has traditionally been attributed solely to pest feeding. Previously, we showed clear differences in severity of boll damage resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) fed sterile food compared to thos...

  3. [Effects of soil progressive drought during the flowering and boll-forming stage on gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of the subtending leaf to cotton boll].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-wei; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Rui; Kuai, Jie; Li, Lei; Wang, You-hua; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic changes and response mechanisms of gas exchange parameters and fluorescence indices of the subtending leaf to cotton boll under soil progressive drought stress, pot experiments of the hybrid cotton No. 3 were conducted with soil relative water content (SRWC) (75 +/- 5)% as control group, SRWC (60 +/- 5)% and SRWC (45 +/- 5)% as experimental groups dealt with progressive drought for 50 days. Results showed that, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased while Ls increased under SRWC (60 +/- 5)% for 0-21 days. Furthermore, there was no significant change in chlorophyll fluorescence indices. This indicated that stomatal limitation was the main reason for the reduction of photosynthesis of cotton. In addition, when drought for 21-49 days under SRWC (60 +/- 5)%, Pn kept decreasing, while Ci began to increase and Ls began to decrease. Potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of photo system II (phi(PSI)) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)) reduced significantly, but non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) first rose then decreased. Thus, nonstomatal limitation was the main reason why the photosynthesis of cotton reduced. Photosynthetic organization and photosynthetic enzyme system were destroyed, boll setting intensity reduced and the number of boll and yield reduced significantly. Drought for 0-14 days under SRWC (45 +/- 5)% treatment led to sharp decrease in Pn, g(s) and Ci, whereas Ls obviously increased. There was no significant change in Fv/Fm, phi(PSII), q(P), indicating stomatal limitation was the main reason why the photosynthesis of cotton reduced. Pn decreased slowly, while Ci began to rise and Ls began to decline under SRWC (45 +/- 5)% treatment for 14-49 days. Fv/Fm, phi(PSII), q(P) decreased while NPQ rose first then declined, which indicated that nonstomatal limitation worked to reduce the cotton photosynthetic performance

  4. Sampling plantations to determine white-pine weevil injury

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Talerico; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1973-01-01

    Use of 1/10-acre square plots to obtain estimates of the proportion of never-weeviled trees necessary for evaluating and scheduling white-pine weevil control is described. The optimum number of trees to observe per plot is estimated from data obtained from sample plantations in the Northeast and a table is given. Of sample size required to achieve a standard error of...

  5. Ancient origin and recent range expansion of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais, and its genealogical relationship to the rice weevil S. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A S; Vinson, C C; Braga, L S; Guedes, R N C; de Oliveira, L O

    2017-02-01

    Archeological records attest the early association of Sitophilus with stored cereals from the beginning of agriculture on Asia. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) became particularly damaging to maize, a cereal crop domesticated on Mesoamerica. We investigated the late evolutionary history of the maize weevil to gain insights on its origin, timing of association with maize, and genealogical relationship to the almost morphologically indistinguishable rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae). Two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome oxidase subunit II) and the nuclear ribosomal gene region were partially sequenced. Analyses showed that the maize weevil shared no haplotypes with the rice weevil; instead, each species exhibited distinct mitogroups and ribogroups. The two weevil species likely split about 8.7 million years ago (95% highest posterior density: 4.0-15.0). Microsatellite data analyses sorted the 309 specimens from 15 populations of the maize weevil into three genotypic groups, which displayed low genetic differentiation and widespread occurrence worldwide. The maize weevil and the rice weevil are each a distinct species; both of which emerged prior to the onset of agriculture. The maize-maize weevil association took place after maize became widespread as a global crop. The maize weevil populations lack spatial genetic structure at the regional, continental, and intercontinental scales.

  6. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  7. Breeding implications of boll distribution responses to water stress deficits in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To identify the impact of different water stress deficits on the boll distribution of elite Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars in the Texas High Plains, cultivars which represent the diverse gene-pools of the private sector were subjected to three different water deficit regimes. This s...

  8. Effect of foliar-applied salicylic acid on cotton flowering, boll retention, and yield

    Treesearch

    J.J. Heitholt; J.H. Schmidt; Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2001-01-01

    Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) may help regulate several plant functions, including systemic acquired resistance to pathogens and the formation of flowers. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of foliar-applied salicylic acid on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) flowering, boll retention, and yield. Field experiments were...

  9. Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six sampling methods targeting square and boll-feeding plant bugs on cotton were compared during three cotton growth periods (early-season squaring, early bloom, and peak through late bloom) by samplers differing in experience (with prior years of sampling experience or no experience) along the coas...

  10. The Phytotoxin Coronatine Induces Abscission-Related Gene Expression and Boll Ripening during Defoliation of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  11. The phytotoxin coronatine induces abscission-related gene expression and boll ripening during defoliation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingwei; Li, Yi; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ.

  12. Potential for Nezara virdula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Transmit Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens into Cotton Bolls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, we described the vectoring of an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain into green cotton bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) (SGSB) that resulted in disease. We hypothesized that our established experimental disease model could be used to determine whether SGSB s...

  13. Complete genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a known cotton insect boll vector

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with bacterial pneumonia) was previously isolated from Nezara viridula, a significant vector of cotton boll-rot pathogens. We provide the first annotated genome sequence of the cotton opportunistic strain K. pneumoniae 5-1. This data provides guidance to study the...

  14. Boll distribution and plant architecture of 14 commercial cultivars under five different irrigation regimes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on the boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture of commercial cultivars of cotton (Gossypium spp.). To identify the impact of different irrigation levels on the Texas High Plains 14 co...

  15. T & I--Textiles, Cotton Boll. Kit No. 59. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, David

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the cotton boll are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (textiles). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  16. Successful boll development after ovary damage during emasculation of upland cotton flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gossypium hirsutum flowers are easily emasculated by splitting the staminal column with the fingernail and removing the corolla and androecium. However, any damage to the ovary is considered detrimental to successful boll formation and damaged flowers are typically discarded. This study evaluated ...

  17. Verde plant bug is associated with cottong boll rot in South Texas cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verde plant bug was the dominant boll-feeding sucking bug species (>98% of insects collected using a beat bucket) from peak to late bloom in cotton fields near the coast along the Coastal Bend of South Texas, from Port Lavaca to the Lower Rio qrande Valley in 2010 and 2011. It was common in fields w...

  18. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  19. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K.

  20. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to larvae and adults of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential virulence and entry routes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hazel nut weevil, Curculio nucum, is a major pest of hazel nuts, particularly in Europe; hazel nut weevil is also closely related to other nut-attacking weevils such as pecan weevil (Curculio caryae). In this study, the basis for differential susceptibility of the hazelnut weevil (to entomopatho...

  1. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Medrano, E G; Bell, A A; Duke, S E

    2016-09-01

    To determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (BSB) (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans strain Sc 1-R into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) bolls. A laboratory colony of BSB was maintained on fresh green beans. Either sterile or Sc 1-R contaminated beans were offered to adult insects. Strain Sc 1-R holds rifampicin resistance (Rif(r) ). Insects were then caged with unopened greenhouse-grown bolls. After 2 days, BSB were surface sterilized, ground, and then plated on media with and without Rif. Two weeks later, seed with lint were ground and plated on media with and without Rif. Microbes were recovered on nonselective media from all BSBs and from seed/lint at concentrations reaching 10(9)  CFU g(-1) tissue. Rif(r) bacteria were recovered strictly from insects exposed to Sc1-R and from diseased seed/lint of respective bolls. Euschistus servus was capable of transmitting strain Sc 1-R into bolls resulting in disease. Insects not exposed to the pathogen deposited bacteria yet the nonpathogenic microbes produced insignificant damage to the boll tissue. This is the first study to concretely show the capacity of the BSB to transmit an infective P. agglomerans strain resulting in boll disease. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Installation Restoration Program. Records Search, Bolling AFB, Washington, DC. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    INSTALLATION DOCUMENTS 14-13 ES ENGINEERING -SCIENCE I I Table D.3, Appendix D, contains a listing of all tankage used to store petroleum or petroleum products...included the water permitting for a petroleum refinery expansion for I Hess Oil Co. in southern Mississippi, and developmental permits including Corps...Variable Containers Source: Installation Documents. D-2 I I I TABLE D.3 PETROLEUM STORAGE TANKS3 BOLLING AFB IFacility Type of Capacity Storage Number

  3. Integration of a small clinic into the Pentagon response: the Bolling Air Force Base perspective.

    PubMed

    Furman, Kenneth A

    2002-09-01

    The September 11 terrorist attack on the Pentagon elicited a large-scale response to assist both active duty personnel and civilian employees. This article discusses the initial response and subsequent integration of a small military Behavioral Health Clinic into the overall helping response. The unique requirements to simultaneously assist with the Pentagon response, while addressing the needs of the Bolling Air Force Base community are highlighted. Recommendations are provided to assist the military in the event of future contingencies.

  4. Maintenance Operations of the Federal Navigation Channels and Structures at Bolles Harbor, Michigan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    tanks , although the community will join the City of Monroe’s waste water treatment facilities at some future date. 2.02 Bolles Harbor is primarily a...septic tanks , were responsible for the classification of the harbor waters in 1965. A sewer tie-in with the Monroe Wastewater Treatment Plant is...some oil and grease. 2.16 Sediments. The bottom sediments were sampled and analyzed in 1969 by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA

  5. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  6. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  7. How Far Can the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Fly?: Computerized Flight Mill Studies With Field-Captured Weevils.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D; Faleiro, J R; El-Shafie, H A F; Jeske, D R; Sallam, A A

    2015-12-01

    Adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the Al Ahsaa Directorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. Flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (December), spring (March), and summer (May). Of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills ∼30% failed to fly > 1 km. Of those weevils flying > 1 km (n = 139), 55% flew > 10 km, and of these flyers 5% flew > 50 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of 20-30% and nonflying control weevils lost ∼9-13% body weight in 24 h. Male and female weevils flying in summer (average laboratory temperature was ∼27°C) flew the longest average distances (∼25-35 km), exhibited highest weight reductions (∼30%), and greatest mortality rates (∼80%). Consequently, time of year not weevil sex or color morph had a consistent and significant effect on flight activity, weight loss, and survivorship rates. Flight activity was predominantly diurnal commencing around 5:00 a.m. and peaking between 9-11:00 a.m. before tapering off. The distribution of flight distances combined across season and sex was mesokurtic (i.e., normally distributed). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Development of Pales Weevil Larvae on an Emulsified Synthetic Diet

    Treesearch

    H.A. Thomas

    1971-01-01

    The effect of adding an emulsifier to an artificial diet for pales weevil larvae was studied. The hypothesis was that fat-soluble ingredients would be better dispersed in the aqueous media, possibly leading to improved larval growth. The results suggest some Improvement occurred when the emulsifier was incorporated.

  9. Effect of radio frequency treatments on cowpea weevil adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, lentils and dried peas) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. Postharvest infestation by stored product insect pests such as the cowpea weevil may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically, chemical fumiga...

  10. Farming of a defensive fungal mutualist by an attelabid weevil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Feng, Yu; Tian, Jianqing; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Ding, Jianqing; Yin, Wen-Bing; Stadler, Marc; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing animals and fungi is a classic example of a complex interspecies association. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions and protecting and harvesting the fungal crop. More examples, which could be called ‘proto-fungiculture', involve fewer adaptations, as exemplified by marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass. Recent work has indicated that the solitary leaf-rolling weevil Euops chinensis (family Attelabidae) has a protofarming symbiosis with the mycangial fungus Penicillium herquei (family Trichocomaceae). In this study, we investigated how the weevils create cradles (leaf-rolls) for their offspring and protect the fungal garden. We describe new specialized structures and behaviors that E. chinensis females use for leaf-rolling and fungus inoculation. The fungus P. herquei produces the antibiotic (+)-scleroderolide in laboratory culture and in leaf-rolls, which can serve to inhibit microbial ‘weeds' and pests, thus protecting the fungal garden against potential infection. The fungiculture of E. chinensis differs from other advanced insect fungiculture systems because female weevils do not continuously tend the inoculated microbe and do not depend nutritionally on the fungus. The defensive role of the cultivated fungus makes the attelabid weevils exceptional in ‘proto-fungiculture' animals. PMID:25658054

  11. Green light synergistically enhances male sweetpotato weevil sex pheromone response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is the 7th most important staple crop in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter...

  12. Control of the white-pine weevil with insecticidal emulsions

    Treesearch

    David Crosby

    1958-01-01

    Excellent control of the white-pine weevil in young white pine plantations, by applying concentrated lead arsenate spray with knapsack sprayers, was demonstrated and reported several years ago. Since then, research has shown that a number of newer insecticides, used as emulsions, are also very effective.

  13. Use of sprays to control the pales weevil (Hylobius pales)

    Treesearch

    S. F. Potts

    1955-01-01

    The Pales weevil, one of the serious insect pests of the Northeast, comes into areas that have been recently cut or burned. The beetles feed on the bark of seedlings and young trees up to 18 inches high. They feed just above the ground line, often girdling the trees and killing them. They attack practically all conifers, but white pine is their favorite.

  14. Integrating biological control into pecan weevil management: a sustainable approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, is a key pest of pecans. This article summarizes research and makes recommendations based on a project that was funded in part by the USDA-Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program and that was aimed at developing biological methods of C. caryae contr...

  15. Thousand cankers disease: Geosmithia morbida spores isolated from a weevil

    Treesearch

    Michele Warmund; Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Geosmithia morbida, the canker-causing fungus associated with thousand cankers disease, was isolated from Stenomimus pallidus weevils found on two stressed black walnut trees in Yellowwood State Forest near Nashville, Indiana. This is the first report of Geosmithia fungus occurring on an insect other than the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis)....

  16. Geosmithia morbida found on weevil species Stenominus pallidus in Indiana

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Mark T. Banik; Sharon E. Reed; James T. English; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2015-01-01

    The canker pathogen Geosmithia morbida is known to be transmitted to Juglans species by the bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis, and to lead to development of thousand cankers disease. In an Indiana-wide trap-tree survey of ambrosia and bark beetles and weevils colonizing stressed Juglans nigra...

  17. Large-Scale Evaluation of Association Between Pheromone Trap Captures and Cotton Boll Infestation for Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2017-03-16

    Although transgenic cotton producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a cornerstone for pink bollworm control in some countries, integrated pest management remains important for bolstering sustainability of Bt cotton and is critical for controlling pink bollworm where Bt cotton is not available or where this pest has evolved resistance to Bt cotton. Here, we used data on moth captures in gossyplure-baited pheromone traps and boll infestations for 163 Bt and 152 non-Bt cotton fields from Arizona to evaluate accuracy of chemical control decisions relying on moth trapping data and capacity of Bt cotton to suppress survival of offspring produced by moths. Assuming an economic injury level of 12% boll infestation, the accuracy of decisions based on moth captures corresponding to economic thresholds of 6%, 8%, and 10% boll infestation increased from 44.7% to 67.1%. The association between moth captures and boll infestation was positive and significant for non-Bt cotton fields but was not significant for Bt cotton fields. Although chemical control decisions based on trapping data were only moderately accurate, pheromone traps could still be valuable for determining when moth populations are high enough to trigger boll sampling to more rigorously evaluate the need for insecticide sprays.

  18. Resistance of maize landraces to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Mikami, A Y; Carpentieri-Pípolo, V; Ventura, Maurício Ursi

    2012-10-01

    The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. is an important pest of maize that attacks the grain both in the field and during storage. The damage caused by the maize weevil S. zeamais on maize landraces, Amarelo Antigo, Asteca, Caiano, Carioca, and Ferrinho, was evaluated by no-choice tests under laboratory conditions. The commercial varieties Sol da Manhã, BR 106, BR 451, and the synthetics PC 0203 and PC 9903 were evaluated for comparisons with the maize landraces. The parameters evaluated were susceptibility index, number of weevil progeny, development time, weevil progeny dry weight, and grain dry weight loss. The landraces were more susceptible to the maize weevil as compared to the commercial varieties. Based on the cluster analysis, two groups of susceptibility to the maize weevil were observed: one of more susceptible populations formed by local landraces and BR 451, and another less susceptible, with commercial varieties, synthetics, and the landrace Amarelo.

  19. DNA identification confirms pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of Carpathian walnut.

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Hunt, Kenneth L; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-08-01

    Larvae found infesting fruit from a Carpathian walnut, Juglans regia L., tree in Missouri were confirmed by DNA analysis to be those of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. This is the first confirmed DNA analysis showing pecan weevil attacks J. regia and the second report that J. regia may be at risk of infestation by pecan weevil. Further study indicates this infestation on walnut is established and ongoing. The pecan weevil is a key pest of pecan and seems capable of inflicting similar damage to walnut if spread to commercial areas that produce J. regia.

  20. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products.

    PubMed

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F₁ progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils' damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  1. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot development provided opportunity to assess if a single in-season measurement had value in evaluati...

  2. [From Comte to Carnap. Marcel Boll and the introduction of the Vienna Circle in France].

    PubMed

    Schöttler, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the introduction of viennese "scientific philosophy" in France appears to be resolved. However, the rediscovery of the positivist physicist Marcel Boll (1886-1971), who was the first-well before Louis Rougier-to draw the French public's attention to the works of Schlick, Frank, and Carnap, obliges us to rethink the passage from traditional positivism to neo-positivism during the 1920s and 1930s. The French reception of the Vienna circle can be dated earlier than accepted and is more profound than usualy assumed.

  3. The non-autonomous YdKN equation and generalized symmetries of Boll equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Scimiterna, C.; Levi, D.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we study the integrability of a class of nonlinear non-autonomous quad graph equations compatible around the cube introduced by Boll in the framework of the generalized Adler, Bobenko, and Suris (ABS) classification. We show that all these equations possess three-point generalized symmetries which are subcases of either the Yamilov discretization of the Krichever-Novikov equation or of its non-autonomous extension. We also prove that all those symmetries are integrable as they pass the algebraic entropy test.

  4. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis.

    PubMed

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2012-07-07

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single domains are extremely directional (observed with a point source less than 5°), but the special arrangement of the scales in the concave pits significantly broadens the angular distribution of the reflections. The resulting virtually angle-independent green coloration of the weevil closely approximates the colour of a foliaceous background. While the close-distance colourful shininess of E. imperialis may facilitate intersexual recognition, the diffuse green reflectance of the elytra when seen at long-distance provides cryptic camouflage.

  5. The influence of silvicultural practices on genetic improvement: height growth and weevil resistance in eastern white pine

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; D.M. Smith

    1981-01-01

    When grown in a common environment, the progeny of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) from weeviled stands improved by selection thinning outperformed the progeny of wolfy dominants from untreated stands in both height and weevil resistance. Within families, weevils tended to attack the tallest trees. Among families the relationship was not as strong and...

  6. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  7. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  8. Relationship between carrot weevil infestation and parsley yield.

    PubMed

    Torres, Angel N; Hoy, Casey W

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between numbers of carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte), oviposition scars and parsley fresh weight and plant mortality was measured in research plots during 1999 and 2000. Fresh weight was measured in one to two cuttings of parsley planted on two planting dates. The average weight declined with increasing numbers of oviposition scars in the later planting in 1999. Compensatory growth in surviving plants may reduce this effect. Plant mortality increased as number of oviposition scars per plant increased in the second planting in both years and in the first cutting of the first planting in 2000. One oviposition scar per plant is sufficient to result in significant reduction in fresh weight per plant. In commercial parsley fields, the relationship between fresh weight of parsley per 30-cm row section of parsley was best described as a linear function of the proportion of plants with root feeding. Economic damage to parsley that is equivalent to the cost of controlling carrot weevil was estimated to result from approximately 1% of plants with root damage. Based upon this estimated economic injury level, we suggest an action threshold of 1% of plants containing carrot weevil oviposition scars earlier in the growing season when controls could be applied to prevent the damage.

  9. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  10. The impact of planting date on management of the rice water weevil in Louisiana rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Early planting of rice to avoid damaging infestations of the rice water weevil has long been suggested as a management tactic. A five-year study was conducted to characterize the influ...

  11. Polygalacturonase from Sitophilus oryzae: Possible horizontal transfer of a pectinase gene from fungi to weevils

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhicheng; Denton, Michael; Mutti, Navdeep; Pappan, Kirk; Kanost, Michael R.; Reese, John C.; Reeck, Gerald R.

    2003-01-01

    Endo-polygalacturonase, one of the group of enzymes known collectively as pectinases, is widely distributed in bacteria, plants and fungi. The enzyme has also been found in several weevil species and a few other insects, such as aphids, but not in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, or Caenorhabditis elegans or, as far as is known, in any more primitive animal species. What, then, is the genetic origin of the polygalacturonases in weevils? Since some weevil species harbor symbiotic microorganisms, it has been suggested, reasonably, that the symbionts' genomes of both aphids and weevils, rather than the insects' genomes, could encode polygalacturonase. We report here the cloning of a cDNA that encodes endo-polygalacturonase in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and investigations based on the cloned cDNA. Our results, which include analysis of genes in antibiotic-treated rice weevils, indicate that the enzyme is, in fact, encoded by the insect genome. Given the apparent absence of the gene in much of the rest of the animal kingdom, it is therefore likely that the rice weevil polygalacturonase gene was incorporated into the weevil's genome by horizontal transfer, possibly from a fungus. PMID:15841240

  12. Pales and Pitch-Eating Weevils: Ratio and Period of Attack in the South

    Treesearch

    Charles F. Speers

    1971-01-01

    Weevils were trapped for 3 years after a pine stand was cut near Asheville, North Carolina, and for 14 months after a pine stand was cut near Olustee, Florida. Of the weevils collected in North Carolina, about 89 percent were pales, Hylobius pales (Herbstl, 8 percent were pitch-eating, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and 3 percent were ...

  13. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  14. Phenotypic evidence suggests a possible major-gene element to weevil resistance in Sitka spruce

    Treesearch

    John N. King; René I. Alfaro; Peter Ott; Lara vanAkker

    2012-01-01

    The weevil resistance breeding program against the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), particularly for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr), is arguably one of the most successful pest resistance breeding programs for plantation forest species, and it has done a lot to rehabilitate...

  15. Life History and Damage of a new Baradinae Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Amaryllis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A small Baradinae weevil that feeds on amaryllis plants has been known in Florida for over fifteen years. It is yet to be named taxonomically and its life history has not been studied previously. Observations on weevil damage were made on containerized amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybrids) plants naturall...

  16. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  17. Use of landscape fabric to manage Diaprepes root weevil in citrus groves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, is a major pest of citrus and other crops through the Caribbean and the southern parts of Florida, Texas and California. The larvae hatch from eggs laid by the female weevils on leaves. The newly hatched larvae fall to the ground where they burrow int...

  18. Screening Sitka spruce for resistance to weevil damage in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    René I. Alfaro; John N. King

    2012-01-01

    The white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), has serious impacts on Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière), Engelmann (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), and white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. This weevil attacks...

  19. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Treesearch

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  20. Impacts of seeding rate on interactions between rice and rice water weevils.

    PubMed

    Stout, M J; Harrell, D; Tindall, K V; Bond, J

    2009-10-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most widely distributed and destructive early season insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa L., in the United States. Economic losses result primarily from feeding by the larval stage of this insect on the roots of flooded rice plants. Prior studies suggest that infestations of rice water weevil larvae are more severe at low plant densities. Moreover, because feeding by the rice water weevil reduces rice plant tillering, a process particularly important to yield at low seeding rates, infestations by weevil larvae may have a greater impact on rice yields when rice is seeded at low rates. In total, six experiments were conducted over a 3-yr period in Louisiana and Missouri to investigate the impacts of rice seeding rate on levels of infestations by, and yield losses from, the rice water weevil. An inverse relationship between seeding rate and densities of rice water weevil larvae and pupae on a per area basis was found in two of the six experiments. Furthermore, in two of the three experiments conducted with 'Bengal' (a susceptible cultivar) in Louisiana, percentages of yield loss were significantly higher at lower seeding rates than at higher seeding rates. Overall, these results indicate that rice sown at low rates is more vulnerable to infestation by rice water weevils and more susceptible to yield losses from weevil injury. The significance of these findings in light of recent trends toward the use of lower seeding rates in drill-seeded rice is discussed.

  1. Effect of drying conditions on triticale seed germination and weevil infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The combination of high protein content and a soft seed coat makes triticale vulnerable to attack by weevils. Drying triticale grain to moisture contents safe for storage can prevent infestation by weevils, but if grain is being stored for seed, high drying temperatures can affect seed germination. ...

  2. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), resistance in Pisum sativum x P. fulvum interspecific crosses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.), is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea, Pisum sativum L., in the world. This study investigated the transfer of pea weevil resistance from two accessions (PI 595946, PI 343955) of wild pea, Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm., to interspecific pop...

  3. A field test of procedures for evaluating and scheduling white-pine weevil control

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Ford; Robert L. Talerico; D. Gordon Mott

    1965-01-01

    Procedures have recently been developed that permit economic and biological information to be integrated in making decisions about the need for control against the white-pine weevil, and in scheduling control in young white pine plantations. The procedures are based upon studies of the magnitude of economic losses that result from weevil attack in white pine and upon...

  4. Pine Root Collar Weevil Hazard Zones for Red Pine in Lower Michigan

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson; Patrick C. Kennedy

    1970-01-01

    The Lower Peninsula of Michigan is divided into low, medium, and high hazard zones by degree of potential weevil damage. New plantings should be established no closer than I mile from a weevil infestation in the high hazard zone or no closer than ? mile in the medium hazard zone to lessen the probability of those plantings becoming heavily infested.

  5. Exploring high throughput phenotyping, plant architecture and plant-boll distribution for improving drought tolerance in cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on plant-boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture for improving yield and fiber quality under stress and/or drought tolerance of cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars. To identify the impa...

  6. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) bolls. A laboratory colony of the brown stink bug (BSB) was maintained on fresh green beans. The P. agglomerans mutant strain Sc 1-R that holds rifamp...

  7. Degree-day requirements for alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) development in eastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, A R; Wright, R J; Hunt, T E; Blankenship, E E

    2010-02-01

    The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), is a serious, yet sporadic defoliator of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., in Nebraska. A 2-yr study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to test for variation in degree-day requirements by location in eastern Nebraska. Sampling took place along a latitudinal gradient in three regions of eastern Nebraska. Three fields were sampled in each region during the 2 yr of the study. Alfalfa weevil larval degree-day requirements were found to vary by latitude in eastern Nebraska. Alfalfa weevil larvae were discovered in southern regions after fewer developmental degree-days had accumulated than in fields in the northern regions. Alfalfa weevils may be more damaging to alfalfa in southern regions than in northern regions of eastern Nebraska because they emerge earlier relative to alfalfa growth. Management implications of this shift in alfalfa weevil phenology are discussed.

  8. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    PubMed Central

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:26463066

  9. Nitrophenolates spray can alter boll abscission rate in cotton through enhanced peroxidase activity and increased ascorbate and phenolics levels.

    PubMed

    Djanaguiraman, M; Sheeba, J Annie; Devi, D Durga; Bangarusamy, U; Prasad, P V V

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2002 to 2005 to evaluate foliar spray of Atonik (a plant growth regulator (PGR) containing nitrophenolates) on cotton boll abscission rate by assessing various reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, antioxidant content and antioxidant enzyme activity from 1 to 9 days after anthesis (DAA). The result indicated that the nitrophenolate spray reduced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) accumulation, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde--MDA), lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and membrane permeability relative to the control. Antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, SOD; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; peroxidase, POX; glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px) was significantly increased by the nitrophenolate spray. The POX (217%) and GSH-Px (242%) activities were enhanced compared with APX (7.7%) activity at 9 DAA. Enhanced accumulation of ascorbate (245%), phenol (253%) and proline (150%) was observed in nitrophenolate-sprayed plants compared with control at 9 DAA. Because ascorbate content is increased by higher dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) enzyme activity, the ascorbate was able to replenish reducing equivalents to phenoxyl radicals, resulting in an increase of phenolic compounds. The increased phenolic acid content may be involved in scavenging the ROS produced in developing cotton boll. The role of DHAR and glutathione reductase (GR) in keeping higher levels of reduced ascorbate and low levels of endogenous H(2)O(2) in the developing cotton boll may be the prerequisite for boll retention. Based on the present work, we conclude that nitrophenolate-sprayed plants counteracted the deleterious effects of ROS by the peroxide/phenolics/ascorbate system, which causes reduced boll abscission and increased yield.

  10. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from midgut of the rice water weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang; Kang, Xiaoying; Jiang, Cong; Lou, Binggan; Jiang, Mingxing; Way, Michael O

    2013-10-01

    Gut bacteria are known to play important and often essential roles in the biology of insects. Theoretically, they can be genetically manipulated, then reintroduced into insects to negatively modify specific biological features. The weevil superfamily Curculionoidea is one of the most species-rich and successful animal groups on earth, but currently the overall knowledge of the bacterial communities in weevils and their associations with hosts is still limited. In this study, we isolated and characterized the bacteria in the midgut of an invasive weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, by culturing methods. Female adults of this weevil were collected from four different geographic regions of the United States and mainland China. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons demonstrated that the major culturable gut bacteria of rice water weevil are γ-proteobacteria and Bacilli. The gut bacterial composition differs among regions, with many of the bacteria isolated from only a single region while several were detected from more than one region. Overall, the diversity of gut bacteria in rice water weevil is relatively low. The possible origins of certain bacteria are discussed in relation to the weevil, rice plant, and bacteria.

  11. Tri-party underground symbiosis between a weevil, bacteria and a desert plant.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Oren; Helman, Yael; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Behar, Adi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis), a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor), and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia). The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i) root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii) soil water content and (iii) seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment.

  12. Attraction of the Larval Parasitoid Spintherus dubius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Feces Volatiles from the Adult Apion Weevil Host.

    PubMed

    Faraone, N; Svensson, G P; Anderbrant, O

    2017-01-01

    The behavioral response of the larval parasitoid Spintherus dubius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to volatile compounds derived from its Apion weevil hosts was investigated in two-choice bioassays. Odor source candidates were the larval and adult stages of weevils, clover flowers, and feces from adult weevils. Despite S. dubius being a larval parasitoid, the odor of weevil larvae isolated from the clover flowers was not attractive to female parasitoids. Surprisingly, S. dubius females were instead attracted by the odor from the feces of adult weevils. The female parasitoids were similarly attracted to the feces produced by the two main hosts, the red clover weevil (A. trifolii) and the white clover weevil (A. fulvipes). Chemical analysis of the volatile composition of feces produced by the two hosts revealed qualitatively similar odor profiles, correlating with the observed attraction by the parasitoid towards both odor sources. Some of the identified volatile compounds are commonly present in clover plant headspace fractions and may function as a kairomone to facilitate orientation by S. dubius to Apion-infested clover flowers. Larval and adult weevils were not attractive for parasitoid females, whereas, for the white clover weevil-plant association, infested flowers were highly attractive. These data show the use by the clover weevil parasitoid of an alternative source of olfactory information for locating its host.

  13. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  14. Diversification of endosymbiosis: replacements, co-speciation and promiscuity of bacteriocyte symbionts in weevils.

    PubMed

    Toju, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Notsu, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-07-01

    The processes and mechanisms underlying the diversification of host-microbe endosymbiotic associations are of evolutionary interest. Here we investigated the bacteriocyte-associated primary symbionts of weevils wherein the ancient symbiont Nardonella has experienced two independent replacement events: once by Curculioniphilus symbiont in the lineage of Curculio and allied weevils of the tribe Curculionini, and once by Sodalis-allied symbiont in the lineage of grain weevils of the genus Sitophilus. The Curculioniphilus symbiont was detected from 27 of 36 Curculionini species examined, the symbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host weevil phylogeny, and the symbiont gene sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Curculioniphilus symbiont was acquired by an ancestor of the tribe Curculionini, replaced the original symbiont Nardonella, and has co-speciated with the host weevils over evolutionary time, but has been occasionally lost in several host lineages. By contrast, the Sodalis-allied symbiont of Sitophilus weevils exhibited no host-symbiont co-speciation, no AT-biased nucleotide compositions and only moderately accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Sodalis-allied symbiont was certainly acquired by an ancestor of the Sitophilus weevils and replaced the original Nardonella symbiont, but the symbiotic association must have experienced occasional re-associations such as new acquisitions, horizontal transfers, replacements and/or losses. We detected Sodalis-allied facultative symbionts in populations of the Curculionini weevils, which might represent potential evolutionary sources of the Sodalis-allied primary symbionts. Comparison of these newcomer bacteriocyte-associated symbiont lineages highlights potential evolutionary trajectories and consequences of novel symbionts after independent replacements of the same ancient symbiont.

  15. Pleiotropic Impact of Endosymbiont Load and Co-Occurrence in the Maize Weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gislaine A.; Vieira, Juliana L.; Haro, Marcelo M.; Corrêa, Alberto S.; Ribon, Andrea Oliveira B.; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.

    2014-01-01

    Individual traits vary among and within populations, and the co-occurrence of different endosymbiont species within a host may take place under varying endosymbiont loads in each individual host. This makes the recognition of the potential impact of such endosymbiont associations in insect species difficult, particularly in insect pest species. The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a key pest species of stored cereal grains, exhibits associations with two endosymbiotic bacteria: the obligatory endosymbiont SZPE (“Sitophilus zeamais Primary Endosymbiont”) and the facultative endosymbiont Wolbachia. The impact of the lack of SZPE in maize weevil physiology is the impairment of nutrient acquisition and energy metabolism, while Wolbachia is an important factor in reproductive incompatibility. However, the role of endosymbiont load and co-occurrence in insect behavior, grain consumption, body mass and subsequent reproductive factors has not yet been explored. Here we report on the impacts of co-occurrence and varying endosymbiont loads achieved via thermal treatment and antibiotic provision via ingested water in the maize weevil. SZPE exhibited strong effects on respiration rate, grain consumption and weevil body mass, with observed effects on weevil behavior, particularly flight activity, and potential consequences for the management of this pest species. Wolbachia directly favored weevil fertility and exhibited only mild indirect effects, usually enhancing the SZPE effect. SZPE suppression delayed weevil emergence, which reduced the insect population growth rate, and the thermal inactivation of both symbionts prevented insect reproduction. Such findings are likely important for strain divergences reported in the maize weevil and their control, aspects still deserving future attention. PMID:25347417

  16. Dispersal of Warren root collar weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in three types of habitat.

    PubMed

    Machial, Laura A; Lindgren, B Staffan; Steenweg, Robin W; Aukema, Brian H

    2012-06-01

    Warren root collar weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood, is a native, flightless insect distributed throughout the boreal forest of North America. It is an emerging problem in young plantings of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia, in western Canada, where larval feeding can kill young trees by girdling the root collar. Susceptible plantings are becoming more abundant following salvage harvesting and replanting activities in the wake of an ongoing epidemic of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins). Previous studies using mark-trap-recapture methods found that movement rates of adult H. warreni were elevated in areas with high numbers of dead trees, consistent with a hypothesis that the insects immigrate from stands with high mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality to young plantings in search of live hosts. Sampling methods were necessarily biased to insects captured in traps; however, potentially missing individuals that had died, left the study area, or simply remained stationary. Here, we used harmonic radar to examine weevil movement in three different habitats: open field, forest edge, and within a forest. We were able to reliably monitor all but two of 36 insects initially released, over 96 h (4 d). Weevils released in the open field had the highest rates of movement, followed by weevils released at the forest edge, then weevils released within the forest. Movement declined with decreasing ambient air temperature. Our results suggest that weevils tend to be relatively stationary in areas of live hosts, and hence may concentrate in a suitable area once such habitat is found.

  17. Chemodiversity and biodiversity of fungi associated with the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Terenius, Olle; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nagahama, Kazuhiro; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-08-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. Weevils lay eggs in the root bark or in the soil near roots of recently dead trees and cover the eggs with frass (feces combined with chewed bark), possibly to avoid conspecific egg predation. The aim of the present investigation focused on isolation, identification, and volatile production of fungi from pine-weevil feces and frass. Fungi were isolated from weevil frass and feces separately, followed by identification based on ITS sequencing. Fifty-nine isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Ophiostoma, Mucor, Leptographium, Eucasphaeria, Rhizosphaera, Debaryomyces, and Candida were identified. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the fungal community and fungal isolates cultured on weevil-frass broth were identified by SPME-GCMS. Major VOCs emitted from the fungal community and pure isolates were species- and strain specific and included isopentylalcohol, styrene, 3-octanone, 6-protoilludene, methyl salicylate, 3-methylanisole, 2-methoxyphenol, and phenol. Some of these are known to influence the orientation of pine weevils when tested among highly attractive newly planted conifer seedlings. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the alfalfa weevil complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Jorge A Achata; Bundy, C Scott; Oesterle, Naomi; Hanson, Stephen F

    2013-02-01

    The Eastern, Western, and Egyptian strains of alfalfa weevil are pests introduced to North America on three separate occasions, now they share partially overlapping geographic ranges, covering most of the continental United States. Behavior, susceptibility to parasites, and subtle morphological differences separate the strains. The difficulty in differentiating among these strains morphologically has led to the application of molecular phylogeny approaches including restriction fragment-length polymorphism characterization and sequencing of mitochondrial genes. While valuable for strain identification, this approach cannot identify interstrain hybrids because mitochondrial markers are maternally inherited. The work reported here extends previous findings by comparing over 7 Kb of sequence from two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci to increase the resolution of molecular phylogeny for these weevils. The related clover leaf weevil, also an occasional pest of alfalfa, was included in the analysis because the molecular phylogeny of this weevil has not been examined to date. Analysis of nuclear loci indicate that the clover weevil is a distinct species. Furthermore, while the three alfalfa weevil strains are separable based on mitochondrial sequence data they cannot be separated using nuclearloci suggesting that they are all recently diverged members of the same species. These data refine the relationships among these strains and may find application in design of better control strategies.

  19. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  20. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  1. Genetic analysis of Upland cotton dynamic heterosis for boll number per plant at multiple developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Cai, Shihu; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Su, Ying; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Yield is an important breeding target. As important yield components, boll number per plant (BNP) shows dynamic character and strong heterosis in Upland cotton. However, the genetic basis underlying the dynamic heterosis is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for BNP and heterosis at multiple developmental stages and environments using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and two corresponding backcross populations. By the single-locus analysis, 23 QTLs were identified at final maturity, while 99 QTLs were identified across other three developmental stages. A total of 48 conditional QTLs for BNP were identified for the adjacent stages. QTLs detected at later stage mainly existed in the partial dominance to dominance range and QTLs identified at early stage mostly showed effects with the dominance to overdominance range during plant development. By two-locus analysis, we observe that epistasis played an important role not only in the variation of the performance of the RIL population but also in the expression of heterosis in backcross population. Taken together, the present study reveals that the genetic basis of heterosis is dynamic and complicated, and it is involved in dynamic dominance effect, epistasis and QTL by environmental interactions. PMID:27748451

  2. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wells, J M; Payne, J A

    1975-10-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Tweleve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum.

  3. Transoceanic origin of microendemic and flightless New Caledonian weevils

    PubMed Central

    Tänzler, Rene; Balke, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the astonishing New Caledonian biota continues to fuel a heated debate among advocates of a Gondwanan relict scenario and defenders of late oceanic dispersal. Here, we study the origin of New Caledonian Trigonopterus flightless weevils using a multimarker molecular phylogeny. We infer two independent clades of species found in the archipelago. Our dating estimates suggest a Late Miocene origin of both clades long after the re-emergence of New Caledonia about 37 Ma. The estimation of ancestral ranges supports an ancestral origin of the genus in a combined region encompassing Australia and New Guinea with subsequent colonizations of New Caledonia out of New Guinea in the mid-Miocene. The two New Caledonian lineages have had very different evolutionary trajectories. Colonizers belonging to a clade of foliage dwellers greatly diversified, whereas species inhabiting leaf-litter have been less successful. PMID:28680653

  4. Contact sex pheromone components of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Satoshi; Shimomura, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Izuru; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2007-05-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored pulses. Females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulation behavior in males. Pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from cages that housed females. Crude ether extract stimulated copulation in male C. maculatus. Initial fractionation showed behavioral activity in acidic and neutral fractions. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of active fractions revealed that the active components of the acidic fraction were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid and nonanedioic acid. These components along with the hydrocarbon fraction, a mixture of C(27)-C(35) straight chain and methyl branched hydrocarbons, had a synergistic effect on the behavior of males. Glass dummies treated with an authentic pheromone blend induced copulation behavior in males. The potential roles of the contact sex pheromone of C. maculatus are discussed.

  5. Weevil x Insecticide: Does ‘Personality’ Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juliana A.; Cardoso, Danúbia G.; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.

    2013-01-01

    An insect’s behavior is the expression of its integrated physiology in response to external and internal stimuli, turning insect behavior into a potential determinant of insecticide exposure. Behavioral traits may therefore influence insecticide efficacy against insects, compromising the validity of standard bioassays of insecticide activity, which are fundamentally based on lethality alone. By extension, insect ‘personality’ (i.e., an individual’s integrated set of behavioral tendencies that is inferred from multiple empirical measures) may also be an important determinant of insecticide exposure and activity. This has yet to be considered because the behavioral studies involving insects and insecticides focus on populations rather than on individuals. Even among studies of animal ‘personality’, the relative contributions of individual and population variation are usually neglected. Here, we assessed behavioral traits (within the categories: activity, boldness/shyness, and exploration/avoidance) of individuals from 15 populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), an important stored-grain pest with serious problems of insecticide resistance, and correlated the behavioral responses with the activity of the insecticide deltamethrin. This analysis was performed at both the population and individual levels. There was significant variation in weevil ‘personality’ among individuals and populations, but variation among individuals within populations accounted for most of the observed variation (92.57%). This result emphasizes the importance of individual variation in behavioral and ‘personality’ studies. When the behavioral traits assessed were correlated with median lethal time (LT50) at the population level and with the survival time under insecticide exposure, activity traits, particularly the distance walked, significantly increased survival time. Therefore, behavioral traits are important components of insecticide efficacy, and individual

  6. Tri-Party Underground Symbiosis between a Weevil, Bacteria and a Desert Plant

    PubMed Central

    Shelef, Oren; Helman, Yael; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Behar, Adi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis), a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor), and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia). The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i) root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii) soil water content and (iii) seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment. PMID:24244267

  7. Ecology and detection of the red palm weevil, Rrhynchophorus Fferrugineus (Ccoleoptera: curculionidae), and related weevils for the protection of palm tree species in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, native to Asia, the neotropical R. palmarum, and the subneotropical R. cruentatus are international threats to palm industries. We evaluated the status of these species on Aruba over concerns that the former two species may cause significant dama...

  8. Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott; Villanueva, Raul T

    2012-06-01

    Sampling methods for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., were compared with the intent to assess if one approach was viable for two species occurring from early-season squaring to late bloom in 25 fields located along the coastal cotton growing region of south Texas. Cotton fleaphopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), damages squares early-season and dominated collections using five sampling methods (approximately 99% of insects collected). A major species composition shift occurred beginning at peak bloom in coastal fields, when verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, represented 55-65% of collections. Significantly more cotton fleahoppers were captured by experienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than with the other methods (30-100% more). There were more than twice as many verde plant bugs captured by experienced and inexperienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than captured with the KISS and visual methods. Using a beat bucket or sweep net reduced sampling time compared with the visual method for the experienced samplers. For both species, comparing regressions of beat bucket-based counts to counts from the traditional visual method across nine cultivar and water regime combinations resulted in only one combination differing from the rest, suggesting broad applicability and ability to translate established visual-based economic thresholds to beat bucket-based thresholds. In a first look at sample size considerations, 40 plants (four 10-plant samples) per field site was no more variable than variation associated with larger sample sizes. Overall, the beat bucket is much more effective in sampling for cotton fleahopper and verde plant bug than the traditional visual method, it is more suited to cotton fleahopper sampling early-season when plants are small, it transitions well to sample for verde plant bug during bloom, and it performs well under a variety of soil

  9. Chemical variability and leaf damage among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marchall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical Variability and leaf damages among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall. Jerome Niogret, Nancy Epsky, Paul Kendra, Peter Teal The Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undercimpustulatus undatus Marshall is serious economic pest in India and P...

  10. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, p< 0.05). Results of t-test show that the 6-year old oil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  11. Discovery and Observations of a Stem-Boring Weevil (Myrmex sp.) a Potentially Useful Biocontrol of Mistletoe

    Treesearch

    J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    A stem-boring weevil obtained from infested clusters of mistletoe was subsequently reared and identified as Myrmex sp. To our knowledge its discovery in Mississippi is the easternmost record of mistletoe-feeding Myrmex, previously recorded only from the West and Southwest. Based on current studies, the weevil overwinters as larvae in tunnels within mistletoe stems....

  12. Mutualistic interaction between a weevil and a rust fungus, two parasites of the weed Cirsium arvense.

    PubMed

    Friedli, Jürg; Bacher, Sven

    2001-12-01

    We present a mutualism between a stem-boring weevil, Apion onopordi Kirby (Coleoptera: Apionidae), and a rust fungus, Puccinia punctiformis (Str.) Röhl. (Uredinales), both parasites of the creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae). Females, but not males, of A. onopordi induced systemic rust infections of thistle shoots in the season after they were attacked by the weevil, indicating that insect oviposition is a crucial stage in pathogen transmission. Adult weevils emerged from systemically infected thistle shoots were heavier than weevils from healthy C. arvense shoots. Heavier females had a higher fecundity and laid larger eggs. The weevil preferred to deposit eggs in systemically rust-infected over healthy thistle shoots, which seemed to be a sub-optimal host. This is to our knowledge the first report of a mutualistic interaction between an herbivorous insect and a biotrophic plant pathogen. The mechanism responsible for the advantage of rust-infected shoots for A. onopordi causes a different outcome in other thistle herbivores, and therefore can not be explained by a general enhancement of nutritional quality in rust-infected tissue. This mutualism likely has evolved from a competitive relationship. Unlike other thistle herbivores A. onopordi seems to be better suited as mutualist for P. punctiformis because of its small impact on the host plant and its feeding niche on plant parts not directly associated with pathogen reproduction.

  13. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p < 0.05), with the largest contribution of acorn and weevil larva P in distinguishing the stoichiometric compositions between the two site types. The two acorn species were statistically separated by their acorn elemental stoichiometry and compositions (p < 0.05), but no difference was observed on weevil larvae between the two acorn species. P was one of the few elements that were non strict homeostasis in both acorns and weevil larvae. These findings highlight the importance of both environmental influence in elemental stoichiometry and composition and physiological regulations of nutritional needs in organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  14. Herbivore pressure by weevils associated with flower color polymorphism in Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Ito, Motomi

    2014-03-01

    Although floral herbivory has recently received increased attention as an important factor influencing plant reproduction, relatively little is known about how its frequency and intensity vary depending on traits of host plants. Here we report that herbivore pressure by a weevil, Zacladus geranii, is associated with a flower color polymorphism of Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae). Pink and white flower color morphs have been reported in G. thunbergii, and we found in a three-year field survey in multiple populations that, generally, adult weevils more preferentially visited white flowers than pink flowers. Consistently, we found more severe damage by weevil larvae in white flowers. Overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii varied strongly between populations, and the difference seems to be partly explained by the co-occurrence of a related plant species, Geranium yezoense, in a population, as weevils preferred it to both color morphs of G. thunbergii, thereby relaxing overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii. Nonetheless, despite such high variability, the preference of weevils for white morphs over pink morphs of G. thunbergii was found across multiple populations. We discuss possible mechanisms causing the association between flower color and herbivore preference as well as its evolutionary consequences.

  15. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  16. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-01-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p < 0.05), with the largest contribution of acorn and weevil larva P in distinguishing the stoichiometric compositions between the two site types. The two acorn species were statistically separated by their acorn elemental stoichiometry and compositions (p < 0.05), but no difference was observed on weevil larvae between the two acorn species. P was one of the few elements that were non strict homeostasis in both acorns and weevil larvae. These findings highlight the importance of both environmental influence in elemental stoichiometry and composition and physiological regulations of nutritional needs in organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment. PMID:28378822

  17. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-05

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p < 0.05), with the largest contribution of acorn and weevil larva P in distinguishing the stoichiometric compositions between the two site types. The two acorn species were statistically separated by their acorn elemental stoichiometry and compositions (p < 0.05), but no difference was observed on weevil larvae between the two acorn species. P was one of the few elements that were non strict homeostasis in both acorns and weevil larvae. These findings highlight the importance of both environmental influence in elemental stoichiometry and composition and physiological regulations of nutritional needs in organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  18. Preferential edge habitat colonization by a specialist weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Hough-Goldstein, J A; Lake, E; D'Amico, V; Berg, S H

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, by releasing weevils at the forest edge and monitoring their colonization of potted host plants arrayed along the edge, out into the open field, and into the forest. Both distance from the release cage and habitat where plants were located affected colonization, with more than twice as many weevils found on plants at 2 m than at 6 or 14 m; at 14 m, 6-8 times as many weevils colonized plants along the forest edge compared with plants in the open field or within the forest. In a second experiment, weevils that were released in an open field 12 m from the forest edge initially flew in all directions, but again ultimately colonized more plants at the edge than out in the open field. This species may be adapted to seek host plants at the forest edge, because P. perfoliata generally is found in riparian corridors in its native range and along forest edges in North America. Results suggest that R. latipes will move successfully to new P. perfoliata patches along wooded edges, but may not readily locate isolated patches in the open or those embedded in forests.

  19. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  20. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  1. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-11-18

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  2. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects.

  3. Classification of weevils as a data-driven science: leaving opinion behind.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    Data and explicit taxonomic ranking criteria, which minimize taxonomic change, provide a scientific approach to modern taxonomy and classification. However, traditional practices of opinion-based taxonomy (i.e., mid-20(th) century evolutionary systematics), which lack explicit ranking and naming criteria, are still in practice despite phylogenetic evidence. This paper discusses a recent proposed reclassification of weevils that elevates bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae and Platypodinae) to the ranks of Family. We demonstrate that the proposed reclassification 1) is not supported by an evolutionary systematic justification because the apparently unique morphology of bark and ambrosia beetles is shared with other unrelated wood-boring weevil taxa; 2) introduces obvious paraphyly in weevil classification and hence violates good practices on maintaining an economy of taxonomic change; 3) is not supported by other taxonomic naming criteria, such as time banding. We recommend the abandonment of traditional practices of an opinion-based taxonomy, especially in light of available data and resulting phylogenies.

  4. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    PubMed

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  5. Evidence for volatile male-produced pheromone in banana weevilCosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Budenberg, W J; Ndiege, I O; Karago, F W

    1993-09-01

    Females of the banana weevil,Cosmopolites sordidus, were attracted to and made longer visits to live conspecific males, trapped volatiles from males, and dissected male hindguts in a still-air olfactometer. Male weevils were attracted to volatiles trapped from males and made longer visits to live males and volatiles from males. Live females, collected volatiles from females and female hindguts, elicited small or no behavioral responses from either sex. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses from both male and female antennae were elicited by collected volatiles from males and by dichloromethane extracts of male hindguts and bodies but not by surface washes of males. No significant EAG responses were given to equivalent material from females. It is therefore suggested that male banana weevils release an aggregation pheromone via their hindgut.

  6. How Far Can the Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Fly?

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D

    2016-04-01

    The palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, is native to Southeast Asia and was recovered from an infested Canary Islands date palm in Laguna Beach, California, USA, in 2010. The detection of this potentially destructive palm pest initiated a detection, containment, and eradication program that was reliant, in part, on the deployment of bucket traps loaded with aggregation pheromone and baited with fermenting fruit. A key question that pertained to the deployment of traps was “how far can R. vulneratus fly?” This question could not be answered and in response to this knowledge deficit, computerized flight mill studies were conducted with field-captured R. vulneratus in an outdoor screen house in Sumatra, Indonesia. Of the 63 weevils tethered to flight mills, ∼27% failed to fly >1 km in 24 h and were excluded from analyses. In total, 46 weevils (35 females and 11 males) flew >1 km on flight mills and of these adults, the average total distance flown in 24 h was significantly greater for females (∼32 km) when compared with males (∼15 km). A small proportion of females (∼16%) flew 50-80 km, and one female flew 100.1 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of ∼13–17% and non-flying control weevils (n=27) lost 10–13% body weight in 24 h. The distribution of flight distances for female and male weevils combined was leptokurtic, which suggests that faster than expected spread by R. vulneratus may be possible in invaded areas.

  7. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development.

    PubMed

    AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed; Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan

    2017-01-20

    This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD50 value (0.672 g/L). In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin) observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39%) in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD), and (ECI) efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04%) of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD) compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450, esterases, and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin) silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  8. [Physiological responses of cotton plant to fertlizer nitrogen at flowering and boll-forming stages under soil drought].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Xian; Guo, Wen-Qi; Chen, Bing-Lin; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2008-07-01

    With pot culture, the physiological responses of cotton plant to fertilizer nitrogen at flowering and boll-forming stages were studied under soil drought and after re-watering. The results showed that under soil drought, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (Tr) declined rapidly with decreasing soil relative water content (SRWC). At the early stage of soil drought, owing to the declining degree of Tr was greater than that of Pn, the WUE had an increasing trend; but after then, the WUE decreased with declining SRWC and Pn. Soil drought altered the diurnal patters of Pn and Tr, i.e., decreased continuously from 8:00 to 16:00, while in CK, their peak values appeared at 10:00-11:00 and 12:00, respectively. The diurnal patterns of WUE in drought treatment and CK were the same, i.e., decreased first and increased then, with the bottom appeared at 12:00. Under soil drought, the Pn and Tr decreased with increasing fertilizer nitrogen level, while WUE was in adverse. After re-watering, the diurnal patterns of Pn, Tr and WUE were similar to CK, but their values were smaller than CK, especially under nitrogen application. It was suggested that under soil drought, nitrogen fertilization could be helpful to the increase of water use efficiency, but decreased the photosynthesis of cotton plant at its flowering and boll-forming stages.

  9. Action of pyrethrum-based formulations against grain weevils.

    PubMed

    Biebel, R; Rametzhofer, E; Klapal, H; Polheim, D; Viernstein, H

    2003-04-30

    Pyrethrum extract, containing six insecticidal esters, has a long history of successful application in the control of stored products. Its low environmental hazard makes it an ideal pesticide for outdoor pre-harvest treatment. However the disadvantage of its low light stability then becomes apparent. This drawback can be overcome by the complexation of pyrethrum extract with gamma-cyclodextrin. Primary object of the conducted studies was to investigate the effect of complexation upon the insecticidal action against the grain weevil, an important storage pest in temperate climates. To slow down the quick metabolism of pyrethrum by the insects' microsomal system synergistic substances are added. Additional to the already well-known piperonyl butoxide two natural synergists, sesamol and tocopherol acetate, were combined with pyrethrum extract to investigate their synergistic activity. A complex of pyrethrum with gamma-cyclodextrin, with piperonyl butoxide as synergist, has a slightly enhanced action compared to a commercial product, which contained pyrethrum in its free form. Sesamol and tocopherol acetate also display a synergistic action, but to a much smaller degree, even if applied in larger amounts. The optimal concentration of pyrethrum was found to be 0.3% combined with 3% piperonyl butoxide.

  10. Transcriptomic study of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yin, An; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Lei; Yin, Yuxin; Jia, Shangang; Liu, Wanfei; Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Kan; Yu, Xiaoguang; Sun, Gaoyuan; Al-hudaib, Khalid; Hu, Songnian; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an invasive, concealed and destructive tissue borer, and it becomes a lethal pest of the palm family of plants and has been reported to attack 20 palm species around the globe. Here we report a systematic transcriptomic study on embryogenesis of RPW, where we analyze the transcriptomes across five developmental stages of RPW embryogenesis, involving four embryonic stages (E1, E2, E3 and E4) and one larval stage (L1). Using the RNA-seq and next-generation platforms, we generated 80 to 91 million reads for each library and assemble 22 532 genes that are expressed at different embryonic stages. Among the total transcripts from the five embryonic development stages, we found that 30.45 % are differentially expressed, 10.10 % show stage-specificity and even a larger fraction, 62.88 %, exhibit constitutive expression in all the stages. We also analyzes the expression dynamics of several conserved signaling pathways (such as Hedgehog, JAK-STAT, Notch, TGF-β, Ras/MAPK and Wnt), as well as key developmental genes, including those related to apoptosis, axis formation, Hox complex, neurogenesis and segmentation. The datasets provide an essential resource for gene annotation and RPW functional genomics, including studies by using tools and concepts from multiple disciplines, such as development, physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics.

  11. Additive photonic colors in the Brazilian diamond weevil: entimus imperialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, S.; Vigneron, J.-P.; Colomer, J.-F.; Vandenbem, C.; Deparis, O.

    2012-10-01

    Structurally colored nano-architectures found in living organisms are complex optical materials, giving rise to multiscale visual effects. In arthropods, these structures often consist of porous biopolymers and form natural photonic crystals. A signature of the structural origin of coloration in insects is iridescence, i.e., color changes with the viewing angle. In the scales located on the elytra of the Brazilian weevil Entimus imperialis (Curculionidae), three-dimensional photonic crystals are observed. On one hand, each of them interacts independently with light, producing a single color which is observed by optical microscopy and ranges from blue to orange. On the other hand, the color perceived by the naked eye is due to multi-length-scale light effects involving different orientations of a single photonic crystal. This disorder in crystal orientations alters the light propagation in such a way that the crystal iridescence is removed. Entimus imperialis is therefore a remarkable example of additive photonic colors produced by a complex multi-scale organic architecture. In order to study this specific natural photonic structure, electron microscopy is used. The structure turns out to be formed of a single type of photonic crystal with different orientations within each scale on the elytra. Our modeling approach takes into account the disorder in the photonic crystals and explains why the structure displays bright colors at the level of individual scales and a non-iridescent green color in the far-field.

  12. Temporal analysis of cotton boll symptoms resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) feeding and transmission of a bacterial pathogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern green stink bug (SGSB)(Nezara viridula L.) is a significant pest of cotton and is becoming an increasing challenge due to the decrease in use of broad spectrum insecticides on the crop. The SGSB can vector an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain (designated Sc 1-R) into cotton bolls...

  13. Sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) avoids its host plant when a virulent Metarhizium anisopliae isolate is present.

    PubMed

    Dotaona, Ronnie; Wilson, Bree A L; Ash, Gavin J; Holloway, Joanne; Stevens, Mark M

    2017-09-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae has a wide range of coleopteran hosts, including weevils. Some susceptible insects are known to modify their behavior to prevent infection, typically detecting virulent strains by olfaction, and avoiding physical contact with sources of infection. Laboratory olfactometer assays were conducted on the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius to test the hypothesis that insects would avoid a more virulent strain of M. anisopliae when presented with a strain of low virulence or an untreated control. When adult weevils were allowed to choose between paired test arenas containing sweetpotato roots and M. anisopliae isolates on agar cores, weevils avoided arenas with the highly virulent isolate QS155, showing a preference for either roots with uninoculated agar cores or cores with the low virulence isolate QS002-3. When roots or whole sweetpotato plants were inoculated with M. anisopliae, the preferences of weevils remained broadly similar; weevils were repelled by the highly virulent isolate QS155 when tested against either QS002-3 or uninoculated roots and plants, however weevils were not repelled by the low virulence isolate QS002-3 tested against uninoculated controls. When single-sex groups of weevils were tested separately in the olfactometer using uninoculated whole plants and plants treated with isolate QS155, males and females responded similarly and statistically identical preferences were found for the untreated plants. When weevils were released singly at different times of the day the response time for males was significantly shorter in the afternoon compared to the morning. Males were always significantly faster to respond to olfactory stimuli than females. Understanding factors that may lead to avoidance of virulent M. anisopliae strains by C. formicarius will be an essential part of developing an 'attract-and-infect' strategy for the management of C. formicarius. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Smicronyx Sodidus, the Gray Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gray sunflower seed weevil (GSSW) Smicronyx sordidus, native to North America, is one of the major seed pests of cultivated sunflowers in the Central and Northern Great Plains. The larvae of GSSW feed on the kernels of the sunflower seeds, and may cause severe damage to this economically importa...

  15. SYSTEMIC ACTIVITY OF NEONICOTINOIDS INFLUENCES FEEDING BY ADULT BLACK VINE WEEVILS ON VARIOUS SPECIES OF ORNAMENTALS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The black vine weevil (BVW) is a serious pest of ornamental nursery crops. The larval stage feeds on the roots of ornamental plants and small fruits often stunting or killing the plants. The adults feed on the foliage of ornamental plants. A standard management technique is to apply foliar treatm...

  16. Using molecular genetics to identify immature specimens of the weevil Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera, Apionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate host plant specificity of the yellow starthistle rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne. Larvae infesting plants were preserved in 99% ethanol. Adult specimens of C. basicorne and four closely related species were identified using conventional morphologic...

  17. Relationship of black vine weevil egg density and damage to two cranberry cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field and laboratory trials compared Metarhizium anisopliae and Steinernema kraussei to imidacloprid for black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus, larval control in cranberry. Two field sites were treated in fall of 2009 and soil samples collected during 2009 and 2010 to assess treatment effic...

  18. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, is a key pest of pecans. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic (insect-killing) nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae and the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, occur naturally i...

  19. HOW to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; Manfred E. Mielke

    1993-01-01

    White pine was once a dominant forest species in the north central and northeastern United States. Following logging in the late 1800's and the early part of this century, two major pests, white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch., and white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), combined to reduce the value of white pine. Blister rust was introduced...

  20. A photographic technique for estimating egg density of the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck)

    Treesearch

    Roger T. Zerillo

    1975-01-01

    Compares a photographic technique with visual and dissection techniques for estimating egg density of the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck). The relatively high correlations (.67 and .79) between counts from photographs and those obtained by dissection indicate that the non-destructive photographic technique could be a useful tool for...

  1. Rootstock weevils: out of sight, out of mind or emerging pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Louisiana, rootstock weevils form a pest complex comprised of three species of curculionid beetles: Apinocis subnudus (Buchanan), A. deplanatus (Casey), and A. blanditus (Casey). This complex was first reported as a single species, Anacentrinus subnudus, known to be associated with sugarcane in L...

  2. Insect-induced crystallization of white pine resins. I. white-pine weevil

    Treesearch

    Frank S., Jr. Santamour

    1965-01-01

    In breeding programs designed to produce insect-resistant plants, a serious obstacle to progress often is the lack of efficient selection and testing criteria. Natural infestations of some insects are large and severe enough to allow selection of resistant plants directly from the natural plant population. However, the attacks of the white-pine weevil (...

  3. White-pine weevil attack: susceptibility of western white pine in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1981-01-01

    Heights were measured and white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi (Peck)) attacks were recorded on 668 western white pines (Pinus monticola Douglas) interplanted among 109 eastern white pines (Pinus strobus L.) in a 10-year-old plantation in southern Maine. Less than 13 percent of the western white pines were...

  4. Morphology and sexual dimorphism of the weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as Sri Lankan weevil, is becoming a major pest of ornamentals and tropical fruit trees in the southern states of USA, especially in Florida. Recent findings of this species in Florida citrus groves justify research ...

  5. Green Light Synergistally Enhances Male Sweetpotato Weevil Response to Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727

  6. Organic methods for control of pecan weevil: Results of the first year's field trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated organic tactics for control of pecan weevil were investigated in large field plot tests. The experiment was conducted at two locations: USDA-ARS Research Lab in Byron, GA and Cleveland farms in Fort Valley, GA. Results from the first year field trials indicated that organic tactics for ...

  7. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops within its presumed native range in the Caribbean, and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in Florida since its arrival on the mainland United States in the 1960s. Recent work has identified host plant...

  8. Discovery and characterization of chemical signals for citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (L. 1758) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a polyphagous insect from the Caribbean Islands and an invasive insect in the southern part of United States where it is pest of citrus crops and ornamental trees. Adults feed upon foliage where aggregation, mat...

  9. Sensitivity of the quarantine pest rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus to postharvest irradiation treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus (Olivier), is a new quarantine pest of Hawaii sweetpotatoes. Currently, sweetpotatoes can be exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland using a postharvest irradiation treatment of 150 Gy to control three other regulated insect pests. Studies were conducted...

  10. Preferential Edge Habitat Colonization by a Specialist Weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological...

  11. Update on an undescribed Baradinae weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that feeds on Amaryllidaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the early 1990’s, a weevil was observed feeding on and occasionally killing amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) plants in Florida, and it was determined to be an unknown genus and species in the subfamily Baridinae. Information on damage by and basic biology of this insect will be presented....

  12. Bean alpha-amylase inhibitors in transgenic peas inhibit development of pea weevil larvae.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Majer, Maria José; Hardie, Darryl C; Turner, Neil C; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2007-08-01

    This glasshouse study used an improved larval measurement procedure to evaluate the impact of transgenic pea, Pisum sativum L., seeds expressing a-amylase inhibitor (AI)-1 or -2 proteins on pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Seeds of transgenic 'Laura' and 'Greenfeast' peas expressing alpha-(AI)-1 reduced pea weevil survival by 93-98%. Larval mortality occurred at an early instar. Conversely, in nontransgenic cultivars, approximately 98-99% of the pea weevils emerged as adults. By measuring the head capsule size, we determined that larvae died at the first to early third instar in alpha-(AI)-1 transgenic peas, indicating that this inhibitor is highly effective in controlling this insect. By contrast, transgenic Laura and 'Dundale' expressing alpha-(AI)-2 did not affect pea weevil survival, but they did delay larval development. After 77 d of development, the head capsule size indicated that the larvae were still at the third instar stage in transgenic alpha-(AI)-2 peas, whereas adult bruchids had developed in the nontransgenic peas.

  13. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  14. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications, primarily carbaryl and pyrethroids (e.g., cypermethrin). Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic...

  15. Preferential edge habitat colonization by a specialist weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    J.A. Hough-Goldstein; E. Lake; V. D' Amico; S.H. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, ...

  16. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in suppressing pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in commercial pecan orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. Here we report the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied to trees in grower orchards at three locations. In Fort Valley, Georgia, treatments included B. bassiana applied to the tru...

  17. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  18. Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevilCallosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Y T; Burkholder, W E

    1982-02-01

    Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship.

  19. Phylogeography of specialist weevil Trichobaris soror: a seed predator of Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    De-la-Mora, Marisol; Piñero, Daniel; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Can the genetic structure of a specialist weevil be explained by the geological history of their distribution zone? We analyze the genetic variation of the weevil Trichobaris soror, a specialist seed predator of Datura stramonium, in order to address this question. For the phylogeographic analysis we used the COI gene, and assessed species identity in weevil populations through geometric morphometric approach. In total, we found 53 haplotypes in 413 samples, whose genetic variation supports the formation of three groups: (1) the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TVB group), (2) the Sierra Madre Sur (SMS group) and (3) the Balsas Basin (BB group). The morphometric analysis suggests that BB group is probably not T. soror. Our results have two implications: first, the phylogeographic pattern of T. soror is explained by both the formation of the geological provinces where it is currently distributed and the coevolution with its host plant, because the TVB and SMS groups could be separated due to the discontinuity of altitude between the geological provinces, but the recent population expansion of TVB group and the high frequency of only one haplotype can be due to specialization to the host plant. Second, we report a new record of a different species of weevil in BB group parasitizing D. stramonium fruits.

  20. Temporal lags and overlap in the diversification of weevils and flowering plants.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Duane D; Sequeira, Andrea S; Marvaldi, Adriana E; Farrell, Brian D

    2009-04-28

    The extraordinary diversity of herbivorous beetles is usually attributed to coevolution with angiosperms. However, the degree and nature of contemporaneity in beetle and angiosperm diversification remain unclear. Here we present a large-scale molecular phylogeny for weevils (herbivorous beetles in the superfamily Curculionoidea), one of the most diverse lineages of insects, based on approximately 8 kilobases of DNA sequence data from a worldwide sample including all families and subfamilies. Estimated divergence times derived from the combined molecular and fossil data indicate diversification into most families occurred on gymnosperms in the Jurassic, beginning approximately 166 Ma. Subsequent colonization of early crown-group angiosperms occurred during the Early Cretaceous, but this alone evidently did not lead to an immediate and major diversification event in weevils. Comparative trends in weevil diversification and angiosperm dominance reveal that massive diversification began in the mid-Cretaceous (ca. 112.0 to 93.5 Ma), when angiosperms first rose to widespread floristic dominance. These and other evidence suggest a deep and complex history of coevolution between weevils and angiosperms, including codiversification, resource tracking, and sequential evolution.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of plant-derived antifeedants against the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    Kier D. Klepzig; Fredrik. Schlyter

    1999-01-01

    The authors assayed 12 plant-derived and 1 insect-produced allelochemicals-verbenone, borneol, bornyl acetate, carvone, cucurbitacin, myrcene, limonin, 4-allyanisole, a- pinene, ß-pinene, limonene, and coumarin-for inhibition of feeding by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L...

  2. Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices) on the oviposition of rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus).

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Stout, Michael J; Wurst, Susanne

    2011-10-01

    Root-feeding insects are important drivers in ecosystems, and links between aboveground oviposition preference and belowground larval performance have been suggested. The root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a central role in plant nutrition and are known to change host quality for root-feeding insects. However, it is not known if and how AMF affect the aboveground oviposition of insects whose offspring feed on roots. According to the preference-performance hypothesis, insect herbivores oviposit on plants that will maximize offspring performance. In a greenhouse experiment with rice (Oryza sativa), we investigated the effects of AMF (Glomus intraradices) on aboveground oviposition of rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), the larvae of which feed belowground on the roots. Oviposition (i.e., the numbers of eggs laid by weevil females in leaf sheaths) was enhanced when the plants were colonized by AMF. However, the leaf area consumed by adult weevils was not affected. Although AMF reduced plant biomass, it increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus concentrations in leaves and N in roots. The results suggest that rice water weevil females are able to discriminate plants for oviposition depending on their mycorrhizal status. The discrimination is probably related to AMF-mediated changes in plant quality, i.e., the females choose to oviposit more on plants with higher nutrient concentrations to potentially optimize offspring performance. AMF-mediated change in plant host choice for chewing insect oviposition is a novel aspect of below- and aboveground interactions.

  4. Mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and premature fruit drop in mangoes.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    The effect of infestations of mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (F.), on premature fruit drop of mangoes was investigated. Mango fruits ('Haden') of equal size were collected both off the ground and from the tree at four times during the season (June-August). If weevil-infested fruit were more prone to dropping than uninfested fruit, the prediction was that a higher infestation rate would be found in fruit on the ground compared with fruit on the tree. Average fruit weight was used as an indicator of fruit maturity. The seed infestation rate was significantly higher in fruit collected off the ground compared with fruit collected from the tree in 38 g and 79 g (early-season) fruit but not significantly different in 207 g (midseason) and 281 g (late season) fruit. The age distribution of weevils and the number of insects in infested fruits were similar for ground and tree fruits on all dates. Results suggest that mango seed weevil infestation can increase fruit drop during early fruit development.

  5. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ke; Harrower, William L.; Turkington, Roy; Tan, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006–2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collections. Annual acorn production was variable, but particularly low in 2011 and 2013. There was no trade-off between acorn production and acorn dry mass. However, acorns produced later in the season were significantly heavier. For most years: (i) the rate of weevil infestation was negatively density dependent (a greater proportion of acorns died with increased acorn density), (ii) the percentage germination of acorns was positively density dependent (proportionately more acorns germinated with increased density), and (iii) as the season progressed, the percentage of infested acorns declined while germination rates increased. Finally, (iv) maximum acorn production, percentage infestation and percentage germination were asynchronous. Although pre-dispersal mortality is important it is unlikely to be the primary factor leading to low recruitment of oak seedlings. PMID:27874099

  6. Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

    2003-12-01

    One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes.

  7. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  8. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  9. Tropical insect diversity: evidence of greater host specialization in seed-feeding weevils.

    PubMed

    Peguero, Guille; Bonal, Raúl; Sol, Daniel; Muñoz, Alberto; Sork, Victoria L; Espelta, Josep M

    2017-08-01

    Host specialization has long been hypothesized to explain the extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects in the tropics. However, addressing this hypothesis has proved challenging because of the risk of over-looking rare interactions, and hence biasing specialization estimations, and the difficulties to separate the diversity component attributable to insect specialization from that related to host diversity. As a result, the host specialization hypothesis lacks empirical support for important phytophagous insect clades. Here, we test the hypothesis in a radiation of seed-feeding insects, acorn weevils (Curculio spp.), sampled in temperate and tropical regions (California and Nicaragua, respectively) with an equivalent pool of oak host species. Using DNA sequences from three low-copy genes, we delimited to species level 778 weevil larvae extracted from host seeds and assessed their phylogenetic relationships by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. We then reconstructed the oak-weevil food webs and examined differences in alpha, beta and gamma diversity using Hill numbers of effective species. We found a higher alpha, beta and gamma diversity of weevils in Nicaragua compared to California despite similar richness of host species at both local and regional level. By means of Bayesian mixed models, we also found that tropical weevil species were highly specialized both in terms of host range and interaction strength, whereas their temperate congeners had a broader taxonomic and phylogenetic host spectrum. Finally, in Nicaraguan species, larval body size was highly correlated with the size of the acorns infested, as would be expected by a greater host specialization, whereas in California this relationship was absent. Altogether, these lines of evidence support the host specialization hypothesis and suggest contrasting eco-evolutionary dynamics in tropical and temperate regions even in absence of differences in host diversity. © 2017 by the Ecological

  10. Comparing in-season external and internal signs of feeding caused by sucking bugs to damage at harvest, with emphasis on creontiades signatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sucking bug management in cotton has increased in importance, now with less pressure from boll weevil and boll-feeding worms. Cotton along the Texas Coastal Bend experienced loss to boll-feeding sucking bugs during 2010, especially in fields near the coast. This loss was magnified due to boll rot. C...

  11. A synopsis of the orchid weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan (Curculionidae, Baridinae), with taxonomic rectifications and description of one new species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six species of the weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan are recognized: O. epidendri (Murray) comb. n. (=Acythopeus genuinus Pascoe syn. n., =Baris orchivora Blackburn syn. n., =Apotomorhinus orchidearum Kolbe syn. n.), O. aterrimus (Waterhouse), O. eburifer (Pascoe) comb. n. (=Acythopeus gilvonotatu...

  12. The Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Integrated Pest Management in California Rice.

    PubMed

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2015-02-01

    Rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kushel) is the most damaging insect pest of rice in the United States. Larval feeding on the roots stunt growth and reduce yield. Current pest management against the weevil in California relies heavily on pyrethroids that can be damaging to aquatic food webs. Examination of an environmentally friendly alternative biopesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae chemistry against rice water weevil larvae showed moderate levels of activity in pilot studies. We further examined the performance of different formulations of Bt.galleriae against the leading insecticide used in California rice, λ-cyhalothrin. The granular formulation performed as well as the λ-cyhalothrin in use in California in some of our greenhouse and field studies. This is the first reported use of B. thuringiensis spp. galleriae against rice water weevil.

  13. Effects of Seeding Rates and Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Density on Damage in Two Medium Grain Varieties of Rice.

    PubMed

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Espino, Luis; Goding, Kevin; Goldman, Evan; Godfrey, Larry D

    2016-04-01

    Rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) is a common pest of rice production in the United States whose larvae cause yield loss by feeding on the roots. We conducted studies from 2011–2013 on M-202 and M-206, two commonly grown California medium grain rice varieties, to determine if M-206 demonstrated tolerance to rice water weevil damage. Observations from field studies suggested the possibility of a level of tolerance in M-206 that was more prevalent at high seeding rates. We did this study using two different experimental units, open and ring plots. In both units, we quantified grain yields across four levels, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg/ha, of seeding rates to detect potential yield recovery by M-206. In the open plots, we used naturally occurring weevil populations compared with controls that reduced the populations with insecticides. In the ring plots, we tested three levels of weevil infestation, none, low, and high, to look at the weevil density effects on yield and scarred plants. Our studies showed that M-206 and M-202 had generally similar densities of immature weevils and yield. Compensation for yield loss did not occur at higher seeding rates. These results suggest that M-206 does not have the ability to tolerate rice water weevil damage better than M-202. There was weak evidence that the number of scarred plants increased as plant density was reduced. The results are discussed in relation to the utility of this study to grower choices of varieties for long-term rice water weevil management.

  14. Comparative susceptibilities of different life stages of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) treated by entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Atwa, Atwa A; Hegazi, Esmat M

    2014-08-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynocophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has become the most important pest of the date palm trees in the world. It has been reported in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia since 1987 and in Egypt since 1992. Studies were conducted to compare preferences among red palm weevil life stages for infection by 12 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), under no choice and five stage choice experiments, and curative trials by some of EPNs isolates. All EPN isolates proved to be pathogenic for the first instars of red palm weevil larvae. Some of the test EPNs exhibited a preference for larvae over pupae, and a lesser degree of preference for adults. In contrast some strains showed no preference for any stage. The local Egyptian isolates of EPNs were most efficient nematodes against red palm weevil than foreign strains. Field assessments using trunk injection resulted in a substantial decline in the population of red palm weevil after two successive applications within 3 wk. Efficacies ranging 48-88% were achieved in the curative assay resulting in a significant increase in palm survival compared with the untreated control. In conclusion, there is a great potential for the use of EPNs, in particular the Steinernema sp. (EGG4), against the red palm weevil when injected in the date palm.

  15. Entomopathogenic nematodes, root weevil larvae, and dynamic interactions among soil texture, plant growth, herbivory, and predation.

    PubMed

    El-Borai, Fahiem E; Stuart, Robin J; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Pathak, Ekta; Duncan, Larry W

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the influence of soil texture on the persistence, efficacy and plant protection ability of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) applied to control larvae of the Diaprepes root weevil (DRW), Diaprepes abbreviatus, infesting potted citrus seedlings. Seedlings were grown in pots containing either coarse sand, fine sand, or sandy loam. Three DRW larvae were added to each of 80 pots of each soil type. 24 h later, 20 pots of each soil type that had received weevil larvae were inoculated with EPN infective juveniles (IJs) of one of the following species: Steinernema diaprepesi, Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis indica. Pots of each soil without EPNs were established as controls with DRW and controls without DRWs. Subsequently, pots with larvae received three additional larvae monthly, and the experiment continued for 9 months. Plant root and top weights at the end of the experiment were affected by both soil (P≤0.0001) and nematodes (P≤0.0001), and nematode species protected plants differently in different soils (interaction P≤0.0001). Soil porosity was inversely related to plant damage by DRW, whether or not EPNs were present; and porosity was directly related to the level of plant protection by EPNs. Mortality of caged sentinel weevil larvae placed in pots near the end of the experiment was highest in pots treated with S. diaprepesi. In a second, similar experiment that included an additional undescribed steinernematid of the Steinernema glaseri-group, soil type affected root damage by DRW and root protection by EPNs in the same manner as in the first experiment. Final numbers of S. diaprepesi and Steinernema sp. as measured by real-time PCR were much greater than those of S. riobrave or H. indica in all soils. Across all treatments, the number of weevil larvae in soil at the end the experiment was inversely related to soil porosity. In all soils, fewer weevil larvae survived in soil treated with S. diaprepesi or

  16. Apparent Acquired Resistance by a Weevil to Its Parasitoid Is Influenced by Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Goldson, Stephen L.; Tomasetto, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian Lolium multiflorum, diploid Lolium perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne ×L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period when in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were commonly in use in the 1990’s. The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75%) than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46%) or the diploid hybrid (52%) grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75%) were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in weevils in the presence of both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect

  17. Genetic variation in avocado stem weevils Copturus aguacatae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Engstrand, Rachel C; Cibrián Tovar, Juan; Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2010-12-01

    The avocado stem weevil Copturus aguacatae is an important pest in avocado plantations. Its presence hinders the production and marketing of avocado in Mexico, the largest avocado producer worldwide. Biological control through pheromone synthesis, a strategy favored over chemical control in crops, is currently limited by difficult field identification of this species. Using DNA barcoding, we examine the patterns of genetic variation of C. aguacatae in avocado trees in Mexico to help facilitate its identification and biological control. We show that there is one single species of avocado stem weevil throughout the sampled sites in Mexico. Overall, haplotype diversity is high, with Oaxaca forming one distinct group and all other sampled populations are admixed irrespective of geographic origin. The results suggest that high gene flow is maintained in this species and that a global strategy for biocontrol can be designed and implemented throughout the sampled range.

  18. Evidence of contact pheromone use in mating behavior of the raspberry weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Palma, Rubén; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-02-01

    Numerous studies of insect species have shown that a subset of female cuticular hydrocarbons is used as short-range or contact pheromones. Here, we studied the possible use of contact pheromones in the mating behavior of the weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus, a native species of Chile. Males mounted females only after antennal contact with the female's cuticle, and only 33% of the males attempted to mate with dead females washed with solvent. When a glass rod (dummy) was coated with female cuticular extracts, males exhibited behaviors similar to those observed with females. A preliminary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cuticular extracts indicated that males and females share a series of aliphatic hydrocarbons but that the relative abundance of some of these compounds differ between the sexes. These results suggest that cuticular lipids mediate mating behavior of the raspberry weevil and provide the first evidence of contact pheromones in curculionids.

  19. Photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf of cotton boll at different fruiting branch nodes and their relationships with lint yield and fiber quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingran; Meng, Yali; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf at the 2–3rd and 10–11th fruiting branch (FBN, FB2–3, and FB10–11), and their relationship with cotton yield and quality, field experiments were conducted using two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 and Sumian 15. The results showed that with FBN increasing, chlorophyll (Chl) components, Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the subtending leaf significantly declined, while soluble sugar, amino acid and their ratio (CSS/CAA) as well as Fv/Fm increased. These results indicated that (1) non-radiative dissipation of excess light energy at FB2–3 was reduced to improve solar energy utilization efficiency to compensate for lower Pn, (2) higher NPQ at FB10−11 played a role in leaf photo-damage avoidance, (3) boll weight was related to the CSS/CAA ratio rather than carbohydrates content alone, (4) with FBN increasing, lint biomass and lint/seed ratio increased significantly, but lint yield decreased due to lower relative amount of bolls, and (5) the decreases in Pn, sucrose content and CSS/CAA in the subtending leaf at FB2–3 resulted in lower boll weight and fiber strength. PMID:26442060

  20. Photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf of cotton boll at different fruiting branch nodes and their relationships with lint yield and fiber quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingran; Meng, Yali; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf at the 2-3rd and 10-11th fruiting branch (FBN, FB2-3, and FB10-11), and their relationship with cotton yield and quality, field experiments were conducted using two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 and Sumian 15. The results showed that with FBN increasing, chlorophyll (Chl) components, Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the subtending leaf significantly declined, while soluble sugar, amino acid and their ratio (C SS/C AA) as well as F v/F m increased. These results indicated that (1) non-radiative dissipation of excess light energy at FB2-3 was reduced to improve solar energy utilization efficiency to compensate for lower Pn, (2) higher NPQ at FB10-11 played a role in leaf photo-damage avoidance, (3) boll weight was related to the C SS/C AA ratio rather than carbohydrates content alone, (4) with FBN increasing, lint biomass and lint/seed ratio increased significantly, but lint yield decreased due to lower relative amount of bolls, and (5) the decreases in Pn, sucrose content and C SS /C AA in the subtending leaf at FB2-3 resulted in lower boll weight and fiber strength.

  1. Olfactory Cues Are Subordinate to Visual Stimuli in a Neotropical Generalist Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Lapointe, Stephen L.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects. PMID:23341926

  2. Identification of host kairomones from maize, Zea mays, for the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Ukeh, Donald A; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, is an economically important pest of stored grains in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The behavioral responses of adult S. zeamais to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from maize seeds, Zea mays, were studied to identify semiochemicals used in host location and provide potential tools for managing this pest. VOCs released directly from crude seed extracts, vacuum distilled extracts, hexane and diethyl ether fractions from silica gel chromatography of the vacuum distillates, air entrainment samples, and identified volatile compounds were assayed using a Perspex four-arm olfactometer. Weevils spent significantly more time, and made a higher number of visits, to the region of the olfactometer where Z. mays volatiles were present than in control regions comprising solvent only. When white and yellow Z. mays VOCs were compared in a choice test, the mean time spent in the two olfactometer treatment arms was significantly greater than the mean time spent in the control arms. However, weevils did not show any preference for either of the two treatments, thus demonstrating that both varieties of maize have similar activity. Gas chromatography (GC), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC peak enhancement and electroantennography (EAG) identified hexanal, (E)-2-heptenal, and octanal as biologically active compounds in air entrainment samples and diethyl ether fractions of vacuum distillates. A 3-component synthetic blend of the identified compounds was significantly attractive to both sexes of the weevil. These host kairomones could be deployed in semiochemical based monitoring and management of S. zeamais in the tropics.

  3. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  4. Arms race between weevil rostrum length and camellia pericarp thickness: Geographical cline and theory.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Naoyuki; Sasaki, Akira; Toju, Hirokazu

    2011-09-21

    The geographical cline of the coevolving traits of weevil rostrum (mouthpart) length and camellia pericarp (fruit coat) thickness provides an opportunity to test the arms race theory of defense (pericarp thickness) and countermeasure (rostrum length) between antagonistically interacting species. By extending the previous model for the coevolution of quantitative traits to introduce nonlinear costs for exaggerated traits, the generation overlap, and density-dependent regulation in the host, we studied the evolutionarily stable (ES) pericarp thickness in the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and the ES rostrum length in the camellia-weevil (Curculio camelliae). The joint monomorphic ES system has a robust outcome with nonlinear costs, and we analyzed how the traits of both species at evolutionary equilibrium depend on demographic parameters. If camellia demographic parameters vary latitudinally, data collected over the geographical scale of rostrum length and pericarp thickness should lie on an approximately linear curve with the slope less than that of the equiprobability line A/B of boring success, where A and B are coefficients for the logistic regression of boring success to pericarp thickness and rostrum length, respectively. This is a robust prediction as long as the cost of rostrum length is nonlinear (accelerating). As a result, boring success should be lower in populations with longer rostrum length, as reported in the weevil-camellia system (Toju, H., and Sota, T., 2006a. Imbalance of predator and prey armament: Geographic clines in phenotypic interface and natural selection. American Naturalist 167, 105-117). The nonlinearity (exponent) for the cost of rostrum length estimated from the geographical cline data for the weevil-camellia system was 2.2, suggesting nonlinearity between quadratic and cubic forms.

  5. New Approach of Beauveria bassiana to Control the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Trapping Technique.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, M J; Ajlan, A M; Al-Ahmad, M H

    2015-04-01

    This work is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the commercial formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Broadband) to control adults of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)). This fungus could be applied as one of the biological tactics in controlling red palm weevil. Bioassay experiments for medium lethal concentrate and medium time to cause death of 50% of red palm weevil adults were carried out. The result showed that the LC50 of B. bassiana (Broadband) was 2.19×10(7) and 2.76×10(6) spores/ml at 9 and 23 d of treatment, respectively. The LT50 was 13.95 and 4.15 d for concentration of 1×10(7) and 1×10(8) spores/ml, respectively, whereas 1×10(9) spores/ml caused 100% mortality after 24 h. Additionally, a red palm weevil pheromone trap was designed to attract the adults to be contaminated with spores of Broadband, which was applied to the sackcloth fabric that coated the internal surfaces of the bucket trap. The mating behavior was studied to determine direct and indirect infection of the spores from male to female and vice versa. The results showed a high efficacy of Broadband suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml; 40 ml of suspension at this concentration treated to cloth in a trap caused death of contaminated adults with B. bassiana spores directly and indirectly. The 100% mortality was obtained even after 13 d of traps treatment with 40 ml of the suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml.

  6. Explaining Andean Potato Weevils in Relation to Local and Landscape Features: A Facilitated Ecoinformatics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raúl; Olivera, Edgar; Scurrah, María; Alcázar, Jesús; Rosenheim, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a “facilitated ecoinformatics” approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp.), the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2–46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. Conclusions/Significance Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives. PMID:22693551

  7. Uninjured trees - a meaningful guide to white-pine weevil control decisions

    Treesearch

    William E. Waters

    1962-01-01

    The white-pine weevil, Pissodes strobi, is a particularly insidious forest pest that can render a stand of host trees virtually worthless. It rarely, if ever, kills a tree; but the crooks, forks, and internal defects that develop in attacked trees over a period of years may reduce the merchantable volume and value of the tree at harvest age to zero. Dollar losses are...

  8. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80 mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2 mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55 mg/liter at 7-10°C for 24 h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Predicting Developmental Timing for Immature Canada Thistle Stem-Mining Weevils, Hadroplontus litura (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Gramig, Greta G; Burns, Erin E; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A

    2015-08-01

    Predictions of phenological development for insect biological control agents may facilitate post-release monitoring efforts by allowing land managers to optimize the timing of monitoring activities. A logistic thermal time model was tested to predict phenology of immature stem-mining weevils, Hadroplontus litura F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent for Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense L. (Asterales: Asteraceae). Weevil eggs and larvae were collected weekly from Canada thistle stems in eastern North Dakota from May through July during 2010 and 2011. Head capsule widths of sampled larvae were measured at the widest point and plotted on a frequency histogram to establish ranges of head capsule widths associated with each instar. We found head capsule width ranges for first-, second-, and third-instar H. litura larvae were 165-324 µm, 346-490 µm, and 506-736 µm, respectively. Logistic regression models were developed to estimate the proportions of H. litura eggs, first-, and second-instar larvae in the weevil population as a function of thermal time. Model estimates of median development time for eggs, first instars, and second instars ranged from 219 ± 23 degree-days (DD) to 255 ± 27 DD, 556 ± 77 DD to 595 ± 81 DD, and 595 ± 109 DD to 653 ± 108 DD, respectively. Based on model validation statistics, model estimates for development timing were the most accurate for eggs and first instars and somewhat less accurate for second instars. These model predictions will help biological control practitioners obtain more accurate estimates of weevil population densities during post-release monitoring.

  10. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Monoterpenes in Scots Pine and Norway Spruce Tissues Affect Pine Weevil Orientation.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Nordlander, Göran; Björklund, Niklas; Nordenhem, Henrik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-12-01

    In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Hypothesizing that the variations may be at least due partly to volatiles released by MeJA-treated seedlings and their effects on pine weevil orientation, we examined tissue extracts of seedlings (from the same batches as previously used) by two-dimensional GC-MS. We found that the MeJA treatment increased contents of the monoterpene (-)-β-pinene in phloem (the weevil's main target tissue) of both tree species, however, the (-)-β-pinene/(-)-α-pinene ratio increased more in the phloem of P. sylvestris. We also tested the attractiveness of individual monoterpenes found in conifer tissues (needles and phloem) for pine weevils using an arena with traps baited with single-substance dispensers and pine twigs. Trap catches were reduced when the pine material was combined with a dispenser releasing (-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (-)-bornyl acetate or 1,8-cineole. However, (-)-α-pinene did not have this effect. Thus, the greater field protection of MeJA-treated P. sylvestris seedlings may be due to the selective induction of increases in contents of the deterrent (-)-β-pinene, in contrast to strong increases in both non-deterrent (-)-α-pinene and the deterrent (-)-β-pinene in P. abies seedlings.

  11. Effects of biological control of rice weevil by Anisopteromalus calandrae with a population of two Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Young; Nam, Youngwoo; Ryoo, Mun Il

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the interaction occurring between the rice weevil and two storage molds (Aspergillus candidus Link and Aspergillus niger Van Tiegem) that prefer different moisture regimens under rice storage conditions. Rice weevil induced rapid population growth in both of the storage molds. The colony forming units (CFUs) of A. candidus and A. niger peaked at 10(9.00 +/- 0.02) and 10(7.72 +/- 0.03)/g, respectively. All of the rice grains were infested with the molds and eventually deteriorated; in the jars infested with A. candidus, no living weevils were found after 135 d. Suppression of the rice weevil by its larval parasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), significantly retarded the growth of A. candidus but completely halted the growth of A. niger, which was replaced by xerophyllic molds including Aspergillus penicilloides Spegazzini and Wallemia sebi (Fries). Regression analyses showed that the total number of weevils was a significant factor explaining grain moisture content, which was in turn a significant factor in the growth of both mold species. The growth of A. niger was dependent on the grain moisture content (r2 = 0.52), thereby suggesting that the growth of A. niger was caused primarily by activity of the rice weevil and the resulting increased grain moisture content. However, 27% of the growth of A. candidus was explained by grain moisture contents, suggesting that a factor other than the grain moisture content may also affect its growth. Suppression of rice weevil by A. calandrae could induce an A. candidus-dominant molds community, which would be a factor for consideration in biological control program.

  12. Analysis of oilseed rape stem weevil chemical control using a damage rating scale.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Željko; Zorić, Miroslav; Franeta, Filip; Terzić, Sreten; Petrović Obradović, Olivera; Marjanović Jeromela, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.) and cabbage stem weevil (C. pallidactylus Marsh.) can cause significant yield losses to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), and chemical control is often needed to protect crops from these pests. The efficacy of six insecticides, chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin, bifenthrin, alpha-cypermethrin, pirimiphos-methyl, thiacloprid and tau-fluvalinate, was tested in a 4 year field trial. Besides the standard efficacy analysis expressed through the number of larvae per stem, a damage rating scale was introduced and modelled using a regression model for ordinal categorical data. Compared with the control, expressed through damage rating and larval number, treatments with chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin and bifenthrin, showed higher efficacy in the control of stem weevils compared with alpha-cypermethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The lowest efficacy was observed in treatments with tau-fluvalinate and thiacloprid. This study showed that a combined efficacy evaluation expressed through both damage rating scale and the count of larvae, supported by an ordinal regression model for data analysis, is indispensable for obtaining accurate results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Chemical evaluation of African palm weevil, Rhychophorus phoenicis, larvae as a food source.

    PubMed

    Elemo, Babajide O; Elemo, Gloria N; Makinde, M A; Erukainure, Ochuko L

    2011-01-01

    The chemical properties of the African palm weevil, Rhychophorus phoenicis (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae were evaluated using standard methodology. The chloroform-methanol extract yielded 37.12% on a dry basis. The oil was liquid at room temperature with a flash point of 36.0 °C. Analysis of the physical constants indicated values of 192.25 Wijs and 427.70 mg KOH/g as iodine and saponification, respectively. Fatty acid analysis of the extracted oil showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids at low levels. Palmitic acid and stearic acid constituted 35.3 and 60.5% of the oil, respectively. The usual behaviour of the oil at room temperature, irrespective of the level of unsaturation of its constituent fatty acid was noted. The total protein content of the defatted palm weevil larva (dry basis) was estimated at 66.3%. The amino acid values compared favourably to FAO reference protein, except for tryptophan, which was limiting. All the other essential amino acids were adequate. Mineral analysis revealed high levels of potassium (1025 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (685 mg/100 g). The dried and defatted palm weevil lava represents a very good source of protein, and a good complement of essential amino acids.

  14. Classification of weevils as a data-driven science: leaving opinion behind

    PubMed Central

    Jordal, Bjarte H.; Smith, Sarah M.; Cognato, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Data and explicit taxonomic ranking criteria, which minimize taxonomic change, provide a scientific approach to modern taxonomy and classification. However, traditional practices of opinion-based taxonomy (i.e., mid-20th century evolutionary systematics), which lack explicit ranking and naming criteria, are still in practice despite phylogenetic evidence. This paper discusses a recent proposed reclassification of weevils that elevates bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae and Platypodinae) to the ranks of Family. We demonstrate that the proposed reclassification 1) is not supported by an evolutionary systematic justification because the apparently unique morphology of bark and ambrosia beetles is shared with other unrelated wood-boring weevil taxa; 2) introduces obvious paraphyly in weevil classification and hence violates good practices on maintaining an economy of taxonomic change; 3) is not supported by other taxonomic naming criteria, such as time banding. We recommend the abandonment of traditional practices of an opinion-based taxonomy, especially in light of available data and resulting phylogenies. PMID:25317054

  15. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition. PMID:25635833

  16. Greenhouse studies of thiamethoxam effects on pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2(nd)-5(th) nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15-30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2(nd) node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops.

  17. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    PubMed

    Porth, Ilga; White, Richard; Jaquish, Barry; Alfaro, René; Ritland, Carol; Ritland, Kermit

    2012-01-01

    In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.) in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids) that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL) co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1) genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2) master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  18. Genetical Genomics Identifies the Genetic Architecture for Growth and Weevil Resistance in Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Porth, Ilga; White, Richard; Jaquish, Barry; Alfaro, René; Ritland, Carol; Ritland, Kermit

    2012-01-01

    In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.) in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids) that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL) co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1) genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2) master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce. PMID:22973444

  19. Piperidine alkaloids in sitka spruce with varying levels of resistance to white pine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Gerson, Elizabeth A; Kelsey, Rick G

    2002-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate piperidine alkaloids as potential resistance factors in Sitka spruce, Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr, at risk to attack by white pine weevils, Pissodes strobi (Peck). We sampled 72 seedlings in each of two replicated field trials in the Oregon Coast Range. The seedlings were grown from open-pollinated seeds of putatively "resistant" or "susceptible" off-site parental sources. Alkaloid concentrations in bark and foliage were measured in previously unattacked trees at the time of weevil host selection. Leader mortality was evaluated in the fall to gauge actual resistance in the sample trees. Five families had < or = 25% topkill and seven sustained >50% topkill. Alkaloid concentrations differed significantly among families, but the major alkaloids did not appear to be functionally linked with topkill or useful indicators of resistance. However, our study design did not address all potential resistance mechanisms. Therefore, before concluding that Sitka spruce alkaloids have no influence on white pine weevils, complementary laboratory and field experiments are needed.

  20. Biological Control of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. T.; Georgis, R.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Miller, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) strain A11, S. feltiae (Filipjev) strain SN, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar strains HP88 and Georgia were tested for their efficacy as biological control agents of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), in pecan orchard soil-profile containers under greenhouse conditions. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora strain HP88 and Georgia was consistently poor when applied either prior to or following C. caryae entry into the soil, suggesting that these nematode species and (or) their enterobacteria are poor biological control agents of weevil larvae. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora strain HP88 induced a low rate of infection of Galleria mellonella larvae, whereas soil that had been similarily treated with H. bacteriophora strain Georgia induced a moderate rate of infection. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. feltiae was consistently low when applied following C. caryae entry into the soil and was inconsistent when applied as a barrier prior to entry of weevil larvae into the soil. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. feltiae induced a high rate of infection of G. mellonella larvae. PMID:19279746

  1. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  2. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, P A; Gabbard, Z

    2000-08-01

    The mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus (= Sternochetus) mangiferae (F.), is a federally quarantined pest that prevents shipment of mangos from Hawaii into the continental United States. Although this monophagous weevil allegedly causes reduced seed germination, damage to the fruit pulp, and premature fruit drop in mangos, there are few studies examining these potential sources of crop loss. We conducted studies to assess the effect of mango weevil infestation on seed viability while making observations on the frequency of pulp feeding. Naturally infested seeds from mature fruit were planted in pots and scored for successful germination. Germination rates for infested seeds were equal to those of uninfested control seeds in a polyembryonic cultivar ('Common'), whereas germination was significantly reduced for infested seeds of a monoembryonic cultivar ('Haden') compared with uninfested control seeds but germination of infested seeds was still > 70%. To assess seed tolerance of damage, seeds were artificially damaged by cutting away 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting and scored for germination. None of the damage treatments was significantly different from the undamaged controls, indicating that mango seeds can withstand substantial damage and still germinate successfully. Over the 2-yr period we conducted experiments, only four of 3,602 mango fruits (0.11%) showed evidence of direct feeding damage to the pulp. Results suggest that C. mangiferae is a less serious pest of mangos than previously thought.

  3. Greenhouse Studies of Thiamethoxam Effects on Pea Leaf Weevil, Sitona lineatus

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2nd–5th nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15–30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2nd node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops. PMID:23461362

  4. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  5. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  6. Oleoresin crystallization in eastern white pine: relationships with chemical components of cortical oleoresin and resistance to the white-pine weevil

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1979-01-01

    Natural and weevil-larva-induced crystallization of oleoresin from 45 eastern white pine trees with known resin acid and monoterpene composition, and from 59 pairs of nonweeviled and heavily weeviled trees from the same seed sources, was examined in mid- and late spring. Very little difference was found between larva-induced and natural crystallization. Strobic acid-...

  7. Fine-scale local adaptation of weevil mouthpart length and camellia pericarp thickness: altitudinal gradient of a putative arms race.

    PubMed

    Toju, Hirokazu

    2008-05-01

    Although coevolutionary theory predicts that evolutionary interactions between species are spatially hierarchical, few studies have examined coevolutionary processes at multiple spatial scales. In an antagonistic system involving a plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), and its obligate seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), I elucidated the local adaptation of a camellia defensive armament (pericarp thickness) and a weevil offensive armament (rostrum length) within Yakushima Island (ca. 30 km in diameter), compared to a larger-scale variation in those traits throughout Japan reported in previous studies. Results showed that camellia pericarp thickness and weevil rostrum length vary remarkably within several kilometers on this island. In addition, geographic variation in each camellia and weevil armament was best explained by the armament size of the sympatric participant than by abiotic environmental heterogeneity. However, I also found that camellia pericarp thickness significantly decreased in cool-temperate (i.e., highland) areas, suggesting the contributions of climate on the spatial structuring of the weevil-camellia interaction. Interestingly, relatively thin pericarps occurred not only in the highlands but also in some low-altitude areas, indicating that other factors such as nonrandom or asymmetric gene flow play important roles in the metapopulation processes of interspecific interactions at small spatial scales.

  8. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jason; Lanka, Srinivas; Stout, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates. PMID:26462952

  9. Integrating flood depth and plant resistance with chlorantraniliprole seed treatments for management of rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lanka, Srinivas K; Blouin, David C; Stout, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Chlorantraniliprole seed treatments in rice provide effective suppression of rice water weevil populations in the United States; however, heavy reliance on prophylactic insecticide treatments as a sole strategy could destabilize management programs for this insect. The present research evaluated the compatibility of seed treatments with two other potential management tactics-plant resistance and shallow flooding-by conducting two split-plot experiments in 2009 and 2011. In both experiments, no substantial antagonism was found among the 3 different tactics. Statistical interactions in these experiments arose from the strong and persistent effects of chlorantraniliprole on larval densities rather than incompatibility of tactics. In 2009, weevil densities differed among varieties and were significantly lower on the cultivar "Jefferson." In 2011, weevil densities were reduced significantly in shallow-flooded plots compared to deep-flooded plots. Significant reductions in weevil numbers by chlorantraniliprole seed treatments, even at application rates 5 fold lower than commercially recommended rates, demonstrated the potential to reduce application rates of this highly potent larvicide. These latter results suggest that future studies on the relationship between chlorantraniliprole seed treatment rate and weevil fitness are warranted.

  10. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jason; Lanka, Srinivas; Stout, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  11. Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.

    PubMed

    Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon.

  12. Evaluation of the potential role of glufosinate-tolerant rice in integrated pest management programs for rice water weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Tindall, K V; Stout, M J; Williams, B J

    2004-12-01

    The impact of a herbicide-tolerant rice, Oryza sativa L., variety was assessed for its resistance to rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and its place in current integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the resistance of a glufosinate-tolerant rice variety and its glufosinate-susceptible parent line Bengal to the rice water weevil in the presence and absence of glufosinate applications. The LC50 dose-response and behavioral effects of glufosinate on adult rice water weevils also were studied. Field studies investigated the impacts of glufosinate-tolerant rice on rice water weevil management in the presence and absence of glufosinate under early and delayed flood conditions. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that in the absence of glufosinate, oviposition was 30% higher on the glufosinate-tolerant rice line than on Bengal rice or on glufosinate-tolerant line treated with recommended rates of commercially formulated glufosinate. Applications of glufosinate to glufosinate-tolerant rice resulted in a 20% reduction in rice water weevil larval densities compared with nontreated glufosinate-tolerant rice. The LC50 of glufosinate against adult rice water weevil was nearly 2 times the concentration recommended for application to glufosinate-tolerant rice. There was no difference in the amount of leaf area consumed by adult rice water weevils on glufosinate-treated and nontreated foliage. The absence of direct toxicity of glufosinate to rice water weevil at recommended glufosinate use rates and lack of behavioral effects suggest that the reduction in rice water weevil densities observed after glufosinate applications resulted from herbicide-induced plant resistance. Field experiments showed that neither rice variety nor herbicide use affected larval densities; however, delaying flood and applying insecticide effectively reduced numbers of rice water weevil larvae.

  13. Effects of tillage practices on pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) biology and crop damage: a farm-scale study in the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Hanavan, R P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2012-12-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L., is periodically a significant pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA. Previous on-station research demonstrated significantly greater adult pea leaf weevil colonization, immature survival, adult emergence and plant damage in conventional-tillage compared to no-tillage plots of pea. In experiments conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, aerial and ground adult pea leaf weevil colonization of large-scale commercial pea fields under different tillage regimes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington was examined for the first time. Initial pea leaf weevil feeding damage, immature weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence from the fields were also assessed. During both years, significantly more adult pea leaf weevils were captured in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage fields during the crop establishment period in May. No-tillage soils remained wet longer in the spring and could not be planted by growers until later than conventional-tillage fields. Pea planted under conventional-tillage emerged earlier and had significantly greater feeding damage by the pea leaf weevil than no-tillage pea. Significantly, greater immature pea leaf weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence were observed in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage pea fields. Delayed development of root nodules in the cooler, moister conditions of no-tillage pea fields likely resulted in escape from attack and injury during the critical growth stages that ultimately influence yield. Results indicate that large-scale commercial no-tillage pea fields are less suitable for colonization and survival of the pea leaf weevil and suffer less weevil damage than fields under conventional tillage.

  14. Field Abundance Patterns and Odor-Mediated Host Choice by Clover Seed Weevils, Apion fulvipes and Apion trifolii (Coleoptera: Apionidae).

    PubMed

    Nyabuga, Franklin N; Carrasco, David; Ranåker, Lynn; Andersson, Martin N; Birgersson, Göran; Larsson, Mattias C; Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Svensson, Glenn P; Anderbrant, Olle; Lankinen, Åsa

    2015-04-01

    The clover seed weevils Apion fulvipes Geoffroy, 1785 and Apion trifolii L., 1768 (Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause major losses to seed production of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), respectively. Clover is important as animal forage and an alternative to inorganic fertilizers. Because clover is mainly pollinated by bees, the use of insecticides in management of these weevils is discouraged. To gain basic knowledge for development of alternative management strategies, we investigated weevil field abundance over two growing seasons, as well as feeding and olfactory host preferences by A. fulvipes and A. trifolii. Field trap catches in southern Sweden revealed that white clover was dominated by A. fulvipes and red clover by A. trifolii. For both weevil species, female catches were positively correlated to the number of clover buds and flowers in the field. In feeding and olfactory bioassays, females of A. fulvipes and A. trifolii showed a preference for T. repens and T. pratense, respectively. However, the feeding preference was lost when the antennae were removed, indicating a significant role of olfaction in host choice. Male weevils of both species did not show clear olfactory or feeding preferences for host plant species. The field study and laboratory bioassays demonstrate that, at least for female weevils, olfaction is important for selection of host plants. We discuss these novel results in the context of managing these important pests of clover by exploiting olfaction and behavioral attraction to host plant volatiles. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  16. Radiation-induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to desiccation and adult mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S. . Div. of Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1989-07-01

    Radiation from the nuclear waste products, such as Cesium-137, offers a scope and could be used for large scale disinfestation of grain. It is known that 0.15 to 0.20 kGy dose of gamma radiation is sufficient to kill insects in grain and grain products. However, the mode of action (in terms of lethal effects) is not understood. The purpose of this project, therefore, is to study the ways in which gamma radiation causes death in the granary weevil. Sitophilus granarius (L.) is a major and cosmopolitan pest of stored grain all over the world. Radiation damage, in particular the specific effects on the physiology of the insects exposed to radiation has been elucidated. In stored grain insects, conservation of water is a critical factor for their survival. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in water proofing. The laboratory rearing of the granary weevil was standardized so that large numbers of weevils of known ages could be produced for experimentation. Stock cultures were maintained at 27 {plus minus} 2{degree}C and 65 {plus minus} 5% R.H. Tests with various age groups (adults) and different doses of gamma radiation indicate that lethal effects are both age and dose related. Younger weevils, in general, survive for a longer period after irradiation compared to older weevils. Complete mortality results within about two weeks after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 0.15 kGy or above. Data on wet and dry weights of the weevils kept at different (low, medium and higher) levels of humidity after irradiation indicate that gamma radiation induces greater water loss leading to desiccation and early death. Low humidity environment (17% R.H.) greatly accelerates lethal effects.

  17. Systemic insecticides for control of black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in container- and field-grown nursery crops.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Persad, Anand B

    2009-06-01

    Black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are serious pests of container- and field-grown nursery crops. Management programs usually target the larval stage in container-grown plants and the adults in field-grown plants. We tested several new systemic insecticides for efficacy against black vine weevil in container-grown Sedum spp. and field-grown Taxus spp. In 2006 and 2007, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole were applied as surface drenches to containerized Sedum plants, and suppression of larval densities and adult feeding were evaluated. Sedum leaf bioassays were used to further examine the influence of clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole on adult feeding. In 2006, pots were infested with adult black vine weevil 1 d after treating, and in 2007 pots were infested 1 or 43 d after treating. All three insecticides significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in 2006, but not in 2007, because of low numbers of larvae in the untreated control plants. Dinotefuran and clothianidin reduced feeding by adult black vine weevil on containerized Sedum plants, resulting in more blossoms, fewer damaged leaves, and a lower percentage of leaves damaged compared with control plants. In bioassays with detached leaves, all three insecticides reduced feeding compared with control plants. Efficacy and timing of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and acephate soil drenches and imidacloprid and acephate soil injections were evaluated for black vine weevil control over a 1-yr period in field-grown Taxus plants. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in field-grown Taxus plants compared with control plants; and all but the spring acephate drench improved the appearance of the Taxus (foliar rating) plants compared with untreated plants. All of the tested insecticides showed potential for preventing infestations of black vine weevil larvae and reducing feeding by the adults in ornamental plants.

  18. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Barbara I. P.; Barton, Diane M.; Philip, Bruce A.; Ferguson, Colin M.; Goldson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants. PMID:27507979

  19. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils.

  20. Pheromone-based trapping of West Indian sugarcane weevil in a sugarcane plantation.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, Allan C; Gonzalez, Lilliana; Gomez, Manuel; Rodriguez, Carlos; Andrade, Romano

    2002-08-01

    Attraction of Metamasius hemipterus (Oliver) to gallon and bamboo traps baited with insecticide-treated sugarcane, the male-produced pheromone, 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 2-methyl-4-heptanol is more efficient if ethyl acetate is added. The optimal traps are ground-level gallon traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane, pheromone, and ethyl acetate. Capture rates of ground-level gallon traps are doubled by placing an insecticide-laced pad under the trap, but significantly decreased by placing the trap on a stick above ground. The efficiency of ground-level gallon traps is the same as ground level ramp traps. Mass-trapping M. hemipterus in newly planted sugarcane using ground level bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone over six months revealed populations were low for the first two months, became maximum at five months, and declined thereafter. Capture rates of traps bordering newly planted and mature sugarcane were not significantly different from capture rates of traps in the interior of the plots. Capture rates of bamboo traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane and deployed at 30 traps/ha averaged 6 weevils/trap/week compared with 66 weevils/trap/week for traps additionally containing pheromone lures and deployed at 5 traps/ha. Capture rates for bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone and deployed at 10 and 15 traps/ha were 43 and 38 weevils/trap/week, respectively. Total captures were higher in those plots with a higher density of insecticide-laden sugarcane and pheromone baited traps, and the differences were approximately proportional to trap density in the range of 5-15 traps/ha. Capture rates of traps containing insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone were always higher than of traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane, but in the first two months after planting the differences were much greater than in months 3-6 after planting.

  1. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  2. RAPD and mitochondrial DNA analysis of the soybean stalk weevil, Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gomez, D R; Coronel, N; Binneck, E; Zucchi, M I; Rosado-Neto, G

    2008-10-01

    Sternechus subsignatus Boheman (Curculionidae: Sternechini) is one of the primary Curculionidae species that reduces soybean yield in Brazil. Initially, outbreaks were reported in southern Brazil in 1973; but, more recent, outbreaks were reported in Bahia (summer 1997-1998) and Maranhão (summer 2003-2004), two states in northeastern Brazil. A putative related species, S. pinguis (Fabricius), was first detected in Salta Province, Argentina. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraspecific molecular polymorphisms of geographically distinct Sternechus populations. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles and partial mitochondrial cytochrome B (CytB) gene sequences were used to determine whether individual soybean stalk weevils were one of two different species and to infer pest invasion pattern. Putative S. pinguis and S. subsignatus populations were collected in San Agustin (Cruz Alta, Tucumán Province, Argentina) and different sampling sites in the Brazilian states of Paraná, Bahia and Maranhão. Polymorphic bands were obtained by RAPD and analyzed by Dice coefficients. Populations from southern Brazil were more closely related genetically to an Argentinean group than the populations sampled in northeastern Brazil. The Londrina Co., Brazil population displayed the highest intra-population genetic similarity. Most of the soybean stalk weevils collected from San Agustin, Tucumán, Argentina were divergent from those collected in Brazil. Sequencing and parsimony analysis of CytB did not differentiate specimens collected in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, our data show that soybean stalk weevil outbreaks and population increases in northeastern Brazil involved local genotypes.

  3. A degree-day model of sheep grazing influence on alfalfa weevil and crop characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, Hayes B

    2012-02-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis spp.) grazing is emerging as an integrated pest management tactic for alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), management and a degree-day model is needed as a decision and support tool. In response to this need, grazing exclosures with unique degree-days and stocking rates were established at weekly intervals in a central Montana alfalfa field during 2008 and 2009. Analyses indicate that increased stocking rates and grazing degree-days were associated with decreased crop levels of weevil larvae. Larval data collected from grazing treatments were regressed against on-site and near-site temperatures that produced the same accuracy. The near-site model was chosen to encourage producer acceptance. The regression slope differed from zero, had an r2 of 0.83, and a root mean square error of 0.2. Crop data were collected to achieve optimal weevil management with forage quality and yield. Differences were recorded in crude protein, acid and neutral detergent fibers, total digestible nutrients, and mean stage by weight. Stem heights differed with higher stocking rates and degree-days recording the shortest alfalfa canopy height at harvest. The degree-day model was validated at four sites during 2010 with a mean square prediction error of 0.74. The recommendation from this research is to stock alfalfa fields in the spring before 63 DD with rates between 251 and 583 sheep days per hectare (d/ha). Sheep should be allowed to graze to a minimum of 106 and maximum of 150 DD before removal. This model gives field entomologists a new method for implementing grazing in an integrated pest management program.

  4. The age and phylogeny of wood boring weevils and the origin of subsociality.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Sequeira, Andrea S; Cognato, Anthony I

    2011-06-01

    A large proportion of the hyperdiverse weevils are wood boring and many of these taxa have subsocial family structures. The origin and relationship between certain wood boring weevil taxa has been problematic to solve and hypotheses on their phylogenies change substantially between different studies. We aimed at testing the phylogenetic position and monophyly of the most prominent wood boring taxa Scolytinae, Platypodinae and Cossoninae, including a range of weevil outgroups with either the herbivorous or wood boring habit. Many putatively intergrading taxa were included in a broad phylogenetic analysis for the first time in this study, such as Schedlarius, Mecopelmus, Coptonotus, Dactylipalpus, Coptocorynus and allied Araucariini taxa, Dobionus, Psepholax, Amorphocerus-Porthetes, and some peculiar wood boring Conoderini with bark beetle behaviour. Data analyses were based on 128 morphological characters, rDNA nucleotides from the D2-D3 segment of 28S, and nucleotides and amino acids from the protein encoding gene fragments of CAD, ArgK, EF-1α and COI. Although the results varied for some of the groups between various data sets and analyses, one may conclude the following from this study: Scolytinae and Platypodinae are likely sister lineages most closely related to Coptonotus; Cossoninae is monophyletic (including Araucariini) and more distantly related to Scolytinae; Amorphocerini is not part of Cossoninae and Psepholax may belong to Cryptorhynchini. Likelihood estimation of ancestral state reconstruction of subsociality indicated five or six origins as a conservative estimate. Overall the phylogenetic results were quite dependent on morphological data and we conclude that more genetic loci must be sampled to improve phylogenetic resolution. However, some results such as the derived position of Scolytinae were consistent between morphological and molecular data. A revised time estimation of the origin of Curculionidae and various subfamily groups were made using

  5. The Developmental Performance of the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Northern Watermilfoil, Eurasian Watermilfoil, and Hybrid (Northern x Eurasian) Watermilfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roley, S. S.; Newman, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    The aquatic milfoil weevil (Euhrychiopsis lecontei) has expanded its range from the native northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum) to the non-native Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Previous studies show that it prefers M. spicatum over M. sibiricum for feeding and oviposition and that weevils that develop on M. spicatum are larger and have shorter development times. Eurasian and northern watermilfoil have hybridized, and this hybrid has been hypothesized to be more invasive by exhibiting resistance to the milfoil weevil. To test for resistance, we compared development times, mass, and survival of the milfoil weevil on Eurasian, northern and hybrid watermilfoils. Weevil development was followed from egg to adult on individual rooted plants (n = 17 to 20 for each taxa). Mean development times (19.7 to 20.3 d) and mean adult eclosion mass (1.3 to 1.5 mg) were comparable and not significantly different. Weevil survival rates differed significantly among the taxa and were lowest on northern (45%), intermediate on the hybrid (61%), and highest on Eurasian watermilfoil (88%), but stem diameter may account for some of these differences. This study suggests that hybrid watermilfoil is not exceptionally resistant to milfoil weevil herbivory; rather it possesses resistance intermediate between the native and exotic hosts.

  6. Systemic insecticides reduce feeding, survival, and fecundity of adult black vine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a variety of ornamental nursery crops.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Systemic activity of the neonicotinoids clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam and the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole was tested against adult black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Astilbe, Euonymus, Heuchera, Rhododendron, Sedum, and Taxus. Insecticide treatments were applied to the soilless substrate of containerized plants. Bioassays were conducted 12 or 13, 26, and 42 d after treatment (DAT) and ran for 7 d; and feeding, mortality, and weight gain or loss by weevils were evaluated. Foliage was removed from test plants and then placed in arenas with adult black vine weevils. The neonicotinoids reduced feeding and weight gain by adult black vine weevils on most plant species with residual activity 42 DAT on some plant species. At 12 DAT, mortality was caused by the three neonicotinoids on Astilbe and by thiamethoxam on Sedum; and at 26 DAT dinotefuran caused mortality on Astilbe. Chlorantraniliprole reduced feeding on Taxus at 12 DAT, with no activity detected in other bioassays. Another set of bioassays was conducted to examine survival and fecundity of adult black vine weevils during prolonged feeding on Heuchera and Taxus systemically treated with dinotefuran or thiamethoxam. Bioassay procedures were similar to those described above, except they ran continuously for 56 d. Prolonged feeding on dinotefuran and thiamethoxam treated Heuchera and Taxus resulted in high mortality of adult black vine weevils and reduced fecundity. These studies show that the systemic activity of neonicotinoids is influenced by plant species and that systemic neonicotinoids have the potential to suppress black vine weevil populations in containerized nursery crops.

  7. A synergistic aggregation pheromone component in the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Cerda, H; Mori, K; Nakayama, T; Jaffe, K

    1998-01-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus is an important pest on banana plantations worldwide. The chemistry of the aggregation pheromone of this insect has been recently resolved and here we present the first evidence from field trails that sordidin, a compound from the male released aggregation pheromone, attracts significant number of weevils only if host plant odors are also present. Sordidin attracts few insects when it is presented without the host plant tissue. However, the attractiveness of host plant tissue increases more than tenfold when it is presented simultaneously with sordidin in field traps. We confirm experimentally that sordidin may be used as part of a system for mass trapping and monitoring this insect.

  8. Identification of sex pheromone produced by female sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers).

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Coffelt, J A; Sonnet, P E; Proshold, F I; Dueben, B; Tumlinson, J H

    1986-06-01

    A sex pheromone of the sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), was obtained from collections of volatiles from virgin females, and pheromone was isolated by means of liquid and gas chromatography. The purification procedure was monitored by quantitative laboratory and field bioassays and the compound was identified as (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate by means of spectroscopic and microchemical methods. Synthesis, followed by laboratory and field bioassays, showed that the biological activity of the synthetic material was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from that of the purified natural product.

  9. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  10. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Quarterly report, February 15, 1988-May 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The overall goals and objectives as envisaged for the year (1988) have been pursued. The report of the work may broadly be outlined into three components: post irradiation mortality studies at different combinations of temperature and humidity (studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation with mortality): preliminary studies on the spiracles of the treated and untreated granary weevils; and extraction of epicuticular hydrocarbons Sitophilus granarius (L) for both irradiated and control (elucidate the after effects of irradiation and determination of radiation induced changes if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation). 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Free amino acid profiles in reproductive and rind portions of cotton fruiting bodies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, nutrition, particularly in terms of amino acids found in its principle reproductive plant host (plants that enable boll weevil reproduction by supplying the nutrients and sites for development to adulthood) is not well understood. However, it is know...

  12. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  13. ARS, university and regulatory partnerships needed to address the challenge and complete eradication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although most of the U.S. Cotton Belt has achieved functional eradication of the boll weevil, certain areas of Texas as well as Northern Mexico still experience economic loss to this pest. Currently under active eradication, most of these areas are considered subtropical, where boll weevils can per...

  14. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  15. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: Is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the US Southwest?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower stem weevils (Cylindrocopturus adspersus) and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states in 2003 and 2005. Native H. annuus constituted the major...

  16. Pheromone chirality of asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Perez, A L; Hallett, R H; Gries, R; Gries, G; Cameron Oehlschlager, A; Borden, J H

    1996-02-01

    Production of 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 4-methyl-5-nonanone by two sympatric Asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) suggested that enantiospecificity of either compound could impart species specificity of pheromone communication. Weevil-produced, racemic 4-methyl-5-nonanol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone and their stereoselectively synthesized optical isomers were subjected to gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) on a chiral Cyclodex-B column. Only theS,S stereoisomer of 4-methyl-5-nonanol was EAD active and was produced by bothR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus. Production and EAD activity of (S)-4-methyl-5-nonanone exceeded that of its antipode in both weevils. In field experiments in Java. (4S, 5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol and the stereoisomeric mixture were equally attractive. The 4R,5R stereoisomer was inactive. The corresponding ketone enantiomers neither enhanced nor reduced attraction to (4S,5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol. Lack of apparent differences betweenR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus pheromones suggests that synonomy of both weevils should be considered unless other pre- or postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms are disclosed in future studies.

  17. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  18. Evaluation of host-plant resistance of selected rice genotypes to the rice water weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rice water weevil (RWW), Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most important economic insect pest of rice in the United States. Currently, management of RWW mainly depends upon the use of insecticides due to the lack of effective alternate management tactics. A three year field study was co...

  19. Non-linear degree day models for post-diapause development of the sunflower stem weevil (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coloptera: Curculionidae), has caused yield losses across much of the western Great Plains. Little is known about the field biology of this pest. Simple prediction models, such as degree day models, are an integral tool for development...

  20. Biology and host range of Omolabus piceus, a weevil rejected for biological control for Schinus terebinthifolius in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveys for biological control agents of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) discovered two Omolabus weevils (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) feeding on the plant in its native range. Molecular and morphological analysis indicated that one of these species consistently fed on the tar...

  1. Establishment and dispersal of the biological control weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes on mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata

    Treesearch

    Ellen C. Lake; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Kimberley J. Shropshire; Vincent D' Amico

    2011-01-01

    Mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae), is an annual vine from Asia that has invaded the eastern US where it can form dense monocultures and outcompete other vegetation in a variety of habitats. The host-specific Asian weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was first...

  2. Protective mechanism of the Mexican bean weevil against high levels of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, M; Chrispeels, M J

    1996-06-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) protects seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against predation by certain species of bruchids such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), but not against predation by the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) or the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), insects that are common in the Americas. We characterized the interaction of alpha AI-1 present in seeds of the common bean, of a different isoform, alpha AI-2, present in seeds of wild common bean accessions, and of two homologs, alpha AI-Pa present in seeds of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and alpha AI-Pc in seeds of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), with the midgut extracts of several bruchids. The extract of the Z. subfasciatus larvae rapidly digests and inactivates alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc, but not alpha AI-2 or alpha AI-Pa. The digestion is caused by a serine protease. A single proteolytic cleavage in the beta subunit of alpha AI-1 occurs at the active site of the protein. When degradation is prevented, alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc do not inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, although they are effective against the alpha-amylase of C. chinensis. Alpha AI-2 and alpha AI-Pa, on the other hand, do inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, suggesting that they are good candidates for genetic engineering to achieve resistance to Z. subfasciatus.

  3. A life history study of the ash seed weevils, Thysanocnemis bischoffi Blatchley and T. Helvola leconte (Coleoptera: curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    Jack H. Barger; Ralph H. Davidson

    1967-01-01

    A life history study was made of the ash seed weevils, Thysanocnemis bischoffi Blatchley and T. helvola LeConte. Over-wintering occurs as larvae in ash seeds or in soil, with adults appearing in July and August. Adults soon deposit eggs within ash seeds, where larval development occurs. Only one generation...

  4. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated potential to use Hypocreales fungi for suppression of C. caryae. In this study, we first compared the efficacy of two fungal spp. Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52) in ability to ...

  5. Laboratory and field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi for the management of the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera: Brentidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U. S.-controlled Marianas Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic ...

  6. Pissodes castaneus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the bark pine weevil: a pest or a biological indicator?

    Treesearch

    Edson Tadeu Iede; Wilson Reis Filho; Susete Rocio C. Penteado; Scheila Messa. Zaleski

    2011-01-01

    The risk of introduction of exotic forest pests is a global problem, evidenced by records of interceptions even in countries that have a quite effective system of plant protection. The banded pine weevil, Pissodes castaneus, is native to Europe and North Africa and was introduced into Argentina and Uruguay and recently into Brazil where it was first...

  7. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Treesearch

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  8. Biological control of indianmeal moth and rice weevil by parasitoids with reference to the intraspecific competition pattern.

    PubMed

    Nam, Youngwoo; Ji, Jeongyeon; Na, Ja Hyun; Chun, Yong Shik; Ryoo, Mun Il

    2011-04-01

    Biological control of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), by their parasitoids Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) and Bracon hebetor Say was examined while considering the intraspecific competition pattern of the pests. In both experimental and simulation studies, A. calandrae was shown to suppress the rice weevil population, a contest type competitor, regardless of the parasitoid/weevil ratios tested. In contrast, B. hebetor only significantly suppressed the Indianmeal moth, a scramble type competitor, when the parasitoid/moth ratio was >0.05. At ratios lower than 0.05, the role of B. hebetor was negligible, and the correlation coefficients between the number of moths that had emerged and the parasitoid/moth ratio was estimated to be 0.07. The control efficiency of the two parasitoids with respect to the parasitoid/host ratio was estimated using a ratio-response model. To suppress the weevil density to a level that was only 10% of the current density, the ratio was estimated to be 0.02, whereas this value was 0.14 for the Indianmeal moth. However, for the continuous suppression of the Indianmeal moth, periodic and iterative introduction of B. hebetor was required.

  9. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  10. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) and weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes) response to varying moisture and temperature conditions

    Treesearch

    Scott H. Berg; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Ellen C. Lake; Vincent D' Amico

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of herbivory and water stress on growth and reproduction of mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross) were investigated in greenhouse trials over two years, with well-watered or water-limited plants either exposed or not exposed to herbivory by the mile-a-minute weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes...

  11. Biological control of mile-a-minute weed, Polygonum perfoliatum: first release of the Chinese weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes

    Treesearch

    Judith Hough-Goldstein

    2007-01-01

    Mile-a-minute weed (Polygonum perfoliatum L.) is an annual vine indigenous to parts of Asia, introduced into the eastern United States in the 1930s and now established throughout much of the Northeast. Infestations can cause failure of tree regeneration and may reduce native plant species in natural areas. A Chinese weevil, Rhinoncomimus...

  12. Abundance and frequency of the Asiatic oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and defoliation on American, Chinese, and hybrid chestnut ( Castanea )

    Treesearch

    Ashley E. Case; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Barbara C. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (...

  13. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Filbert Weevil Infested Acorns in an Oak Woodland in Marin County, California

    Treesearch

    Vernard R. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Two-hundred shoots contained within randomly selected locations from each of thirty-six coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, trees were sampled to determine the abundance and spatial distribution of acorns infested by the filbert weevil, Curculio occidentis in northern California during 1989. The seasonal abundance of infested acorns...

  14. Laboratory and field-based temperature-dependent development of a monophagous weevil: implications for integrated weed management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stem-boring weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was imported from Asia to North America and approved for release as a classical biological control agent for the invasive annual vine Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae) in 2004. Its impact on the weed...

  15. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  16. The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, a new pest threat in the Caribbean: Biology and options for management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a serious pest of palms. RPW is native to Asia, but over the last few decades it has spread to the Middle East, Africa and Europe where it has caused major economic damage. This pest was accidentally introduced to the Caribbean (Curacao and Aru...

  17. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-03-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil.

  18. Characterization of olfactory sensory neurons in the white clover seed weevil, Apion fulvipes (Coleoptera: Apionidae).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin N; Larsson, Mattias C; Svensson, Glenn P; Birgersson, Göran; Rundlöf, Maj; Lundin, Ola; Lankinen, Åsa; Anderbrant, Olle

    2012-10-01

    Seed-eating Apion weevils (Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause large economic losses in white and red clover seed production across Europe. Monitoring and control of clover weevils would be facilitated by semiochemical-based methods. Until now, however, nothing was known about physiological or behavioral responses to semiochemicals in this insect group. Here we analyzed the antenna of the white clover (Trifolium repens L.) specialist Apion fulvipes Geoffroy with scanning electron microscopy, and used single sensillum recordings with a set of 28 host compounds to characterize 18 classes of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nine of the OSN classes responded strongly to synthetic compounds with high abundance in clover leaves, flowers, or buds. Eight classes responded only weakly to the synthetic stimuli, whereas one collective class responded exclusively to volatiles released from a crushed clover leaf. The OSNs showed a remarkable degree of specificity, responding to only one or a few chemically related compounds. In addition, we recorded a marked difference in the temporal dynamics of responses between different neurons, compounds, and doses. The identified physiologically active compounds will be screened for behavioral activity, with the ultimate goal to develop an odor-based control strategy for this pest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterochromatic banding patterns on chromosomes of twelve weevil species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria; Lachowska, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    The C-banding patterns of twelve weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species: with a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises seven species (Apionidae: Holotrichapion pisi; Curculionidae: Phyllobius urticae, Ph. pyri, Ph. maculicornis, Tanymecus palliatus, Larinodontes turbinatus, Cionus tuberculosus). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus in interphase are visible, afterwards in mitotic and meiotic prophase appearing as dark dots. The absence of C-bands does not indicate a lack of heterochromatin but heterochromatic regions are sometimes so small that the condensation is not visible during the cell cycle. The second group comprises five species (Otiorhynchus niger, O. morio, Polydrusus corruscus, Barypeithes chevrolati, Nedyus quadrimaculatus) which possess much larger heteropicnotic parts of chromosomes visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have paracentromeric C-bands on autosomes and the sex chromosome X, except for Otiorhynchus niger, which also has an intercalary bands on one pair of autososomes. All the species examined differ in the size of segments of constitutive heterochromatin. The y heterochromosome is dot-like and wholly euchromatic in all the studied species.

  20. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

  1. Local and neighboring patch conditions alter sex-specific movement in banana weevils.

    PubMed

    Carval, Dominique; Perrin, Benjamin; Duyck, Pierre-François; Tixier, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the movements and spread of a species over time and space is a major concern of ecology. Here, we assessed the effects of an individual's sex and the density and sex ratio of conspecifics in the local and neighboring environment on the movement probability of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. In a "two patches" experiment, we used radiofrequency identification tags to study the C. sordidus movement response to patch conditions. We showed that local and neighboring densities of conspecifics affect the movement rates of individuals but that the density-dependent effect can be either positive or negative depending on the relative densities of conspecifics in local and neighboring patches. We demonstrated that sex ratio also influences the movement of C. sordidus, that is, the weevil exhibits nonfixed sex-biased movement strategies. Sex-biased movement may be the consequence of intrasexual competition for resources (i.e., oviposition sites) in females and for mates in males. We also detected a high individual variability in the propensity to move. Finally, we discuss the role of demographic stochasticity, sex-biased movement, and individual heterogeneity in movement on the colonization process.

  2. Reaction of Leaf Weevil Phyllobius arborator (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Manganese Content in Diet.

    PubMed

    Martinek, P; Kula, E; Hedbávný, J

    2017-02-01

    Reaction of leaf weevil (Phyllobius arborator (Herbst)) to increased concentration of manganese in diet was investigated in laboratory rearing with controlled temperature, humidity, and light conditions. Food for leaf weevils in rearing (leaves of birch Betula pendula Roth) was contaminated by soaking the leaves in solutions of MnCl2.4H2O with graded concentration of manganese. Direct influence of food was characterized by the consumed amount of leaves, period of feeding, and weight of P. arborator adults. At the same time, the levels of manganese in unconsumed food, excrement, and bodies of adults were determined.Even very high content of manganese in food did not cause significantly different reaction of P. arborator adults in comparison to individuals in control treatment. No significant difference in the quantity of the consumed food, weight of adults, and duration of their feeding period was found between the treatments within the experiment. The content of manganese found in food, excrement, and adult beetles indicate that P. arborator avoided manganese intoxication through food by both-voiding manganese through the feces and sequestering it at relatively high concentrations in unspecified parts of their body. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Endosymbiont diversity among sibling weevil species competing for the same resource

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas the impact of endosymbionts on the ecology of their hosts is well known in some insect species, the question of whether host communities are influenced by endosymbionts remains largely unanswered. Notably, the coexistence of host species competing with each other, which is expected to be stabilized by their ecological differences, could be facilitated by differences in their endosymbionts. Yet, the composition of endosymbiotic communities housed by natural communities of competing host species is still almost unknown. In this study, we started filling this gap by describing and comparing the bacterial endosymbiotic communities of four sibling weevil species (Curculio spp.) that compete with each other to lay eggs into oak acorns (Quercus spp.) and exhibit marked ecological differences. Results All four species housed the primary endosymbiont Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri, yet each of these had a clearly distinct community of secondary endosymbionts, including Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and two Wolbachia strains. Notably, three weevil species harbored their own predominant facultative endosymbiont and possessed the remaining symbionts at a residual infection level. Conclusions The four competing species clearly harbor distinct endosymbiotic communities. We discuss how such endosymbiotic communities could spread and keep distinct in the four insect species, and how these symbionts might affect the organization and species richness of host communities. PMID:23379718

  4. Threat to cedar, Cedrela odorata, plantations in Vietnam by the weevil, Aclees sp.

    PubMed

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enabled the life history to be determined. Eggs were laid (February to March, September to November) inside the bark from the base of the trunk up to 60 cm in height. Larvae formed extensive feeding tunnels in the inner bark and sap wood. Pupation occurred in feeding tunnels or pupal chambers in the sapwood. Adults emerged twice a year, February to March and August to October. It is concluded that Aclees is a threat to C. odorata plantations in tropical regions of the world, and quarantine measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of spread.

  5. Threat to Cedar, Cedrela odorata, Plantations in Vietnam by the Weevil, Aclees sp.

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enabled the life history to be determined. Eggs were laid (February to March, September to November) inside the bark from the base of the trunk up to 60 cm in height. Larvae formed extensive feeding tunnels in the inner bark and sap wood. Pupation occurred in feeding tunnels or pupal chambers in the sapwood. Adults emerged twice a year, February to March and August to October. It is concluded that Aclees is a threat to C. odorata plantations in tropical regions of the world, and quarantine measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of spread. PMID:21271846

  6. Endosymbiont diversity among sibling weevil species competing for the same resource.

    PubMed

    Merville, Adrien; Venner, Samuel; Henri, Hélène; Vallier, Agnès; Menu, Frédéric; Vavre, Fabrice; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Bel-Venner, Marie-Claude

    2013-02-04

    Whereas the impact of endosymbionts on the ecology of their hosts is well known in some insect species, the question of whether host communities are influenced by endosymbionts remains largely unanswered. Notably, the coexistence of host species competing with each other, which is expected to be stabilized by their ecological differences, could be facilitated by differences in their endosymbionts. Yet, the composition of endosymbiotic communities housed by natural communities of competing host species is still almost unknown. In this study, we started filling this gap by describing and comparing the bacterial endosymbiotic communities of four sibling weevil species (Curculio spp.) that compete with each other to lay eggs into oak acorns (Quercus spp.) and exhibit marked ecological differences. All four species housed the primary endosymbiont Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri, yet each of these had a clearly distinct community of secondary endosymbionts, including Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and two Wolbachia strains. Notably, three weevil species harbored their own predominant facultative endosymbiont and possessed the remaining symbionts at a residual infection level. The four competing species clearly harbor distinct endosymbiotic communities. We discuss how such endosymbiotic communities could spread and keep distinct in the four insect species, and how these symbionts might affect the organization and species richness of host communities.

  7. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity.

  8. Mortality of life stages of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) exposed to low pressure at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mbata, George N; Johnson, Mario; Phillips, Thomas W; Payton, Mark

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that low pressure creates a low oxygen controlled atmosphere that can kill stored-product insects. The current study was conducted to determine the mortality of life stages of the cowpea weevil, Callosbruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), exposed to different low pressures and temperatures for various exposure periods. The adults were the most susceptible life stage to low pressure; 99% mortality was achieved within 0.8 h at 32.5 mmHg, 30 degrees C. The pupae were the most tolerant life stage to low pressure, requiring exposure periods between 28.98 and 153.20 h at temperatures of 20-35 degrees C to achieve 99% mortality. Mortality increased with exposure time and also with increasing temperature in all life stages. Early stage eggs (3 h old) and late stage eggs (48 h old) experienced higher mortality (values for LT99 of 42.331 and 46.652 h, respectively) compared with intermediate aged eggs (24 h old; LT99 of 74.735 h) under the same conditions of low pressure and temperature. Dried beans, including cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Walp.), are currently protected with fumigants. Application of low pressure as a pest management tool represents a potential nonchemical alternative to fumigants such as methyl bromide and phosphine for controlling the cowpea weevil and related bruchids.

  9. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control. PMID:27042379

  10. Microbiology of the Gut of the Kola Nut Weevil, Balanogastris kolae

    PubMed Central

    Femi-Ola, T. O.; Babalola, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Reports have shown that many insects have microbes in their gut system. Gut microbes are very important for insect vitality and much of their nutrition is derived from products of microbial metabolism. The habitat of Balanogastris kolae (Desbrocher des Loges) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggests that they possess the ability to digest varieties of sugars particularly starch and protein materials present in the kola nut, Cola nitida Schott & Endlicher (Malvales: Malvaceae). The aim of this study was to characterize the gut bacterial communities of the kola weevil, B. kolae. To ascertain this, the gut bacterial community of a kola nut-feeding weevil, B. kolae was characterized using culture-dependent methods. The bacterial counts in the foregut, midgut and hindgut were 7.14 ± 0.11 × 106cfu ml-1, 2.68 ± 0.13 × 107 cfu ml-1 and 1.43 ± 0.20 × 106 cfu ml-1 respectively. There were no significant differences in the total bacterial count of the foregut, midgut and hindgut. The bacterial species were identified to be Fusobacterium nucleatum, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium fascians, Arthrobacter globiformis, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus brevis, Vibrio haemolyticus and Flavobacterium breve. The majority of these isolates were demonstrated to have both proteolytic and amylolytic activities. PMID:23421598

  11. Selective sweep of Wolbachia and parthenogenetic host genomes - the example of the weevil Eusomus ovulum.

    PubMed

    Mazur, M A; Holecová, M; Lachowska-Cierlik, D; Lis, A; Kubisz, D; Kajtoch, Ł

    2016-12-01

    Most parthenogenetic weevil species are postulated to have originated via hybridization, but Wolbachia has also been speculated to play a role via the induction of parthenogenesis. Here, we examine the molecular diversity of Wolbachia and parthenogenetic host genomes. The host species studied here, Eusomus ovulum, is known to be exclusively parthenogenetic and triploid. The E. ovulum populations that we examined had a low genetic diversity of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I gene) and nuclear markers (internal transcribed spacer 2 and elongation factor 1-α gene), and they all were infected by only single bacteria strains (genotyped for five genes according to the multilocus sequence typing system). We found significant signs of linkage disequilibrium and a lack of recombination amongst all of the examined genomes (bacteria and host), which strongly indicates a selective sweep. The lack of heterozygosity in host nuclear genes, missing bisexual populations and selective sweep between the parthenogenetic host and bacteria genomes suggest that parthenogenesis in this species could have originated as a result of infection rather than hybridization. However, the finding that highly similar Wolbachia strains are also present in other parthenogenetic weevils from the same habitat suggests the opposite scenario: bacteria may have infected the already parthenogenetic lineage and taken advantage of the host's unisexual reproduction. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  13. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems.

  14. The gut microbiota of the pine weevil is similar across Europe and resembles that of other conifer-feeding beetles.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Axelsson, Karolin; Nordlander, Göran; Schmidt, Axel; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Terenius, Olle; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of conifer seedlings in Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the composition of its gut microbial community and the role it plays in mediating the weevil's ability to utilize conifers as a food source. Here, we characterized the gut bacterial communities of different populations of H. abietis across Europe and compared them to those of other beetles that occupy similar ecological niches. We demonstrate that the microbial community of H. abietis is similar at higher taxonomic levels (family and genus) across locations in Europe, with Wolbachia as the dominant microbe, followed by Enterobacteria and Firmicutes. Despite this similarity, we observed consistent differences between countries and locations, but not sexes. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil is very similar to that of bark beetles that also exploit conifers as a food source. The Enterobacteriaceae symbionts of both host taxa are especially closely related phylogenetically. Conversely, the microbiota of H. abietis is distinct from that of closely related weevils feeding on nonconifer food sources, suggesting that the microbial community of the pine weevil is determined by the environment and may be relevant to host ecology. Furthermore, several H. abietis-associated members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are known to contain genes involved in terpenoid degradation. As such, we hypothesize that the gut microbial community is important for the utilization of conifer seedlings as a food source, either through the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites or through the supplementation of essential nutrients.

  15. [Influence of fruit size of Camellia meiocarpa on growth of oil tea weevil, Curculio chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-wen; He, Li-hong; Ma, Ling; Xia, Jiao; Zeng, Ai-ping

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between mature larval mass of oil tea weevil (Curculio chinensis) and fruit volume of its host plant oil tea (Camellia meiocarpa) was fitted with Logistic equation in order to understand the restriction of host fruit size on large larval growth and development of the weevil. The results showed that the larval mass increased with the increasing host fruit volume, which was in good conformity with the Logistic model. The weevil larval growth followed the principle of diminishing marginal utility, and it could be divided into two periods, the fast-growing period (<3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; <4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit ) and the asymptotic growing period (>3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; >4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit). The minimum fruit size threshold was 1500 cm3 for one larva per fruit, and 2.539 cm3 for two larvae per fruit. The temporal pattern that the mature larvae exited from their host fruits was established, the number of larvae escaping from their host fruits decreased daily after the fruit collection, and the larval escaping peak largely appeared from 6:00 to 10:00 AM with 43.9% of total escaping number, and especially from 7:00 to 8:00 AM with 21.1% of total escaping number. The bigger the larvae, the earlier exited from their host fruits. The restriction of fruit size on growth and development of oil tea weevil was observed, and it should be a behavioral adaptation strategy to increase the offspring' s fitness for the parental weevil adults to oviposit on the bigger fruits.

  16. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  17. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots.

    PubMed

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants" (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  18. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Emily D; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H; Paterson, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach's speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010-2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  19. Host gene response to endosymbiont and pathogen in the cereal weevil Sitophilus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects thriving on nutritionally poor habitats have integrated mutualistic intracellular symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts) in a bacteria-bearing tissue (the bacteriome) that isolates the endosymbionts and protects them against a host systemic immune response. Whilst the metabolic and physiological features of long-term insect associations have been investigated in detail over the past decades, cellular and immune regulations that determine the host response to endosymbionts and pathogens have attracted interest more recently. Results To investigate bacteriome cellular specificities and weevil immune responses to bacteria, we have constructed and sequenced 7 cDNA libraries from Sitophilus oryzae whole larvae and bacteriomes. Bioinformatic analysis of 26,886 ESTs led to the generation of 8,941 weevil unigenes. Based on in silico analysis and on the examination of genes involved in the cellular pathways of potential interest to intracellular symbiosis (i.e. cell growth and apoptosis, autophagy, immunity), we have selected and analyzed 29 genes using qRT-PCR, taking into consideration bacteriome specificity and symbiosis impact on the host response to pathogens. We show that the bacteriome tissue accumulates transcripts from genes involved in cellular development and survival, such as the apoptotic inhibitors iap2 and iap3, and endosomal fusion and trafficking, such as Rab7, Hrs, and SNARE. As regards our investigation into immunity, we first strengthen the bacteriome immunomodulation previously reported in S. zeamais. We show that the sarcotoxin, the c-type lysozyme, and the wpgrp2 genes are downregulated in the S. oryzae bacteriome, when compared to aposymbiotic insects and insects challenged with E. coli. Secondly, transcript level comparison between symbiotic and aposymbiotic larvae provides evidence that the immune systemic response to pathogens is decreased in symbiotic insects, as shown by the relatively high expression of wpgrp2, wpgrp3

  20. Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali

    PubMed Central

    Tänzler, Rene; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Suhardjono, Yayuk R.; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan–Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity. PMID:24648218

  1. Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali.

    PubMed

    Tänzler, Rene; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Suhardjono, Yayuk R; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan-Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity.

  2. Emodin, a toxic metabolite of Aspergillus wentii isolated from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wells, J M; Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W

    1975-07-01

    A diarrheagenic toxin from culture extracts of Aspergillus wentii Wehmer isolated from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnuts was identified as emodin (2-methyl-4,5,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone). The orange-red, crystalline toxin (mp 255 to 257 C) showed ultraviolet absorption maxima in ethyl alcohol at 223, 250, 267, 290, and 442 nm, and infrared absorption maxima at 3,400 cm-1 (OH), 1,635, and 1,625 CM-1. Chemical shifts and coupling constants of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of the A. wentii toxin and of authentic emodin agreed. Mean lethal dose of emodin orally administered to 1-day-old DeKalb cockerels was 3.7 mg/kg.

  3. Four photoreceptor classes in the open rhabdom eye of the red palm weevil, Rynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Marko; Pirih, Primož; Belušič, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a severe palm pest with high dispersal capability. Its visual sense allows it to navigate long distances and to discriminate among differently colored traps. We investigated the RPW compound eyes with anatomical and electrophysiological methods. The ommatidia are composed of eight photoreceptor cells in an open rhabdom arrangement with six peripheral and two central photoreceptors. The photoreceptor signals are relatively slow and noisy. The majority of recorded photoreceptors have broad spectral sensitivity with a peak in the green, at 536 nm. Three minor classes of photoreceptors have narrower spectral sensitivities with maxima in the UV (366 nm), green (520 nm) and yellow (564 nm). Sensitivity below 350 nm is very low due to filtering by the UV-absorbing cornea. The set of photoreceptors represents the retinal substrate for putative trichromatic color vision.

  4. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-06

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions.

  5. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Maria E.; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R.; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735 000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. PMID:25185581

  6. Seasonally variable intestinal metagenomes of the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Guangyu; Yin, An; Zhang, Sun; Li, Fusen; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Duojun; Yun, Quanzheng; Tala; Wang, Jixiang; Sun, Gaoyuan; Baabdullah, Mohammed; Yu, Xiaoguang; Hu, Songnian; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbes residing in the red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) larva consume tender interior fibrous tissues of date palm trunks. The understanding of such microbiota at molecular level provides vital clues for the biological control of this devastating pest. Using pyrosequencing and shotgun strategy, we first study taxonomic profiles of the microbiota sampled at different months (March, July and November), and then confirm the impact of high-temperature stress on the microbial populations based on data from 16S rRNA amplicons using both field and laboratory samples. We further identify Klebsiella pneumoniae in November and Lactococcus lactis in July as the dominant species of the microbiota. We find that the RPW gut microbiota degrades polysaccharides and sucrose with hydrolases and that different active bacterial species in November and July are responsible for the symbiotic relationship between the microbiota and the host. Our results provide vital information for pest control and cellulolytic bacterial species characterization. PMID:24102776

  7. Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy

    2006-09-01

    A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability.

  8. Attraction of Coffee Bean Weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus, to Volatiles from the Industrial Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Mei, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yao-Fa; She, Dongmei; Zhang, Tao; Ning, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) is an important pest of stored products such as grains, coffee beans, cassava, and traditional Chinese medicine materials. In China, CBW causes large losses of Daqu, a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter, and, unfortunately, the use of conventional insecticides against CBW is not suitable in Daqu storage. We found CBW to be highly attracted to fermenting yeast cultures, such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Eight volatile compounds, produced by fermenting cultures and not by sterile samples, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Five of these substances elicited significant responses in Y-tube behavioral bioassays. Field trapping experiments revealed 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate to be crucial for attraction of CBW. Results show that yeast volatiles play an important role in host location, and that 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate could be utilized as potential attractants in monitoring and control systems against this important pest.

  9. Trichobaris weevils distinguish amongst toxic host plants by sensing volatiles that do not affect larval performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gisuk; Joo, Youngsung; Diezel, Celia; Lee, Eun Ju; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    Herbivorous insects use plant metabolites to inform their host plant selection for oviposition. These host-selection behaviours are often consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis; females oviposit on hosts that maximize the performance of their offspring. However, the metabolites used for these oviposition choices and those responsible for differences in offspring performance remain unknown for ecologically relevant interactions. Here, we examined the host-selection behaviours of two sympatric weevils, the Datura (Trichobaris compacta) and tobacco (T. mucorea) weevils in field and glasshouse experiments with transgenic host plants specifically altered in different components of their secondary metabolism. Adult females of both species strongly preferred to feed on D. wrightii rather than on N. attenuata leaves, but T. mucorea preferred to oviposit on N. attenuata, while T. compacta oviposited only on D. wrightii. These oviposition behaviours increased offspring performance: T. compacta larvae only survived in D. wrightii stems and T. mucorea larvae survived better in N. attenuata than in D. wrightii stems. Choice assays with nicotine-free, JA-impaired, and sesquiterpene-over-produced isogenic N. attenuata plants revealed that although half of the T. compacta larvae survived in nicotine-free N. attenuata lines, nicotine did not influence the oviposition behaviours of both the nicotine-adapted and nicotine-sensitive species. JA-induced sesquiterpene volatiles are key compounds influencing T. mucorea females' oviposition choices, but these sesquiterpenes had no effect on larval performance. We conclude that adult females are able to choose the best host plant for their offspring and use chemicals different from those that influence larval performance to inform their oviposition decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Three new species of entimine weevils in Early Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanyang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Using syntactic and semantic conventions of the taxonomic concept approach (Franz et al. 2015), we describe three newly recognized fossil broad-nosed weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae) preserved in Early Miocene amber (ca. 20.4-16.0 mya) from the Dominican Republic: Scelianoma compacta sp. n. sec. Franz & Zhang (2017) (henceforth abbreviated as [FZ2017]), Tropirhinus palpebratus sp. n. [FZ2017], and Diaprepes anticus sp. n. [FZ2017]. The taxonomic assignment of the amber inclusions is grounded in a preceding phylogenetic analysis by Franz (2012). As many as 88 of the 143 therein identified characters were coded for the fossils, whose traits are largely congruent with those present in extant congeners while also differing in ways that justify their new nomenclatural and taxonomic status. New information We present detailed images, descriptions, and phylogenetically informed diagnoses for the three new species-level entities, along with logically consistent Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) alignments of the amended genus-level classifications for Scelianoma Franz and Girón 2009 [FZ2017], Tropirhinus Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017], and Diaprepes Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017] - in relation to 2-4 preceding classifications published in 1982-2012. The description of Scelianoma compacta [FZ2017] from Hispaniola is indicative of a more widespread historical range of Scelianoma [FZ2017] than reflected in the extant, southwestern Puerto Rican Scelianoma elydimorpha Franz and Girón 2009 sec. Franz and Girón (2009). The presence of Diaprepes anticus [FZ2017] in Hispaniola during the Early Miocene suggests an eastward directed process of island colonization and likely speciation of members of Diaprepes [FZ2017], given that most extant relatives occur throughout the Lesser Antilles. The herein presented data will facilitate more reliable reconstructions of historical biographic processes thought to have played a prominent role in the diversification of

  11. Exaggerated Trait Allometry, Compensation and Trade-Offs in the New Zealand Giraffe Weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis)

    PubMed Central

    Painting, Christina. J.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis) display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments. PMID:24312425

  12. Lures for red palm weevil trapping systems: aggregation pheromone and synthetic kairomone.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Melita, Ourania; Michaelakis, Antonios; Milonas, Panagiotis; Minuz, Roxana; Riolo, Paola; Abbass, Mohamed Kamal; Lo Bue, Paolo; Colazza, Stefano; Peri, Ezio; Soroker, Victoria; Livne, Yaara; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The optimisation of the lure is essential for the implementation of trapping systems to control insect pests. In this work, the response of the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, to increasing emission rates of its aggregation pheromone (ferrugineol) and the efficacy of a convenient synthetic kairomone based on fermentation odours (ethyl acetate and ethanol) have been evaluated in different years and locations along the Mediterranean basin. In general, although capture data and emission had noticeable variability among locations, significantly fewer RPW were captured in pyramidal Picusan® traps with the lowest ferrugineol emission rates tested (0.6-3.8 mg day(-1) ). Captures increased rapidly with ferrugineol emission up to 4-5 mg day(-1) ; then, higher emission rates did not improve or reduce captures, up to the highest emission rate tested of 50.9 mg day(-1) . Thus, there is no evidence of an optimum release rate corresponding to a maximum of RPW catches. Traps baited with the synthetic kairomone (1:3 ethyl acetate/ethanol) captured 1.4-2.2 times more total weevils than traps baited only with ferrugineol. Moreover, in most of the locations, the synthetic blend was at least as effective as the local coattractants used (plant material + molasses). Ferrugineol emission rate can vary in a wide range without significantly affecting RPW response. Coattractants based on fermenting compounds, ethyl acetate and ethanol, are able to improve the attractant level of ferrugineol and could be employed to replace non-standardised natural kairomones in RPW trapping systems after further optimisation of their proportions and doses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Three new species of entimine weevils in Early Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Franz, Nico; Zhang, Guanyang

    2017-01-01

    Using syntactic and semantic conventions of the taxonomic concept approach (Franz et al. 2015), we describe three newly recognized fossil broad-nosed weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae) preserved in Early Miocene amber (ca. 20.4-16.0 mya) from the Dominican Republic: Scelianoma compactasp. n. sec. Franz & Zhang (2017) (henceforth abbreviated as [FZ2017]), Tropirhinus palpebratussp. n. [FZ2017], and Diaprepes anticussp. n. [FZ2017]. The taxonomic assignment of the amber inclusions is grounded in a preceding phylogenetic analysis by Franz (2012). As many as 88 of the 143 therein identified characters were coded for the fossils, whose traits are largely congruent with those present in extant congeners while also differing in ways that justify their new nomenclatural and taxonomic status. We present detailed images, descriptions, and phylogenetically informed diagnoses for the three new species-level entities, along with logically consistent Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) alignments of the amended genus-level classifications for Scelianoma Franz and Girón 2009 [FZ2017], Tropirhinus Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017], and Diaprepes Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017] - in relation to 2-4 preceding classifications published in 1982-2012. The description of Scelianoma compacta [FZ2017] from Hispaniola is indicative of a more widespread historical range of Scelianoma [FZ2017] than reflected in the extant, southwestern Puerto Rican Scelianoma elydimorpha Franz and Girón 2009 sec. Franz and Girón (2009). The presence of Diaprepes anticus [FZ2017] in Hispaniola during the Early Miocene suggests an eastward directed process of island colonization and likely speciation of members of Diaprepes [FZ2017], given that most extant relatives occur throughout the Lesser Antilles. The herein presented data will facilitate more reliable reconstructions of historical biographic processes thought to have played a prominent role in the diversification of the West Indian and Neotropical

  14. The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Udaka, Hiroko; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-08-01

    The acorn weevil, Curculio glandium, is a widespread predator of acorns in eastern North America that overwinters in the soil as a larva. It is possible that low temperatures limit its northern geographic range, so we determined the cold tolerance strategy, seasonal variation in cold tolerance, and explored the physiological plasticity of overwintering larvae. Weevil larvae were collected from acorns of red and bur oak from Pelee Island, southwestern Ontario in fall 2010 and 2011. C. glandium larvae are freeze avoidant and larvae collected from bur oak acorns had lower supercooling points (SCPs: -7.6±0.36°C, LT50: -7.2°C) than those collected from red oak acorns (SCPs: -6.1±0.40°C, LT50: -6.1°C). In the winter of 2010-2011, SCPs and water content decreased, however these changes did not occur in 2011-2012, when winter soil temperatures fluctuated greatly in the absence of the buffering effect of snow. To examine whether larvae utilize cryoprotective dehydration, larvae from red oak acorns were exposed to -5°C in the presence of ice for seven days. These conditions decreased the SCP without affecting water content, suggesting that SCP and water content are not directly coupled. Finally, long-term acclimation at 0°C for six weeks slightly increased cold tolerance but also did not affect water content. Thus, although larval diet affects cold tolerance, there is limited plasticity after other treatments. The soil temperatures we observed were not close to lethal limits, although we speculate that soil temperatures in northerly habitats, or in years of reduced snow cover, has the potential to cause mortality in the field.

  15. Genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of bollworm-infested developing cotton bolls revealed the genes and pathways involved in the insect pest defence mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Kumar, Krishan; Narayanasamy, Prabhakaran; Kethireddy Venkata, Padmalatha; Solanke, Amolkumar; Gamanagatti, Savita; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2016-06-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest that feeds on cotton bolls causing extensive damage leading to crop and productivity loss. In spite of such a major impact, cotton plant response to bollworm infection is yet to be witnessed. In this context, we have studied the genome-wide response of cotton bolls infested with bollworm using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Further, we have validated this data using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Comparative analyses have revealed that 39% of the transcriptome and 35% of the proteome were differentially regulated during bollworm infestation. Around 36% of significantly regulated transcripts and 45% of differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in signalling followed by redox regulation. Further analysis showed that defence-related stress hormones and their lipid precursors, transcription factors, signalling molecules, etc. were stimulated, whereas the growth-related counterparts were suppressed during bollworm infestation. Around 26% of the significantly up-regulated proteins were defence molecules, while >50% of the significantly down-regulated were related to photosynthesis and growth. Interestingly, the biosynthesis genes for synergistically regulated jasmonate, ethylene and suppressors of the antagonistic factor salicylate were found to be up-regulated, suggesting a choice among stress-responsive phytohormone regulation. Manual curation of the enzymes and TFs highlighted the components of retrograde signalling pathways. Our data suggest that a selective regulatory mechanism directs the reallocation of metabolic resources favouring defence over growth under bollworm infestation and these insights could be exploited to develop bollworm-resistant cotton varieties.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Alimentary Canal Extracts from the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Alhadrami, Hani A.

    2017-01-01

    The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is considered one of the world's most devastating insect pests to palm trees. It was observed that larvae of this pest are able to inhibit microbial growth on the rearing media when they start feeding and this observation has led us to study the effect of red palm weevils on various microbial species. The antimicrobial effect of extracts from different parts of the alimentary canal on Gram positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.), Candida albicans, and Penicillium sp. was tested using the agar well diffusion method. All extracts inhibited the tested microbial species. Foregut extracts had the greatest zones of growth inhibition. Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium sp. were significantly sensitive to the extracts and had the largest growth inhibition zones. It is concluded that the gut extracts contain potent antimicrobial activity and may provide a new source of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:28612029

  17. Screening and secretomic analysis of enthomopatogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Mehta, Angela; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L

    2007-04-01

    The production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an important self-sustained crop in Latin America and Africa, is severely affected by damage by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. The presence of a single larva in stored seeds can lead to losses of almost 40%. Control of C. maculatus currently relies on the inefficient use of chemical insecticides and post-harvest treatments. The use of entomopathogenic fungus became a reliable alternative for coleopteran pest control and has been extensively investigated. Among them, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were widely evaluated in order to measure their virulence toward many insects. In this report, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of ten strains of B. bassiana and the most lethal fungi strains were analyzed for proteinaceous secretions by two dimensional electrophoresis and for enzyme activities, including chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities. This study could, in the near future, help to establish novel biotechnological tools to use for cowpea weevil control.

  18. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Treesearch

    David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 μ g/cm2 for males...

  19. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943

    PubMed Central

    Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensu Caldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensu Prena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy). PMID:25101231

  20. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and effects on water hyacinth weevils, Neochetina eichhorniae, feeding on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, S.H.; Haller, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    Both aquatic and terrestrial habitats frequently are subject to contamination by toxic heavy metals, yet very little is known about the influence of heavy metals absorbed by plant tissues upon the phytophagous insect fauna feeding upon these plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of plant-absorbed metals upon the feeding, mortality, and body burdens of lead, cadmium, and copper in the water hyacinth weevil, Neochetina eichhorniae, imported for the biological control of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes).

  1. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  2. Effect of Light Availability on the Interaction between Maritime Pine and the Pine Weevil: Light Drives Insect Feeding Behavior But Also the Defensive Capabilities of the Host.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Vidal, Estefanía; López-Goldar, Xosé; Sampedro, Luis; Zas, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Light is a major environmental factor that may determine the interaction between plants and herbivores in several ways, including top-down effects through changes in herbivore behavior and bottom-up effects mediated by alterations of plant physiology. Here we explored the relative contribution of these two regulation processes to the outcome of the interaction of pine trees with a major forest pest, the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis). We studied to what extent light availability influence insect feeding behavior and/or the ability of pines to produce induced defenses in response to herbivory. For this purpose, 3-year old Pinus pinaster plants from three contrasting populations were subjected to 6 days of experimental herbivory by the pine weevil under two levels of light availability (complete darkness or natural sunlight) independently applied to the plant and to the insect in a fully factorial design. Light availability strongly affected the pine weevil feeding behavior. The pine weevil fed more and caused larger feeding scars in darkness than under natural sunlight. Besides, under the more intense levels of weevil damage (i.e., those registered with insects in darkness), light availability also affected the pine's ability to respond to insect feeding by producing induced resin defenses. These results were consistent across the three studied populations despite they differed in weevil susceptibility and inducibility of defenses. Morocco was the most damaged population and the one that induced more defensive compounds. Overall, results indicate that light availability modulates the outcome of the pine-weevil interactions through both bottom-up and top-down regulation mechanisms.

  3. Competition and intraguild predation between the braconid parasitoid Bracon hylobii and the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis downesi, natural enemies of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Everard, A; Griffin, C T; Dillon, A B

    2009-04-01

    In biological control programmes introduced natural enemies compete with indigenous enemies for hosts and may also engage in intraguild predation when two species competing for the same prey attack and consume one another. The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of coniferous reforestation in Europe. Among its natural enemies, the parasitoid Bracon hylobii Ratz. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes have potential as biological control agents. Both parasitoid and nematodes target the weevil larvae and, hence, there is potential for competition or intraguild predation.In this study, we examine the interaction of B. hylobii with the nematode Heterorhabditis downesi Stock, Griffin and Burnell (Nematode: Heterorhabditidae), testing the susceptibility of larvae, pupae and adults of B. hylobii to H. downesi and whether female parasitoids discriminate between nematode-infected and uninfected weevils for oviposition. In choice tests, when weevils were exposed to nematodes 1-7 days previously, no B. hylobii oviposited on nematode-infected weevil larvae. Up to 24 h, healthy weevils were twice as likely as nematode-infected ones to be used for oviposition. Bracon hylobii females did not adjust clutch size; nematode-infected hosts were either rejected or the parasitoid laid a full clutch of eggs on them.When nematodes were applied to the parasitoid feeding on weevil larvae, the nematodes parasitized the parasitoid larvae, there was a reduction in cocoon formation and fewer cocoons eclosed. Eclosion rate was not reduced when nematodes were applied to fully formed cocoons, but nearly all of the emerging adults were killed by nematodes.

  4. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  5. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    PubMed

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  6. Molecular and Morphological Tools to Distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae): A New Weevil Pest of the Endangered Century Plant, Agave eggersiana from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Treesearch

    M. Lourdes Chamorro; Joshua Persson; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Jeff Keularts; Sonja J. Scheffer; Matthew L. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The agave snout weevil (AGW) or sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal is here reported for the first time in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) where it threatens Agave eggersiana Trel., a USVI endemic and endangered century-plant. We provide molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters to successfully distinguish the two known Scyphophorus...

  7. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Half yearly report, February 16 to August 15, 1987. [Sitophilus granarius

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation loss of water with mortality. Further changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation were determined. 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  9. Investigating preference-performance relationships in aboveground-belowground life cycles: a laboratory and field study with the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus).

    PubMed

    Clark, K E; Hartley, S E; Brennan, R M; MacKenzie, K; Johnson, S N

    2012-02-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis has principally considered insect herbivores with aboveground lifecycles, although the hypothesis could be equally relevant to insects with life stages occurring both aboveground and belowground. Moreover, most studies have focussed on either laboratory or field experiments, with little attempt to relate the two. In this study, the preference-performance hypothesis was examined in an aboveground-belowground context in the laboratory using the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.)) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and two cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), Glen Rosa and Glen Ample. A two-year field study (2008-2009) was also undertaken to characterise the population dynamics of adult weevils on the two raspberry cultivars. Larval performance (abundance and mass) differed significantly between Glen Rosa and Glen Ample, with Glen Rosa resulting in 26% larger but 56% fewer larvae compared to Glen Ample. Larval abundances were significantly and positively correlated with root nitrogen and magnesium concentrations, but negatively correlated with root iron. However, concentrations of these minerals were not significantly different in the two cultivars. Adult weevils did not preferentially select either of the two cultivars for egg laying (laying 3.08 and 2.80 eggs per day on Glen Ample and Glen Rosa, respectively), suggesting that there was no strong preference-performance relationship between adult vine weevils and their belowground offspring. Field populations of adult vine weevils were significantly higher on Glen Ample than Glen Rosa, which may reflect the higher larval survival on Glen Ample observed in laboratory experiments.

  10. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  11. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Blande, James D; Turunen, Katariina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2009-01-01

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-beta-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites.

  12. Efficacy of soft-electron (low-energy electron) treatment for disinfestation of brown rice containing different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Horigane, Akemi K.; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Toru

    2009-07-01

    Soft electrons (low-energy electrons) have been reported to effectively disinfest grains contaminated with stored-product insects. In this study, brown rice grains infested with different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, were exposed to soft electrons. Soft electrons at an acceleration voltage of 170 kV effectively inactivated eggs, old larvae and pupae of the maize weevil, but could not completely inactivate young larvae. The locations of young larvae in rice grains were specified by magnetic resonance microimaging. Most of the larvae resided at the periphery of the grains while only a few at the center, which were assumed to get out of inactivation. This indicated that soft electrons with low penetration capacity could reach the most of weevil larvae in grains. Combination of soft-electron treatment and short time-low-dose phosphine fumigation achieved high mortality rate of S. zeamais.

  13. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    PubMed Central

    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  14. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Gillett, Conrad P D T; Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Jordal, Bjarte H; Emerson, Brent C; Vogler, Alfried P

    2014-08-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes have been shown to be reliable markers for phylogeny reconstruction among diverse animal groups. However, the relative difficulty and high cost associated with obtaining de novo full mitogenomes have frequently led to conspicuously low taxon sampling in ensuing studies. Here, we report the successful use of an economical and accessible method for assembling complete or near-complete mitogenomes through shot-gun next-generation sequencing of a single library made from pooled total DNA extracts of numerous target species. To avoid the use of separate indexed libraries for each specimen, and an associated increase in cost, we incorporate standard polymerase chain reaction-based "bait" sequences to identify the assembled mitogenomes. The method was applied to study the higher level phylogenetic relationships in the weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), producing 92 newly assembled mitogenomes obtained in a single Illumina MiSeq run. The analysis supported a separate origin of wood-boring behavior by the subfamilies Scolytinae, Platypodinae, and Cossoninae. This finding contradicts morphological hypotheses proposing a close relationship between the first two of these but is congruent with previous molecular studies, reinforcing the utility of mitogenomes in phylogeny reconstruction. Our methodology provides a technically simple procedure for generating densely sampled trees from whole mitogenomes and is widely applicable to groups of animals for which bait sequences are the only required prior genome knowledge. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the weevil subfamily Platypodinae reveals evolutionarily conserved range patterns.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Bjarte H

    2015-11-01

    Platypodinae is a peculiar weevil subfamily of species that cultivate fungi in tunnels excavated in dead wood. Their geographical distribution is generally restricted, with genera confined to a single continent or large island, which provides a useful system for biogeographical research. This study establishes the first detailed molecular phylogeny of the group, with the aim of testing hypotheses on classification, diversification, and biogeography. A phylogeny was reconstructed based on 3648 nucleotides from COI, EF-1α, CAD, ArgK, and 28S. Tree topology was well resolved and indicated a strong correlation with geography, more so than predicted by previous morphology-based classifications. Tesserocerini was paraphyletic, with Notoplatypus as the sister group to a clade consisting of three main lineages of Tesserocerini and the recently evolved Platypodini. Austroplatypus formed the sister group to all remaining Platypodini and hence confirmed its separate status from Platypus. The Indo-Australian genera of Platypodini were strikingly paraphyletic, suggesting that the taxonomy of this tribe needs careful revision. Ancestral-area reconstructions in Lagrange and S-DIVA were ambiguous for nodes roughly older than 80 Ma. More recent events were firmly assessed and involved post-Gondwanan long-distance dispersal. The Neotropics was colonized three times, all from the Afrotropical region, with the latest event less than 25 Ma that included the ancestor of all Neotropical Platypodini. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA interference: a promising biopesticide strategy against the African Sweetpotato Weevil Cylas brunneus

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Olivier; Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Ghislain, Marc; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil Cylas brunneus is one of the most devastating pests affecting the production of sweetpotatoes, an important staple food in Sub-Saharan Africa. Current available control methods against this coleopteran pest are limited. In this study, we analyzed the potential of RNA interference as a novel crop protection strategy against this insect pest. First, the C. brunneus transcriptome was sequenced and RNAi functionality was confirmed by successfully silencing the laccase2 gene. Next, 24 potential target genes were chosen, based on their critical role in vital biological processes. A first screening via injection of gene-specific dsRNAs showed that the dsRNAs were highly toxic for C. brunneus. Injected doses of 200ng/mg body weight led to mortality rates of 90% or higher for 14 of the 24 tested genes after 14 days. The three best performing dsRNAs, targeting prosα2, rps13 and the homolog of Diabrotica virgifera snf7, were then used in further feeding trials to investigate RNAi by oral delivery. Different concentrations of dsRNAs mixed with artificial diet were tested and concentrations as low as 1 μg dsRNA/ mL diet led to significant mortality rates higher than 50%.These results proved that dsRNAs targeting essential genes show great potential to control C. brunneus. PMID:27941836

  17. Weapon allometry varies with latitude in the New Zealand giraffe weevil.

    PubMed

    Painting, C J; Buckley, T R; Holwell, G I

    2014-12-01

    Animal body size commonly shows a relationship with latitude to the degree that this phenomenon is one of the few 'rules' discussed in evolutionary ecology: Bergmann's rule. Although exaggerated secondary sexual traits frequently exhibit interesting relationships with body size (allometries) and are expected to evolve rapidly in response to environmental variation, the way in which allometry might interact with latitude has not been addressed. We present data showing latitudinal variation in body size and weapon allometry for the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). Males display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during fights for access to females. Consistent with Bergmann's rule, mean body size increased with latitude. More interestingly, weapon allometry also varied with latitude, such that lower latitude populations exhibited steeper allometric slopes between weapon and body size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a latitudinal cline in weapon allometry and is therefore a novel contribution to the collective work on Bergmann's rule and secondary sexual trait variation.

  18. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  19. Nonlinear degree-day models for postdiapause development of the sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa; Armstrong, J Scott; Peairs, Frank B

    2010-04-01

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has caused yield losses across much of the western Great Plains. Little is known about the field biology of this pest. Simple prediction models, such as degree-day models, are an integral tool for development of C. adspersus management strategies. Using data collected in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska, we sought for predictable variation between C. adspersus pupation, adult eclosion, and emergence and accumulated degree-days Celsius (DD) by using a temperature threshold of 5 degrees C. Accurate phenological models can be used to time scouting efforts and pesticide applications. The relationship between phenological data and accumulated DD fit nonlinear, Gaussian distributions better than uniform distributions. Phenological models were developed to describe these distributions for pupation, adult presence within the stalk and adult emergence. The pupation model predicts 50% pupation at 197 DD and 90% at 307 DD. Model results predict that 50% of adult eclosion within the stalks will have transpired at 396 DD and 90% at 529 DD. A model-averaged result from two data sets predicts 5% adult emergence from stalks at 262 DD, 50% emergence at 540 DD, 75% emergence at 657 DD, and 90% at 777 DD. Scouting for adults thus can be initiated at 262 DD. Current chemical controls target adults to prevent oviposition. Thus, applications therefore should not be made before this point.

  20. Rhynchophorus palmarum in Disguise: Undescribed Polymorphism in the “Black” Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Löhr, Bernhard; Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto

    2015-01-01

    During studies to adapt pheromone trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum to the special coconut growing conditions at the Colombian Pacific coast, 152 atypically-colored specimens were captured in a total collection of 53,802 of the normally completely black weevil. Five specimens had the typical coloration of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an invasive species recently introduced to Aruba and Curação. A regional expansion of this invasion to the South American continent was feared and all atypical specimens were submitted to taxonomic analysis. Both conventional and molecular methods were employed. Conventional taxonomics confirmed the samples as belonging to R. palmarum but registered undescribed and species-atypical morphological variability in the subgular suture (wide vs. narrow), the ratio between intraocular distance and width of antennal scrobes (>0.35 vs. < 0.29) and the indentation of the mandibles (up to three mandibular teeth vs. bilobed). Molecular analysis placed all samples inspected, black and reddish alike, firmly within the R. palmarum group and the hypothesis of having inter-specific hybrids was rejected using co-dominant single sequence repeat markers with allelic specificity for both species. PMID:26683205

  1. Host-plant dependent population genetics of the invading weevil Hypera postica.

    PubMed

    Iwase, S-I; Nakahira, K; Tuda, M; Kagoshima, K; Takagi, M

    2015-02-01

    Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus.

  2. A large-scale gene discovery for the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Pan, Lin-Lin; Liu, Wan-Fei; Wang, Da-Peng; Zhang, Guang-Yu; Yin, Yu-Xin; Yin, An; Jia, Shan-Gang; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gao-Yuan; Hu, Song-Nian; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is a devastating pest of palms, prevalent in the Middle East as well as many other regions of the world. Here, we report a large-scale de novo complementary DNA (cDNA) sequencing effort that acquired ∼5 million reads and assembled them into 26 765 contigs from 12 libraries made from samples of different RPW developmental stages based on the Roche/454 GS FLX platform. We annotated these contigs based on the publically available known insect genes and the Tribolium castaneum genome assembly. We find that over 80% of coding sequences (CDS) from the RPW contigs have high-identity homologs to known proteins with complete CDS. Gene expression analysis shows that the pupa and larval stages have the highest and lowest expression levels, respectively. In addition, we also identified more than 60 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 1 200 simple sequence repeat markers. This study provides the first large-scale cDNA dataset for RPW, a much-needed resource for future molecular studies.

  3. Inducible factors with antimicrobial activity after immune challenge in the haemolymph of Red Palm Weevil (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mastore, Maristella; Binda Rossetti, Simona; Giovannardi, Stefano; Scarì, Giorgio; Brivio, Maurizio F

    2015-05-01

    Insects are capable of innate immune responses elicited after microbial infection. In this process, the receptor-mediated recognition of foreign bodies and the subsequent activation of immunocompetent cells lead to the synthesis ex novo of a peptide pool with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the inducible immune response of a coleopteran, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, challenged with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. After immunization, we evaluated the presence of antimicrobial peptides using either biochemical analyses or microbiological techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the newly synthesized protein pool, detectable in haemolymph fractions of low molecular mass, showed strong antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. OX1, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus). In addition to the preliminary study of the mechanism of action of the pool of antimicrobial peptides, we also investigated its effects on bacterial cell walls by means of fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The data suggest that the main effects seem to be directed at destabilizing and damaging the bacterial wall. This study provides data that help us to understand some aspects of the inducible innate immunity in a system model that lacks anticipatory responses. However, the weevil has finely tuned its defensive strategies to counteract effectively microbial infection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Transcriptome analysis and systemic RNAi response in the African sweetpotato weevil (Cylas puncticollis, Coleoptera, Brentidae).

    PubMed

    Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Christiaens, Olivier; Bauters, Lander; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Ghislain, Marc; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil (SPW) Cylas puncticollis Boheman is one of the most important constraints of sweetpotato production in Sub-Saharan Africa and yet is largely an uncharacterized insect pest. Here, we report on the transcriptome analysis of SPW generated using an Illumina platform. More than 213 million sequencing reads were obtained and assembled into 89,599 contigs. This assembly was followed by a gene ontology annotation. Subsequently, a transcriptome search showed that the necessary RNAi components relevant to the three major RNAi pathways, were found to be expressed in SPW. To address the functionality of the RNAi mechanism in this species, dsRNA was injected into second instar larvae targeting laccase2, a gene which encodes an enzyme involved in the sclerotization of insect exoskeleton. The body of treated insects showed inhibition of sclerotization, leading eventually to death. Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) confirmed this phenotype to be the result of gene silencing. Together, our results provide valuable sequence data on this important insect pest and demonstrate that a functional RNAi pathway with a strong and systemic effect is present in SPW and can further be explored as a new strategy for controlling this important pest.

  5. Divergence in replicated phylogenies: the evolution of partial post-mating prezygotic isolation in bean weevils.

    PubMed

    Fricke, C; Arnqvist, G

    2004-11-01

    By tradition, speciation research has been focused on processes leading to either premating or post-zygotic reproductive isolation. The processes which generate isolation after mating but before zygote formation are less well understood. Here, we study divergence in characters which contribute to post-mating prezygotic isolation, such as egg production and remating rate. We propose that 'replicated' laboratory phylogenies with known histories can be used to yield insights into the processes of divergence. We performed a series of cross-matings between populations within two strains of the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Each strain has a unique and independent origin and both have been kept in the same set of laboratories during the last few decades. Our results show that divergence has occurred between laboratory populations within strains with regards to the effects that mating has on female reproductive behaviour, showing that the evolution of partial post-mating prezygotic isolation can be rapid. More importantly, the pattern of divergence across populations was distinct in the two strains, suggesting that coevolutionary trajectories are not determined by environmental factors but are to some extent arbitrary. We discuss the limitations of the novel empirical strategy employed here, and conclude that our results lend support to the hypothesis that post-mating sexual selection is capable of rapidly generating post-mating prezygotic isolation.

  6. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.

  7. Effect of Depth of Flooding on the Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and Yield of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tindall, Kelly V.; Bernhardt, John L.; Stout, Michael J.; Beighley, Donn H.

    2013-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0–20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus. PMID:23906324

  8. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W

    2008-02-01

    Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully.

  9. Effect of depth of flooding on the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and yield of rice.

    PubMed

    Tindall, Kelly V; Bernhardt, John L; Stout, Michael J; Beighley, Donn H

    2013-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0-20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus.

  10. Toxicity and repellency of Tephrosia candida to larval and adult Diaprepes root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Stephen L; McKenzie, C L; Hunter, Wayne B

    2003-06-01

    Leaves of the tropical legume Tephrosia candida DC deterred feeding by adults of the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), compared with leaves of Citrus macrophylla Wester, a common citrus rootstock, or T. vogelii Hook. f. When larvae were placed in pots containing plants of the three species for 28 d in a growth chamber, larval survival and weight gain were significantly reduced in pots containing plants of T. candida compared with larvae in pots with C. macrophylla or T. vogelii. Diet incorporation of lyophilized roots of T. candida into an artificial diet increasingly inhibited the growth of larvae and increased larval mortality with increased concentration of roots, whereas roots from C. macrophylla or T. vogelii had no effect compared with the diet-only control. T. candida, but not T. vogelii, contains at least one constituent that acts as an antifeedant toward adult D. abbreviatus and as a toxicant toward larvae. No antifeedant effect of roots of T. candida toward larvae was observed in no-choice pot tests or in a diet incorporation bioassay. In pots, larval feeding damage to roots of T. candida was evident. In the diet incorporation assay, 97% of larvae survived 29 d on a diet of cellulose powder (a nutritionally inert filler) despite losing weight. We conclude that decreased survival and weight gain of larvae-fed fresh or lyophilized roots of T. candida were the result of ingestion of a toxicant and not deterrence from feeding.

  11. Genetic Status and Timing of a Weevil Introduction to Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful invasive species can overcome or circumvent the potential genetic loss caused by an introduction bottleneck through a rapid population expansion and admixture from multiple introductions. We explore the genetic makeup and the timing of a species introduction to Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos archipelago. We investigate the presence of processes that can maintain genetic diversity in populations of the broad-nosed weevil Galapaganus howdenae howdenae. Analyses of combined genotypes for 8 microsatellite loci showed evidence of past population size reductions through moment and likelihood-based estimators. No evidence of admixture through multiple introductions was found, but substantial current population sizes (N0 298, 95% credible limits 50–2300), genetic diversity comparable with long-established endemics (Mean number of alleles = 3.875), and lack of genetic structure across the introduced range (F ST = 0.01359) could suggest that foundations are in place for populations to rapidly recover any loss of genetic variability. The time estimates for the introduction into Santa Cruz support an accidental transfer during the colonization period (1832–1959) predating the spurt in human population growth. Our evaluation of the genetic status of G. h. howdenae suggests potential for population growth in addition to our field observations of a concurrent expansion in range and feeding preferences towards protected areas and endemic host plants. PMID:24399746

  12. Bulk De Novo Mitogenome Assembly from Pooled Total DNA Elucidates the Phylogeny of Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Conrad P.D.T.; Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J.T.N.; Jordal, Bjarte H.; Emerson, Brent C.; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2014-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes have been shown to be reliable markers for phylogeny reconstruction among diverse animal groups. However, the relative difficulty and high cost associated with obtaining de novo full mitogenomes have frequently led to conspicuously low taxon sampling in ensuing studies. Here, we report the successful use of an economical and accessible method for assembling complete or near-complete mitogenomes through shot-gun next-generation sequencing of a single library made from pooled total DNA extracts of numerous target species. To avoid the use of separate indexed libraries for each specimen, and an associated increase in cost, we incorporate standard polymerase chain reaction-based “bait” sequences to identify the assembled mitogenomes. The method was applied to study the higher level phylogenetic relationships in the weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), producing 92 newly assembled mitogenomes obtained in a single Illumina MiSeq run. The analysis supported a separate origin of wood-boring behavior by the subfamilies Scolytinae, Platypodinae, and Cossoninae. This finding contradicts morphological hypotheses proposing a close relationship between the first two of these but is congruent with previous molecular studies, reinforcing the utility of mitogenomes in phylogeny reconstruction. Our methodology provides a technically simple procedure for generating densely sampled trees from whole mitogenomes and is widely applicable to groups of animals for which bait sequences are the only required prior genome knowledge. PMID:24803639

  13. On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

    2013-01-30

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%.

  14. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    PubMed Central

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes. PMID:27222854

  15. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual report, February 16, 1987-November 20, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goals and objectives as envisaged for the year (1987) have been pursued. The report of the work may broadly be outlined into two components: post irradiation mortality studies at different combinations of temperature and humidity (studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation with mortality); and extraction of epicuticular hydrocarbons Sitophilus granarius (L) for both irradiated and control (elucidate the after effects of irradiation and determination of radiation induced changes if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation). 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Efficacy of Rice Insecticide Seed Treatments at Selected Nitrogen Rates for Control of the Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Everett, Mallory; Lorenz, Gus; Slaton, Nathan; Hardke, Jarrod

    2015-08-01

    Seed-applied insecticides are the standard control method used in the United States to minimize rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) injury to rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots, and often results in greater yields than rice that receives no seed-applied insecticide. Yield increases from seed-applied insecticides often occur even when insect pressure is low and should not cause yield loss. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of urea-nitrogen rate and seed-applied insecticide on number of rice water weevil larvae, nitrogen uptake, and rice grain yield. Six trials were conducted at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and the Rice Research Extension Center (RREC) to examine the response of rice plants receiving different insecticide-seed treatments and urea-nitrogen rate combinations. Insecticide-seed treatments included label rates of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and a no-insecticide (fungicide only) control, in combination with season-total nitrogen rates of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg urea-nitrogen/ha. Rice seed that was treated with clothianidin or thiamethoxam generally had equal numbers of rice water weevil larvae, which were significantly fewer compared with rice that received no insecticide with an equivalent urea-nitrogen rate. Nitrogen uptake at panicle differentiation was not affected by insecticide-seed treatments at four of six sites and usually increased positively and linearly as urea-nitrogen rate increased. As urea-nitrogen rate increased, grain yield increased either linearly or nonlinearly. Averaged across urea-nitrogen rates, both insecticide seed treatments had similar yields that were 4 to 7% greater than the grain yields of rice that received no insecticide at four of the five harvested sites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Beauveria bassiana under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2008-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin is pathogenic to C. caryae. One approach to managing C. caryae may be application of B. bassiana directed toward adult weevils as they emerge from the soil to attack nuts in the tree canopy. Our objective was to compare different application methods for suppression of C. caryae adults. Treatments included direct application of B. bassiana (GHA strain) to soil under the tree canopy, soil application followed by cultivation, soil application in conjunction with a cover crop (Sudan grass), direct application to the tree trunk, and application to the trunk with an UV radiation-protecting adjuvant. The study was conducted in a pecan orchard in Byron, GA, in 2005 and 2006. Naturally emerging C. caryae adults, caught after crawling to the trunk, were transported to the laboratory to determine percentage mortality and signs of mycosis. When averaged over the 15-d sampling period, weevil mortality and signs of mycosis were greater in all treatments than in the nontreated control in 2005 and 2006; >75% average mortality was observed with the trunk application both years and in the trunk application with UV protection in 2005. Results indicated trunk applications can produce superior efficacy relative to ground application, particularly if the ground application is followed by cultivation. Efficacy in the cover crop treatment, however, did not differ from other application approaches. Future research should focus on elucidating the causes for treatment differences we observed and the extent to which B. bassiana-induced C. caryae mortality reduces crop damage.

  18. Screening of entomopathogenic Metarhizium anisopliae isolates and proteomic analysis of secretion synthesized in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Lima, Thaina de A; Sarmento, Rubia B C; Noronha, Eliane F; Rocha, Thales L; Valadares-Inglis, Maria C; Franco, Octávio L

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea crops are severely attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus, a Coleopteran that at the larval stage penetrates into stored seeds and feeds on cotyledons. Cowpea weevil control could be based in utilization of bacteria and fungi to reduce pest development. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, are able to control insect-pests and are widely applied in biological control. This report evaluated ten M. anisopliae isolates according to their virulence, correlating chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities, as well proteomic analysis by two dimensional gels of fungal secretions in response to an induced medium containing C. maculatus shells, indicating novel biotechnological tools capable of improving cowpea crop resistance.

  19. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. Results As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P) and host plant odors (kairomone: K) in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1) Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2) Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3) Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4) P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. Conclusion These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects. PMID:21463509

  20. Comparative Genetic Structure and Demographic History in Endemic Galápagos Weevils

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Courtney C.; Sijapati, Manisha; Roque Albelo, Lázaro

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining genetic diversity within populations can be exacerbated for island endemics if they display population dynamics and behavioral attributes that expose them to genetic drift without the benefits of gene flow. We assess patterns of the genetic structure and demographic history in 27 populations of 9 species of flightless endemic Galápagos weevils from 9 of the islands and 1 winged introduced close relative. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals a significant population structure and moderately variable, though demographically stable, populations for lowland endemics (FST = 0.094–0.541; π: 0.014–0.042; Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026; and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203), in contrast to signals of past contractions and expansions in highland specialists on 2 islands (Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026 and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203). We interpret this series of variable and highly structured population groups as a system of long-established, independently founded island units, where structuring could be a signal of microallopatric differentiation due to patchy host plant distribution and poor dispersal abilities. We suggest that the severe reduction and subsequent increase of a suitably moist habitat that accompanied past climatic variation could have contributed to the observed population fluctuations in highland specialists. We propose the future exploration of hybridization between the introduced and highland endemic species on Santa Cruz, especially given the expansion of the introduced species into the highlands, the sensitivity to past climatic variation detected in highland populations, and the potentially threatened state of single-island endemics. PMID:22174444

  1. Genetic Conservation of Phosphine Resistance in the Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tam T.; Collins, Patrick J.; Duong, Tu M.; Schlipalius, David I.

    2016-01-01

    High levels of resistance to phosphine in the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae have been detected in Asian countries including China and Vietnam, however there is limited knowledge of the genetic mechanism of resistance in these strains. We find that the genetic basis of strong phosphine resistance is conserved between strains of S. oryzae from China, Vietnam, and Australia. Each of 4 strongly resistant strains has an identical amino acid variant in the encoded dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) enzyme that was previously identified as a resistance factor in Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. The unique amino acid substitution, Asparagine > Threonine (N505T) of all strongly resistant S. oryzae corresponds to the position of an Asparagine > Histidine variant (N506H) that was previously reported in strongly resistant R. dominica. Progeny (F16 and F18) from 2 independent crosses showed absolute linkage of N505T to the strong resistance phenotype, indicating that if N505T was not itself the resistance variant that it resided within 1 or 2 genes of the resistance factor. Non-complementation between the strains confirmed the shared genetic basis of strong resistance, which was supported by the very similar level of resistance between the strains, with LC50 values ranging from 0.20 to 0.36mg L−1 for a 48-h exposure at 25 °C. Thus, the mechanism of high-level resistance to phosphine is strongly conserved between R. dominica, T. castaneum and S. oryzae. A fitness cost associated with strongly resistant allele was observed in segregating populations in the absence of selection. PMID:26774057

  2. Genetic Conservation of Phosphine Resistance in the Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam T; Collins, Patrick J; Duong, Tu M; Schlipalius, David I; Ebert, Paul R

    2016-05-01

    High levels of resistance to phosphine in the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae have been detected in Asian countries including China and Vietnam, however there is limited knowledge of the genetic mechanism of resistance in these strains. We find that the genetic basis of strong phosphine resistance is conserved between strains of S. oryzae from China, Vietnam, and Australia. Each of 4 strongly resistant strains has an identical amino acid variant in the encoded dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) enzyme that was previously identified as a resistance factor in Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. The unique amino acid substitution, Asparagine > Threonine (N505T) of all strongly resistant S. oryzae corresponds to the position of an Asparagine > Histidine variant (N506H) that was previously reported in strongly resistant R. dominica. Progeny (F16 and F18) from 2 independent crosses showed absolute linkage of N505T to the strong resistance phenotype, indicating that if N505T was not itself the resistance variant that it resided within 1 or 2 genes of the resistance factor. Non-complementation between the strains confirmed the shared genetic basis of strong resistance, which was supported by the very similar level of resistance between the strains, with LC50 values ranging from 0.20 to 0.36 mg L(-1) for a 48-h exposure at 25 °C. Thus, the mechanism of high-level resistance to phosphine is strongly conserved between R. dominica, T. castaneum and S. oryzae. A fitness cost associated with strongly resistant allele was observed in segregating populations in the absence of selection. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Efficacy of topical application, leaf residue and soil drench of Isaria fumosorosea for citrus root weevil management: Laboratory and greenhouse investigations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different treatment applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospore formulation (Ifr strain 3581) were assessed for efficacy in the management of the citrus weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus. Ifr when applied topically on larvae and adults at a rate of 107 blastospores/ml and incubated in original reari...

  4. Dielectric properties of cowpea weevil, black eyed peas and mung beans with respect to the development of radio frequency heat treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In developing radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) disinfestation treatments for chickpeas and lentils, large amounts of product infested with cowpea weevil must be treated to validate treatment efficacy. To accomplish this, black-eyed peas and mung beans are being considered for use as surrogate...

  5. An experimental study of the interaction between the dwarf palm ( Chamaerops humilis) and its floral visitor Derelomus chamaeropsis throughout the life cycle of the weevil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anstett, Marie Charlotte

    1999-09-01

    Palm pollination can be quite diverse but has been poorly studied. This paper describes the life cycle of Derelomus chamaeropsis, a Coleoptera that inhabits the inflorescences of the Mediterranean dwarf palm Chamaerops humilis. D. chamaeropsis is specific to Chamaerops inflorescences, where it eats pollen and the rachis of inflorescences on pistillate plants. They usually lay eggs only on staminate inflorescences where larvae develop and bore into the inflorescence rachis. Larvae do not develop on pistillate inflorescences, except for cases with almost no fruit development. Pistillate plants can thus protect themselves from weevil predation. When visiting pistillate inflorescences, weevils can feed on rachis but usually do not find the brood place reward. Pollination is thus by deceit and weevils should be selected to avoid pistillate inflorescences. D. chamaeropsis pupate within the rachis of staminate inflorescences, but disperse before collecting pollen, thus staminate plants do not have an individual advantage in breeding weevils. However, because larvae develop on dead tissues, the costs of larval development are likely to be low for the plant. This study provides a new example of pollination symbiosis where the pollinator develops on the plant it pollinates, and illustrates how the evolutionary functioning of such relationships can be diverse.

  6. From Augmentation to Conservation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Trophic Cascades, Habitat Manipulation and Enhanced Biological Control of Diaprepes abbreviatus Root Weevils in Florida Citrus Groves

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, R. J.; El-Borai, F. E.; Duncan, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) for management of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, in Florida citrus groves is considered a biological control success story and typically involves augmentation in which EPN are applied inundatively as biopesticides to quickly kill the pest. However, recent evidence indicates that efficacy of EPN applications in Florida citrus depends on soil type. They are very effective in the well drained coarse sands of the Central Ridge but often less so in poorly drained fine-textured soils of the Flatwoods. Moreover, groves on the Central Ridge can harbor rich communities of endemic EPN that might often suppress weevil populations below economic thresholds, whereas Flatwoods groves tend to have few endemic EPN and frequent weevil problems. Current research is examining the ecological dynamics of EPN in Florida citrus groves, the potential impact of EPN augmentation on soil food webs, especially endemic EPN, and whether habitat manipulation and inoculation strategies might be effective for conserving and enhancing EPN communities to achieve long-term control in problem areas. Conservation biological control could extend the usefulness of EPN in Florida citrus and be especially appropriate for groves with persistent weevil problems. PMID:19259523

  7. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Treesearch

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  8. Phylogeography and the geographic cline in the armament of a seed-predatory weevil: effects of historical events vs. natural selection from the host plant.

    PubMed

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-11-01

    Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and its seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), provide a notable example of a geographic mosaic of coevolution. In the species interaction, the offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) and the defensive trait of the plant (pericarp thickness) are involved in a geographically-structured arms race, and these traits and selective pressures acting on the plant defence vary greatly across a geographical landscape. To further explore the geographical structure of this interspecific interaction, we tested whether the geographical variation in the weevil rostrum over an 800-km range along latitude is attributed to local natural selection or constrained by historical (phylogeographical) events of local populations. Phylogeographical analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences of the camellia weevil revealed that this species has experienced differentiation into two regions, with a population bottleneck and subsequent range and/or population expansion within each region. Although these phylogeographical factors have affected the variation in rostrum length, analyses of competing factors for the geographical variation revealed that this pattern is primarily determined by the defensive trait of the host plant rather than by the effects of historical events of populations and a climatic factor (annual mean temperature). Thus, our study suggests the overwhelming strength of coevolutionary selection against the effect of historical events, which may have limited local adaptation.

  9. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  10. First field collection of the Rough Sweetpotato Weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Hawaii Island, with notes on detection methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was first detected in the state of Hawaii at a commercial Okinawan sweetpotato farm in Waipio, Oahu, on 14 November 2008. Reported here is, the first detection of this pest in sweetpotato fields on the island of Hawaii (...

  11. Adults of the Waterfern Weevil, Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feed on a Non-Host Plant Salvinia minima Baker, in Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The waterfern weevil, Stenopelmus refinasus Gyllenhal, has previously been reported as host-specific, only feeding on plants in the genus Azolla. We report the first observations of S. rufinasus feeding on a non-host plant, Salvinia minima Baker, within the United States....

  12. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  13. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  14. The distribution of the invasive pest, rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is expanding in Europe: First record in the Balkans, confirmed by CO1 DNA barcoding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of the invasive rice pest, rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) in the Balkans. Adult specimens were collected in flooded rice fields in the principal rice-growing region of Central Macedonia, Greece during July-August, 2016. Morphological identification was...

  15. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  16. Potential of topic applications, leaf residues and soil drenches of the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for management of the Diaprepes root weevil: laboratory and greenhouse investigations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaprepes root weevil, (DRW) Diaprepes abbreviatus is a key pest of citrus and ornamental plants in Florida and Texas. DRW larvae burrow through the soil feeding on roots which when girdled causes secondary infection of the structural roots or root crown by Phytopthora spp. wherein mature citrus tre...

  17. Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

  18. Loss of phytotelmata due to an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil and its potential effects on faunal diversity and biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Teresa M.; Frank, J. Howard; Cave, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Epiphytic tank bromeliads are important ecosystem engineers because they form phytotelmata that create habitat, increase species richness and abundance, create water sources and nutrient reservoirs in the canopy, and collect and redirect nutrients in forest ecosystems. Native bromeliad populations have been devastated in Florida (USA) because an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil (Metamasius callizona) has been destroying the plants. Tillandsia utriculata is a tank bromeliad that was once widespread from central to south Florida. Its populations have been hit hard by the weevil and are declining rapidly. This study quantifies the mortality rate caused by the weevil in a population of T. utriculata at the Enchanted Forest Sanctuary in central Florida and estimates the associated loss of phytotelmata. Estimations of phytotelmata were calculated for the T. utriculata baseline population, the population at 6 months into the study when 87% of the population was destroyed, and at the end of the study when less than 3% of the bromeliad population remained (99% of all deaths were caused by the weevil). The baseline population contained 16,758 L of water. At six months, there were 3180 L, and at the end of the study, there were 408 L. The loss of phytotelmata results in the loss of habitat, a decrease in biological diversity, and altered water and nutrient cycles and availability.

  19. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  20. The weevil genus Achia champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): new species associate with urvillea (Sapindaceae) and New Serjania Host Plant records for A. ancile Burke and A. affinis Hustache

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new species of the weevil genus Achia Champion are described: A. urvilleae Clark and Burke from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil and Misiones Province, Argentina; A. uniformis Clark and Burke from Bolivia; and A. boliviana Clark and Burke from Bolivia and Salta and Santiago del Estero prov...

  1. Synthesis of the four stereoisomers of 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid, a component of the copulation release pheromone of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Tomonori; Yajima, Arata; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Kaihoku, Takayuki; Ohtaki, Miki; Nukada, Tomoo; Ohrui, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Goro

    2005-12-01

    A diastereomeric mixture and the four stereoisomers of 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid (2), a copulation release pheromone of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, were synthesized. The stereoisomeric purities of the four synthetic isomers of 2 were determined by the HPLC analyses of their bis-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximide)-1-cyclohexyl esters.

  2. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  3. Assessment of Insecticidal Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Powders of Common Lavender and Field Horsetail against Bean Weevil Adults.

    PubMed

    Bohinc, T; Vayias, B; Bartol, T; Trdan, S

    2013-12-01

    In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), an important insect pest affecting stored common beans and other legumes, three different powders were tested against adult been weevils under laboratory conditions. The three powders were diatomaceous earth (DE) (commercial product SilicoSec®), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) powder and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) powder. The substances were tested at five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), two relative humidity levels (RH) (55 and 75%), and four concentrations (100, 300, 500, and 900 ppm). The mortality of adults was measured after the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 7th days of exposure. The efficacy of the powders increased with the temperature, whereas in general, RH did not have a significant effect on the adults' survival. According to common practice of storing common beans, we recommend the use of DE against the pest in question, as this inert powder showed the highest efficacy at lower temperatures and concentrations. Concerning the wider use of common lavender and field horsetail powders, we suggest studying their combined use with other environmentally friendly methods with the aim of achieving the highest synergistic effect possible.

  4. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests.

  5. Larval competition in weevils Revena rubiginosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) preying on seeds of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Costa, Cecília P.; Knogge, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Inter- and intraspecific local resource competition may lead to the selection of specific adaptive individual characteristics to overcome interference competition. A highly selective scenario is predictable for interference competition among seed preying weevil larvae that live in and feed upon a single host seed. This scenario is found in Syagrus romanzoffiana palm seeds which are predated by Revena rubiginosa (Curculionidae) larvae. Although multiple infestation of one seed by weevil larvae can occur, invariably only one individual survives and develops in each host seed. A strong competition between the first instar larvae in a restricted window of host fruit development stages leads to physical interactions of conspecifics by ovicide or direct fighting using falcate mandibles. The occurrence of this type of mandible is synchronized with fruit development and restricted to instars with probable competition, as infestation occurs only while the endocarp is soft. Only after lignification of the endocarp the larva changes into the next instar. Mandibles of subsequent instars differ markedly from those of the first instar. The new mandibles can scrape the solid endosperm but are unable to perforate and kill conspecifics. These findings give strong evidence for the selective pressure of intraspecific competition, where special behaviour, mandible morphology and synchronization of its changes with the seed development contribute to individual benefit that involves the killing of conspecifics, since one host seed can only maintain a single larva throughout its complete development.

  6. Emergence trap developed to capture adult large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its parasite Bracon hylobii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Moore, R

    2001-04-01

    A novel type of emergence trap capable of capturing and separating 'live' insect catches is described. The trap was shown to be 96% efficient at capturing newly emergent adult Hylobius abietis Linnaeus on bare ground and at least 82% efficient over stumps on a weedy Sitka spruce clearfell. The trap was more than 80% efficient at capturing Bracon hylobii Ratzeburg, the most commonly found parasite of H. abietis. It was also shown to be effective at capturing adult H. abietis of unknown age (98%), indicating that it could also be used to trap out H. abietis from known areas to estimate on-site overwintering densities. Fifty-four percent of newly emergent weevils were captured within 12 h of release on bare mineral soils. Forty-two percent of unknown age weevils and 52% of parasites were captured within 1 h of their release within the trap. The rapid rates of capture mean that when traps are checked frequently they can be used to reflect accurately temporal patterns of emergence. Its potential for use in control programmes and ecological studies is discussed.

  7. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  8. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-10-01

    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  9. Identification of the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Four-Spotted Coconut Weevil, Diocalandra frumenti.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Navarro, Ismael; Seris, Elena; Ramos, Carina; Hernández, Estrella; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

    2017-01-18

    The four-spotted coconut weevil, Diocalandra frumenti Fabricius (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), is a small weevil found attacking economically important palm species, such as coconut, date, oil, and Canary palms. Given the scarcity of detection and management tools for this pest, the availability of a pheromone to be included in trapping protocols would be a crucial advantage. Previous laboratory experiments showed evidence for aggregation behavior; thus, our main goal was to identify the aggregation pheromone in this species. The volatile profile of D. frumenti individuals was studied by aeration and collection of effluvia in Porapak-Q and also by solid phase microextraction (SPME) techniques. Moreover, solvent extraction of previously frozen crushed individuals was also performed. All resulting extracts and SPME fibers were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The comparison of male and female samples provided the candidate compound, 5-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (multistriatin), whose biological activity was evaluated in olfactometer and field assays.

  10. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the U.S. Southwest?

    PubMed

    Ode, Paul J; Charlet, Laurence D; Seiler, Gerald J

    2011-02-01

    Classical biological control programs often target a pest's region of origin as a likely source for new biological control agents. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. We conducted surveys of weevil natural enemy diversity and abundance across a transect running from the northern Great Plains to the southwestern U.S. (the presumed area of endemism of annual sunflower species in the genus Helianthus). Accordingly, natural enemy diversity and abundance were expected to be greater in the southwestern U.S. C. adspersus and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states. Native H. annuus constituted the majority of the sunflower populations. Mean weevil densities were significantly higher in sunflower stalks that were larger in diameter. Mean weevil densities within sites did not differ across the range of longitudes and latitudes sampled. After accounting for the effects of stalk diameter and location, weevil densities did not differ among the four sunflower species nor did they differ as a function of elevation. C. adspersus in H. annuus and H. petiolaris were attacked by seven species of parasitoids. No parasitoids were found attacking C. adspersus in H. nuttallii or H. pauciflorus stalks. C. adspersus were twice as likely to be attacked by a parasitoid when feeding on H. petiolaris than H. annuus. Furthermore, the likelihood that C. adspersus would be parasitized decreased with increasing elevation and increasing stem diameters. All parasitoid species have been previously reported attacking C. adspersus larvae in cultivated sunflower. Species richness was less diverse in these collections than from previous studies of cultivated sunflower. Our findings suggest that the species

  11. Similar genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-selected and diet-selected strains of pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]). The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R) was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3) in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1) linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F(1) progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4) predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona.

  12. Bioaccumulation of mercury and its effect on protein metabolism of the water hyacinth weevil Neochetina eichhornae (Warner)

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Md.S.; Jamil, K. )

    1990-08-01

    Water hyacinth growth is kept under control by the week eating weevils, Neochetina eichhornae (Warner) and N. bruchi (Hustache). Water hyacinth is generally considered an aquatic weed because it clogs waterways, although it has recently been evaluated as a potential biological filter for sewage effluents. Water hyacinth plants are continuously subjected to contamination by mercury and other heavy metals from industrial effluents and fertilizer impurities. Little is known about the interaction of heavy metals/plants/insects. Aminotransferases are generally considered as indices for metabolic disturbances during Hg exposure. These enzymes are key enzymes for transamination, i.e., transfer of amino group from amino acid to keto acids which are ubiquitous in insects. The objective of the present study was to examine the bioaccumulation of mercury through the food chain in Neochetina eichhornae and its impact on protein metabolism.

  13. Antifeedants against Hylobius abietis pine weevils: an active compound in extract of bark of Tilia cordata linden.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Per E; Eriksson, Carina; Sjödin, Kristina

    2005-05-01

    Linden (Tilia cordata) bark was shown to contain an antifeedant effective against the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis. Soxhlet extraction of inner and outer bark resulted in an extract that showed antifeedant activity in a microfeeding assay. The extract was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel using gradient elution with solvents of increasing polarity. The content of the fractions obtained was monitored by thin layer- and gas chromatography. Fractions of similar chemical composition were merged. Two of the 17 fractions showed antifeedant activity in the microfeeding assay. Nonanoic acid was identified in both of these fractions. Subsequent testing in the microfeeding assay showed that nonanoic acid possessed strong antifeedant activity against H. abietis adults.

  14. Landscape Connectivity Shapes the Spread Pattern of the Rice Water Weevil: A Case Study from Zhejiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Wu, Jianguo; Shang, Hanwu; Cheng, Jiaan

    2011-02-01

    The spread of invasive species is a complex ecological process that is affected by both the biology of the species and the spatial structure of a landscape. The rice water weevil ( Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel), a notorious crop pest found in many parts of the world, is one of the most devastating invasive species in China, and has caused enormous economic losses and ecological damage. Little is known, however, as to how habitat and landscape features affect the spatial spread of this pest. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the observed spread pattern of L. oryzophilus and landscape structural factors in Zhejiang Province, China between 1993 and 2001. We quantified the invasive spread of the weevil in terms of both the proportion of infected area and spread distance each year as well as landscape structure and connectivity of rice paddies with landscape metrics. Our results showed that the spread of L. oryzophilus took place primarily in the southwest-northeast direction along coastal areas at a speed of about 36 km per year. The composition and spatial arrangement of landscape elements were key determinants of this unique spread pattern. In particular, the connectivity of early rice paddies was crucial for the invasive spread while other factors such as meteorological and geographical conditions may also have been relevant. To control the spread of the pest, we propose four management measures: (1) to implement a landscape-level planning scheme of cropping systems to minimize habitat area and connectivity for the pest, (2) to reduce the source populations at a local scale using integrated control methods, (3) to monitor and report invasive spread in a timely manner, and (4) to strengthen the quarantine system. To be most effective, all four management measures need to be implemented together through an integrated, multi-scaled approach.

  15. Phylogeographical patterns of a generalist acorn weevil: insight into the biogeographical history of broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Kyoko; Kato, Makoto; Murakami, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    Background Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae), a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae plants living in both deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan. Its genetic structure was compared to that of another host-specific seed predator, C. hilgendorfi, inhabiting only evergreen forests. Results We examined 921 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 115 individuals collected from 33 populations of C. sikkimensis from 11 plant species of three genera, Quercus, Lithocarpus, and Castanopsis. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large proportion (almost 50%, P < 0.001) of the total genetic variance could be explained by differences between two geographical regions, the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands of Japan. In contrast, no significant genetic differentiation of the weevil was observed among vegetation types of their utilized host plant species. The phylogeographical patterns of the generalist and the host-specific seed predator exhibited a congruent genetic boundary in the Chugoku-Shikoku region. Conclusion Our results suggest that geology and historical environment have contributed to shaping the present genetic structure of C. sikkimensis. The geographical patterns of genetic differentiation in the Chugoku-Shikoku region observed in the two types of Fagaceae-associated Curculio in this study have also been observed in several plant species growing in warm and cool temperate zones of Japan. The occurrence of this common pattern suggests that deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan survived together, or adjacent to each other, in small refugia during glacial ages, in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands, although these two types of forests are

  16. Bacterial endosymbiont of the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae, allied to endosymbionts of grain weevils and tsetse flies.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Koga, Ryuichi; Smith, Wendy A; Tanaka, Kohjiiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Dale, Colin; Clayton, Dale H

    2007-10-01

    The current study focuses on a symbiotic bacterium found in the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that the symbiont belongs to the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and is allied to Sodalis glossinidius, the secondary symbiont of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) and also to the primary symbiont of grain weevils (Sitophilus spp.). Relative-rate tests revealed that the symbiont of C. columbae exhibits accelerated molecular evolution in comparison with the tsetse fly symbiont and the weevil symbiont. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to localize the symbiont and determine infection dynamics during host development. In first- and second-instar nymphs, the symbionts were localized in the cytoplasm of oval bacteriocytes that formed small aggregates on both sides of the body cavity. In third-instar nymphs, the bacteriocytes migrated to the central body and were finally located in the anterior region of the lateral oviducts, forming conspicuous tissue formations called ovarial ampullae. In adult females, the symbionts were transmitted from the ovarial ampullae to developing oocytes in the ovarioles. In adult males, the bacteriocytes often disappeared without migration. A diagnostic PCR survey of insects collected from Japan, the United States, Australia, and Argentina detected 96.5% (109/113) infection, with a few uninfected male insects. This study provides the first microbial characterization of a bacteriocyte-associated symbiont from a chewing louse. Possible biological roles of the symbiont are discussed in relation to the host nutritional physiology associated with the feather-feeding lifestyle.

  17. Landscape connectivity shapes the spread pattern of the rice water weevil: a case study from Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengjun; Wu, Jianguo; Shang, Hanwu; Cheng, Jiaan

    2011-02-01

    The spread of invasive species is a complex ecological process that is affected by both the biology of the species and the spatial structure of a landscape. The rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel), a notorious crop pest found in many parts of the world, is one of the most devastating invasive species in China, and has caused enormous economic losses and ecological damage. Little is known, however, as to how habitat and landscape features affect the spatial spread of this pest. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the observed spread pattern of L. oryzophilus and landscape structural factors in Zhejiang Province, China between 1993 and 2001. We quantified the invasive spread of the weevil in terms of both the proportion of infected area and spread distance each year as well as landscape structure and connectivity of rice paddies with landscape metrics. Our results showed that the spread of L. oryzophilus took place primarily in the southwest-northeast direction along coastal areas at a speed of about 36 km per year. The composition and spatial arrangement of landscape elements were key determinants of this unique spread pattern. In particular, the connectivity of early rice paddies was crucial for the invasive spread while other factors such as meteorological and geographical conditions may also have been relevant. To control the spread of the pest, we propose four management measures: (1) to implement a landscape-level planning scheme of cropping systems to minimize habitat area and connectivity for the pest, (2) to reduce the source populations at a local scale using integrated control methods, (3) to monitor and report invasive spread in a timely manner, and (4) to strengthen the quarantine system. To be most effective, all four management measures need to be implemented together through an integrated, multi-scaled approach.

  18. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A; Alzahrani, Abdullah M; Elmenshawy, Omar M; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators.

  19. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah M.; Elmenshawy, Omar M.; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators. PMID:28076286

  20. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  1. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  2. Phylogeographical patterns of a generalist acorn weevil: insight into the biogeographical history of broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kyoko; Kato, Makoto; Murakami, Noriaki

    2009-05-16

    Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae), a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae plants living in both deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan. Its genetic structure was compared to that of another host-specific seed predator, C. hilgendorfi, inhabiting only evergreen forests. We examined 921 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 115 individuals collected from 33 populations of C. sikkimensis from 11 plant species of three genera, Quercus, Lithocarpus, and Castanopsis. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large proportion (almost 50%, P < 0.001) of the total genetic variance could be explained by differences between two geographical regions, the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands of Japan. In contrast, no significant genetic differentiation of the weevil was observed among vegetation types of their utilized host plant species. The phylogeographical patterns of the generalist and the host-specific seed predator exhibited a congruent genetic boundary in the Chugoku-Shikoku region. Our results suggest that geology and historical environment have contributed to shaping the present genetic structure of C. sikkimensis. The geographical patterns of genetic differentiation in the Chugoku-Shikoku region observed in the two types of Fagaceae-associated Curculio in this study have also been observed in several plant species growing in warm and cool temperate zones of Japan. The occurrence of this common pattern suggests that deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan survived together, or adjacent to each other, in small refugia during glacial ages, in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands, although these two types of forests are presently distributed in cool and

  3. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  4. Host density drives spatial variation in parasitism of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, across dryland and irrigated alfalfa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Rand, Tatyana A

    2013-02-01

    Classical biological control against the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), a destructive pest of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), has resulted in the establishment of nine parasitoid species in the United States. Despite widespread redistribution of a number of species, there remains little postrelease data on their establishment and potential effectiveness in many regions. I surveyed parasitoids associated with alfalfa weevil larvae across 30 or more sites in eastern Montana and western North Dakota over 2 yr. Replicate sites were sampled in two habitat types that differ in their physical characteristics, flood-irrigated and dryland alfalfa fields. Irrigated systems are more productive but also more intensively disturbed habitats because of increased harvest frequency and repeated flooding. Given evidence that both habitat disturbance and herbivore density, which often increases with productivity, can influence parasitoid dynamics, I predicted that parasitism levels, the relative importance of different species, or both, would differ across these two system types. Of four larval parasitoid species released previously or recovered in the region, two were found in this study, Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson) and Oomyzus incertus (Ratzenberg), with average levels of parasitism across habitat types and years of 37.2 and 3.5%, respectively. Parasitism levels differed between habitat types, but the effect was driven by concomitant differences in host densities that were higher in irrigated than dryland fields. Parasitoid responses to host density varied across years and species. B. curculionis exhibited positive density dependence in parasitism across sites in 2009 and negative density dependence in 2010 when host densities were higher regionally. In contrast, O. incertus exhibited positive density dependence in 2010. Our results suggest that these species may be differentially effective at different host densities. Thus, variation in host density could

  5. The Complexity of Posttranscriptional Small RNA Regulatory Networks Revealed by In Silico Analysis of Gossypium arboreum L. Leaf, Flower and Boll Small Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongtao; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Singh, Narendra K.; Weaver, David B.; Goertzen, Leslie R.; Singh, Shree R.; Locy, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs) are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs) are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs). Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs) and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs). Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs) were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3’-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs) were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers of a

  6. Notes on chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns in karyotypes of some weevils from central Europe (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Nanophyidae, Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lachowska, Dorota; Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns of sixteen weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species with either a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises twelve species (Apionidae: Oxystoma cerdo, Eutrichapion melancholicum, Ceratapion penetrans, Ceratapion austriacum, Squamapion flavimanum, Rhopalapion longirostre; Nanophyidae: Nanophyes marmoratus; Curculionidae: Centricnemus (=Peritelus) leucogrammus, Sitona humeralis, Sitona lineatus, Sitona macularis, Sitona suturalis). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus during interphase are visible, afterwards appearing as dark dots during mitotic and meiotic prophase. The second group comprises four species from the curculionid subfamily Cryptorhynchinae (Acalles camelus, Acalles commutatus, Acalles echinatus, Ruteria hypocrita) which possess much larger heteropycnotic chromosome parts visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have pericentromeric C-bands on autosomes and on the X chromosome.

  7. Morphology of the male reproductive system, sperm ultrastructure and γ-irradiation of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Francesco; Dallai, Romano; Cristofaro, Massimo; Arnone, Silvia; Francardi, Valeria; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-08-01

    In the present study we describe the morphology of the male reproductive apparatus and sperm ultrastructure of the red palm weevil - an invasive pest of several palm tree species - as well as the most important steps of spermatogenesis. The reproductive apparatus consists of a pair of testes (each formed by two lobes) a long tube-like accessory gland, a prostate gland and a small accessory gland. Characteristic features of the sperm are 90-100 μm total length, 10 μm nucleus, two mitochondrial derivatives, two accessory bodies, one well-developed puff-like structure and a typical insect 9+9+2 flagellar axoneme. One of the methods used for the biological control of pests is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for the evaluation of which we make a preliminary comparison of the sperm ultrastructure of non-irradiated and irradiated weevils (at a dose of 80 Gray). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Bait Quantity and Trap Color on the Trapping Efficacy of the Pheromone Trap for the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    PubMed Central

    Abuagla, Abdullah Mohamed; Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), is not native to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since its arrival in 1985, it has been causing major damage to date palm trees. A primary control strategy has been the use of pheromone baited traps. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of bait, and the best trap color, to obtain the maximum catch of R. ferrugineus under field conditions in the UAE. Traps with 100, 300, or 500 g of dates as bait collected the same number of R. ferrugineus adults. Captures in black traps were significantly higher than captures in red, yellow, or white traps. Thus, using a black pheromone trap containing 100 g of dates can significantly enhance R. ferrugineus control efforts, and can help considerably in reducing the red palm weevil's deleterious impact on date palm production in UAE. PMID:23451836

  9. The adventive status of Salvinia minima and S. molestain the southern United States and the related distribution of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacono, Colette C.; Davern, Tracy R.; Center, Ted D.

    2001-01-01

    The recent introduction of Salvinia molesta constitutes a serious threat to aquatic systems in the warm temperate regions of the United States. Salvinia minima, the only other member of Salviniaceae present in North America, is considered native by current floras. Evidence is presented which suggests that Salvinia minima was also introduced to North America, probably during the late 1920s and early 1930s. Likely sites of introduction and subsequent range expansions are identified. The accidentally introduced salvinia weevil, putatively Cyrtobagous salviniae, was found to occur widely on S. minima in Florida but is not established in other states. The disparate distribution of this Salvinia herbivore may account for the reduced aggressiveness of S. minima in Florida as compared to its troublesome growth in Texas and LOUisiana, where the weevil is not yet known.

  10. Male biased gene flow in banana pseudostem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliver) as revealed by analysis of the COI-tRNA(Leu) COII region.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Vishvas M; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2015-02-01

    The genetic diversity amongst thirty weevils representing six Indian populations of banana pseudostem weevil, i.e., Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) was estimated by sequence analysis of the partial COI-tRNA(Leu)-COII region. The sequences exhibited AT bias typical of insect mitochondrial DNA which was highest in the first codon position of COI and in the third codon position of COII. There was no phylogeographic distribution of the populations. The Fu and Li's D and F tests were non-significant for this mitochondrial region. No Wolbachia infection was detected in any of the populations. The genetic differentiation amongst the populations was highly significant (p < 0.001; χ2 = 123.333; df = 75), suggesting restricted gene flow between the populations. This result did not correlate with that obtained with nuclear rDNA markers, i.e., ITS1 and ITS2, suggesting a male biased gene flow between the populations.

  11. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  12. A revision of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae).

    PubMed

    Brown, Samuel D J

    2017-05-08

    The taxonomy of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 is revised, resulting in a narrower concept of the genus than has been considered in recent decades. In total, the genus now contains only seven species. In addition to the type species, I. parilis Pascoe, 1876, the genus contains I. duplex (Broun, 1904) and five newly described species: I. aniptus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN), I. crinitus new species (type locality, Hakataramea Valley, SC), I. minimus new species (type locality, Alexandra, CO), I. stichus new species (type locality, Tekapo, MK) and I. thoracicus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN). The genus Chalepistes new genus is established to contain the majority of species previously described in the genus Catoptes Schönherr, 1842, but also including species described in Brachyolus White, 1846; Irenimus Pascoe, 1876; Inophloeus Pascoe, 1875; and Nicaeana Pascoe, 1877. A total of 27 valid described species are new combinations with Chalepistes: C. aequalis (Broun, 1895) (from Irenimus), C. albosparsus (Broun, 1917) (from Irenimus), C. apicalis (Broun, 1923) (from Catoptes), C. asperatus (Broun, 1914) (from Brachyolus), C. compressus (Broun, 1880) (from Irenimus), C. costifer (Broun, 1886) (from Inophloeus), C. curvus (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. dehiscens (Broun, 1917) (from Catoptes), C. dugdalei (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. egens (Broun, 1904) (from Irenimus), C. inaequalis (Sharp, 1886) (from Brachyolus), C. instabilis (Marshall, 1931) (from Catoptes), C. latipennis (Broun, 1893) (from Catoptes), C. limbatus (Broun, 1909) (from Catoptes), C. lobatus (Broun, 1921) (from Catoptes), C. patricki (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. pensus (Broun, 1914) (from Inophloeus), C. placidus (Broun, 1914) (from Nicaeana), C. posticalis (Broun, 1893) (from Irenimus), C. rhesus (Pascoe, 1875) (from Inophloeus), C. rubidus (Broun, 1881) (from Inophloeus), C. similis (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from

  13. Systematics of the weevil genus Mecinus Germar, 1821 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). I. Taxonomic treatment of the species.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Roberto; Fogato, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Mecinus Germar, 1821 are revised. A total of 47 species are recognized, one of which, M. baridioides sp. n. is new to science. Mecinus dorsalis var. tavaresi Hoffmann, 1958 (stat. rev.) is considered as a distinct species, whereas M. alboscutellatus var. atratulus (Solari, 1933) is maintained as a subspecies of M. alboscutellatus (Hustache, 1913). The following new synonymies are proposed: Mecinus barbarus Gyllenhal, 1838 (= M. longiusculus var. subcylindricus Pic, 1896 syn. n.); M. caucasicus (Reitter, 1907) (= Gymnetron caucasicum var. rubricum Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. comosus Boheman, 1845 (= M. setosus Kiesenwetter, 1864 syn. n.; = M. hesteticus Vitale, 1906 syn. n.; = M. pici Reitter, 1907 syn. n.; = M. pici var. theresae Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. elongatus (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= G. pyrenaeum H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862 syn. n.); M. haemorrhoidalis (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= M. fairmairei Tournier, 1873 syn. n.; = G. variabile var. brevipenne Desbrochers des Loges, 1893 syn. n.; = G. variabile var. curtulum Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. humeralis Tournier, 1873 (= M. tournieri Fairmaire, 1876 syn. n.; = M. lineicollis Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. paratychioides (Hoffmann, 1965) (= G. longirostre Pic, 1921 syn. n.); M. longulus (Desbrochers des Loges, 1893) (= G. nigronotatum Pic, 1906 syn. n.; = G. nigronotatum var. vaulogeri Pic, 1930 syn. n.); M. pipistrellus (Marseul, 1871) (= G. concavirostre Stöcklein, 1950 syn. n.); M. plantaginis (Eppelsheim, 1875) (= G. zherichini Korotyaev, 1994 syn. n.); M. pyraster (Herbst, 1795) (= M. schneideri Kirsch, 1870 syn. n.; = M. hariolus Reitter, 1907 syn. n.; = M. pici var. favarcqui Pic, 1915 syn. n.); M. sanctus (Desbrochers des Loges, 1893) (= G. laterufum Pic, 1900 syn. n.); M. simus (Mulsant & Rey, 1859) (= G. mixtum Mulsant & Godart, 1873 syn. n.); M. tychioides (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= G. aestivum Hoffmann, 1956 syn. n.); M. vulpes (Lucas

  14. A New Light on the Evolution and Propagation of Prehistoric Grain Pests: The World's Oldest Maize Weevils Found in Jomon Potteries, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the “impression replica” method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details. PMID:21479261

  15. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    PubMed

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-03-29

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  16. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  17. Insect-Induced Conifer Defense. White Pine Weevil and Methyl Jasmonate Induce Traumatic Resinosis, de Novo Formed Volatile Emissions, and Accumulation of Terpenoid Synthase and Putative Octadecanoid Pathway Transcripts in Sitka Spruce1[w

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Barbara; Madilao, Lufiani L.; Ralph, Steven; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Stem-boring insects and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are thought to induce similar complex chemical and anatomical defenses in conifers. To compare insect- and MeJA-induced terpenoid responses, we analyzed traumatic oleoresin mixtures, emissions of terpenoid volatiles, and expression of terpenoid synthase (TPS) genes in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) following attack by white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi) or application of MeJA. Both insects and MeJA caused traumatic resin accumulation in stems, with more accumulation induced by the weevils. Weevil-induced terpenoid emission profiles were also more complex than emissions induced by MeJA. Weevil feeding caused a rapid release of a blend of monoterpene olefins, presumably by passive evaporation of resin compounds from stem feeding sites. These compounds were not found in MeJA-induced emissions. Both weevils and MeJA caused delayed, diurnal emissions of (−)-linalool, indicating induced de novo biosynthesis of this compound. TPS transcripts strongly increased in stems upon insect attack or MeJA treatment. Time courses and intensity of induced TPS transcripts were different for monoterpene synthases, sesquiterpene synthases, and diterpene synthases. Increased levels of weevil- and MeJA-induced TPS transcripts accompanied major changes in terpenoid accumulation in stems. Induced TPS expression profiles in needles were less complex than those in stems and matched induced de novo emissions of (−)-linalool. Overall, weevils and MeJA induced similar, but not identical, terpenoid defense responses in Sitka spruce. Findings of insect- and MeJA-induced accumulation of allene oxide synthase-like and allene oxide cyclase-like transcripts are discussed in the context of traumatic resinosis and induced volatile emissions in this gymnosperm system. PMID:15618433

  18. Bolling AFB Stack Emission Evaluation Bolling AFB DC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    BATH A THERMOMETERS’ BYPASSVALVE \\ VACUUM \\ GAUGE MAIN VALVE DRY TEST METER AIR-TIGHT PUMP Figure 5-1. Partlculate-sarnpllng train...CHECK A —n^^ VALVE =(HFW REVERSE-TYPE PITOT TUBE VACUUM LINE VACUUM GAUGF AIR-TIGHT PUMP DRY TEST METER Figure 8-1

  19. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to Larvae and Adults of the Hazelnut Weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential Virulence and Entry Routes

    PubMed Central

    Batalla-Carrera, Laia; Morton, Ana; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Strand, Michael R.; García-del-Pino, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the existing susceptibility differences of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera:, Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes by assessing the main route of entry of the nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae strain B14 and S. feltiae strain D114, into larvae and adult insects, as well as host immune response. Our results suggested that S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily entered adult insects and larvae through the anus. Larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae D114 than S. carpocapsae B14 and adults were highly susceptible to S. carpocapsae B14 but displayed low susceptibility to S. feltiae D114. Penetration rate correlated with nematode virulence. We observed little evidence that hazelnut weevils mounted any cellular immune response toward S. carpocapsae B14 or S. feltiae D114. We conclude the differential susceptibility of hazelnut weevil larvae and adults to S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily reflected differences in the ability of these two nematodes to penetrate the host. PMID:25276002

  20. Five types of olfactory receptor neurons in the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi: selective responses to inducible host-plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Bichão, Helena; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Araújo, Jorge; Mustaparta, Hanna

    2005-02-01

    Plants release hundreds of volatiles that are important in the interaction with herbivorous animals, but which odorants are detected by which species? In this study, single receptor neurons on the antenna of the oligophagous strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi were screened for sensitivity to naturally produced plant compounds by the use of gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single cells. The narrow tuning of the neurons was demonstrated by responses solely to a few structurally related sesquiterpenes, aromatics or monoterpene hydrocarbons out of hundreds of plant constituents tested. We present five olfactory receptor neuron types, identified according to one primary odorant i.e. the compound to which the neurons are most sensitive. These odorants, (-)-germacrene D, (-)-beta-caryophyllene, methyl salicylate, E-beta-ocimene and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, present in the intact strawberry plant, are induced in higher amounts by weevil feeding. This suggests that these compounds can provide information about the presence of conspecifics. We used protocols especially designed to allow comparison with previously investigated species. Striking similarities, but also differences, are demonstrated between receptor neuron specificity in the strawberry weevil and moths.

  1. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    PubMed Central

    Soffan, Alan; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies. PMID:27606688

  2. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies.

  3. MOSCAB (Materia OSCura A Bolle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullia, Antonino

    2016-05-01

    This kind of detector (Geyser) has never been realized for the Elementary Particle Physics (it was constructed once in BERN A in 1964 by Hahn and Reist to detect transuranic nuclei. The Geyser is substantially a Vessel consisting of a “FLASK” containing a superheated liquid (f.i. some kind of freon) and a “NECK” (containing partially a separation liquid and partially the freon vapor). The Geyser was realized in Milano by setting the two different parts of the detector (flask and neck, filled in our case by freon C3 F8 , at different temperatures. The part of the overheated liquid was kept at higher temperature (f.i. 25 degree) and the gaseous part was kept at lower temperature (f.i. 18 degrees).

  4. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1988-03-14

    Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Multidisciplinary Fingerprints: Forensic Reconstruction of an Insect Reinvasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beginning late August 2007, more than 150 boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, were unexpectedly captured across an extensive area of the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of West-Central Texas, which was essentially weevil-free since 2003. This outbreak was detected soon after the passag...

  6. Relative concentration of Cry1A in maize leaves and cotton bolls with diverse chlorophyll content and corresponding larval development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize whorl leaf profiles.

    PubMed

    Abel, Craig A; Adamczyk, John J

    2004-10-01

    of the southwestern corn borer to the toxin. In cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., the amount of Cry1Ac was significantly lower in boll tips where flowers had remained attached compared with normal boll tips. Boll tips where the flowers remained attached are often the site where corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), penetrate Bt cotton bolls. This study demonstrated that, in two diverse plant species, tissue that has low chlorophyll content does not fully express Cry1A. Photosynthesis regulating factors related to mRNA transcription and translation should be studied for their effect on Cry1A production and insect control.

  7. Construction of a high-density genetic map by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and its application to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis for boll weight in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Shang, Haihong; Shi, Yuzhen; Huang, Long; Li, Junwen; Ge, Qun; Gong, Juwu; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yanling; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Muhammad, Jamshed; Li, Weijie; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Song, Weiwu; Cai, Juan; Li, Pengtao; Rashid, Harun or; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu

    2016-04-11

    Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important worldwide crops it provides natural high-quality fiber for the industrial production and everyday use. Next-generation sequencing is a powerful method to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers on a large scale for the construction of a high-density genetic map for quantitative trait loci mapping. In this research, a recombinant inbred lines population developed from two upland cotton cultivars 0-153 and sGK9708 was used to construct a high-density genetic map through the specific locus amplified fragment sequencing method. The high-density genetic map harbored 5521 single nucleotide polymorphism markers which covered a total distance of 3259.37 cM with an average marker interval of 0.78 cM without gaps larger than 10 cM. In total 18 quantitative trait loci of boll weight were identified as stable quantitative trait loci and were detected in at least three out of 11 environments and explained 4.15-16.70 % of the observed phenotypic variation. In total, 344 candidate genes were identified within the confidence intervals of these stable quantitative trait loci based on the cotton genome sequence. These genes were categorized based on their function through gene ontology analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis and eukaryotic orthologous groups analysis. This research reported the first high-density genetic map for Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with a recombinant inbred line population using single nucleotide polymorphism markers developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing. We also identified quantitative trait loci of boll weight across 11 environments and identified candidate genes within the quantitative trait loci confidence intervals. The results of this research would provide useful information for the next-step work including fine mapping, gene functional analysis, pyramiding breeding of functional genes as well as marker-assisted selection.

  8. Transgenic sugarcane overexpressing CaneCPI-1 negatively affects the growth and development of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Chakravarthi, Mohan; Ribeiro, Carolina; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Falco, Maria Cristina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic sugarcane expressing CaneCPI-1 exhibits resistance to Sphenophorus levis larvae. Transgenic plants have widely been used to improve resistance against insect attack. Sugarcane is an economically important crop; however, great losses are caused by insect attack. Sphenophorus levis is a sugarcane weevil that digs tunnels in the stem base, leading to the destruction of the crop. This insect is controlled inefficiently by chemical insecticides. Transgenic plants expressing peptidase inhibitors represent an important strategy for impairing insect growth and development. Knowledge of the major peptidase group present in the insect gut is critical when choosing the most effective inhibitor. S. levis larvae use cysteine peptidases as their major digestive enzymes, primarily cathepsin L-like activity. In this study, we developed transgenic sugarcane plants that overexpress sugarcane cysteine peptidase inhibitor 1 (CaneCPI-1) and assessed their potential through feeding bioassays with S. levis larvae. Cystatin overexpression in the transgenic plants was evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and immunoblot assays. A 50% reduction of the average weight was observed in larvae that fed on transgenic plants in comparison to larvae that fed on non-transgenic plants. In addition, transgenic sugarcane exhibited less damage caused by larval attack than the controls. Our results suggest that the overexpression of CaneCPI-1 in sugarcane is a promising strategy for improving resistance against this insect.

  9. Microbial diversity in the larval gut of field and laboratory populations of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Rinke, R; Costa, A S; Fonseca, F P P; Almeida, L C; Delalibera Júnior, I; Henrique-Silva, F

    2011-11-01

    The sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis, is a wide-spread sugarcane pest in Brazil. Sphenophorus levis may depend on microorganisms that inhabit its intestinal tract. We examined the diversity of the gut microbiota of S. levis, which was characterized using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA amplified directly from the gut community revealed the presence of 14 genera, one group from the Candidatus category, one uncultured group assigned to the family Flavobacteriaceae, and one uncultured group assigned to the family Enterobacteriaceae; all of them are members of the Alpha-Proteobacteria, Beta-Proteobacteria, Gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microorganisms isolated through culture-dependent methods were classified according to morphological parameters and by 16S rRNA gene sequences. In addition to bacteria, four filamentous fungi were isolated. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in field populations of larvae than in laboratory populations, according to the Shannon index (Field H' = 3.36; Laboratory H' = 3.26). Five genera of bacteria and two filamentous fungi were found to have cellulolytic activity. This is the first report of S. levis gut microbiota; it may contribute to development of strategies for controlling this sugarcane pest.

  10. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W; Eyun, Seong-Il; Noriega, Daniel D; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest.

  11. Evaluation of pseudostem trapping as a control measure against banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Gold, C S; Gold, C S; Okech, S H; Nokoe, S

    2002-02-01

    Controlled studies to determine the efficacy of pseudostem trapping in reducing adult populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), were conducted under farmer conditions in Ntungamo district, Uganda. Twenty-seven farms were stratified on the basis of C. sordidus population density (estimated by mark and recapture methods) and divided among three treatments: (i) researcher-managed trapping (one trap per mat per month): (ii) farmer-managed trapping (trap intensity at discretion of farmer); and (iii) controls (no trapping). Intensive trapping (managed by researchers) resulted in significantly lower C. sordidus damage after one year. Over the same period, C. sordidus numbers declined by 61% on farms where trapping was managed by researchers, 53% where farmers managed trapping and 38% on farms without trapping; however, results varied greatly among farms and, overall, there was no significant effect of trapping on C. sordidus numbers. Moreover, there was only a weak relationship between the number of C. sordidus removed and the change in population density. Trapping success appeared to be affected by management levels and immigration from neighbouring farms. Although farmers were convinced that trapping was beneficial, adoption has been low due to resource requirements.

  12. Population structure of the banana weevil, an introduced pest in the Canary Islands, studied by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Magaña, C; Beroiz, B; Hernández-Crespo, P; Montes de Oca, M; Carnero, A; Ortego, F; Castañera, P

    2007-12-01

    The banana weevil (BW), Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important insect pests of bananas and plantains. The mobility and the origin of BW infestations at the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Gomera and La Palma) have been analysed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as molecular markers. Populations from Costa Rica, Colombia, Uganda and Madeira were also included for comparison. One hundred and fifteen reproducible bands from eight primers were obtained. The level of polymorphism in the populations from the Canary Islands (40-62%) was in the range of those found in other populations. Nei's genetic distances, pair-wise fixation index (FST) values indicate that the closest populations are Tenerife populations among themselves (Nei's genetic distance=0.054-0.100; FST=0.091-0.157) and Costa Rica and Colombia populations (Nei's genetic distance=0.049; FST=0.113). Our results indicate the existence of BW local biotypes with limited gene flow and affected by genetic drift. These results are compatible with a unique event of colonization at Tenerife; whereas, the outbreaks in La Gomera and La Palma may come from independent introductions. The Madeira population is phylogenetically and geographically closer to the Canary Islands populations, suggesting that it is the most likely source of the insects introduced in the Canary Islands.

  13. Morphology of the egg shell and the developing embryo of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver).

    PubMed

    Al-Dosary, Mona M; Al-Bekairi, Abdullah M; Moursy, Eman B

    2010-04-01

    The harvested eggs of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus are ovo-cylindrical shaped, averaged 1.09 mm in length and 0.43 mm in width, with ratio of [Formula: see text] 4.42. The chorionic layer of electron dense material is seen covering the exochorion structure of the eggs. The egg main body chorion exhibits a polygonal pattern and architecture surface of the egg is supported by a system of irregular interconnecting grooves. The micropylar apparatus of the eggs of the Red Palm Weevil, R. ferrugineus is described in the present study for the first time. Two micropylar openings are found closed to the center of the posterior wide pole of the egg. Each micropylar opening presents a single small orifice and its surrounding chorion is porous and densely set with tiny projections allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate the egg. Respiratory aeropyles are distributed on the borders of reticulations in the area chorionic surface of egg capsule. The hatching region is detected on the anterior part at the opposite side of the egg. Changes in the appearance and shape of R. ferrugineus eggs as well as the incidence of embryonic development are observed.

  14. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-03-16

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  15. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  16. Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes in Different Developmental Stages and After Temperature Stress in the Maize Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Tungjitwitayakul, Jatuporn; Tatun, Nujira; Vajarasathira, Boongeua; Sakurai, Sho

    2015-06-01

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, is a major pest of rice and other postharvest grain stocks in tropical countries. Heating and cooling treatments have been adopted to control this pest. Because heat shock protein (hsp) genes respond to temperature stress, we examined the association of hsp genes with development and thermal stress in S. zeamais. The temperature response of the insect to heat and cold treatments was assessed at four developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. LT50 values at high temperatures were similar among the four developmental stages, while adults were the most tolerant to low temperatures, and eggs, larvae, and pupae exhibited similar LT50 values. Expression levels of three hsps--Szhsp70, Szhsc70, and Szhsp90--fluctuated substantially throughout the four stages at a rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat shock and cold shock increased the expression of all three hsps, and the highest upregulation was observed at 40°C, although the intensity of upregulation varied among the three genes: strongly in Szhsp70, moderately in Szhsp90, and slightly in Szhsc70. Basal expression of the three hsps at 28°C and gene responses to heat and cold shock also varied significantly at the tissue level. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Testing and mapping non-stationarity in animal behavioral processes: a case study on an individual female bean weevil.

    PubMed

    Fushing, Hsieh; Hwang, Chii-Ruey; Lee, Hou-Cheng; Lan, Yen-Chiu; Horng, Shwu-Bin

    2006-02-21

    Statistical analysis based on two characteristics of a small-world network, and on Lempel-Ziv's measure of Kolmogorov-Chaitin's algorithmic complexity are first proposed to scan through an individual behavioral sequence for possible existence of non-stationarity. Due to fixed window width, these tests have drawbacks in mapping out regions of non-stationarity. A non-parametric approach based on sparse coding schemes is employed to segment the whole behavioral sequence into unequal length segments, thus resultant avoiding further efforts for grouping. Then attempts are made to entangle the resultant segmentation with other non-local behavioral patterns onto such sequence to ascertain that the non-stationarity corresponds to a sequence of different categories of underlying driving force. It is of potential importance that this segmentation, represented by a hierarchy of code sequences, provides a natural platform for detecting intrinsically coherent behavioral patterns based on continuously recorded data. Illustrations throughout the developments are made exclusively on data encoded from a nearly 4-h video-recording of a female bean weevil's behavior.

  18. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W.; Eyun, Seong-il; Noriega, Daniel D.; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest. PMID:26949943

  19. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil (Curculio nucum) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum, the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT50, and LT90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  20. Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus (Schönherr) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, T; Malan, A P

    2014-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) were evaluated for their potential use as biological control agents against Phlyctinus callosus, the banded fruit weevil (BFW). The susceptibility of larvae and adults to EPN was evaluated using 400 infective juveniles (IJ) per insect after 4 days in 24-well bioassay trays. The nematode isolates used were all able to infect BFW, although the larvae were found to be more susceptible than were the adults. The percentage mortality for BFW larvae ranged from 41 to 73% and for BFW adults from 13 to 45%. The most effective isolate, SF41 of Heterorhabditis zealandica, was used to investigate the effect of vertical movement of nematodes in sand and sandy loam soil, at specified concentration and temperature. A higher (82.2 ± 0.084%) percentage mortality rate was obtained with the sandy loam soil, than with the use of sand (67.5 ± 0.12%). The LD50 and LD90 values after 4 days of incubation were 96 and 278 IJ/50 μl, respectively. Nematodes were inactive below 15 °C, with the highest mortality of 74 ± 0.081% for BFW larvae recorded at 25 °C. Heterorhabditis zealandica was able to complete its life cycle successfully in sixth-instar BFW larvae after a period of 22 days. The study showed BFW larvae not to be as susceptible to nematode infection as they need a high concentration (400 IJ/larva) and 4 days to give effective control.