Science.gov

Sample records for bolus methylprednisolone therapy

  1. Sirolimus steady-state trough concentrations are not affected by bolus methylprednisolone therapy in renal allograft recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bäckman, L; Kreis, H; Morales, J M; Wilczek, H; Taylor, R; Burke, J T

    2002-01-01

    Aims To determine whether bolus doses of methylprednisolone affect the steady-state trough concentrations of sirolimus. Methods Fourteen renal transplant recipients received concentration-controlled sirolimus therapy in combination with azathioprine and steroids (n = 8) or mycophenolate mofetil and steroids (n = 6). Bolus doses of methylprednisolone (mean total dose over 1–5 days, 1694 mg; range, 500–3000 mg) were given for the treatment of acute rejection. For each patient, the sirolimus dose (mean, 24.1 mg; range, 3.3–52.5 mg) was the same before and during methylprednisolone therapy. Results Mean sirolimus whole blood trough concentrations before and after treatment with methylprednisolone were 28.8 ng ml−1 (range, 13.9–45.3 ng ml−1), and 28.5 ng ml−1 (range, 13.0–47.9 ng ml−1), respectively (P = 0.85; 95% confidence interval on the difference −3.3, 4.0 ng ml−1). Conclusions Bolus methylprednisolone treatment does not affect steady-state sirolimus trough concentrations. PMID:12100227

  2. Prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with intravenous bolus of methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Mir, P; Alberca, R; Navarro, A; Montes, E; Martínez, E; Franco, E; Cayuela, A; Lozano, P

    2003-12-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone followed by prednisone as a prophylactic treatment for episodic cluster headache. Fourteen male patients (mean age, 42.54 years) with episodic cluster headache were treated with 250-mg boluses of methylprednisolone on 3 consecutive days, followed by prednisone (90 mg/day orally) with gradual tapering in four weeks. Headache parameters of the active phases treated with methylprednisolone were compared with those of previous active phases in the same patients treated with other prophylactic medications. The primary efficacy criterion was decrease in the frequency of attacks during the first month of treatment. The statistical differences were calculated using Wilcoxon's test. The attacks were significantly less frequent in the active phases treated with methylprednisolone boluses than those treated with other medications ( p<0.05). This treatment seems to be more effective than the usual prophylactic treatments for episodic cluster headache.

  3. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy for children with epileptic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Pera, Maria Carmela; Randazzo, Giovanna; Masnada, Silvia; Dontin, Serena Donetti; De Giorgis, Valentina; Balottin, Umberto; Veggiotti, Pierangelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study of children affected by epileptic encephalopathy was to evaluate seizure frequency, electroencephalographic pattern and neuropsychological status, before and after intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. Eleven children with epileptic encephalopathy were administered one cycle of intravenous methylprednisolone (15-30 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days, once a month for four months) in addition to constant dosages of their regular antiepileptic drugs. The treatment resulted in statistically significant reductions of generalized slow spike-and-wave discharges (p<0.0028) and seizure frequency (p<0.013), which persisted even after methylprednisolone pulse therapy was stopped. A globally positive outcome was noted in 9/11 patients (81.8%). This methylprednisolone treatment regimen did not cause significant or persistent adverse effects. We suggest that children with epileptic encephalopathy without an underlying structural lesion could be the best candidates for intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

  4. Technology for bolus verification in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipulin, K. N.; Mytsin, G. V.; Agapov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the conformal depth-dose distribution of a proton beam within a target volume, complex shaped range shifters (so-called boluses), which account for the heterogeneous structure of patient tissue and organs in the beam path, were calculated and manufactured. The precise manufacturing of proton compensators used for patient treatment is a vital step in quality assurance in proton therapy. In this work a software-hardware complex that verifies the quality and precision of bolus manufacturing at the Medico-Technical Complex (MTC) was developed. The boluses consisted of a positioning system with two photoelectric biosensors. We evaluated 20 boluses used in proton therapy of five patients. A total number of 2562 experimental points were measured, of which only two points had values that differed from the calculated value by more than 0.5 mm. The other data points displayed a deviation within ±0.5 mm from the calculated value. The technology for bolus verification developed in this work can be used for the high precision testing of geometrical parameters of proton compensators in radiotherapy.

  5. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy in severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, J.R.; Fagien, S.; Donovan, J.P.; Rubin, M.L. )

    1989-07-01

    Five patients with severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone (1 g daily for 3 consecutive days). Before administration, visual acuity of the more severely affected eyes of each patient was counting fingers at 5 feet, 8/200, 20/400, 20/200, and 20/80. Immediately after completion of pulse therapy, visual acuity improved to 20/25 in four patients and 20/30 in one. Remissions were maintained with oral prednisone and external beam irradiation of the orbit. Pulse methylprednisolone therapy appears to be beneficial in the initial management of severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy.

  6. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy in severe alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Senila, Simona C; Danescu, Sorina A; Ungureanu, Loredana; Candrea, Elisabeta; Cosgarea, Rodica M

    2015-01-01

    Severe, extensive, therapy resistant alopecia areata represents a clinical challenge. Systemic corticosteroids are a therapeutic tool that still needs to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in alopecia areata and to find prognostic factors for a favourable outcome. A total of 32 patients with severe multifocal alopecia areata (more than 40% scalp hair loss), alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis were treated with infusions of 500 mg methylprednisolone for 3 days every month for 3 consecutive months. The end point of the study was 12 months. Of 32 patients, 26 (81.3%) reported a clinical response. Four patients (12.5%) showed complete hair regrowth, 6 patients (18.8%) showed >50% hair regrowth, ten (31.3%) had <50% hair regrowth, 6 (18.75%) were non responders, and another 6 patients (18.8%) had relapse after an initial regrowth. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients reporting at the first episode and those with multifocal disease had the best results. Methylprednisolone infusions represent a possible therapeutic option for patients with multifocal alopecia areata and those presenting with the first episode of the disease.

  7. Treatment of allergic alveolitis with methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christiane; Kleinau, Irene; Niggemann, Bodo; Weinhold, Nathalie; Wahn, Ulrich; Paul, Karl

    2003-02-01

    We report on a 13-year-old-boy who had been admitted to our hospital for dyspnea, hypoxia, and pulmonary infiltrates. The diagnosis of allergic alveolitis was based on history (provocation by exposure), lung function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial lung biopsy. No specific allergen could be identified. Five courses of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (15 mg/kg on three consecutive days) stabilized the patient with normalization of lung function and blood gas analysis. Between pulses the boy returned to his home on a farm without relapse. It is estimated that the effect of a single pulse lasted for at least 2-4 weeks. We conclude that pulse therapy can be used instead of continuous therapy in this rare disease in childhood.

  8. On bolus for megavoltage photon and electron radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Vedang; Palmer, Lisa; Mudge, Ray; Jiang, Runqing; Fleck, Andre; Schaly, Bryan; Osei, Ernest; Charland, Paule

    2013-10-01

    Frequently, in radiation therapy one must treat superficial lesions on cancer patients; these are at or adjacent to the skin. Megavoltage photon radiotherapy penetrates through the skin to irradiate deep-seated tumors, with skin-sparing property. Hence, to treat superficial lesions, one must use a layer of scattering material to feign as the skin surface. Although megavoltage electron beams are used for superficial treatments, one occasionally needs to enhance the dose near the surface. Such is the function of a “bolus,” a natural or synthetically developed material that acts as a layer of tissue to provide a more effective treatment to the superficial lesions. Other uses of boluses are to correct for varying surface contours and to add scattering material around the patient's surface. Materials used as bolus vary from simple water to metal and include various mixtures and compounds. Even with the modernization of the technology for external-beam therapy and the emergence of various commercial boluses, the preparation and utilization of a bolus in clinical radiotherapy remains an art. Considering the varying experiences and practices, this paper briefly summarizes available boluses that have been proposed and are employed in clinical radiotherapy. Although this review is not exhaustive, it provides some initial guidance and answers questions that may arise in clinical practice.

  9. Effect of methylprednisolone and "pulse" therapy with methylprednisolone sodium succinate on autologous immune complex nephritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, H; Sagae, Y; Tomabechi, N; Oikawa, S; Tsurufuji, S

    1980-02-01

    Autologous immune complex (AIC) nephritis was induced in rats with a single foot-pad injection of renal tubular epithelial antigen suspended in complete Freund's adjuvant. It was suggested by gel filtration of serum on Sephadex G-200 column that increase in the concentration of macroglobulins was the first alteration reflected on the serum proteins after immunization; the concentration of macroglobulins increased while the concentrations of albumin and gamma-globulin still remained in the normal range. The effect of 6 alpha-methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MP-S), 6 alpha-methylprednisolone (MP) and cyclophosphamide on the AIC nephritis in rats was studied. "Pulse" therapy, that is, an intraperitoneal administration of a large dose (26.5 mg/kg) of MP-S for 3 successive days a week and followed by an intermission for 4 days a week was started from the week of immunization with renal tubular epithelial antigen and continued for 8 weeks, resulting in the retardation of the AIC nephritis induction associated with a partial suppression of the development of proteinuria. Treatment with MP (4 mg/kg) or cyclophosphamide (10 mg/kg) every other day from the week of immunization for 8 weeks partially retarded or completely suppressed the AIC nephritis induction, respectively. On the other hand, the MP-S "pulse" therapy and the MP treatment of rats suffering from the already established AIC nephritis resulted in no apparent improvement of the disease.

  10. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy.

  11. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy induced fall in natural killer cell activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, B K; Beyer, J M; Rasmussen, A; Klarlund, K; Pedersen, B N; Helin, P

    1984-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity was studied in 8 patients with classic or definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by investigating the killing of K 562 cells by peripheral blood lymphocytes before, during, and after intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT). MPPT produced a considerable fall in NK activity and after 3 months NK activity was less than half that before MPPT.

  12. Comparison of Super Stuff and paraffin wax bolus in radiation therapy of irregular surfaces.

    PubMed

    Humphries, S M; Boyd, K; Cornish, P; Newman, F D

    1996-01-01

    Irregular facial contours can make radiation therapy of head and neck tumors difficult. Isodose lines become skewed, making treatment planning complex. A traditional solution to this problem is the paraffin wax box bolus. Such a bolus is made to fit the irregular surface compensating for the topology and creating an even surface. The fabrication of a wax bolus can be a difficult and time-consuming process. A method that is simple and efficient has been devised. Super Stuff bolus can be easily molded and has approximately the same effect as a similar paraffin wax bolus. This was verified by irradiating a Rando head phantom with both a paraffin wax bolus and a Super Stuff bolus. Doses to various points of interest were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chips (LiF). The particular case addressed is malignant melanoma of the nasal septum, but the technique described can be useful in the treatment of other sites as well.

  13. Intensive care nurses' self-reported practice of intravenous fluid bolus therapy.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Glenn M; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Paton, Emily; Glassford, Neil J; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Guijun; Tanaka, Aiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-12-01

    To describe self-reported practice of fluid bolus therapy by intensive care nurses. Multi-choice questionnaire of intensive care nurses conducted in July, 2014. Major university tertiary referral centre. 141 (64%) intensive care nurses responded. The majority of respondents identified 4% albumin as the commonest fluid bolus type and stated a fluid bolus was 250ml; however fluid bolus volume varied from 100ml to 1000ml. Hypotension was identified as the primary physiological trigger for a fluid bolus. In the hour following a fluid bolus for hypotension almost half of respondents expected an 'increase in mean arterial pressure of 0-10mmHg'; for oliguria, >60% expected an 'increase in urinary output of '0.5-1ml/kg/hour'; for low CVP, 50% expected 'an increase in CVP of 3-4mmHg'; and, for tachycardia, 45% expected a 'decrease in heart rate of 11-20beats/minute'. Finally, 7-10% of respondents were 'unsure' about the physiological response to a fluid bolus. Most respondents identified fluid bolus therapy to be at least 250ml of 4% albumin given as quickly as possible; however, volumes from 100 to 1000ml were also accepted. There was much uncertainty about the expected physiological response to fluid bolus therapy according to indication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Delivery confirmation of bolus electron conformal therapy combined with intensity modulated x-ray therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanaugh, James A.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Fontenot, Jonas P.; Henkelmann, Gregory; Chu, Connel; Carver, Robert A.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT) dose plan and a mixed beam plan, composed of an intensity modulated x-ray therapy (IMXT) dose plan optimized on top of the bolus ECT plan, can be accurately delivered. Methods: Calculated dose distributions were compared with measured dose distributions for parotid and chest wall (CW) bolus ECT and mixed beam plans, each simulated in a cylindrical polystyrene phantom that allowed film dose measurements. Bolus ECT plans were created for both parotid and CW PTVs (planning target volumes) using 20 and 16 MeV beams, respectively, whose 90% dose surface conformed to the PTV. Mixed beam plans consisted of an IMXT dose plan optimized on top of the bolus ECT dose plan. The bolus ECT, IMXT, and mixed beam dose distributions were measured using radiographic films in five transverse and one sagittal planes for a total of 36 measurement conditions. Corrections for film dose response, effects of edge-on photon irradiation, and effects of irregular phantom optical properties on the Cerenkov component of the film signal resulted in high precision measurements. Data set consistency was verified by agreement of depth dose at the intersections of the sagittal plane with the five measured transverse planes. For these same depth doses, results for the mixed beam plan agreed with the sum of the individual depth doses for the bolus ECT and IMXT plans. The six mean measured planar dose distributions were compared with those calculated by the treatment planning system for all modalities. Dose agreement was assessed using the 4% dose difference and 0.2 cm distance to agreement. Results: For the combined high-dose region and low-dose region, pass rates for the parotid and CW plans were 98.7% and 96.2%, respectively, for the bolus ECT plans and 97.9% and 97.4%, respectively, for the mixed beam plans. For the high-dose gradient region, pass rates for the parotid and CW plans were 93.1% and 94

  15. Efficacy of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in the treatment of enterovirus 71 encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangyou; Wang, Jiwen; Yao, Guo; Shi, Baohai

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in the treatment of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalitis. To determine whether high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy should be used, 80 cases of pediatric patients with EV71 encephalitis were randomly divided into steroid pulse therapy group and non-steroid pulse therapy group and their clinical information was compared using statistic analysis. There was no statistical difference in the duration of fever, duration of nervous system involvement, duration of hospital stay, blood pressure, and cure rates between the two groups (p>0.05). The heart rate, respiratory rate, white blood cell counts and blood glucose of the steroid pulse therapy group were significantly higher than those of the non-steroid pulse therapy group (p<0.05). High-dose steroid pulse therapy to treat EV71 encephalitis can't shorten the course or improve the prognosis of the disease. In contrast, it has side effects and might aggravate disease condition or interfere with disease diagnosis. Our study suggested that there is no beneficial effect to use high-dose steroid pulse therapy for the treatment of EV71 encephalitis.

  16. Fluid Bolus Therapy-Based Resuscitation for Severe Sepsis in Hospitalized Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gelbart, Ben; Glassford, Neil J; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-10-01

    To review systematically data from randomized and nonrandomized studies of fluid bolus therapy in hospitalized children with septic shock. Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We searched for randomized controlled studies of fluid bolus therapy in children with severe sepsis. We identified retrospective, prospective, and observational studies. We excluded studies of severe sepsis/septic shock due to a specific microbiological etiology, neonatal studies, and studies where advanced supportive therapies were unavailable. Two authors screened articles for inclusion. We identified and analyzed three randomized controlled trials and eight nonrandomized studies. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Two single-center Indian studies and one Brazilian study assessed three different fluid bolus therapy regimens in small cohorts with different populations, physiological triggers, and physiological and clinical outcomes. No randomized controlled trials compared fluid bolus therapy with alternative interventions, such as vasopressors. The nonrandomized studies were heterogeneous in populations, methodology, and outcome measures. No observed physiological differences were identified based on volume of fluid bolus therapy. There are only limited data to support the use of fluid bolus therapy in hospitalized children. Prospective observational data and randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to evaluate this therapy in resource rich settings.

  17. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  18. Utilization of a 3D printer to fabricate boluses used for electron therapy of skin lesions of the eye canthi.

    PubMed

    Łukowiak, Magdalena; Jezierska, Karolina; Boehlke, Marek; Więcko, Marzena; Łukowiak, Adam; Podraza, Wojciech; Lewocki, Mirosław; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Falco, Michał

    2017-01-01

    This work describes the use of 3D printing technology to create individualized boluses for patients treated with electron beam therapy for skin lesions of the eye canthi. It aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-printed over manually fabricated paraffin boluses. The study involved 11 patients for whom the construction of individual boluses were required. CT scans of the fabricated 3D-printed boluses and paraffin boluses were acquired and superimposed onto patient CT scans to compare their fitting, bolus homogeneity, and underlying dose distribution. To quantify the level of matching, multiple metrics were utilized. Matching Level Index (ML) values ranged from 0 to 100%, where 100% indicated a perfect fit between the reference bolus (planned in treatment planning system) and 3D-printed and paraffin bolus. The average ML (± 1 SD) of the 3D-printed boluses was 95.1 ± 2.1%, compared to 46.0 ± 10.1% for the manually fabricated paraffin bolus. Correspondingly, mean doses were closer to the prescribed doses, and dose spreads were less for the dose distributions from the 3D-printed boluses, as compared to those for the manually fabricated paraffin boluses. It was concluded that 3D-printing technology is a viable method for fabricating boluses for small eye lesions and provides boluses superior to our boluses manually fabricated from paraffin sheets. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Bolus electron conformal therapy for the treatment of recurrent inflammatory breast cancer: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Michelle M.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Kanke, James E.; Zhang, Sean; Perkins, George H.

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of locoregionally recurrent breast cancer in patients who have previously undergone radiation therapy is challenging. Special techniques are often required that both eradicate the disease and minimize the risks of retreatment. We report the case of a patient with an early-stage left breast cancer who developed inflammatory-type recurrence requiring re-irradiation of the chest wall using bolus electron conformal therapy with image-guided treatment delivery. The patient was a 51-year-old woman who had undergone lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and adjuvant whole-breast radiation therapy for a stage I left breast cancer in June 1998. In March 2009, she presented at our institution with biopsy-proven recurrent inflammatory carcinoma and was aggressively treated with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by mastectomy that left a positive surgical margin. Given the patient's prior irradiation and irregular chest wall anatomy, bolus electron conformal therapy was used to treat her chest wall and draining lymphatics while sparing the underlying soft tissue. The patient still had no evidence of disease 21 months after treatment. Our results indicate that bolus electron conformal therapy is an accessible, effective radiation treatment approach for recurrent breast cancer in patients with irregular chest wall anatomy as a result of surgery. This approach may complement standard techniques used to reduce locoregional recurrence in the postmastectomy setting.

  20. Clinical application of 3D-printed-step-bolus in post-total-mastectomy electron conformal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwangwoo; Park, Sungjin; Jeon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jinhyun; Kim, Jun Won; Cho, Yoon Jin; Jang, Won-Seok; Keum, Yo Sup; Lee, Ik Jae

    2017-01-01

    The 3D-printed boluses were used during the radiation therapy of the chest wall in six patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). We measured the in-vivo skin doses while both conventional and 3D-printed boluses were placed on the chest wall and compared the mean doses delivered to the ipsilateral lung and the heart. The homogeneity and conformity of the dose distribution in the chest wall for both types of boluses were also evaluated. The uniformity index on the chest skin was improved when the 3D-printed boluses were used, with the overall average skin dose being closer to the prescribed one in the former case (-0.47% versus -4.43%). On comparing the dose-volume histogram (DVH), it was found that the 3D-printed boluses resulted in a reduction in the mean dose to the ipsilateral lung by up to 20%. The precision of dose delivery was improved by 3% with the 3D-printed boluses; in contrast, the conventional step bolus resulted in a precision level of 5%. In conclusion, the use of the 3D-printed boluses resulted in better dose homogeneity and conformity to the chest wall as well as the sparing of the normal organs, especially the lung. This suggested that their routine use on the chest wall as a therapeutic approach during post-mastectomy radiation therapy offers numerous advantages over conventional step boluses. PMID:27784001

  1. Clinical application of 3D-printed-step-bolus in post-total-mastectomy electron conformal therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangwoo; Park, Sungjin; Jeon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jinhyun; Kim, Jun Won; Cho, Yoon Jin; Jang, Won-Seok; Keum, Yo Sup; Lee, Ik Jae

    2017-04-11

    The 3D-printed boluses were used during the radiation therapy of the chest wall in six patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). We measured the in-vivo skin doses while both conventional and 3D-printed boluses were placed on the chest wall and compared the mean doses delivered to the ipsilateral lung and the heart. The homogeneity and conformity of the dose distribution in the chest wall for both types of boluses were also evaluated. The uniformity index on the chest skin was improved when the 3D-printed boluses were used, with the overall average skin dose being closer to the prescribed one in the former case (-0.47% versus -4.43%). On comparing the dose-volume histogram (DVH), it was found that the 3D-printed boluses resulted in a reduction in the mean dose to the ipsilateral lung by up to 20%. The precision of dose delivery was improved by 3% with the 3D-printed boluses; in contrast, the conventional step bolus resulted in a precision level of 5%. In conclusion, the use of the 3D-printed boluses resulted in better dose homogeneity and conformity to the chest wall as well as the sparing of the normal organs, especially the lung. This suggested that their routine use on the chest wall as a therapeutic approach during post-mastectomy radiation therapy offers numerous advantages over conventional step boluses.

  2. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yeon; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Kim, Jung-In

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast. The commercial Super-Flex bolus and 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) bolus were applied to investigate the skin dose of the breast with the MOSFET measurement. Two boluses of 3 and 5 mm thicknesses were selected. There was a good agreement between the dose distribution for a virtual bolus generated by the TPS and PLA bolus. The difference in dose distribution between the virtual bolus and Super-Flex bolus was significant within the bolus and breast due to unwanted air gaps. The average differences between calculated and measured doses in a 200 and 300 cc with PLA bolus were not significant, which were -0.7% and -0.6% for 3mm, and -1.1% and -1.1% for 5 mm, respectively. With the Super-Flex bolus, however, significant dose differences were observed (-5.1% and -3.2% for 3mm, and -6.3% and -4.2% for 5 mm). The 3D-printed solid bolus can reduce the uncertainty of the daily setup and help to overcome the dose discrepancy by unwanted air gaps in the breast cancer radiation therapy.

  3. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Min; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Kim, Jung-in

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. Methods We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast. The commercial Super-Flex bolus and 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) bolus were applied to investigate the skin dose of the breast with the MOSFET measurement. Two boluses of 3 and 5 mm thicknesses were selected. Results There was a good agreement between the dose distribution for a virtual bolus generated by the TPS and PLA bolus. The difference in dose distribution between the virtual bolus and Super-Flex bolus was significant within the bolus and breast due to unwanted air gaps. The average differences between calculated and measured doses in a 200 and 300 cc with PLA bolus were not significant, which were -0.7% and -0.6% for 3mm, and -1.1% and -1.1% for 5 mm, respectively. With the Super-Flex bolus, however, significant dose differences were observed (-5.1% and -3.2% for 3mm, and -6.3% and -4.2% for 5 mm). Conclusion The 3D-printed solid bolus can reduce the uncertainty of the daily setup and help to overcome the dose discrepancy by unwanted air gaps in the breast cancer radiation therapy. PMID:27930717

  4. Fluid bolus therapy: monitoring and predicting fluid responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Carsetti, Andrea; Cecconi, Maurizio; Rhodes, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    When a condition of hypoperfusion has been identified, clinicians must decide whether fluids may increase blood flow or whether other therapeutic approaches are needed. For this purpose, several tests and parameters have been introduced in clinical practice to predict fluid responsiveness and guide therapy. Fluid challenge is the gold standard test to assess the preload dependence of the patients. Moreover, several parameters and tests avoiding fluid administration are now available. Pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation are based on heart-lung interaction and can be used to assess fluid responsiveness. These parameters have several limitations and can really be used in a limited number of critically ill patients. End-expiratory occlusion test and passive leg raising have been proposed to overcome these limitations. The aim of resuscitation is to increase blood flow and perfusion pressure. Dynamic arterial elastance has been recently proposed to predict the pressure response after fluid challenge in preload-dependent patients. Finally, the effects of volume expansion of hemodynamic parameters do not necessarily reach the microcirculation, which should also be assessed. Nowadays, several parameters are available to assess fluid responsiveness. Clinicians need to know all of them, with their limitations, without forgetting that the final aim of all therapies is to improve the microcirculation.

  5. Evaluation of N-acetylcysteine and methylprednisolone as therapies for oxygen and acrolein-induced lung damage

    SciTech Connect

    Critchley, J.A.J.H. ); Beeley, J.M.; Clark, R.J.; Buchanan, J.D. ); Summerfield, M.; Bell, S. ); Spurlock, M.S.; Edginton, J.A.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Reactive oxidizing species are implicated in the etiology of a range of inhalational pulmonary injuries. Consequently, various free radical scavengers have been tested as potential prophylactic agents. The sulfydryl compound, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the only such compound clinically available for use in realistic dosages, and it is well established as an effective antidote for the hepatic and renal toxicity of paracetamol. Another approach in pulmonary injury prophylaxis is methylprednisolone therapy. The authors evaluated NAC and methylprednisolone in two rats models of inhalation injury: 40-hr exposure to >97% oxygen at 1.1 bar and 15-min exposure to acrolein vapor (210 ppm). The increases in lung wet/dry weight ratios, seen with both oxygen and acrolein toxicity were reduced with both treatments. However, with oxygen, NAC therapy was associated with considerably increased mortality and histological changes. Furthermore, IP NAC administration resulted in large volumes of ascitic fluid. With acrolein, IV, NAC had no significant effect on mortality or pulmonary histological damage. Methylprednisolone had no beneficial effects on either the mortality or histological damage observed in either toxicity model. They caution against the ad hoc use of NAC in the management of inhalational pulmonary injury.

  6. Methylprednisolone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestinal disorders (e.g., colitis); severe allergies; and asthma. Methylprednisolone is also used to treat certain types ... during periods of stress (injuries, infections, and severe asthma attacks). Ask your pharmacist or doctor how to ...

  7. Development of autoimmune hepatitis type 1 after pulsed methylprednisolone therapy for multiple sclerosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kanno, Yukiko; Takahashi, Yuta; Sakamoto, Natsumi; Monoe, Kyoko; Saito, Hironobu; Abe, Kazumichi; Yokokawa, Junko; Irisawa, Atsushi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2008-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) was treated with pulsed methylprednisolone and interferon β at a hospital. Four weeks after initiating treatment, liver dysfunction occurred and she was referred and admitted to our hospital. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with and fulfilled the criteria for drug-induced hepatitis, but not for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). She was successfully treated with corticosteroids. As ataxia developed after 1 year, she was treated with pulsed methylprednisolone for 3 d, then readmitted to our hospital when liver dysfunction occurred. Clinical and laboratory findings led to the diagnosis of AIH. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of AIH developed after pulsed methylprednisolone for MS. PMID:18803363

  8. High Relapse Rates Despite Early Intervention with Intravenous Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy for Severe Childhood Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexandra; Trüeb, Ralph M; Theiler, Martin; Hauser, Valérie; Weibel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Previous data suggest that early application of intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy (IV-MPPT) may improve the disease course of alopecia areata. The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome of IV-MPPT in severe childhood alopecia areata, predominantly with short disease duration. Eighteen children (10 girls, 8 boys) younger than 17 years old (median age 7.7 yrs, range 2.1-16.5 yrs) treated with IV-MPPT for severe childhood alopecia areata in a referral center for pediatric dermatology over 3 years (median disease duration 4 mos, range 1-12 mos) were retrospectively evaluated. Five patients had alopecia areata totalis or universalis and 13 had alopecia multilocularis. The median scalp area affected by alopecia was 60% (range 30%-100%). All patients underwent two or three cycles of IV-MPPT at monthly intervals (maximum 500 mg/day on three consecutive days). Within 7 months after the last IV-MPPT session, 10 of 18 children had good response (≥75% of hair regrowth), with eight showing improvement within the first 4 months. Of the remaining eight patients, one had moderate response (50%-74% regrowth), three had poor response (1%-49% regrowth), and four (all with alopecia areata universalis or totalis) had no response. Seven of the initial 10 good responders experienced relapses, with marked hair loss after the last IV-MPPT session. The estimated median time to relapse was 8 months (95% confidence interval 7, 9 mos). IV-MPPT, even early in the course of disease, did not affect long-term outcome of alopecia areata in our group of severely affected patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Post-mastectomy radiation therapy without usage of a bolus may be a reasonable option

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Naoki; Arahira, Satoko; Zenda, Sadamoto; Yoneyama, Kimiyasu; Mukai, Hirofumi; Onozawa, Masakatsu; Toshima, Masamichi; Motegi, Atsushi; Hirano, Yasuhiro; Hojo, Hidehiro; Kibe, Yuichi; Akimoto, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    To clarify the efficacy and toxicity of post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) without usage of a bolus, we identified 129 consecutive patients who received PMRT at the National Cancer Center Hospital East between 2003 and 2012. Seven of the 129 patients who received breast reconstruction before PMRT were excluded. All patients received PMRT of 6 MV photons, without usage of a bolus. The median follow-up duration for all eligible patients was 47.7 months (range: 4.0–123.2). Local, locoregional and isolated locoregional recurrence was found in 12 (9.8%), 14 (11%) and 5 patients (4.1%), respectively. The 3- and 5-year cumulative incidence of local recurrence, locoregional recurrence and isolated locoregional recurrence was 9.2 and 10.7%, 10.8 and 12.4%, and 4.3 and 4.3%, respectively. Although Grade 2 dermatitis was found in 11 patients (9.0%), no Grade 3–4 dermatitis was found. On univariate analysis, only a non-luminal subtype was a significant predictor for local recurrence (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, a non-luminal subtype remained as an independent predictor for local recurrence (P = 0.003, odds ratio: 10.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.23–53.1). In conclusion, PMRT without usage of a bolus resulted in a low rate of severe acute dermatitis without an apparent increase in local recurrence. PMRT without usage of a bolus may be reasonable, especially for patients with a luminal subtype. PMID:27422934

  10. Changes of orbital tissue volumes and proptosis in patients with thyroid extraocular muscle swelling after methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Tomoaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Ohji, Masahito

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the changes of orbital tissue volumes and proptosis after methylprednisolone pulse therapy in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The cross-sectional areas of orbital tissues and proptosis were measured with magnetic resonance imaging in 40 orbits of 20 patients with TAO before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The volumes of the whole orbit, orbital fatty tissue, and extraocular muscles were calculated. The volumes and proptosis were compared before and after treatment using a paired t test. Before treatment, the mean volumes were 33.0 ± 4.8 cm(3) in the whole orbit, 19.9 ± 4.1 cm(3) in the orbital fatty tissue, and 4.6 ± 1.2 cm(3) in the total extraocular muscles. After treatment, the mean volumes were 32.5 ± 4.4 cm(3) in the whole orbit, 19.9 ± 3.7 cm(3) in the orbital fatty tissue, and 4.0 ± 1.0 cm(3) in the total extraocular muscles. The mean volumes of the whole orbit (P = 0.17) and orbital fatty tissue (P = 0.82) were not significantly decreased after treatment, while the mean volume of total extraocular muscles was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). The mean proptosis value was 18.9 ± 2.8 mm before treatment and 18.6 ± 3.4 mm after treatment. The mean proptosis value was not significantly decreased after treatment (P = 0.30). The volume of orbital fatty tissue seemed to be unchanged after methylprednisolone pulse therapy while that of total extraocular muscles was decreased. The proptosis value seemed to be unchanged after treatment.

  11. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Shiqin; Moran, Kathryn; Robar, James L.

    2014-08-15

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.

  12. Effects of Theophylline with Methylprednisolone Combination Therapy on Biomechanics and Histopathology in Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

    PubMed

    Yuzkat, Nureddin; Kati, Ismail; Isik, Yasemin; Kavak, Servet; Goktas, Ugur; Cengiz, Nurettin

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of theophylline and methylprednisolone on the mechanical response and histopathology of hemidiaphragm muscle in rats. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of theophylline and methylprednisolone, which are frequently used in clinics and which have different effects on the respiratory system and on the biomechanics and histopathology of the diaphragm muscle. The study included four groups of rats. Group T received 1 mg/kg of intraperitoneal theophylline, group M received 2 mg/kg of intraperitoneal methylprednisolone, group TM received 1 mg/kg of intraperitoneal theophylline plus 2 mg/kg of intraperitoneal methylprednisolone, and group K received of 1 mL intraperitoneal isotonic solution (of 0.9 % NaCl). The medications were continued for 7 days in each group. The rats underwent cervical dislocation under anesthesia on the eighth day, and their diaphragm samples were extracted. The left hemidiaphragm was used for the investigation of biomechanical parameters, and the right hemidiaphragm was used for the histopathological evaluation. It was observed that the medication administered in group T increased the contraction strength and duration compared with that in group M. Additionally, the duration of semi-relaxation was prolonged in group T compared with group M. The highest contraction strength and the longest contraction period among all of the groups were observed in group TM. It was concluded that the combined use of theophylline and methylprednisolone had positive effects on the contraction strength and the durations of contraction and semi-relaxation of the diaphragm muscle. In addition, both drugs had synergistic effects on each other.

  13. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and... placenta, and metritis. (2) Systemic therapy with methylprednisolone is contraindicated in animals with...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and... placenta, and metritis. (2) Systemic therapy with methylprednisolone is contraindicated in animals with...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and... placenta, and metritis. (2) Systemic therapy with methylprednisolone is contraindicated in animals with...

  16. [Efficacy of methylprednisolone therapy for electrical status epilepticus during sleep in children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhixian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Taoyun; Fu, Na; Wu, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Wang, Shuang; Chang, Xingzhi; Zhang, Yuehua; Bao, Xinhua; Jiang, Yuwu; Qin, Jiong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of methylprednisolone for electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) in children. The clinical and EEG data of 82 epilepsy patients with ESES, which included benign childhood epilepsy with centro temporal spikes (BECT) variants, epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) , Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) collected from department of pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital were analyzed from July 2007 to September 2012. During ESES period, all patients received methylprednisolone treatment for three courses, which included methylprednisolone intravenous infusion for three days, followed by oral prednisone for four days every time. After three courses, prednisone [1-2 mg/(kg × d)] were taken by all patients for 6 months. The ESES phenomenon and seizures were observed before and after treatment. The efficacy of corticosteroid on ESES suppression, seizure control of three epilepsy syndrome were analyzed. Thirty-nine cases were male and 43 cases were female. The epilepsy syndromes included 49 patients diagnosed as benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike (BECT) variants, 27 patients diagnosed as epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS), and 6 patients diagnosed as LKS. Age of onset ranged from 1 year and 4 months to 11 years. The age of ESES newly monitored was from 2 years to 10 years and 8 months. The total effective rate of corticosteroid was 83% (68/82) for ESES, BECT variants was 82% (40/49), CSWS was 81% (22/27), LKS was 100% (6/6). There was no statistically significant difference in effective rates between the front two (χ² = 0.09, P > 0.05). The seizures were improved in the first month after methylprednisolone treatment in 3 epilepsy syndromes. The recurrence rate of BECT variants was 47% (23/49) , CSWS was 59% (16/27) , LKS was 50% (3/6) after 1 year follow up. There was no association between disease parameters, including age at seizure onset

  17. Accuracy of pencil-beam redefinition algorithm dose calculations in patient-like cylindrical phantoms for bolus electron conformal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, Robert L.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Chu, Connel; Fields, Robert S.; Sprunger, Conrad P.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the improved accuracy of the pencil beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA) compared to the pencil beam algorithm (PBA) for bolus electron conformal therapy using cylindrical patient phantoms based on patient computed tomography (CT) scans of retromolar trigone and nose cancer.Methods: PBRA and PBA electron dose calculations were compared with measured dose in retromolar trigone and nose phantoms both with and without bolus. For the bolus treatment plans, a radiation oncologist outlined a planning target volume (PTV) on the central axis slice of the CT scan for each phantom. A bolus was designed using the planning.decimal{sup Registered-Sign} (p.d) software (.decimal, Inc., Sanford, FL) to conform the 90% dose line to the distal surface of the PTV. Dose measurements were taken with thermoluminescent dosimeters placed into predrilled holes. The Pinnacle{sup 3} (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MD) treatment planning system was used to calculate PBA dose distributions. The PBRA dose distributions were calculated with an in-house C++ program. In order to accurately account for the phantom materials a table correlating CT number to relative electron stopping and scattering powers was compiled and used for both PBA and PBRA dose calculations. Accuracy was determined by comparing differences in measured and calculated dose, as well as distance to agreement for each measurement point.Results: The measured doses had an average precision of 0.9%. For the retromolar trigone phantom, the PBRA dose calculations had an average {+-}1{sigma} dose difference (calculated - measured) of -0.65%{+-} 1.62% without the bolus and -0.20%{+-} 1.54% with the bolus. The PBA dose calculation had an average dose difference of 0.19%{+-} 3.27% without the bolus and -0.05%{+-} 3.14% with the bolus. For the nose phantom, the PBRA dose calculations had an average dose difference of 0.50%{+-} 3.06% without bolus and -0.18%{+-} 1.22% with the bolus. The PBA

  18. Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate and metabolites in urine from patients receiving high-dose corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Lawson, G J; Chakraborty, J; Dumasia, M C; Baylis, E M

    1992-02-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the measurement of methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPHS) and its metabolites methylprednisolone (MP), 20-alpha- (20a-HMP), and 20-beta-hydroxymethylprednisolone (20b-HMP) in urine is described. The metabolites were extracted from urine samples using Extrelut columns and eluted with ethylacetate. The mobile phase for RP-HPLC comprised methanol:citrate buffer:tetrahydrofuran (30:65:5, vol/vol/vol) with UV detection at 251 nm. Fractions were collected, pooled and the metabolites present were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and normal-phase HPLC (NP-HPLC). By RP-HPLC 30 +/- 7.3% (mean +/- 1 SD) of the dose was detected in the 0-24 h urine sample following a 1 g MPHS infusion to patients with rheumatoid arthritis; MPHS contributed 9.9 +/- 5.0%, MP 12.1 +/- 2.9%, 20a-HMP 7.8 +/- 2.2%, and 20b-HMP 1.0 +/- 0.3%, respectively. A further 1.0 +/- 0.9% of the administered dose was detected in urine collected 24-48 h postinfusion.

  19. Application of digital infrared thermal imaging in determining inflammatory state and follow-up effect of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tien-Chun; Hsiao, Yung-Lien; Liao, Shu-Lang

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation can cause a local increase in temperature. Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) has been used to monitor the temperature distribution of human skin. Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease, and patients are treated with immunosuppressive agents if the ophthalmopathy is at an inflammatory state. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the feasibility of DITI in determining inflammatory state and follow-up effect of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with GO. Digital infrared thermal imaging was used to measure local temperatures of lateral orbit (reference point), upper eyelid, caruncle, medial conjunctiva, lateral conjunctiva, lower eyelid, and cornea, and to make thermal density plots in 14 patients (28 eyes) with GO including inflammatory signs (mean clinical activity score 2.5), and 16 normal controls (32 eyes). We also performed methylprednisolone pulse therapy in 11 patients (22 eyes) with active GO, and measured clinical activity score and local temperatures before and after treatment. The focal change in temperature after treatment and the correlation between temperature variation and change in clinical activity score were then analyzed. Thermal density plots were also compared. Local temperatures of the caruncle, medial conjunctiva, lateral conjunctiva, and lower eyelid of the patients were significantly higher than those of normal controls. In the 11 GO patients treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy, the temperatures of the caruncle, medial conjunctiva, and lower eyelid were significantly decreased after treatment. Temperature variation significantly and positively correlated with a change in clinical activity score (correlation coefficient = 0.8, n = 22, p = 0.000). The temperature decreased after treatment in patients who were responsive to methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and the thermal density plot was close to that of normal controls. Digital infrared thermal imaging might be helpful in evaluating

  20. Appropriateness of Bolus Antihypertensive Therapy for Elevated Blood Pressure in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph B.; Arter, Andrew; Wilson, Suprat S.; Janke, Alexander T.; Brody, Aaron; Reed, Brian P.; Levy, Phillip D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction While moderate to severely elevated blood pressure (BP) is present in nearly half of all emergency department (ED) patients, the incidence of true hypertensive emergencies in ED patients is low. Administration of bolus intravenous (IV) antihypertensive treatment to lower BP in patients without a true hypertensive emergency is a wasteful practice that is discouraged by hypertension experts; however, anecdotal evidence suggests this occurs with relatively high frequency. Accordingly, we sought to assess the frequency of inappropriate IV antihypertensive treatment in ED patients with elevated BP absent a hypertensive emergency. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study from a single, urban, teaching hospital. Using pharmacy records, we identified patients age 18–89 who received IV antihypertensive treatment in the ED. We defined treatment as inappropriate if documented suspicion for an indicated cardiovascular condition or acute end-organ injury was lacking. Data abstraction included adverse events and 30-day readmission rates, and analysis was primarily descriptive. Results We included a total of 357 patients over an 18-month period. The mean age was 55; 51% were male and 93% black, and 127 (36.4%) were considered inappropriately treated. Overall, labetalol (61%) was the most commonly used medication, followed by enalaprilat (18%), hydralazine (18%), and metoprolol (3%). There were no significant differences between appropriate and inappropriate BP treatment groups in terms of clinical characteristics or adverse events. Hypotension or bradycardia occurred in three (2%) patients in the inappropriate treatment cohort and in two (1%) patients in the appropriately treated cohort. Survival to discharge and 30-day ED revisit rates were equivalent. Conclusion More than one in three patients who were given IV bolus antihypertensive treatment in the ED received such therapy inappropriately by our definition, suggesting that significant resources could

  1. Note: Utilization of polymer gel as a bolus compensator and a dosimeter in the near-surface buildup region for breast-conserving therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, Hiraku Inohira, Masaya; Kawamura, Hiraku; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Katsumi; Sakae, Takeji

    2015-09-15

    Tangential beam radiotherapy is routinely used for radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. A tissue-equivalent bolus placed on the irradiated area shifts the depth of the dose distribution; this bolus provides uniform dose distribution to the breast. The gel bolus made by the BANG-Pro{sup ®} polymer gel and in an oxygen non-transmission pack was applicable as a dosimeter to measure dose distribution in near-surface buildup region. We validated the use of the gel bolus to improve in the whole-breast/chest wall, including the near-surface buildup region.

  2. Defining the characteristics and expectations of fluid bolus therapy: A worldwide perspective.

    PubMed

    Glassford, Neil J; Mårtensson, Johan; Eastwood, Glenn M; Jones, Sarah L; Tanaka, Aiko; Wilkman, Erica; Bailey, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand what clinicians believe defines fluid bolus therapy (FBT) and the expected response to such intervention. We asked intensive care specialists in 30 countries to participate in an electronic questionnaire of their practice, definition, and expectations of FBT. We obtained 3138 responses. Despite much variation, more than 80% of respondents felt that more than 250 mL of either colloid or crystalloid fluid given over less than 30 minutes defined FBT, with crystalloids most acceptable. The most acceptable crystalloid and colloid for use as FBT were 0.9% saline and 4% albumin solution, respectively. Most respondents believed that one or more of the following physiological changes indicates a response to FBT: a mean arterial pressure increase greater than 10 mm Hg, a heart rate decrease greater than 10 beats per minute, an increase in urinary output by more than 10 mL/h, an increase in central venous oxygen saturation greater than 4%, or a lactate decrease greater than 1 mmol/L. Despite wide variability between individuals and countries, clear majority views emerged to describe practice, define FBT, and identify a response to it. Further investigation is now required to describe actual FBT practice and to identify the magnitude and duration of the physiological response to FBT and its relationship to patient-centered outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery.

  4. Alpha-methylprednisolone conjugated cyclodextrin polymer-based nanoparticles for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyeon; Rodgers, Kathleen; Oliver, James C; Schluep, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A glycinate derivative of alpha-methylprednisolone (MP) was prepared and conjugated to a linear cyclodextrin polymer (CDP) with a loading of 12.4% w/w. The polymer conjugate (CDP-MP) self-assembled into nanoparticles with a size of 27 nm. Release kinetics of MP from the polymer conjugate showed a half-life (t1/2) of 50 h in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and 19 h in human plasma. In vitro, the proliferation of human lymphocytes was suppressed to a similar extent but with a delayed effect when CDP-MP was compared with free MP. In vivo, CDP-MP was administered intravenously to mice with collagen-induced arthritis and compared with free MP. CDP-MP was administered weekly for six weeks (0.07, 0.7, and 7 mg/kg/week) and MP was administered daily for six weeks (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg/day). Body weight changes were minimal in all animals. After 28 days, a significant decrease in arthritis score was observed in animals treated weekly with an intermediate or high dose of CDP-MP. Additionally, dorsoplantar swelling was reduced to baseline in animals treated with CDP-MP at the intermediate and high dose level. Histological evaluation showed a reduction in synovitis, pannus formation and disruption of architecture at the highest dose level of CDP-MP. MP administered daily at equivalent cumulative doses showed minimal efficacy in this model. This study demonstrates that conjugation of MP to a cyclodextrin-polymer may improve its efficacy, leading to lower doses and less frequent administration for a safer and more convenient management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. α-Methylprednisolone conjugated cyclodextrin polymer-based nanoparticles for rheumatoid arthritis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jungyeon; Rodgers, Kathleen; Oliver, James C; Schluep, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A glycinate derivative of α-methylprednisolone (MP) was prepared and conjugated to a linear cyclodextrin polymer (CDP) with a loading of 12.4% w/w. The polymer conjugate (CDP-MP) self-assembled into nanoparticles with a size of 27 nm. Release kinetics of MP from the polymer conjugate showed a half-life (t1/2) of 50 h in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and 19 h in human plasma. In vitro, the proliferation of human lymphocytes was suppressed to a similar extent but with a delayed effect when CDP-MP was compared with free MP. In vivo, CDP-MP was administered intravenously to mice with collagen-induced arthritis and compared with free MP. CDP-MP was administered weekly for six weeks (0.07, 0.7, and 7 mg/kg/week) and MP was administered daily for six weeks (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg/day). Body weight changes were minimal in all animals. After 28 days, a significant decrease in arthritis score was observed in animals treated weekly with an intermediate or high dose of CDP-MP. Additionally, dorsoplantar swelling was reduced to baseline in animals treated with CDP-MP at the intermediate and high dose level. Histological evaluation showed a reduction in synovitis, pannus formation and disruption of architecture at the highest dose level of CDP-MP. MP administered daily at equivalent cumulative doses showed minimal efficacy in this model. This study demonstrates that conjugation of MP to a cyclodextrin-polymer may improve its efficacy, leading to lower doses and less frequent administration for a safer and more convenient management of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:18990945

  6. Long-term follow up of pediatric immunoglobulin A nephropathy treated with tonsillectomy plus methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Maeda, Ryo; Kanno, Shuto; Suzuki, Yuichi; Ohara, Shinichiro; Suyama, Kazuhide; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the long-term efficacy of tonsillectomy plus methylprednisolone pulse therapy (tonsillectomy pulse therapy [TMP]) for pediatric immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). The clinical and laboratory findings as well as the prognosis for IgAN treated with TMP at long-term follow up were evaluated. We collected data on 33 IgAN children treated with TMP. The children were retrospectively divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 18 children treated with TMP as the initial therapy, and group 2 consisted of 15 children treated with TMP as rescue therapy for IgAN relapse. The clinical features, and laboratory and pathological findings, including those at first and second renal biopsy as well as at the latest follow up, were analyzed for both groups. Mean urinary protein excretion, incidence of hematuria, and serum creatinine in groups 1 and 2 were all decreased significantly after TMP compared with beforehand. The percentage of glomeruli showing crescents after TMP in groups 1 and 2 was significantly lower than before TMP. At the most recent follow up, 94% of patients in group 1 and 87% in group 2 had normal urine, 6% in group 1 and 13% in group 2 had minor urinary abnormalities, and no patients in either group had active renal disease or renal insufficiency. TMP is effective in ameliorating urinary abnormalities and improving the long-term outcome of pediatric IgAN both as an initial and as a rescue treatment. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Effects of copper oxide wire particle bolus therapy on trichostrongyle fecal egg counts in exotic artiodactylids.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Deidre K; Kinney-Moscona, Allyson; Kaplan, Ray M; Miller, James

    2008-12-01

    Four species of artiodactylids (scimitar-horned oryx [Oryx dama]), roan antelope [Hippotragus equinus], blackbuck [Antilope cervicapra]), and blesbok [Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi]) totaling 13 animals were treated with a one-time 12.5-g dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) in a bolus form. Pretreatment, individual trichostrongyle fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed using the McMaster technique. Individual posttreatment FECs were performed every 7 days for 35 days beginning 7 days after bolus administration, and FEC reduction ratios (FECRRs) expressed as percentage reductions from pretreatment values were calculated every 7 days. Mean FECRRs for the 13 animals were 93% +/- 16%, 98% +/- 7%, 91% +/- 28%, 94% +/- 16%, and 90% +/- 13% at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days posttreatment, respectively. These data demonstrate that COWPs in a bolus form were an effective method for reducing FEC in exotic artiodactylids. Based on this limited data, COWPs show promise as an anthelmintic alternative for exotic artiodactylids in zoologic collections.

  8. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    PubMed

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  9. Intensification of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: An algorithm for basal-bolus therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus is projected to continue to increase worldwide over the next 20 years leading to increased costs in the management of the disease and its associated co-morbidities. Insulin replacement is one of many treatment options that can help to bring about near normoglycemia in the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glycemic control as close to normoglycemia as possible can help to reduce the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications, yet less than one-half of patients with T2DM achieve glycemic targets as recommended by practice guidelines. The purpose of this review is to provide guidance to primary care physicians for the initiation and intensification of basal-bolus insulin therapy in patients with T2DM. Two treatment algorithms that can be both patient- and physician-driven are proposed: a stepwise approach and a multiple daily injections approach. Evidence shaping the two approaches will be discussed alongside management issues that surround the patient treated with insulin: hypoglycemia, weight gain, patient education, and quality of life. PMID:22822902

  10. Serum concentrations of HGF and IL-8 in patients with active Graves' orbitopathy before and after methylprednisolone therapy.

    PubMed

    Nowak, M; Siemińska, L; Karpe, J; Marek, B; Kos-Kudła, B; Kajdaniuk, D

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and orbitopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to evaluate the serum concentration of HGF and IL-8 in the blood of newly diagnosed Graves' disease patients with the first episode of active GO and healthy controls; (2) to estimate the influence of the thyroid function (euthyreosis vs. hyperthyreosis) on HGF and IL-8 blood levels in patients with active GO; (3) to evaluate the influence of intravenous (i.v.) methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy and additional oral MP treatment on HGF and IL-8 blood levels in patients with active GO. Thirty-nine Graves' disease patients with the first episode of clinically active GO (Group A) were enrolled in the study. To estimate the influence of the thyroid function on serum concentrations of the studied proangiogenic factors, Group A was divided into Group A I (n = 18) in euthyroid and Group A II (n = 21) in hyperthyroid stage of Graves' disease in moderate-to-severe stage of GO. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers age- and sex-matched to the GO group. Concentrations of the studied proangiogenic factors in serum samples were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before (Group A) and after (Group A1) intensive pulse i.v.MP treatment and 1 month after the end of additional oral MP treatment (Group A2). We found a significant increase in serum concentrations of studied factors in the GO group before immunosuppressive therapy when compared with the control group and decrease after i.v.MP treatment. One month after the end of additional oral MP treatment (Group A2), serum concentrations of HGF and IL-8 still decreased and no significant difference was observed in HGF and IL-8 concentrations when compared with the control group. We did not find the difference in serum concentration of the studied proangiogenic factors between patients in euthyroid and

  11. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies.

  12. Repetitive use of pulse therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide in addition to oral methotrexate in children with systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis--preliminary results of a longterm study.

    PubMed

    Shaikov, A V; Maximov, A A; Speransky, A I; Lovell, D J; Giannini, E H; Solovyev, S K

    1992-04-01

    Patients with systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) are often poorly responsive to existing therapeutic modalities. We evaluated the effectiveness of pulse therapy consisting of methylprednisolone 30 mg/kg/day for 3 consecutive days combined with cyclophosphamide 0.4 g/m2 body surface area on the 3rd day, for 18 patients with definite systemic JRA, who were enrolled in an open trial of 12 months' duration. The children received pulse therapy every 3 months; oral methotrexate 10 mg/m2 was started after the first pulse. A rapid and clinically significant suppression of systemic and articular manifestations was seen in all patients. Significant decreases in laboratory indices of disease activity were also observed. Side effects were minor and reversible. The results of our preliminary trial support the development of a controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of pulse therapy in systemic JRA.

  13. High-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy for treatment of refractory intestinal involvement caused by Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Sik; Chung, Hee Sup; Kang, Ki-Soo; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2015-03-24

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura is an immunoglobulin A-mediated, small vascular inflammatory disease that can be associated with palpable purpura, arthralgia, abdominal pain, or nephritis. The presence of purpura facilitates the diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura at the onset of associated symptoms, whereas the absence of purpura makes the diagnosis challenging. It is important to diagnose Henoch-Schönlein purpura with delayed-onset skin purpura to avoid unnecessary surgery for acute abdomen. Most cases of Henoch-Schönlein purpura with severe abdominal pain are treated with low-dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. A 15-year-old Korean girl complained of severe abdominal pain and delayed-onset purpura on admission. Henoch-Schönlein purpura was diagnosed based on endoscopic findings of hemorrhagic duodenitis and duodenal vasculitis and abdominal computed tomography findings of edematous bowels. Two common initial treatments, a low-dose steroid and intravenous immunoglobulin, were administered, but there was no improvement for 1 month. Subsequently, we used high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy (30 mg/kg/day, with a maximum of 1g/day), which dramatically alleviated her abdominal symptoms. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy can be used as the ultimate treatment for delayed-onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura with severe abdominal pain when symptoms do not improve after low-dose steroid and intravenous immunoglobulin treatments.

  14. Frequent use of an automated bolus advisor improves glycemic control in pediatric patients treated with insulin pump therapy: results of the Bolus Advisor Benefit Evaluation (BABE) study.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ralph; Rees, Christen; Jacobs, Nehle; Parkin, Christopher G; Lyden, Maureen R; Petersen, Bettina; Wagner, Robin S

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between frequency and sustained bolus advisor (BA) use and glycemic improvement has not been well characterized in pediatric populations. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of frequent and persistent BA use on glycemic control among pediatric type 1 diabetes patients. In this 6-month, single-center, retrospective cohort study, 104 children [61 girls, mean age: 12.7 yr, mean HbA1c 8.0 (1.6)% [64 (17.5) mmol/mol

  15. Evaluation of the Eclipse eMC algorithm for bolus electron conformal therapy using a standard verification dataset.

    PubMed

    Carver, Robert L; Sprunger, Conrad P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Popple, Richard A; Antolak, John A

    2016-05-08

     The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and calculation speed of electron dose distributions calculated by the Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). The recent com-mercial availability of bolus ECT technology requires further validation of the eMC dose calculation algorithm. eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to previously measured TLD-dose points throughout patient-based cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV (planning treatment volume) CT anatomy. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system, and electron dose distributions calculated using 1% and < 0.2% statistical uncertainties. The accuracy of the dose calculations using moderate smoothing and no smooth-ing were evaluated. Dose differences (eMC-calculated less measured dose) were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference, where 100% equals the given dose, as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Dose calculations were also evaluated for calculation speed. Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing showed calculated dose at 89% (41/46) of the measured TLD-dose points was within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA of the measured value. The average dose difference was -0.21%, and the net standard deviation was 2.32%. Differences as large as 3.7% occurred immediately distal to the mandible bone. Results for the nose phantom, using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing, showed calculated dose at 93% (53/57) of the measured TLD-dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. The average dose difference was 1.08%, and the net standard deviation was 3.17%. Differences as large as 10% occurred lateral to the nasal air cavities. Including smoothing had

  16. Evaluation of the Eclipse eMC algorithm for bolus electron conformal therapy using a standard verification dataset.

    PubMed

    Carver, Robert L; Sprunger, Conrad P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Popple, Richard A; Antolak, John A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and calculation speed of electron dose distributions calculated by the Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). The recent commercial availability of bolus ECT technology requires further validation of the eMC dose calculation algorithm. eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to previously measured TLD-dose points throughout patient-based cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV (planning treatment volume) CT anatomy. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system, and electron dose distributions calculated using 1% and <0.2% statistical uncertainties. The accuracy of the dose calculations using moderate smoothing and no smoothing were evaluated. Dose differences (eMC-calculated less measured dose) were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference, where 100% equals the given dose, as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Dose calculations were also evaluated for calculation speed. Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing showed calculated dose at 89% (41/46) of the measured TLD-dose points was within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA of the measured value. The average dose difference was -0.21%, and the net standard deviation was 2.32%. Differences as large as 3.7% occurred immediately distal to the mandible bone. Results for the nose phantom, using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing, showed calculated dose at 93% (53/57) of the measured TLD-dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. The average dose difference was 1.08%, and the net standard deviation was 3.17%. Differences as large as 10% occurred lateral to the nasal air cavities. Including smoothing had

  17. Intravenous fluid bolus therapy: a bi-national survey of critical care nurses' self-reported practice.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, G M; Parke, R; Peck, L; Young, H; Paton, E; Zhang, L; Zhu, G; Tanaka, A; Glassford, N J; Bellomo, R

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of critical care nurses' intravenous fluid bolus therapy (FBT) practice remains underexplored. Using a multi-choice online survey conducted between September and October 2014, we sought to describe the self-reported practice of critical care nurses located in Australia and New Zealand. Two hundred and ninety-five critical care nurses responded to the survey with most practising in adult ICUs. Overall, 0.9% saline solution was the preferred solution for FBT. However, more Australian than New Zealand respondents preferred 'albumin 4%' (31% versus 3.6%, P <0.01) for FBT. In contrast, more New Zealand respondents preferred 'Plasma-Lyte®' (33.3% versus 6.4%, P <0.01). Half of the respondents defined FBT as 250 ml administered as quickly as possible. However, FBT volumes ranged from 100 ml to >1000 ml and administration duration from as quickly as possible to 60 minutes. In response to FBT, almost half of the respondents expected an increase in mean arterial pressure of between 11 to 20 mmHg. Similarly, >40% expected a central venous pressure increase >3 mmHg, >70% expected a urinary output increase of 0.5 to 1.0 ml/kg/hr, and >60% expected a decrease in heart rate of >11 /min. Overall, 0.9% saline remains the most common solution for FBT, but there are significant national differences in the preference for albumin and Plasma-Lyte. A volume of 250 ml defines a fluid bolus, with a range from 100 ml to >1000 ml, and speed of delivery from stat to 60 minutes. Most nurses expect substantial physiological effects with FBT.

  18. Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Dargaville, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from the lung, with resultant improvement in lung function. In human infants both non-randomised studies and two randomised controlled trials have demonstrated a potential benefit of dilute surfactant lavage over standard care. The largest clinical trial, performed by our research group in infants with severe MAS, found that lung lavage using two 15-ml/kg aliquots of dilute surfactant did not reduce the duration of respiratory support, but did appear to reduce the composite outcome of death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A further trial of lavage therapy is planned to more precisely define the effect on survival. Innovative approaches to surfactant therapy have also extended to the preterm infant, for whom the more widespread use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has meant delaying or avoiding administration of surfactant. In an effort to circumvent this problem, less invasive techniques of bolus surfactant therapy have been trialled, including instillation directly into the pharynx, via laryngeal mask and via brief tracheal catheterisation. In a recent clinical trial, instillation of surfactant into the trachea using a flexible feeding tube was found to reduce the need for subsequent intubation. We have developed an alternative method of brief tracheal catheterisation in which surfactant is delivered via a semi-rigid vascular catheter inserted through the vocal cords under direct vision. In studies to date, this technique has been relatively easy to perform, and resulted in rapid improvement in lung function and reduced need for

  19. Safety of closed-loop therapy during reduction or omission of meal boluses in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Elleri, D; Maltoni, G; Allen, J M; Nodale, M; Kumareswaran, K; Leelarathna, L; Thabit, H; Caldwell, K; Wilinska, M E; Calhoun, P; Kollman, C; Dunger, D B; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of closed-loop therapy with meal announcement during reduction and omission of meal insulin boluses in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Twelve adolescents with T1D [six male; mean (s.d.) age 15.9 (1.8) years; mean (s.d.) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 77 (27) mmol/mol] were studied in a randomized crossover study comparing closed-loop therapy with meal announcement with conventional pump therapy over two 24-h stays at a clinical research facility. Identical meals were given on both occasions. The evening meal insulin bolus was calculated to cover half of the carbohydrate content of the meal and no bolus was delivered for lunch. Plasma glucose levels were in the target range of 3.9-10 mmol/l for a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 74 (55,86)% of the time during closed-loop therapy with meal announcement and for 62 (49,75)% of the time during conventional therapy (p = 0.26). Median (IQR) time spent with plasma glucose levels > 10 mmol/l [23 (13,39) vs. 27 (10,50)%; p = 0.88] or < 3.9 mmol/l [1(0,4) vs. 5 (1,10)%; p = 0.24] and mean [standard deviation (SD)] glucose levels [8.0 (7.6,9.3) vs. 7.7 (6.6,10.1) mmol/l, p = 0.79] were also similar. In conclusion, these results assist home testing of closed-loop delivery with meal announcement in adolescents with poorly controlled T1D who miscalculate or miss meal insulin boluses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1408 - Methylprednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Systemic therapy with methylprednisolone is contraindicated in animals with arrested tuberculosis, peptic ulcer, acute psychoses, or cushingoid syndrome. The presence of active tuberculosis, diabetes... corticosteroids may mask signs of infection. (e) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Dogs and cats: 5 to 15 pounds,...

  1. Safety, efficacy and glucose turnover of reduced prandial boluses during closed-loop therapy in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Elleri, D; Biagioni, M; Allen, J M; Kumareswaran, K; Leelarathna, L; Caldwell, K; Nodale, M; Wilinska, M E; Haidar, A; Calhoun, P; Kollman, C; Jackson, N C; Umpleby, A M; Acerini, C L; Dunger, D B; Hovorka, R

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate safety, efficacy and glucose turnover during closed-loop with meal announcement using reduced prandial insulin boluses in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We conducted a randomized crossover study comparing closed-loop therapy with standard prandial insulin boluses versus closed-loop therapy with prandial boluses reduced by 25%. Eight adolescents with T1D [3 males; mean (standard deviation) age 15.9 (1.5) years, glycated haemoglobin 74 (17) mmol/mol; median (interquartile range) total daily dose 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) IU/kg/day] were studied on two 36-h-long visits. In random order, subjects received closed-loop therapy with either standard or reduced insulin boluses administered with main meals (50-80 g carbohydrates) but not with snacks (15-30 g carbohydrates). Stable-label tracer dilution methodology measured total glucose appearance (Ra_total) and glucose disposal (Rd). The median (interquartile range) time spent in target (3.9-10 mmol/l) was similar between the two interventions [74 (66, 84)% vs 80 (65, 96)%; p = 0.87] as was time spent above 10 mmol/l [21.8 (16.3, 33.5)% vs 18.0 (4.1, 34.2)%; p = 0.87] and below 3.9 mmol/l [0 (0, 1.5)% vs 0 (0, 1.8)%; p = 0.88]. Mean plasma glucose was identical during the two interventions [8.4 (0.9) mmol/l; p = 0.98]. Hypoglycaemia occurred once 1.5 h post-meal during closed-loop therapy with standard bolus. Overall insulin delivery was lower with reduced prandial boluses [61.9 (55.2, 75.0) vs 72.5 (63.6, 80.3) IU; p = 0.01] and resulted in lower mean plasma insulin concentration [186 (171, 260) vs 252 (198, 336) pmol/l; p = 0.002]. Lower plasma insulin was also documented overnight [160 (136, 192) vs 191 (133, 252) pmol/l; p = 0.01, pooled nights]. Ra_total was similar [26.3 (21.9, 28.0) vs 25.4 (21.0, 29.2) µmol/kg/min; p = 0.19] during the two interventions as was Rd [25.8 (21.0, 26.9) vs 25.2 (21.2, 28.8) µmol/kg/min; p = 0.46]. A 25% reduction in prandial boluses during closed-loop therapy maintains

  2. SU-E-T-356: Accuracy of Eclipse Electron Macro Monte Carlo Dose Algorithm for Use in Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, R; Popple, R; Benhabib, S; Antolak, J; Sprunger, C; Hogstrom, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of electron dose distribution calculated by the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with recent commercially available bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to those previously measured for cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV CT anatomy for each site. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The bolus ECT treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and calculated using the maximum allowable histories (2×10{sup 9}), resulting in a statistical error of <0.2%. Smoothing was not used for these calculations. Differences between eMC-calculated and measured dose distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Results: Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom showed 89% (41/46) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of −0.12% with a standard deviation of 2.56%. Results for the nose phantom showed 95% (54/57) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of 1.12% with a standard deviation of 3.03%. Dose calculation times for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 15 min and 22 min, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a Varian Eclipse framework agent server (FAS). Results of this study were consistent with those previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and for the .decimal, Inc. pencil beam redefinition algorithm used to plan the bolus. Conclusion: These results show that the accuracy of the Eclipse eMC algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT.

  3. Efficacy of Methylprednisolone in Preventing Lung Injury Following Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Auger, William R.; Marsh, James J.; Devendra, Gehan; Spragg, Roger G.; Kim, Nick H.; Channick, Richard N.; Jamieson, Stuart W.; Madani, Michael M.; Manecke, Gerard R.; Roth, David M.; Shragg, Gordon P.; Fedullo, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of perioperative treatment with methylprednisolone on the development of lung injury after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Methods: This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 98 adult patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who were undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy at a single institution. The patients received either placebo (n = 47) or methylprednisolone (n = 51) (30 mg/kg in the cardiopulmonary bypass prime, 500 mg IV bolus following the final circulatory arrest, and 250 mg IV bolus 36 h after surgery). The primary end point was the presence of lung injury as determined by two independent, blinded physicians using prospectively defined criteria. The secondary end points included ventilator-free, ICU-free, and hospital-free days and selected levels of cytokines in the blood and in BAL fluid. Results: The incidence of lung injury was similar in both treatment groups (45% placebo, 41% steroid; P = .72). There were no statistical differences in the secondary clinical end points between treatment groups. Treatment with methylprednisolone, compared with placebo, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in plasma IL-6 and IL-8, a significant increase in plasma IL-10, and a significant reduction in postoperative IL-1ra and IL-6, but not IL-8 in BAL fluid obtained 1 day after surgery. Conclusions: Perioperative methylprednisolone does not reduce the incidence of lung injury following pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery despite having an antiinflammatory effect on plasma and lavage cytokine levels. PMID:21835900

  4. GLP1-RA Add-on Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Currently on a Bolus Containing Insulin Regimen.

    PubMed

    Davies, Marie L; Pham, David Q; Drab, Scott R

    2016-08-01

    Adding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) to basal insulin regimens has become a guideline-recommended treatment option for uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. However, limited data exist to support the use of GLP-1 RAs with insulin regimens, including bolus insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary objectives of this review were to identify if the combination of a GLP-1 RA and an insulin regimen containing bolus insulin resulted in improvements in HbA1c , weight loss, reduction in insulin doses, and to evaluate the side effect profile of this combination in terms of nausea and hypoglycemia risk. Eight studies using exenatide twice/day, liraglutide, and dulaglutide were reviewed ranging in average duration of follow-up from 3 to 15 months. Seven studies showed that addition of a GLP-1 RA was associated with significant HbA1c reductions ranging from 0.4% to 1.64% from baseline to follow-up. Patients in all eight studies had significant weight loss in the GLP-1 RA arm from baseline to follow-up ranging from 0.87 to 10.2 kg. In all the studies, total daily bolus insulin doses decreased 25-67% from baseline to follow-up. In some studies, a portion of patients were able to discontinue bolus insulin all together after initiation of a GLP-1 RA. In addition, in two randomized trials included in the review, the GLP-1 RA arm showed significant improvement in HbA1c and weight compared with the control group who received basal/bolus regimens. Nausea was identified in 7-42% of participants using GLP-1 RAs with insulin. Data support the use of GLP-1 RAs added to insulin regimens already containing bolus insulin for glycemic control, weight loss, and reduction or discontinuation of bolus insulin.

  5. Switching to basal-bolus insulin therapy is effective and safe in long-term type 2 diabetes patients inadequately controlled with other insulin regimens.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Irene; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan; Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis; María, Miguel Ángel; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    To assess in standard clinical practice the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of switching patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and poor or unstable blood glucose control to basal-bolus insulin therapy. This was a prospective, single center study including 37 patients with T2DM (age 65±8 years, 62.2% men, body mass index 28.8±6.2 kg/m2, diabetes duration 18±8 years) with poor or unstable glycemic control, who were switched to a basal-bolus insulin regimen with glargine and rapid-acting insulin analogue at the discretion of their physicians. After a group-structured outpatient diabetes training program, patients were followed in a clinical practice setting for 6 months. Clinical and biochemical variables were collected before switching and at 3 and 6 months. After switching to basal-bolus therapy, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased from 9±1.2% to 8.1±1.2% (p<0.001) at 3 months and to 8.0±1.2% at 6 months (p<0.001) without changing total daily insulin dose. The proportion of patients with HbA1c ≥ 9% decreased from 51% to 13.8% at 3 months and to 18.9% at 6 months respectively. There was a single episode of severe hypoglycemia. No changes were seen in body weight and quality of life. The size of LDL (low density lipoprotein) particles significantly increased at 3 and 6 months, while all other lipid parameters remained unchanged. Our study confirmed that basal-bolus insulin therapy is feasible, effective, and safe in patients with long-standing T2DM, and does not impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin requirement profiles in Japanese hospitalized subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with basal-bolus insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Seiya; Okubo, Mina; Koga, Kotaro; Sekigami, Taiji; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Igata, Motoyuki; Ishii, Norio; Shimakawa, Akiko; Matsumura, Takeshi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishida, Kenro; Araki, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the total daily inulin dose (TDD) and contribution of basal insulin to TDD and to identify the predictive factors for insulin requirement profiles in subjects with type 2 diabetes, we retrospectively examined insulin requirement profiles of 275 hospitalized subjects treated with basal-bolus insulin therapy (BBT) (mean age, 60.1 ± 12.9 years; HbA1c, 10.2 ± 4.5%). Target plasma glucose level was set between 80 and 129 mg/dL before breakfast and between 80 and 179 mg/dL at 2-hour after each meal without causing hypoglycemia. We also analyzed the relationship between the insulin requirement profiles (TDD and basal/total daily insulin ratio [B/TD ratio]) and insulin-associated clinical parameters. The mean TDD was 0.463 ± 0.190 unit/kg/day (range, 0.16-1.13 unit/kg/day). The mean B/TD ratio was 0.300 ± 0.099 (range, 0.091-0.667). A positive correlation of TDD with B/TD ratio was revealed by linear regression analysis (r=0.129, p=0.03). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified post-breakfast glucose levels before titrating insulin as an independent determinant of the insulin requirement profile [Std β (standard regression coefficient) = 0.228, p<0.01 for TDD, Std β = -0.189, p<0.01 for B/TD ratio]. The TDD was <0.6 unit/kg/day and the B/TD ratio was <0.4 in the majority (70.2%) of subjects in the present study. These findings may have relevance in improving glycemic control and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain in subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with BBT.

  7. Preoperative single-dose methylprednisolone versus placebo after major liver resection in adults: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Alexsander K; Roberts, Derek J; Bhatti, Sana U; Dixon, Elijah; Sutherland, Francis R; Bathe, Oliver F; Ball, Chad G

    2015-10-07

    Although randomised controlled trials have demonstrated that preoperative glucocorticoids may improve postoperative surrogate outcomes among patients undergoing major liver resection, evidence supporting improved patient-important outcomes is lacking. This superiority trial aims to evaluate the effect of administration of a bolus of the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone versus placebo during induction of anaesthesia on postoperative morbidity among adults undergoing elective major liver resection. This will be a randomised, dual-arm, parallel-group, superiority trial. All consecutive adults presenting to a large Canadian tertiary care hospital who consent to undergo major liver resection will be included. Patients aged <18 years and those currently receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy will be excluded. We will randomly allocate participants to a preoperative 500 mg intravenous bolus of methylprednisolone versus placebo. Surgical team members and outcome assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation status. The primary outcome measure will be postoperative complications. Secondary outcome measures will include mortality, the incidence of several specific postoperative complications, and blood levels of select proinflammatory cytokines, acute-phase proteins, and laboratory liver enzymes or function tests on postoperative days 0, 1, 2 and 5. The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality will be compared using Fisher's exact test, while the above laboratory measures will be compared using mixed-effects models with a subject-specific random intercept. This trial will evaluate the protective effect of a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone on the hazard of postoperative complications. A report releasing study results will be submitted for publication in an appropriate journal, approximately 3 months after finishing the data collection. NCT01997658; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  8. Patient-specific bolus for range shifter air gap reduction in intensity-modulated proton therapy of head-and-neck cancer studied with Monte Carlo based plan optimization.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Steven; Barragán, Ana Maria; Souris, Kevin; Poels, Kenneth; Crijns, Wouter; Lee, John A; Sterpin, Edmond; Nuyts, Sandra; Haustermans, Karin; Depuydt, Tom

    2017-09-23

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) of superficial lesions requires pre-absorbing range shifter (RS) to deliver the more shallow spots. RS air gap minimization is important to avoid spot size degradation, but remains challenging in complex geometries such as in head-and-neck cancer (HNC). In this study, clinical endpoints were investigated for patient-specific bolus and for conventional RS solutions, making use of a Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine for IMPT optimization. For 5 oropharyngeal cancer patients, IMPT spot maps were generated using beamlets calculated with MC. The plans were optimized for three different RS configurations: 3D printed on-skin bolus, snout- and nozzle-mounted RS. Organ-at-risk (OAR) doses and late toxicity probabilities were compared between all configuration-specific optimized plans. The use of bolus reduced the mean dose to all OARs compared to snout and nozzle-mounted RS. The contralateral parotid gland and supraglottic larynx received on average 2.9Gy and 4.2Gy less dose compared to the snout RS. Bolus reduced the average probability for xerostomia by 3.0%. For dysphagia, bolus reduced the probability by 2.7%. Quantification of the dosimetric advantage of patient-specific bolus shows significant reductions compared to conventional RS solutions for xerostomia and dysphagia probability. These results motivate the development of a patient-specific bolus solution in IMPT for HNC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The application of temperature measurement of the eyes by digital infrared thermal imaging as a prognostic factor of methylprednisolone pulse therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shyang-Rong; Li, Hung-Yuan; Hsiao, Yung-Lien; Chang, Tien-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) involves autoimmune process resulting in proptosis, congestion, oedema and diplopia. Werner's NOSPECS classification and clinical activity score (CAS) of GO cannot objectively describe the inflammatory status. Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) detects local temperature and may reflect the degree of orbital inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of the eye temperature measured by DITI. Forty-six patients with GO receiving intravenously methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) were included in this study. Local temperatures of the lateral orbit, upper eyelid, inner caruncle, medial conjunctiva, lateral conjunctiva, lower eyelid and cornea were measured with DITI before and after MPT. CAS, proptosis, eye movement (EOM) and diplopia were also recorded. Improvement of CAS was defined as at least one point decrease at either side of the eye, which was 0.5 score decrease as to the average of bilateral CAS. Local temperatures of the eyes decreased after MPT. The mean value of temperature (MT) of 12 points including the lateral orbit, upper eyelid, inner caruncle, medial conjunctiva, lateral conjunctiva and lower eyelid of both eyes before MPT was 32.65 degrees . The mean change of MT after MPT (DeltaT) was -0.22 degrees. DeltaT significantly negative-correlated with basal MT (correlation coefficient=-0.54, p=0.004). Higher baseline MT and CAS before MPT correlated with higher possibility of improvement of CAS after MPT (p=0.013 and 0.012, respectively). Baseline MT and CAS together correlated with improvement of CAS after MPT better than baseline CAS alone could do (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 82.81% and 66.63%, respectively). Basal temperature of the eyes measured by DITI was an objective indicator of inflammation of GO. Combining CAS and MT could better predict the outcome of MPT than CAS alone.

  10. Minimal reduction in insulin dosage with pramlintide therapy when pretreatment near-normal glycemia is established and square-wave meal bolus is used.

    PubMed

    King, Allen B

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of near-normal glucose control before initiation of pramlintide therapy and square-wave meal bolus on self-reported hypoglycemia and the percentage change in dosing parameters after attaining the maximum pramlintide dosage. In this prospective study, insulin pump-treated patients with type 1 diabetes had insulin dosages optimally titrated on the basis of daily continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Pramlintide therapy was initiated, and the dosage was increased 15 mcg/meal per week. Insulin dosage was adjusted during 30-minute visits after review of self-monitored blood glucose records, adverse effects, and hypoglycemia diary. Within 2 weeks of achieving a pramlintide dosage of 60 mcg/meal, the second CGM-guided insulin dosage adjustment was done. The primary end point was the percentage change in total basal insulin dosage (TBD) from baseline. The secondary end points were the percentage change in the insulin to carbohydrate ratio (ICR) and the assessment of symptoms of nausea and hypoglycemia during the pramlintide dosing escalation. Nine patients were enrolled. The difference between before and during CGM-guided insulin dosing was a mean (+/- standard deviation) TBD change of -11.2 +/- 13.2% (P = 0.023) and mean ICR change of 7.8 +/- 13.4% (P = 0.053). Pramlintide was well tolerated and resulted in decrease in weight and hemoglobin A1c values. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6 patients during the study; the assistance of another person was not required in any of these cases. No hypoglycemia was reported in the first week of starting pramlintide. Mild to moderate nausea was reported in 6 patients during the titration phase. Patients with near-normal glucose control who use a square-wave bolus may not need initial bolus dosage reduction. With weight loss, small adjustments in both TBD and ICR may be required. Greater incidence of hypoglycemia seen in previous studies may in part be due to mismatched insulin dosing.

  11. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    SciTech Connect

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  12. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in systemic lupus erythematosus following intravenous methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Pagalavan, L; Kan, F K

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An 18 year old male student, newly diagnosed to have SLE, developed neurological symptoms two days after completing intravenous methylprednisolone. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed features consistent with a diagnosis of probable cerebral toxoplasmosis. He responded dramatically to antitoxoplasma therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature that presents a newly diagnosed SLE patient who rapidly developed cerebral toxoplasmosis following administration of intravenous methylprednisolone. Our case illustrates that this drug is potentially fatal and the importance of differentiating cerebral infection from neuropsychiatric lupus.

  13. 21 CFR 556.400 - Methylprednisolone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone. 556.400 Section 556.400 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.400 Methylprednisolone. A tolerance is established for negligible residues of methylprednisolone in milk at 10 parts per billion. ...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1410 - Methylprednisolone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylprednisolone. 522.1410 Section 522.1410 Food... Methylprednisolone. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 20 or 40 milligrams (mg) of methylprednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000009 and 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1410 - Methylprednisolone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylprednisolone. 522.1410 Section 522.1410 Food... Methylprednisolone. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 20 or 40 milligrams (mg) of methylprednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000009 and 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d...

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Intermittent Boluses to Simple Continuous Infusion on Patients' Global Perceived Effect in Intrathecal Therapy for Pain: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Eldabe, Sam; Duarte, Rui V; Madzinga, Grace; Batterham, Alan M; Brookes, Morag E; Gulve, Ashish P; Perruchoud, Christophe; Raphael, Jon H; Lorenzana, David; Buchser, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery (ITDD) is commonly used for intractable pain management. A paucity of good-quality studies in chronic noncancer patients and concerns over increased dosages have focused interest on different modes of administration. The aim of this international multicenter randomized double-blind crossover trial was to compare the efficacy of the same daily dose of drugs administered by intermittent boluses vs simple continuous infusion. Eligible patients implanted with a programmable ITDD device were randomized to receive two weeks of either intermittent boluses or a simple continuous flow in period 1, followed by a crossover to the alternative mode of administration. The primary outcome measure was the Patients' Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale. The mean proportion of positive responders (at least "minimally improved") was 38.4% in the continuous condition vs 37.3% in the bolus (difference in proportions = 1.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -21.8-24.0%, P  = 0.93). The mean PGIC in the continuous condition was 3.8 vs 3.9 in the bolus (mean difference = -0.1, -0.6-0.4, P  = 0.72). Exploratory analyses revealed a tendency for the mean proportion of positive responders to be higher at low vs high flow rates for both bolus and continuous administrations. Two patients were withdrawn from the study due to adverse events during the bolus phase, both with symptoms of increased pain, and one patient with additional symptoms of numbness and urinary retention. The mean PGIC and proportion of positive responders was not substantially different after intermittent bolus vs continuous administration.

  17. In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging of Axonal Dieback, Blood Flow, and Calcium Influx with Methylprednisolone Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yiling; Chen, Chao; Ji, Xinran; Ju, Furong; Liu, Xingyu; Gan, Wen-Biao; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Shengxiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-01-01

    Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause neurological dysfunction and paralysis. However, the early dynamic changes of neurons and their surrounding environment after SCI are poorly understood. Although methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the standard therapeutic agent for treating SCI, its efficacy remains controversial. The purpose of this project was to investigate the early dynamic changes and MP's efficacy on axonal damage, blood flow, and calcium influx into axons in a mouse SCI model. YFP H-line and Thy1-GCaMP transgenic mice were used in this study. Two-photon microscopy was used for imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx post-injury. We found that MP treatment attenuated progressive damage of axons, increased blood flow, and reduced calcium influx post-injury. Furthermore, microglia/macrophages accumulated in the lesion site after SCI and expressed the proinflammatory mediators iNOS, MCP-1 and IL-1β. MP treatment markedly inhibited the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and reduced the expression of the proinflammatory mediators. MP treatment also improved the recovery of behavioral function post-injury. These findings suggest that MP exerts a neuroprotective effect on SCI treatment by attenuating progressive damage of axons, increasing blood flow, reducing calcium influx, and inhibiting the accumulation of microglia/macrophages after SCI. PMID:25989524

  18. In vivo two-photon imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx with methylprednisolone therapy after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yiling; Chen, Chao; Ji, Xinran; Ju, Furong; Liu, Xingyu; Gan, Wen-Biao; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Shengxiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-05-19

    Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause neurological dysfunction and paralysis. However, the early dynamic changes of neurons and their surrounding environment after SCI are poorly understood. Although methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the standard therapeutic agent for treating SCI, its efficacy remains controversial. The purpose of this project was to investigate the early dynamic changes and MP's efficacy on axonal damage, blood flow, and calcium influx into axons in a mouse SCI model. YFP H-line and Thy1-GCaMP transgenic mice were used in this study. Two-photon microscopy was used for imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx post-injury. We found that MP treatment attenuated progressive damage of axons, increased blood flow, and reduced calcium influx post-injury. Furthermore, microglia/macrophages accumulated in the lesion site after SCI and expressed the proinflammatory mediators iNOS, MCP-1 and IL-1β. MP treatment markedly inhibited the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and reduced the expression of the proinflammatory mediators. MP treatment also improved the recovery of behavioral function post-injury. These findings suggest that MP exerts a neuroprotective effect on SCI treatment by attenuating progressive damage of axons, increasing blood flow, reducing calcium influx, and inhibiting the accumulation of microglia/macrophages after SCI.

  19. Primary treatment of incomplete Kawasaki disease with infliximab and methylprednisolone in a patient with a contraindication to intravenous immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Debbie-Ann; Stephens, Ina

    2010-10-01

    Incomplete Kawasaki disease was diagnosed in a 3-year-old boy. Because intravenous immune globulin infusion was not tolerated, he was treated with infliximab and methylprednisolone. Coronary aneurysms were not visualized on initial or follow-up echocardiograms. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document the use of infliximab and methylprednisolone as first line therapy for Kawasaki disease.

  20. Predicting erythroid response to recombinant erythropoietin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy following a single subcutaneous bolus in patients with myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bowen, David; Hyslop, Ann; Keenan, Norene; Groves, Michael; Culligan, Dominic; Johnson, Peter; Shaw, Ann; Geddes, Fiona; Evans, Patricia; Porter, John; Cavill, Ivor

    2006-05-01

    We randomized 21 patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to receive a single subcutaneous bolus of recombinant erythropoietin (epoietin) +/- granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or placebo and monitored erythropoietic response over 7 days. In this small study, the reticulocyte response at day 7 was highly predictive of subsequent response to a therapeutic trial of epoietin + G-CSF.

  1. Insulin pumps: Beyond basal-bolus.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Richard; Becerra, Nancy Mora; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-12-01

    Insulin pumps are a major advance in diabetes management, making insulin dosing easier and more accurate and providing great flexibility, safety, and efficacy for people who need basal-bolus insulin therapy. They are the preferred treatment for people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes who require insulin. This article reviews the basics of how insulin pumps work, who benefits from a pump, and how to manage inpatients and outpatients on insulin pumps.

  2. Intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion as a salvage treatment for profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Lu, L; Hou, J; Yang, X; Li, H; Yang, Y; She, W

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion as salvage treatment for profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A retrospective clinical study of 97 patients with unilateral profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss was performed. In all, 83 patients who received salvage intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion plus conventional treatment (except for steroids) as the second-line therapy were assigned to the study group, while 14 patients who received conventional treatment alone were assigned to the comparison group. In the study group, treatments in patients with a shorter interval from disease onset to intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion (up to 15 days) had significantly greater improvements in the overall effective rate and pure tone average compared with patients with a longer interval (over 15 days). For patients with a short interval from disease onset to intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion, those in the study group had significantly greater improvements in the overall effective rate and pure tone average compared with those in the comparison group. In both the study and comparison groups, hearing improvements were greater at low frequencies than at medium and high frequencies. The interval from disease onset to intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion was the major factor affecting hearing recovery. Early second-line salvage intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion significantly improved the degree of hearing recovery in profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients after failure of systemic steroid treatment.

  3. CD95/Fas expression on peripheral blood T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis: effect of high-dose methylprednisolone therapy.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Zeljka; Brinar, Vesna; Petravic, Damir; Zurak, Niko; Dubravcic, Klara; Batinic, Drago

    2004-06-01

    Recent data indicate that the apoptotic process, mediated by the CD95/Fas cell surface receptor, is impaired in activated lymphocytes of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Using flow cytometric-immunophenotyping, we analyzed the expression of CD95/Fas on peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (PBL) in 10 MS patients in relapse, and the effect of pulse corticosteroid therapy on the apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes. The proportions of CD8+ and CD8+CD95+ T lymphocytes were significantly higher in MS patients in relapse before than after pulse corticosteroid therapy. Conversely, the proportions of CD4+ and CD4+CD95+ T cells were significantly lower before than after therapy, but not significantly different from healthy persons. The different expression of CD95/Fas on peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes in relapsing RRMS and in healthy controls suggests a possible involvement of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of MS. Our results also show that pulse corticosteroid therapy influences the CD95/Fas expression on CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with RRMS.

  4. Understanding bolus insulin dose timing: the characteristics and experiences of people with diabetes who take bolus insulin.

    PubMed

    Tamborlane, William V; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Brod, Meryl; Nikolajsen, Annie; Sandberg, Anna; Peters, Anne L; Van Name, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Despite the increased popularity of newer, fast-acting bolus insulin treatment options that allow for more flexibility in the timing of bolus insulin dosing in recent years, relatively little is known about people with diabetes who administer bolus insulin at differing times in relation to their meals. The purpose of this study was to investigate bolus insulin dose timing in relation to meals among people with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes, as well as to better understand the characteristics and experiences of people who bolus dose at differing times. A web-based survey of adults with T1D and T2D treated with bolus insulin therapy in Germany, the UK, and USA was conducted. A total of 906 respondents completed the survey (39% T1D; 61% T2D). A majority of respondents reported bolus dosing before meals in the previous week (57.0%), followed by after meals (18.9%), with meals (12.7%), and at varying times (11.5%). Compared to respondents who dosed with or after meals, those who dosed before meals were significantly less likely to experience hypoglycemia (before, 55.7%; with, 72.8%; after, 68.7%; p < .001) in the previous week. Respondents who bolus dosed before meals were significantly more likely to perceive bolus dose timing as flexible (45.5%) compared to those who dosed with (27.8%) or after (35.7%) meals (p < .001). Results show that many people with T1D and T2D dose their bolus insulin with or after meals. Key limitations of all self-report surveys include potential bias in responses and generalizability of findings. However, the study was designed to help mitigate these limitations. The findings have implications for clinicians and suggest opportunities for improving diabetes education and care.

  5. Reinstituting the Bolus - New Reasoning for an Existing Technique.

    PubMed

    McRoberts, Porter W; Pope, Jason E; Apostol, Catalina

    2017-05-01

    Improved intrathecal (IT) pump technology is increasing the accuracy of IT opioid bolus dosing and promising advances in pain therapy. Opioid bolus dosing can be used with a minimal continuous infusion or it can function as the sole therapy. Bolus-only dosing is characterized by minimal use of opioid (often less than 1 mg of IT morphine). It achieves adequate pain control while reducing tolerance and possibly opioid-induced hyperalgesia. It may prevent receptor saturation, and provide a "washing out" of the opioid receptor that prevents the observed dose escalation resulting from continuous infusions. With new bolus dosing possibilities, IT pumps can be used earlier in the treatment algorithm instead of being a late-stage treatment for patients who responded poorly to conservative treatments. We hypothesize that morphine bolus-only IT dosing will have comparable adverse effect rates, and possibly increased safety as compared to the more conservative continuous delivery method. We further predict that bolus-only delivery will provide better therapy satisfaction, improved functional scores, lower 24 hour opioid dose, and less dose escalation.

  6. Development and Clinical Implementation of a Universal Bolus to Maintain Spot Size During Delivery of Base of Skull Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Stefan; Shen, Jiajian; Kirk, Maura; Lin, Liyong; Tang, Shikui; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lustig, Robert; Lin, Haibo; Deville, Curtiland; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Tochner, Zelig; McDonough, James

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To report on a universal bolus (UB) designed to replace the range shifter (RS); the UB allows the treatment of shallow tumors while keeping the pencil beam scanning (PBS) spot size small. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with brain cancers treated from 2010 to 2011 were planned using the PBS technique with bolus and the RS. In-air spot sizes of the pencil beam were measured and compared for 4 conditions (open field, with RS, and with UB at 2- and 8-cm air gap) in isocentric geometry. The UB was applied in our clinic to treat brain tumors, and the plans with UB were compared with the plans with RS. Results: A UB of 5.5 cm water equivalent thickness was found to meet the needs of the majority of patients. By using the UB, the PBS spot sizes are similar with the open beam (P>.1). The heterogeneity index was found to be approximately 10% lower for the UB plans than for the RS plans. The coverage for plans with UB is more conformal than for plans with RS; the largest increase in sparing is usually for peripheral organs at risk. Conclusions: The integrity of the physical properties of the PBS beam can be maintained using a UB that allows for highly conformal PBS treatment design, even in a simple geometry of the fixed beam line when noncoplanar beams are used.

  7. Effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy on glycemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Abe, Mariko; Antoku, Shinichi; Omoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Nishio, Shinya; Mifune, Mizuo; Togane, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy (PPT) injected three times a day to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy (B2B) on glycemic control and quality of life were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The clinical course was prospectively observed during the first 16 weeks after switching to B2B (insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine before breakfast and dinner) in 27 subjects previously treated with PPT using 50/50 premixed insulin. The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) was administered at the start and end of the study. The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (8.3% ± 1.8% to 8.2% ± 1.1%) and the DTSQ score did not change between the start and end of the study. An improvement in HbA1c level was found in nine (33%) subjects. The change in HbA1c showed a significant negative correlation with baseline HbA1c, and was significantly better in patients with a baseline HbA1c >8.0% than in those with an HbA1c ≤ 8.0% (-0.9 ± 2.0 versus 0.3 ± 0.6, respectively, P = 0.02). The change in DTSQ score representing treatment satisfaction was significantly greater in patients whose HbA1c level was improved than in those in whom it was not (2.7 ± 3.6 versus -0.8 ± 3.5, P = 0.04). B2B was noninferior to PPT with regard to HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. B2B should be considered particularly for subjects whose glycemic control is poor despite PPT.

  8. Effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy on glycemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Abe, Mariko; Antoku, Shinichi; Omoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Nishio, Shinya; Mifune, Mizuo; Togane, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy (PPT) injected three times a day to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy (B2B) on glycemic control and quality of life were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The clinical course was prospectively observed during the first 16 weeks after switching to B2B (insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine before breakfast and dinner) in 27 subjects previously treated with PPT using 50/50 premixed insulin. The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) was administered at the start and end of the study. Results The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (8.3%±1.8% to 8.2%±1.1%) and the DTSQ score did not change between the start and end of the study. An improvement in HbA1c level was found in nine (33%) subjects. The change in HbA1c showed a significant negative correlation with baseline HbA1c, and was significantly better in patients with a baseline HbA1c >8.0% than in those with an HbA1c ≤8.0% (−0.9±2.0 versus 0.3±0.6, respectively, P=0.02). The change in DTSQ score representing treatment satisfaction was significantly greater in patients whose HbA1c level was improved than in those in whom it was not (2.7±3.6 versus −0.8±3.5, P=0.04). Conclusion B2B was noninferior to PPT with regard to HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. B2B should be considered particularly for subjects whose glycemic control is poor despite PPT. PMID:24790413

  9. 21 CFR 520.1408 - Methylprednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1408 Methylprednisolone... during the last trimester of pregnancy and may precipitate premature parturition followed by dystocia...

  10. A combination of methylprednisolone and quercetin is effective for the treatment of cardiac contusion following blunt chest trauma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Demir, F.; Güzel, A.; Katı, C.; Karadeniz, C.; Akdemir, U.; Okuyucu, A.; Gacar, A.; Özdemir, S.; Güvenç, T.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac contusion is a potentially fatal complication of blunt chest trauma. The effects of a combination of quercetin and methylprednisolone against trauma-induced cardiac contusion were studied. Thirty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=7) as follows: sham, cardiac contusion with no therapy, treated with methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg on the first day, and 3 mg/kg on the following days), treated with quercetin (50 mg·kg−1·day−1), and treated with a combination of methylprednisolone and quercetin. Serum troponin I (Tn-I) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels and cardiac histopathological findings were evaluated. Tn-I and TNF-α levels were elevated after contusion (P=0.001 and P=0.001). Seven days later, Tn-I and TNF-α levels decreased in the rats treated with methylprednisolone, quercetin, and the combination of methylprednisolone and quercetin compared to the rats without therapy, but a statistical significance was found only with the combination therapy (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). Histopathological degeneration and necrosis scores were statistically lower in the methylprednisolone and quercetin combination group compared to the group treated only with methylprednisolone (P=0.017 and P=0.007, respectively). However, only degeneration scores were lower in the combination therapy group compared to the group treated only with quercetin (P=0.017). Inducible nitric oxide synthase positivity scores were decreased in all treatment groups compared to the untreated groups (P=0.097, P=0.026, and P=0.004, respectively). We conclude that a combination of quercetin and methylprednisolone can be used for the specific treatment of cardiac contusion. PMID:25098616

  11. A combination of methylprednisolone and quercetin is effective for the treatment of cardiac contusion following blunt chest trauma in rats.

    PubMed

    Demir, F; Güzel, A; Kat, C; Karadeniz, C; Akdemir, U; Okuyucu, A; Gacar, A; Özdemir, S; Güvenç, T

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac contusion is a potentially fatal complication of blunt chest trauma. The effects of a combination of quercetin and methylprednisolone against trauma-induced cardiac contusion were studied. Thirty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=7) as follows: sham, cardiac contusion with no therapy, treated with methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg on the first day, and 3 mg/kg on the following days), treated with quercetin (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), and treated with a combination of methylprednisolone and quercetin. Serum troponin I (Tn-I) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels and cardiac histopathological findings were evaluated. Tn-I and TNF-α levels were elevated after contusion (P=0.001 and P=0.001). Seven days later, Tn-I and TNF-α levels decreased in the rats treated with methylprednisolone, quercetin, and the combination of methylprednisolone and quercetin compared to the rats without therapy, but a statistical significance was found only with the combination therapy (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). Histopathological degeneration and necrosis scores were statistically lower in the methylprednisolone and quercetin combination group compared to the group treated only with methylprednisolone (P=0.017 and P=0.007, respectively). However, only degeneration scores were lower in the combination therapy group compared to the group treated only with quercetin (P=0.017). Inducible nitric oxide synthase positivity scores were decreased in all treatment groups compared to the untreated groups (P=0.097, P=0.026, and P=0.004, respectively). We conclude that a combination of quercetin and methylprednisolone can be used for the specific treatment of cardiac contusion.

  12. Transfer of methylprednisolone into breast milk in a mother with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Shaun D; Felkins, Kathleen; Baker, Teresa E; Hale, Thomas W

    2015-05-01

    High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, a glucocorticoid with powerful anti-inflammatory activities, has become increasingly important in treating acute relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS). This is a case report of a 36-year-old lactating female who was receiving a 3-day course of high-dose methylprednisolone (1000 mg IV) to treat MS. Breast milk samples were obtained at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours following a 2-hour intravenous infusion on days 1, 2, and 3. The relative infant dose was found to be 1.45%, 1.35%, and 1.15% for days 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Using the average measured concentrations (C(avg)) for days 1, 2, and 3, the estimated infant exposure was 0.207, 0.194, and 0.164 mg/kg/day, respectively, which is below the recommended dose given to neonates requiring methylprednisolone drug therapy. Infant exposure is low and mothers could continue to breastfeed if treatment with IV methylprednisolone is very brief. However, if the mother wishes to limit infant exposure further, she could wait 2 to 4 hours after IV methylprednisolone administration, thus significantly limiting the amount of drug in the breast milk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic response of methylprednisolone in premenopausal renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tornatore, Kathleen M; Gilliland-Johnson, Kristin K; Farooqui, Mahfooz; Reed, Kris A; Venuto, Rocco C

    2004-09-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is prescribed in renal transplant recipients according to empiric dose-tapering schedules, which assume a similar pharmacologic response in men and women. The study objectives were (a) to compare the pharmacokinetics of methylprednisolone in premenopausal renal transplant recipients with previously studied male counterparts and (b) to describe the pharmacodynamic response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic steroid therapy. Thirteen stable premenopausal subjects (ages 30 to therapy were evaluated for methylprednisolone, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) over 24 hours after an intravenous infusion of methylprednisolone sodium succinate. Most patients were evaluated during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Pharmacokinetic parameters of methylprednisolone with cortisol and ACTH responses were determined. Results were compared to counterpart male subjects who participated in a prior study. The total clearance of methylprednisolone for the female subjects was 15.6 +/- 5.99 L/h compared to the males with 21.5 +/- 8.67 L/h (P <.05). When normalized for total or lean body weight, no significant difference was noted (P =.614). A 3-fold interpatient variation in weight-adjusted clearance was noted for female subjects. Dose-normalized methylprednisolone a AUC was greater in women (66.1 +/- 19.8 ng*h/mL) than men (46.4 +/- 19.7 ng*h/mL) (P =.174). Total cortisol AUC was not different between groups (P =.599). Despite chronic steroid therapy, 9 of 13 women had a normal cortisol profile and an ACTH AUC of 299 +/- 102 pg*h/mL. It was concluded that methylprednisolone clearance in women was significantly slower compared to men. When drug clearance was normalized for total and lean body weight, no gender difference was noted. These findings are in contrast to prior data indicating a more rapid methylprednisolone clearance in healthy women. These findings suggest

  14. Methylprednisolone Protection Against Endotoxin in Lead-Sensitized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marecki, Nelda M.

    1974-01-01

    Lead-sensitized BALB/c male mice are protected against Escherichia coli endotoxin by the intraperitoneal administration of 6α-methylprednisolone. This protection is dependent on time of administration of the methylprednisolone. PMID:4596282

  15. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, W; Swann, B; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; Zhang, M; Fisher, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice.

  16. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  18. Combined orbital floor betamethasone and depot methylprednisolone in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Duguid, I G M; Ford, R L; Horgan, S E; Towler, H M A; Lightman, S L

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the outcome of orbital floor injection of betamethasone and methylprednisolone in the management of uveitis, with particular reference to its efficacy in avoiding increase in systemic immunosuppressive drugs. A sample of all patients attending the Uveitis Service at Moorfields Eye Hospital was carried out over a three-month period. All patients who had received one or more orbital floor injections of betamethasone (4 mg) and methylprednisolone (Depo-Medrone; 40 mg) in the management of their uveitis were identified and the case notes reviewed. A total of 48 patients who had received 75 orbital floor injections were identified during the sample period. Most patients had either panuveitis (n = 24) or pars planitis (n = 14). One-month post-injection visual acuity (VA) had improved by at least one Snellen line after 33/75 injections (44%) and at least two lines after 11/75 (15%), was unchanged after 25 (33%), but had deteriorated in 14 (19%). VA was not recorded after 3/75 injections. The only complications recorded were periorbital haemorrhage (n = 1) and complaints of persistent pain after an injection (n = 1). Symptoms (pain and subjective vision) improved after 36/75 injections (47%), were unchanged after 24 (32%), and were reported as worse after five (7%). Additionally, three patients reported an improvement in symptoms which lasted less than one month. Signs other than VA were improved after 28/75 (37%), were unchanged after 38 (51%), and deteriorated after only one injection. Of the 31 patients given orbital floor injections to avoid systemic therapy, seven (23%) subsequently went on to require it, and the clinical course then improved in 45%. Combined orbital floor injection of betamethasone and methylprednisolone can result in improved visual acuity, symptoms, and signs of inflammation in uveitis, and may therefore avoid the necessity for increased systemic medication.

  19. Carbohydrate counting with an automated bolus calculator helps to improve glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes using multiple daily injection therapy: an 18-month observational study.

    PubMed

    Rabbone, Ivana; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Ignaccolo, Maria Giovanna; Tinti, Davide; Sicignano, Sabrina; Redaelli, Francesca; De Angelis, Laura; Bosetti, Alessandra; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cerutti, Franco

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of carbohydrate counting (carbC), with or without an automated bolus calculator (ABC), in children with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections. We evaluated 85 children, aged 9-16 years, with type 1 diabetes, divided into four groups: controls (n=23), experienced carbC (n=19), experienced carbC+ABC (n=18) and non-experienced carbC+ABC (n=25). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin use, and glycaemic variability - evaluated as high blood glucose index (HBGI) and low blood glucose index (LBGI) - were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 18 months. At baseline, age, disease duration, BMI, HbA1c, insulin use, and HBGI (but not LBGI; p=0.020) were similar for all groups. After 6 months, HbA1c improved from baseline, although not significantly - patients using ABC (according to manufacturer's recommendations) HbA1c 7.14 ± 0.41% at 6 months vs. 7.35 ± 0.53% at baseline, (p=0.136) or without carbC experience HbA1c 7.61±0.62% vs. 7.95 ± 0.99% (p=0.063). Patients using ABC had a better HBGI (p=0.001) and a slightly worse LBGI (p=0.010) than those not using ABC. ABC settings were then personalised. At 18 months, further improvements in HbA1c were seen in children using the ABC, especially in the non-experienced carbC group (-0.42% from baseline; p=0.018). CarbC helped to improve glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes using multiple daily injections. ABC use led to greater improvements in HbA1c, HBGI and LBGI compared with patients using only carbC, regardless of experience with carbC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methylprednisolone improves lactate metabolism through reduction of elevated serum lactate in rat model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ghareghani, Majid; Ghanbari, Amir; Dokoohaki, Shima; Farhadi, Naser; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Mohammadi, Reza; Sadeghi, Heibatollah

    2016-12-01

    Some studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of lactate both in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients as a pathological condition. We designed an experimental study first to investigate the serum level of lactate as a biomarker of MS progression and also to investigate the effect of methylprednisolone on serum lactate. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was inducted in Lewis rats, and then rats were treated intraperitoneally with methylprednisolone (30mg/kg/d), at the disease onset, and the clinical scores were recorded. After seven days of treatment, the serum levels of lactate were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, lymphocyte infiltration and the demyelinated area was analysed in spinal cord. Compared to the untreated-EAE rats, methylprednisolone remarkably improved the clinical score of EAE and ameliorated the spinal cord inflammation and demyelination. In addition, the marked decline in IFN-γ and the increase in IL-4 confirmed improvement in the rats treated with methylprednisolone. Measurement of lactate using HPLC indicated enhancement in the serum level of lactate in the untreated-EAE rats; the lactate level significantly decreased after methylprednisolone therapy. Moreover, serum lactates and disease severity were correlated positively and significantly. These data confirmed for the first time, that methylprednisolone can decreases the enhanced level of serum lactate in EAE model. In addition, it was shown that measurement of serum lactate could be an inexpensive and accurate laboratory test to determine the response to treatment and to assess disease severity in MS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Systemic immunosuppression by methylprednisolone and pregnancy rates in goats undergoing the transfer of cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, C; Cooper, C A; Mohamad-Fauzi, N; Rodrigues, V H V; Aguiar, L H; Gaudencio-Neto, S; Martins, L T; Calderón, C E M; Morais, A S; Carneiro, I S; Almeida, T M; Silva, I N G; Rodrigues, J L; Maga, E A; Murray, J D; Libório, A B; Bertolini, L R; Bertolini, M

    2014-08-01

    The presence of the zona pellucida has been perceived as a requirement for the oviductal transfer of cloned embryos at early stages of development while protecting the embryo from an immune system response. We hypothesized that steroid hormone therapy could reduce a potential cellular immune response after the transfer of zona-free cloned embryos into the oviduct of recipient female goats. In Experiment 1, seven does were used to study the systemic immunosuppressant effect of the methylprednisolone administration (for 3 days) on blood cell counts. Whole blood was collected prior to treatment with methyprednisolone and then on Days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first dose of methylprednisolone for the analysis of haematological parameters. Methylprednisolone treatment significantly reduced circulating white blood cells and neutrophils in comparison with pre-treatment levels, demonstrating a systemic immunosuppressant effect. In Experiment 2, a group of 58 does were used as recipient females to study the effect of administration of methylprednisolone for 3 days on the establishment of pregnancies after the transfer of zona-free cloned embryos into the oviducts. No effects on pregnancy rates on Day 30 were observed regarding the distinct treatment groups (control vs. methylprednisolone), the source of oocytes (in vivo- vs in vitro-matured) or the presence or absence of the zona pellucida in embryos. In summary, methylprednisolone was effective at inducing a systemic immunosuppressed state in goats, but the treatment prior to embryo transfer did not affect pregnancy rates. Moreover, pregnancy rates were similar between zona-free and zona-intact goat cloned embryos. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Steroid dose sparing: pharmacodynamic responses to single versus divided doses of methylprednisolone in man.

    PubMed

    Reiss, W G; Slaughter, R L; Ludwig, E A; Middleton, E; Jusko, W J

    1990-06-01

    Inhibitory drug interactions affecting the metabolism of methylprednisolone (MP) may produce either steroid sparing or adverse effects partly by increasing the exposure time to the steroid. This phenomenon can be mimicked by administering MP in divided doses. Two types of responses were compared after a single MP dose (40 mg bolus) and a divided regimen (20 mg bolus and a 5 mg bolus 8 hours later) in six healthy male volunteers. The suppression of basophils measured as whole blood histamine and plasma cortisol concentrations was assessed during 32 hours. The 37.5% reduction in dose produced a 23% overall decreased blood histamine response. A pharmacodynamic model for basophil cell distribution to and from an extravascular compartment describes the effects of MP after both regimens. A slower initial decline in blood histamine after the divided regimen may be related to incomplete suppression of basophil cell return to blood. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of MP of about 5 ng/ml were similar for both regimens. The decline and return of cortisol concentrations were similar between MP treatments with suppression continuing for 24 hours. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of MP values for adrenal suppression were about 1 ng/ml. Pharmacodynamic modeling is useful in quantitating corticosteroid responses and generally predicted the "dose-sparing" effects that were achieved by prolonging MP plasma concentrations. This study supports previous clinical observations that patients may require morning through evening exposure to MP to optimize efficacy while adrenal suppression is being minimized.

  3. Therapeutic effect of double-filtration plasmapheresis combined with methylprednisolone to treat diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Li, MinXia; Wang, YuanDa; Qiu, Qiang; Wei, RiBao; Gao, YuWei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yong; Zhang, XueGuang; Chen, XiangMei

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), combined with methylprednisolone, to treat diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) was studied. Twenty-four patients who were admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with diffuse proliferative LN (LN Class IV-G(A)) through renal biopsy from 2011 to 2013 were recruited as the study subjects. The patients' clinical manifestations were nephritic syndrome and/or renal insufficiency. The pathological features were glomerular diffuse proliferative lesions. The patients were divided into two groups: the treatment group and the control group, with 12 patients in each group. The patients in the treatment group were first treated with DFPP combined with methylprednisolone (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day); subsequently, they were put on methylprednisolone therapy only. The patients in the control group were first put on methylprednisolone pulse therapy (500-1,000 mg) for 3 days; subsequently, they were treated with methylprednisolone (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g/day). The patients were observed for 24 months. Levels of hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum creatinine, 24-h urinary protein, serum C3 , antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, and anti-Smith were measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Complete remission and recurrence standards were established. The total dosages of methylprednisolone were calculated. Repeated renal biopsy was performed on several patients. There was no statistical significance in the baseline conditions of the treatment and the control groups. For the treatment group, no plasmapheresis-related complications occurred. The two groups showed no significant difference in complete remission. The patients' edema and serous effusion resolved, urine volume, serum creatinine, and albumin levels returned to normal, urine protein decreased in treatment group more rapidly than the patients in the control group. The mean dose of methylprednisolone received in the treatment group

  4. Methylprednisolone suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line MEC-1 regulated by LEF-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qing-Min; Li, Pei-Pei; Liang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Kang; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Ting; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    High dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) has been an effective salvage therapy for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), while little is known about the exact mechanisms implicated in glucocorticoid-induced cell death. To explore the mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced cell death, we investigated the effect of HDMP on canonical Wnt signaling which emerged as a key pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of CLL. In this study, the human CLL cell line MEC-1 was incubated with various concentrations of methylprednisolone. Cell proliferation activity was detected by CCK8 assay, the apoptotic effect was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Western blot was used to detect active-caspase 3, and the key proteins in Wnt signaling pathway (LEF-1, β-catenin). RT-PCR was performed to assess the mRNA levels of β-catenin, LEF-1, c-myc and cyclin D1. We observed that high concentration of methylprednisolone could suppress the proliferation activity of MEC-1 cells, promote the relative expression of active-caspase 3, and induce apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, methylprednisolone could inhibit LEF-1 protein expression, consequently down-regulate mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1, but could not affect the transcription level of β-catenin and LEF-1 mRNA. The results of this study indicate that methylprednisolone can suppress Wnt signaling pathway by down-regulating LEF-1 protein expression, indicating a novel mechanism for HDMP therapy in CLL.

  5. Methylprednisolone suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line MEC-1 regulated by LEF-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qing-Min; Li, Pei-Pei; Liang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Kang; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Ting; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    High dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) has been an effective salvage therapy for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), while little is known about the exact mechanisms implicated in glucocorticoid-induced cell death. To explore the mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced cell death, we investigated the effect of HDMP on canonical Wnt signaling which emerged as a key pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of CLL. In this study, the human CLL cell line MEC-1 was incubated with various concentrations of methylprednisolone. Cell proliferation activity was detected by CCK8 assay, the apoptotic effect was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Western blot was used to detect active-caspase 3, and the key proteins in Wnt signaling pathway (LEF-1, β-catenin). RT-PCR was performed to assess the mRNA levels of β-catenin, LEF-1, c-myc and cyclin D1. We observed that high concentration of methylprednisolone could suppress the proliferation activity of MEC-1 cells, promote the relative expression of active-caspase 3, and induce apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, methylprednisolone could inhibit LEF-1 protein expression, consequently down-regulate mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1, but could not affect the transcription level of β-catenin and LEF-1 mRNA. The results of this study indicate that methylprednisolone can suppress Wnt signaling pathway by down-regulating LEF-1 protein expression, indicating a novel mechanism for HDMP therapy in CLL. PMID:26339357

  6. Electronic bolus design impacts on administration.

    PubMed

    Hentz, F; Umstätter, C; Gilaverte, S; Prado, O R; Silva, C J A; Monteiro, A L G

    2014-06-01

    Electronic identification of animals has become increasingly important worldwide to improve and ensure traceability. In warm and hot climates, such as Brazil, boluses can have advantages over ear tags as the internal devices reduce the risks of ear tag losses, tissue damage, and lesions on the ear. Electronic boluses, however, are often perceived as having negative characteristics, including reported difficulties of administration in small ruminants. This paper describes the factors associated with bolus design that affect the swallowing of a bolus in sheep. Other factors that might influence bolus swallowing time have also been considered. In addition, the effect of bolus design on its performance was evaluated. A total of 56 Suffolk ewes were used to assess the ease of administration and retention of 3 types of electronic ruminal boluses (mini, 11.5 × 58.0 mm and 21.7 g; small, 14.8 × 48.5 mm and 29.5 g; standard, 19.3 × 69.8 mm and 74.4 g) during a whole productive year, including pregnancy and lamb suckling. Ewe age (5.6 ± 2.3 yr) and weight (85.07 ± 8.2 kg BW) were recorded, as well as time for bolus swallowing. The deglutition of the bolus and any resulting blockages in the esophagus were monitored by visual observations. Retention and readability of the boluses were regularly monitored for d 1, wk 1, mo 1, and every mo until 1 yr. Time for bolus swallowing differed substantially with bolus type and was greater (P < 0.05) for the standard bolus (32.8 ± 6.9 s) when compared to small and mini boluses, which did not differ (8.5 ± 2.0 vs. 9.2 ± 2.7 s; P > 0.05). The bolus o.d. and length were positively correlated with swallowing time (P < 0.01). The ewe weight was negatively correlated with swallowing time (P < 0.05). At 6 mo all electronic boluses showed 100% retention rate, and at 12 mo, bolus retention was 100%, 94.5%, and 100% for mini, small, and standard boluses, respectively (P > 0.05). At 12 mo, all boluses showed 100% readability, except for

  7. Effects of iloprost on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats compared with methyl-prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Aytemur, Z A; Hacievliyagil, S S; Iraz, M; Samdanci, E; Ozerol, E; Kuku, I; Nurkabulov, Z; Yildiz, K

    2012-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) has been shown to inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to test the preventive effects of intraperitoneally administered iloprost, a stable PGI2 analog, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and to compare the effects of iloprost with the effects of methyl-prednisolone, a traditional therapy. Rats were randomly allocated into four groups: 1. Saline alone (n=6); 2. Bleomycin+placebo (n=7); 3. Bleomycin+methyl-prednisolone (n=7); 4. Bleomycin+iloprost (n=7). Fibrotic changes in the lungs were demonstrated by analyzing the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, histological evaluation and lung hydroxyproline content. Fibrosis was made in the lungs of rats by bleomycin experimentally. Fibrosis scores in the methyl-prednisolone and the iloprost groups were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the score of the iloprost group was significantly lower than the score of the methyl-prednisolone group. The hydroxyproline content was significantly less in the methyl-prednisolone and the iloprost groups (p<0.05). In the placebo group, the neutrophil percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage was significantly higher than in the other groups, whereas the macrophage percentage in placebo group was significantly lower (p<0.05). Iloprost has protective effect on the pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin and it may be more effective in decreasing fibrotic changes than methyl-prednisolone. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Can Fasting Glucose Levels or Post-Breakfast Glucose Fluctuations Predict the Occurrence of Nocturnal Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Receiving Basal-Bolus Insulin Therapy with Long-Acting Insulin?

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Sumie; Nishimura, Rimei; Ando, Kiyotaka; Tsujino, Daisuke; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the occurrence of nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia may be predicted based on fasting glucose levels and post-breakfast glucose fluctuations. The study subjects comprised type 1 diabetic patients who underwent CGM assessments and received basal-bolus insulin therapy with long-acting insulin. The subjects were evaluated for I) fasting glucose levels and II) the range of post-breakfast glucose elevation (from fasting glucose levels to postprandial 1- and 2-hour glucose levels). The patients were divided into those with asymptomatic hypoglycemia during nighttime and those without for comparison. Optimal cut-off values were also determined for relevant parameters that could predict nighttime hypoglycemia by using ROC analysis. 64 patients (mean HbA1c 8.7 ± 1.8%) were available for analysis. Nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia occurred in 23 patients (35.9%). Fasting glucose levels (I) were significantly lower in those with hypoglycemia than those without (118 ± 35 mg/dL vs. 179 ± 65 mg/dL; P < 0.001). The range of post-breakfast glucose elevation (II) was significantly greater in those with hypoglycemia than in those without (postprandial 1-h, P = 0.003; postprandial 2-h, P = 0.005). The cut-off values determined for relevant factors were as follows: (I) fasting glucose level < 135 mg/dL (sensitivity 0.73/specificity 0.83/AUC 0.79, P < 0.001); and (II) 1-h postprandial elevation > 54 mg/dL (0.65/0.61/0.71, P = 0.006), 2-h postprandial elevation > 78 mg/dL (0.65/0.73/0.71, P = 0.005). Nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia was associated with increases in post-breakfast glucose levels in type 1 diabetes. Study findings also suggest that fasting glucose levels and the range of post-breakfast glucose elevation could help predict the occurrence of nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia.

  9. Efficacy of methylprednisolone sodium succinate for injection (postotic injection) on the auditory threshold and speech recognition rate of sudden deafness patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Da-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of injecting the methylprednisolone in the ear for the sudden deafness and the improvement of speech discrimination test. Methods: 50 inpatients with a sudden hearing loss were recruited. Inject the methylprednisolone in the subperiosteal of the ear which is 0.5 cm distance to the ear ditch every three days. Methylprednisolone was placed for fifteen days. Simultaneously vasodilation, neurotrophic, thrombolysis and insulin hypoglycemia were administered in all patients. Pure tone test and speech discrimination test were conducted at Days 7 & 14 after intervention. Results: The outcome was as follows: cure (n = 8), efficacy (n = 9), effect (n = 18) and no effect (n = 15) respectively. The overall effective rate of 70%. The improvement of pure tone threshold and speech discrimination had significant statistical difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The therapy of postaural methylprednisolone injection can decrease pure tone threshold effectively and increased speech discrimination with a sudden hearing loss. PMID:26550378

  10. Efficacy of methylprednisolone sodium succinate for injection (postotic injection) on the auditory threshold and speech recognition rate of sudden deafness patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Da-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of injecting the methylprednisolone in the ear for the sudden deafness and the improvement of speech discrimination test. 50 inpatients with a sudden hearing loss were recruited. Inject the methylprednisolone in the subperiosteal of the ear which is 0.5 cm distance to the ear ditch every three days. Methylprednisolone was placed for fifteen days. Simultaneously vasodilation, neurotrophic, thrombolysis and insulin hypoglycemia were administered in all patients. Pure tone test and speech discrimination test were conducted at Days 7 & 14 after intervention. The outcome was as follows: cure (n = 8), efficacy (n = 9), effect (n = 18) and no effect (n = 15) respectively. The overall effective rate of 70%. The improvement of pure tone threshold and speech discrimination had significant statistical difference (P < 0.05). The therapy of postaural methylprednisolone injection can decrease pure tone threshold effectively and increased speech discrimination with a sudden hearing loss.

  11. Effects of Methylprednisolone on Intracellular Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Meduri, G. Umberto; Kanangat, Siva; Bronze, Michael; Patterson, David R.; Meduri, Christopher U.; Pak, Chol; Tolley, Elizabeth A.; Schaberg, Dennis R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown positive associations among sustained and intense inflammatory responses and the incidence of bacterial infections. Patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6, have increased risk for developing nosocomial infections attributable to organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp., compared to those patients with lower levels. Our previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that these bacterial strains exhibit enhanced growth extracellularly when supplemented with high concentrations of pure recombinant TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6. In addition, we have shown that the intracellular milieu of phagocytic cells that are exposed to supraoptimal concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) favors survival and replication of ingested bacteria. Therefore, we hypothesized that under conditions of intense inflammation the host's micromilieu favors bacterial infections by exposing phagocytic cells to protracted high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Our clinical studies have shown that methylprednisolone is capable of reducing the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in ARDS patients. Hence, we designed a series of in vitro experiments to test whether human monocytic cells (U937 cells) that are activated with high concentrations of LPS, which upregulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines from these phagocytic cells, would effectively kill or restrict bacterial survival and replication after exposure to methylprednisolone. Fresh isolates of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter were used in our studies. Our results indicate that, compared with the control, stimulation of U937 cells with 100-ng/ml, 1.0-μg/ml, 5.0-μg/ml, or 10.0-μg/ml concentrations of LPS enhanced the intracellular survival and replication of all three species

  12. Efficacy of Cortexin and Methylprednisolone on Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tunçcan, Tuncay; Yalçın, Şinasi; Demir, Caner Feyzi; Akın, Mehmet Mustafa; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Keleş, Erol; Kaygusuz, İrfan

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the efficacy of cortexin and methylprednisolone on recovery in cases of traumatic facial nerve paralysis occurring after facial nerve trauma. The study was performed on 21 healthy rabbits. The buccal branches of the left facial nerves of all the rabbits were pressed, and facial nerve paralysis occurred. The rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: 3 mg/day cortexin intramuscularly, 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone intramuscularly, and 3 mg/day saline intramuscularly were administered for 10 days in Group I (cortexin group), Group II (methylprednisolone group), and Group III (control group), respectively. Electromyography was performed on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days to evaluate their improvement. Following this, the traumatic buccal branches of the facial nerves of rabbits were extracted and subjected to histopathological examination. There was a significant difference between the cortexin and methylprednisolone groups and the control group in terms of neural fibrotic degeneration, myelin degeneration, axonal degeneration, normal myelin production, and edema. When the cortexin and methylprednisolone groups were compared with each other, there was no significant difference between them, except for an increase in collagen fibers. Cortexin significantly reduced the collagen fiber increase to a greater extent than methylprednisolone. The electromyography findings did not show any significant difference between the groups or within the groups. Our study suggests that cortexin and methylprednisolone are effective for healing traumatic facial nerve paralysis with intact nerve integrity; however, cortexin is unable to cause significant improvement, which is superior to that caused by methylprednisolone.

  13. Methylprednisolone Protects Cardiac Pumping Mechanics from Deteriorating in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Chang, Ru-Wen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Liang, Jin-Tung; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that a prolonged low-dose corticosteroid treatment attenuates the severity of inflammation and the intensity and duration of organ system failure. In the present study, we determined whether low-dose methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) can protect male Wistar rats against cardiac pumping defects caused by lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation. For the induction of chronic inflammation, a slow-release ALZET osmotic pump was subcutaneously implanted to infuse lipopolysaccharide (1 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 weeks. The lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats were treated on a daily basis with intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (5 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 weeks. Under conditions of anesthesia and open chest, we recorded left ventricular (LV) pressure and ascending aortic flow signals to calculate the maximal systolic elastance (E max) and the theoretical maximum flow (Q max), using the elastance-resistance model. Physically, E max reflects the contractility of the myocardium as an intact heart, whereas Q max has an inverse relationship with the LV internal resistance. Compared with the sham rats, the cardiodynamic condition was characterized by a decline in E max associated with the increased Q max in the lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Methylprednisolone therapy increased E max, which suggests that the drug may have protected the contractile status from deteriorating in the inflamed heart. By contrast, methylprednisolone therapy considerably reduced Q max, indicating that the drug may have normalized the LV internal resistance. In parallel, the benefits of methylprednisolone on the LV systolic pumping mechanics were associated with the reduced cardiac levels of negative inotropic molecules such as peroxynitrite, malondialdehyde, and high-mobility group box 1 protein. Based on these data, we suggested that low-dose methylprednisolone might prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced decline in cardiac intrinsic contractility and LV

  14. Structural study of polymorphism in methylprednisolone aceponate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, A. V.; Somov, N. V.; Shipilova, A. S.; Gusarova, E. V.; Knyazeva, S. S.; Stepanova, O. V.; Chuprunov, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    The crystal structures of methylprednisolone aceponate were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis at temperatures 90 K and 150 K: space group P212121, a = 14.8592(2), b = 19.6844(5), c = 26.1626(4) Å, Z = 12; R = 0.0598 (T = 90 K); space group P212121, a = 6.57348(14), b = 14.8295(3), c = 26.2214(5) Å, Z = 4; R = 0.0518 (T = 150 K). Features of structural changes in the phase transition were revealed. The abrupt change in the unit cell parameters in the phase transition was shown by low-temperature X-ray powder. The methods of degree of invariance of crystal electron density and molecular Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra were used for the analysis of polymorphism in methylprednisolone aceponate. The atomic structure at 90 K have a translational pseudosymmetry of electron density η = 0.329(1). The decrease of number of intermolecular contacts in the high-temperature modification due to rupture of intermolecular non-valence contacts C/O was observed.

  15. Oesophageal food bolus impaction in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Slobodan M; Karan, Sasa; Karan, Jelena Vucković; Vucinić, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of food bolus impaction in the esophagus is based on the data obtained from the patient, clinical examination, radiographic diagnosis, and endoscopy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of possible factors causing oesophageal impaction of food boluses in elderly people. This retrospective study included six male and eight female patients treated at the Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat Disease in Novi Sad. Post-corrosive oesophageal stricture was diagnosed in 28.57% of patients and non-corrosive stricture was found in 21.43%. Total tooth loss was recorded in 64.29% of patients and 14.29% of patients had partial tooth loss. An impacted food bolus was located at a distance of 15-25 cm or 30-40 cm distance from the upper incisors in 42.86% of the study sample. The impaction of food boluses in the esophagus is significantly higher in women, usually after 76 years of age. There is a positive correlation between the presence of oesophageal stricture and recurrence of food bolus impaction. Partial and total tooth loss is present in a high percentage but there is no correlation with the food bolus impaction. Impaction of food bolus was equally found in the upper and lower third of the oesophagus and it was usually meat. Radiographic diagnosis should precede each esophagoscopy. Esophagoscopy with rigid oesophagoscope is a reliable method for the extraction of a bolus of food from the oesophagus in elderly patients.

  16. Lagrangian clustering detection of internal wave boluses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allshouse, M.; Salvador Vieira, G.; Swinney, H. L.

    2016-02-01

    The shoaling of internal waves on a continental slope or shelf produces boluses that travel up the slope with the wave. The boluses are regions of trapped fluid that are transported along with the wave, unlike fluid in the bulk that is temporarily pertubed by a passing wave. Boluses have been observed to transport oxygen-depleted water and induce rapid changes in temperature (Walter et al, JGR, 2012), both of which have potential ramifications for marine biology. Several previous studies have investigated boluses in systems with two layers of different density (e.g., Helfrich, JFM, 1992, and Sutherland et al., JGR, 2013). We conduct laboratory and computational studies of bolus generation and material transport in continuously stratified fluids with a pycnocline, as in the oceans. Our laboratory experiments in a 4 m long tank are complemented by 2-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. Efforts have been made to identify boluses with Eularian measures in the past, but a Lagrangian perspective is necessary to objectively identify the bolus over its lifespan. Here we use a Lagrangian based coherent structure method relying on trajectory clustering using the fuzzy c-means approach (Froyland and Padberg-Gehle, Chaos, 2015). The objective detection of a bolus enables examination of the volume, distance traveled, and increased available potential energy of a bolus, as a function of the stratification, wave properties, and the angle of the sloping topography. The decay of a bolus through turbulent mixing is investigated by locating where the Richardson number drops below ¼, where velocity shear overcomes the tendency of a stratified fluid to remain stratified. (supported by ONR MURI grant N000141110701)

  17. Methylprednisolone Does Not Reduce Persistent Pain after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Turan, Alparslan; Belley-Cote, Emilie P; Vincent, Jessica; Sessler, Daniel I; Devereaux, Philip J; Yusuf, Salim; van Oostveen, Rachel; Cordova, Gustavo; Yared, Jean-Pierre; Yu, Hai; Legare, Jean-Francois; Royse, Alistair; Rochon, Antoine; Nasr, Vivian; Ayad, Sabry; Quantz, Mackenzie; Lamy, Andre; Whitlock, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    Persistent incisional pain is common after cardiac surgery and is believed to be in part related to inflammation and poorly controlled acute pain. Methylprednisolone is a corticosteroid with substantial antiinflammatory and analgesic properties and is thus likely to ameliorate persistent surgical pain. Therefore, the authors tested the primary hypothesis that patients randomized to methylprednisolone have less persistent incisional pain than those given placebo. One thousand forty-three patients having cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery via a median sternotomy were included in this substudy of Steroids in Cardiac Surgery (SIRS) trial. Patients were randomized to 500 mg intraoperative methylprednisolone or placebo. Incisional pain was assessed at 30 days and 6 months after surgery, and the potential risk factors were also evaluated. Methylprednisolone administration did not reduce pain at 30 days or persistent incisional pain at 6 months, which occurred in 78 of 520 patients (15.7%) in the methylprednisolone group and in 88 of 523 patients (17.8%) in the placebo group. The odds ratio for methylprednisolone was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.09, P = 0.37). Furthermore, there was no difference in worst pain and average pain in the last 24 h, pain interference with daily life, or use of pain medicine at 6 months. Younger age, female sex, and surgical infections were associated with the development of persistent incisional pain. Intraoperative methylprednisolone administration does not reduce persistent incisional pain at 6 months in patients recovering from cardiac surgery.

  18. Gender-based effects on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Kim H.; Ludwig, Elizabeth A.; Milad, Mark A.; Donovan, Kathleen; Middleton, Elliott; Ferry, James J.; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamic responses to methylprednisolone were investigated in six men and six premenopausal women after a dose of 0.6 mg/kg ideal body weight. Women (luteal phase) exhibited a greater methylprednisolone clearance (0.45 versus 0.29 L/hr/kg) and shorter elimination half-life (1.7 versus 2.6 hours) than men. The volume of distribution of methylprednisolone was similar when normalized for ideal body weight. Pharmacodynamic models were used to examine the methylprednisolone suppressive effects on cortisol secretion and basophil and helper T lymphocyte trafficking. A significantly smaller 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value (0.1 versus 1.7 ng/ml) was seen in the women for suppression of cortisol secretion, indicating increased sensitivity. However, the area under the concentration-time curve of effect was similar for both groups. The IC50 values for effects of methylprednisolone on basophil trafficking related to estradiol concentrations in a log-linear fashion in women, with increased sensitivity found at higher estradiol concentrations. Men displayed a greater 24-hour net suppression in blood basophil numbers, but no difference was observed in net cortisol and helper T lymphocyte suppression between the sexes. These findings suggest that methylprednisolone dosages should be based on ideal body weight. Although women are more sensitive to methylprednisolone as measured by cortisol suppression, they eliminate the drug more quickly, generally producing a similar net response. PMID:8222483

  19. Treatment of male genital lichen sclerosus with clobetasol propionate and maintenance with either methylprednisolone aceponate or tacrolimus: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Aikaterini; Patsialas, Christos; Patsatsi, Aikaterini; Sotiriadis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-01

    To assess the efficacy of clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream in male patients suffering from genital lichen sclerosus (GLS), as well as the efficacy of methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream and tacrolimus 0.1% ointment as maintenance therapy. The study was conducted retrospectively. At baseline, male patients with GLS (n = 41) were treated with clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream applied twice daily for 8 weeks. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for pruritus, Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were recorded at baseline, week 8 and week 20. At week 8, patients responsive to treatment (n = 37) were further treated with methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream twice weekly (n = 17) or tacrolimus 0.1% ointment once daily (n = 20), as maintenance therapy until week 20. VAS, IGA and DLQI median scores were significantly decreased from baseline to week 8 (p < 0.001). At week 20, patients treated with methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream presented no significant difference in median IGA score (p = 0.865), median DLQI score (p = 0.853) or median VAS score (p = 0.474) compared with patients treated with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream is effective as first-line treatment in male GLS. The data suggest that there is no difference between methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1% cream and tacrolimus 0.1% ointment in preventing the relapses.

  20. Immunological effects of methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ratzer, R; Romme Christensen, J; Romme Nielsen, B; Sørensen, P S; Börnsen, L; Sellebjerg, F

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the effect of monthly oral methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive MS. 30 progressive MS patients were treated with oral methylprednisolone every month. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Out of 102 leukocyte phenotypes investigated, 25 changed at nominal significance from baseline to week 12 (p<0.05). After correction for multiple comparisons, we found 5 subpopulations that changed compared to baseline. No pattern were suggesting modulation of Th17 or TFH cells. Methylprednisolone pulse treatment has some effects on circulating immune cells but does not modulate markers of Th17 and TFH cell activity in progressive MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lumbar epidural anesthesia in the treatment of discal lombosciatalgia: a comparative clinical study between methylprednisolone and methylprednisolone with levobupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Colhado, Orlando Carlos Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar epidural technique has been used in the treatment of lombosciatalgia since 1953. In most cases, methylprednisolone is used along with a local anesthetic, and it is not known whether the isolated use of methylprednisolone is equally effective in relieving symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different solutions--methylprednisolone with saline and methylprednisolone with levobupivacaine injected in the epidural space to heal lombosciatalgia secondary to lumbar herniated disk. Sixty individuals ASA I and II, of both genders, ages 18 to 65 years participated in this randomized, double-blind study over a period of one year. They underwent interlaminar lumbar epidural analgesia without radioscopic control to heal a lombosciatalgia and they were divided into two groups: G-M (methylprednisolone + saline) and G-M + L (methylprednisolone + levobupivacaine + saline) both at a volume of 10 mL. Diagnosis was based on history, physical exam, and imaging exam (MRI). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was applied in a total of two blockades, 15 days apart. A reduction in pain severity was observed in the methylprednisolone-levobupivacaine group, but without statistical significance. The analgesic efficacy of the G-M + L solution was superior to that of the G-M solution in the treatment of discal lombosciatalgia regarding the shorter time to onset of analgesia, but this was not significant at the time of discharge, and both solutions were effective in the treatment of discal lombosciatalgia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of continuous low dose methylprednisolone infusion on inflammatory parameters in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghiasi, Abbas; Shafiee, Akbar; Salehi Omran, Abbas; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Shirzad, Mahmood; Barkhordari, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    This trial was performed to determine if a continuous low-dose infusion of methylprednisolone is as effective as its bolus of high-dose in reducing inflammatory response. The study was single-center, double-blinded randomized clinical trial and performed in a surgical intensive care unit of an academic hospital. In this study, 72 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were assigned to receive either a methylprednisolone loading dose (1mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion (2mg/Kg/24 hours for 1 day) (low-dose regime) or a single dose of methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg) before cardiopulmonary bypass (high dose regime). Serum concentrations of IL-6 and C- reactive protein (CRP) were measured preoperatively and 6, 24 and 48 hours after surgery, and serum creatinine was measured before the operation and 24, 48 and 72 hours postoperatively. The measurements were then compared between the groups to evaluate the efficacy of each regimen. The basic characteristics and measurements were not different between the study groups. There was no significant difference in IL-6 and CRP elevation (P=0.52 and P=0.46, respectively). Early outcomes such as the length of stay in the intensive care unit, intubation time, changes in serum creatinine and blood glucose levels, inotropic support, insulin requirements, and rate of infection were also similar in both groups. A continuous low dose infusion of methylprednisolone was as effective as a single high dose methylprednisolone in reducing the inflammatory response after CABG with extracorporeal circulation with no significant difference in the postoperative measurements and outcomes.

  3. Intravenous methylprednisolone for intractable childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Almaabdi, Kholoud H; Alshehri, Rawan O; Althubiti, Areej A; Alsharef, Zainab H; Mulla, Sara N; Alshaer, Dareen S; Alfaidi, Nouf S; Jan, Mohammed M

    2014-04-01

    Steroids have been used for the treatment of certain epilepsy types, such as infantile spasms; however, the use in the treatment of other intractable epilepsies has received limited study. We report our experience with intravenous methylprednisolone in children with epilepsy refractory to multiple antiepileptic drugs. A series of consecutive children were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with infantile spasms, progressive degenerative, or metabolic disorders were excluded. Seventeen children aged 2-14 (mean 5.3) years were included. Associated cognitive and motor deficits were recognized in 82%. Most children (88%) had daily seizures and 13 (76%) were admitted previously with status epilepticus. The epilepsy was cryptogenic (unknown etiology) in 47% and the seizures were mixed in 41%. Intravenous methylprednisolone was given at 15 mg/kg per day followed by a weaning dose of oral prednisolone for 2-8 weeks (mean 3 weeks). Children were followed for 6-24 months (mean 18). Six (35%) children became completely seizure free; however, three of them later developed recurrent seizures. At 6 months posttreatment, improved seizure control was noted in 10 (59%) children. Children with mixed seizures were more likely to have a favorable response than those with one seizure type (49% vs 31%, P = 0.02). No major side effects were noted, and 35% of the parents reported improvements in their child's alertness and appetite. Add-on steroid treatment for children with intractable epilepsy is safe and may be effective in some children when used in a short course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fungal Infections Associated with Contaminated Methylprednisolone in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Kainer, Marion A.; Reagan, David R.; Nguyen, Duc B.; Wiese, Andrew D.; Wise, Matthew E.; Ward, Jennifer; Park, Benjamin J.; Kanago, Meredith L.; Baumblatt, Jane; Schaefer, Melissa K.; Berger, Brynn E.; Marder, Ellyn P.; Min, Jea-Young; Dunn, John R.; Smith, Rachel M.; Dreyzehner, John; Jones, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    , seven of whom had stroke. CONCLUSIONS We describe an outbreak of fungal meningitis after epidural or paraspinal glucocorticoid injection with methylprednisolone from a single compounding pharmacy. Rapid recognition of illness and prompt initiation of therapy are important to prevent complications. (Funded by the Tennessee Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) PMID:23131029

  5. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Kainer, Marion A; Reagan, David R; Nguyen, Duc B; Wiese, Andrew D; Wise, Matthew E; Ward, Jennifer; Park, Benjamin J; Kanago, Meredith L; Baumblatt, Jane; Schaefer, Melissa K; Berger, Brynn E; Marder, Ellyn P; Min, Jea-Young; Dunn, John R; Smith, Rachel M; Dreyzehner, John; Jones, Timothy F

    2012-12-06

    describe an outbreak of fungal meningitis after epidural or paraspinal glucocorticoid injection with methylprednisolone from a single compounding pharmacy. Rapid recognition of illness and prompt initiation of therapy are important to prevent complications. (Funded by the Tennessee Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  6. Methylprednisolone for the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Castillo, R A; Palacios, G C; Ramirez-Campos, J; Mora-Puga, M; Diaz-Bustos, R

    2009-12-01

    Epilepsy is a disease characterized by unprovoked epileptic seizures resulting from a bioelectrical brain dysfunction. Antiepileptic treatment controls 75% of all epileptic patients; the other 25% continue to have epileptic seizures in spite of a combination of multiple antiepileptic drugs. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of methylprednisolone in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. Fourteen children with refractory epilepsy at the Hospital de Especialidades No. 25 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Monterrey, Northeast Mexico were included. For five consecutively days, each patient received methylprednisolone by intravenous administration at a dosage of 15 mg/kg/day each 8 h, once a month for 3 months. The frequency of epileptic seizures and possible related side effects were evaluated every month during the three months before, during, and after administration of methylprednisolone. The frequency of epileptic seizures was reduced by more than 50% in 12/14 patients during methylprednisolone treatment. The median number of seizures before treatment with methylprednisolone was 8, 8, and 7; during the treatment: 1, 1, and 1; and after treatment: 2, 2, and 3 (p=0.000). We conclude that methylprednisolone reduces the frequency of epileptic seizures in children with refractory epilepsy.

  7. Unknown Safety and Efficacy of Smartphone Bolus Calculator Apps Puts Patients at Risk for Severe Adverse Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Irl B; Parkin, Christopher G

    2016-07-01

    Manual calculation of bolus insulin dosages can be challenging for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) therapy. Automated bolus calculator capability has recently been made available via enhanced blood glucose meters and smartphone apps. Use of this technology has been shown to improve glycemic control and reduce glycemic variability without changing hypoglycemia; however, the clinical utility of app-based bolus calculators has not been demonstrated. Moreover, recent evidence challenges the safety and efficacy of these smartphone apps. Although the ability to automatically calculate bolus insulin dosages addresses a critical need of MDI-treated individuals, this technology raises concerns about efficacy of treatment and the protection of patient safety. This article discusses key issues and considerations associated with automated bolus calculator use. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of the combination of intratympanic methylprednisolone and oral steroid for idiopathic sudden deafness.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Onur; Pinar, Ercan; Imre, Abdulkadir; Ozturkcan, Sedat; Cokmez, Ozge; Yigiter, Ali Cihan

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of systemic steroid alone and combined with intratympanic methylprednisolone in the treatment of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Settings Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. Seventy-nine patients who met the inclusion criteria for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups according to treatment: group A received combination therapy (intratympanic methylprednisolone + oral steroid) and group B received oral steroid alone. Of the 79 patients included, 6 patients missed the 1-month follow-up visit. Overall, 73 patients (37 combination group, 36 oral steroid group) who completed the 1-month follow-up and study intervention were included in the per-protocol analysis. Both the relationship between certain prognostic factors and the clinical outcome after treatment were analyzed. Combination therapy showed significant hearing improvement and speech discrimination scores compared with the use of systemic steroids alone (P < .05). In hearing outcomes in patients with severe hearing loss, combination therapy had statistically significant hearing improvement compared with oral steroid alone (P < .05). We recommend that combination therapy can be considered as initial treatment especially for patients with severe hearing loss.

  9. Prolonged Administration of Twice-Daily Bolus Intravenous Tacrolimus in the Early Phase After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Mano, Toshifumi; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Otani, Shinji; Yamane, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Motomu; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2017-08-11

    BACKGROUND Although administration of tacrolimus, whether by the enteric, sublingual, or continuous intravenous routes, has some limitations, twice-daily bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration has been shown to be beneficial in optimizing efficacy and safety after lung transplantation. However, at present, the duration of bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration is limited, and the effects of prolonged bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration remain unknown. Our study was aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of prolonged twice-daily bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration in the early phase after lung transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the data of 62 recipients of lung transplantation who had received twice-daily bolus intravenous administration of tacrolimus, followed by oral tacrolimus, after lung transplantation at our institution between January 2011 and October 2015. RESULTS The median duration of bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration was 19 days (4-72 days). The target trough level was achieved in 89% of the patients by day 3. Acute kidney injury occurred in 27% of the patients during bolus intravenous tacrolimus. Two patients (3%) had neurotoxicity, necessitating discontinuation of tacrolimus. Suspected acute rejection requiring steroid pulse therapy occurred in 21% of patients during the follow-up period. Eight patients (13%) developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction during the follow-up period. The 1-year and 5-year survival rates after lung transplantation were 95% and 76%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that prolonged bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration in the early phase after lung transplantation is a safe and effective alternative to enteric, sublingual, or continuous intravenous administration.

  10. Bioavailability investigation of two different oral formulations of methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Geister, U; Guserle, R; Bungers, E; Schaarschmidt, D; Doser, K

    2000-03-01

    Two different oral methylprednisolone (CAS 83-43-2) formulations (Methylprednisolon-ratiopharm 8 mg tables as test preparation (T) and tablets of a reference preparation (R)) were investigated in 16 healthy volunteers in order to prove bioequivalence between these preparations. A single 8 mg oral dose was given according to a randomised two-way crossover design in the fasted state. Blood samples for determination of methylprednisolone plasma concentrations were collected at pre-defined time points up to 16 h following drug administration. A washout period of 3 days separated both treatment periods. Methylprednisolone plasma concentrations were determined by means of a validated HPLC method. Values of 342.53 ng.h/ml (test preparation) and 336.61 ng.h/ml (reference preparation) for the parameter AUC0-infinity demonstrate an nearly identical extent of drug absorption. Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of 66.58 ng/ml and 70.51 ng/ml were achieved for test and reference preparation. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration (tmax) was 2.2 h for both preparations. Cmax and AUC0-infinity-values were tested parametrically by the two one-sided t-test procedure. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals of the T/R-ratios were in the range of 80-125% for AUC0-infinity and 70-143% for Cmax. Based on the results obtained in this study, bioequivalence between Methylprednisolone ratiopharm and the reference preparation was demonstrated.

  11. Clinical implementation of 3D printing in the construction of patient specific bolus for electron beam radiotherapy for non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Canters, Richard A; Lips, Irene M; Wendling, Markus; Kusters, Martijn; van Zeeland, Marianne; Gerritsen, Rianne M; Poortmans, Philip; Verhoef, Cornelia G

    2016-10-01

    Creating an individualized tissue equivalent material build-up (i.e. bolus) for electron beam radiation therapy is complex and highly labour-intensive. We implemented a new clinical workflow in which 3D printing technology is used to create the bolus. A patient-specific bolus is designed in the treatment planning system (TPS) and a shell around it is created in the TPS. The shell is printed and subsequently filled with silicone rubber to make the bolus. Before clinical implementation we performed a planning study with 11 patients to evaluate the difference in tumour coverage between the designed 3D-print bolus and the clinically delivered plan with manually created bolus. For the first 15 clinical patients a second CT scan with the 3D-print bolus was performed to verify the geometrical accuracy. The planning study showed that the V85% of the CTV was on average 97% (3D-print) vs 88% (conventional). Geometric comparison of the 3D-print bolus to the originally contoured bolus showed a high similarity (DSC=0.89). The dose distributions on the second CT scan with the 3D print bolus in position showed only small differences in comparison to the original planning CT scan. The implemented workflow is feasible, patient friendly, safe, and results in high quality dose distributions. This new technique increases time efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of methylprednisolone on laser-induced retinal injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Mordechai; Tchirkov, Marina; Dubinski, Galina; Solberg, Yoram; Belkin, Michael

    1997-05-01

    Methylprednisolone have been demonstrated to ameliorate retinal photic injury. In the current study we examined its effect on laser induced retinal injury. Retinal lesions were inflicted by argon laser in 36 pigmented DA rats. The treated groups received intra-peritoneally methylprednisolone in saline, injected 3 times a day for 2 days, starting immediately after exposure. The controls received the vehicle on the same schedule. The rats were sacrificed 3, 20 or 60 days after laser exposure and the lesions were evaluated by light microscopy and morphometric measurements. Laser injuries were associated with disruption of the outer retinal layers. Three and 20 days after exposure, the loss of the photoreceptor-cell nuclei was significantly milder in the treated groups as compared with controls. There was no difference 60 days after exposure. In conclusion, methylprednisolone reduced temporarily the photoreceptor cell loss in argon laser induced retinal injury, when treatment was started immediately after laser exposure. There was no long term effect.

  13. Perioperative Methylprednisolone and Outcome in Neonates Undergoing Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer S.; He, Xia; Jacobs, Marshall L.; O’Brien, Sean M.; Hall, Matthew; Jaquiss, Robert D. B.; Welke, Karl F.; Peterson, Eric D.; Shah, Samir S.; Gaynor, J. William; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have called into question the benefit of perioperative corticosteroids in children undergoing heart surgery, but have been limited by the lack of placebo control, limited power, and grouping of various steroid regimens together in analysis. We evaluated outcomes across methylprednisolone regimens versus no steroids in a large cohort of neonates. METHODS: Clinical data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database were linked to medication data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database for neonates (≤30 days) undergoing heart surgery (2004–2008) at 25 participating centers. Multivariable analysis adjusting for patient and center characteristics, surgical risk category, and within-center clustering was used to evaluate the association of methylprednisolone regimen with outcome. RESULTS: A total of 3180 neonates were included: 22% received methylprednisolone on both the day before and day of surgery, 12% on the day before surgery only, and 28% on the day of surgery only; 38% did not receive any perioperative steroids. In multivariable analysis, there was no significant mortality or length-of-stay benefit associated with any methylprednisolone regimen versus no steroids, and no difference in postoperative infection. In subgroup analysis by surgical-risk group, there was a significant association of methylprednisolone with infection consistent across all regimens (overall odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.3–5.2) in the lower-surgical-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter observational analysis did not find any benefit associated with methylprednisolone in neonates undergoing heart surgery and suggested increased infection in certain subgroups. These data reinforce the need for a large randomized trial in this population. PMID:22271697

  14. 21 CFR 520.1158 - Iodochlorhydroxyquin boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodochlorhydroxyquin boluses. 520.1158 Section 520.1158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  15. Monthly methylprednisolone in combination with interferon beta or glatiramer acetate for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A multicentre, single-blind, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Ozakbas, Serkan; Cinar, Bilge Piri; Kosehasanoğullari, Gorkem; Kahraman, Turhan; Oz, Didem; Kursun, Behice Bircan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is usually clinically characterized by repeated subacute relapses followed by remissions. Corticosteroids are used for relapses, and this treatment has been shown to increase the speed of recovery from these. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed methylprednisolone given every month as an add-on therapy to interferon beta or glatiramer acetate in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. This was a multi-center, examiner-blinded, prospective study. Absolute annualized relapse rates and Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were calculated. 103 patients were given intravenous methylprednisolone (1 dose of 1g IV) once a month for 12 months as add-on therapy and were assessed during this period. The decrease in the absolute annualized relapse rate was 0.69, and 72 patients were relapse-free at the end of the year. Sixty-nine of the 103 patients had the same Expanded Disability Status Scale scores at the end of one year, while 21 were less disabled, and 13 sustained disability progression. Health related quality of life measured using the MS Quality of Life scale improved significantly during the study period. The addition of monthly pulsed methylprednisolone to subcutaneous interferon beta or glatiramer acetate therapy significantly reduced the relapse rate and may also be beneficial in terms of disease progression. These combinations were also safe, and most patients tolerated methylprednisolone as an add-on to interferon beta or glatiramer acetate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inflammatory cytokine and osmolarity changes in the tears of dry eye patients treated with topical 1% methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hwan; Min, Kyung; Kim, Se Kyung; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Tae-im

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate changes in clinical outcomes, inflammatory cytokine levels, and tear osmolarity in the tears of patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome before and after the application of topical 1% methylprednisolone. Thirty-two patients with moderate to severe dry eye unresponsive to previous aqueous enhancement therapy were enrolled. Five patients were lost to follow up, and twenty-seven patients were eligible for analysis. Patients were instructed to apply topical 1% methylprednisolone four times per day, as well as to continue applying their current therapy of preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate four times per day. Corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), Schirmer test, and tear osmolarity were assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Tear samples were collected at every visit for cytokine analysis. Corneal and conjunctival staining scores and TFBUT showed significant improvement at 4 (p<0.001, <0.001, <0.001 respectively) and 8 (p<0.001, <0.001, <0.001 respectively) weeks. Tear osmolarity decreased significantly at 8 weeks (p=0.008). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were significantly decreased at 8 weeks compared with those at baseline (p=0.041, 0.001, 0.008 respectively). Short-term treatment with topical 1% methylprednisolone not only improved clinical outcomes, but also decreased tear osmolarity and cytokine levels. By measuring the changes in cytokine levels and tear osmolarity, we could objectively evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of topical methylprednisolone applied in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome.

  17. Glucagon Is a Safe and Inexpensive Initial Strategy in Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jason; Leo, Julia; Vakil, Nimish

    2016-03-01

    Controversy exists about the utility of pharmacologic agents and endoscopic technique used for esophageal food bolus impaction. To evaluate the utility of glucagon and the technique used for endoscopic removal, including the rate of success and the adverse events of the techniques. The database of the largest healthcare provider in southeastern Wisconsin was retrospectively reviewed for patients presenting with esophageal food bolus impaction. Data extracted included glucagon administration and its success rate, outcome of radiographic studies, and the endoscopic method of removal and adverse events associated with it, including 30-day mortality. A total of 750 patients were identified with food bolus impaction from 2007 to 2012. Glucagon was administered in 440 patients and was successful in 174 (39.5%). Endoscopic removal was performed in 470 patients and was successful in 469 (99.8%). The push technique was utilized in 209 patients, reduction in the bolus size by piecemeal removal followed by the push technique was utilized in 97 patients, and the pull technique was utilized in 107 patients. There were no perforations with endoscopic removal. Only 4.5% of the X-rays performed reported a possible foreign body within the esophagus. Glucagon was a significantly less-expensive strategy than endoscopic therapy (p < 0.0001). Glucagon is low cost, is moderately effective, and may be considered as an initial strategy. Endoscopic removal regardless of technique is safe and effective. The yield of radiography is poor in the setting of food bolus impaction.

  18. Bolus vs. continuous feeding to optimize anabolism in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonates with feeding difficulties can be fed by orogastric tube, using either continuous or bolus delivery. This review reports on recent findings that bolus is advantageous compared to continuous feeding in supporting optimal protein anabolism. Whether bolus or continuous feeding is more beneficia...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1197 - Ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. 520.1197... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1197 Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. (a) Specifications. Each sustained-release bolus contains 1.72 grams of ivermectin...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1197 - Ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. 520.1197... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1197 Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. (a) Specifications. Each sustained-release bolus contains 1.72 grams of ivermectin...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1197 - Ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. 520.1197... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1197 Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. (a) Specifications. Each sustained-release bolus contains 1.72 grams of ivermectin...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1197 - Ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. 520.1197... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1197 Ivermectin sustained-release bolus. (a) Specifications. Each sustained-release bolus contains 1.72 grams of ivermectin...

  3. Methyl-prednisolone in neurologic complications of Mycoplasma pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gücüyener, K; Simşek, F; Yilmaz, O; Serdaroğlu, A

    2000-06-01

    In patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia extrapulmonary manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, cerebellar and brain stem involvement, cranial nerve lesions, peripheral neuropathy, polymyositis have been observed. We report a 16-year-old girl with M. pneumonia infection, acute behavioral changes and coma. Treatment with high dose methyl-prednisolone and clarithromycin led to rapid clinical improvement.

  4. Fungal Contamination of Methylprednisolone Causing Recurrent Lumbosacral Intradural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Mark B.; Hsu, Wesley

    2017-01-01

    Fungal meningitis transmitted through injections of methylprednisolone contaminated with Exserohilum rostratum affected 753 persons and caused 61 deaths in the United States in 2012. We report a case of infection recurrence after 24-months with the unique manifestation of an intradural fungal abscess. Fungal disease should remain on the differential diagnosis list for previously exposed patients. PMID:28221116

  5. Subcutaneous "bolus" immunoglobulin dose in CIDP: A proof-of concept study.

    PubMed

    Cocito, Dario; Peci, Erdita; Romagnolo, Alberto; Rigaldo, Simona; Rosso, Michela; Lopiano, Leonardo; Merola, Aristide

    2017-09-15

    Subcutaneous (SC) immunoglobulin (Ig) is an effective therapy for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). However, optimal dosage and frequency of administration remain to be clarified. We sought to assess the feasibility and tolerability of a novel regimen of SCIg administration, based on concentrated "bolus" doses delivered every other week, as compared to the "conventional" SCIg regimen, based on 1-3 administrations/week. Consecutively consenting CIDP patients (6 men and 1 woman) were crossed-over from SCIg "conventional" to SCIg "bolus" and followed-up for 6months. The main endpoints were: tolerability, defined as the percentage of patients successfully completing the study, patient's perceived disability, as measured by the Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (R-ODS), life quality index (LQI), and inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scale. SCIg "bolus" was well tolerated by all patients. The R-ODS score significantly improved (p=0.042), as well as the LQI sub-domains related to the interference of treatment in daily living activities (p=0.026), and therapy-related problems (p=0.039). No significant change was observed in the INCAT (p=0.317) score. There were no cases of drop-out and/or dose adjustment during follow-up. SCIg "bolus" seems to represent an effective and well-tolerated option for CIDP maintenance therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spinal cord injuries in older children: is there a role for high-dose methylprednisolone?

    PubMed

    Arora, Bhawana; Suresh, Srinivasan

    2011-12-01

    We present a retrospective case series of 15 children (aged 8-16 years) with blunt traumatic spinal cord injury who were treated with methylprednisolone as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of all patients, 12 (80%) were male. Causes were sports injuries (n = 9), motor vehicle crashes (n = 2), and falls (n = 4). Most injuries were nonskeletal (n = 14), and all patients had incomplete injury of the spinal cord. The most common location of tenderness was cervical (n = 7). Of the 15 patients, methylprednisolone was initiated within 3 hours in 13 patients and between 3 and 8 hours in 2 patients. All patients received the medication for 23 hours as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of the 15 patients, 13 recovered completely by 24 hours and were discharged with a diagnosis of spinal cord concussion. One patient had compression fracture of T5 and T3-T5 spinal contusion but no long-term neurological deficit. One patient was discharged with diagnosis of C1-C3 spinal cord contusion (by magnetic resonance imaging) and had partial recovery at 2 years after injury. All patients with a diagnosis of cord concussion had normal plain films of the spine and computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. None of the patients had any associated major traumatic injuries to other organ systems. The high-dose steroid therapy did not result in any serious bacterial infections.

  7. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Hosotsubo, Miyu; Magota, Tetsuro; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young’s modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing. PMID:27977775

  8. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Hosotsubo, Miyu; Magota, Tetsuro; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young's modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

  9. Comparison of methylprednisolone plus prednisolone with prednisolone alone as initial treatment in adult-onset minimal change disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shinzawa, Maki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Oseto, Susumu; Mori, Daisuke; Tomida, Kodo; Hayashi, Terumasa; Izumi, Masaaki; Fukunaga, Megumu; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-06-06

    Previous studies suggested that intravenous methylprednisolone possibly accelerates remission of proteinuria in adult-onset minimal change disease; its impact on relapse of proteinuria is unknown. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 125 adult-onset minimal change disease patients diagnosed by kidney biopsy between 2000 and 2009 and treated initially with corticosteroid in five nephrology centers in Japan participating in the Study of Outcomes and Practice Patterns of Minimal Change Disease. Times to first remission and first relapse of proteinuria after initiating the first immunosuppressive therapy were compared between 65 patients with initial use of intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone and 60 patients with initial use of prednisolone alone using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. After calculating the probability of receiving methylprednisolone and prednisolone using a logistic regression model (propensity score), the results were ascertained using propensity score-matched and -stratified models. During the median 3.6 years of observation (interquartile range=2.0-6.9), all 65 patients in the methylprednisolone and prednisolone group achieved remission within 11 (8-20) days of the corticosteroid initiation, whereas in the prednisolone group, 58 of 60 patients (96.7%) achieved remission within 19 (12-37) days (P<0.001). After achieving first remission, 32 (49.2%) patients in the methylprednisolone and prednisolone group and 43 (74.1%) patients in the prednisolone group developed at least one relapse. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models revealed that methylprednisolone and prednisolone use was significantly associated with early remission (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.30) and lower incidence of relapse (0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.85) compared with prednisolone use alone. These results were ascertained in propensity score-based models. No significant

  10. Comparison of Methylprednisolone Plus Prednisolone with Prednisolone Alone as Initial Treatment in Adult-Onset Minimal Change Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shinzawa, Maki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Oseto, Susumu; Mori, Daisuke; Tomida, Kodo; Hayashi, Terumasa; Izumi, Masaaki; Fukunaga, Megumu; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Previous studies suggested that intravenous methylprednisolone possibly accelerates remission of proteinuria in adult-onset minimal change disease; its impact on relapse of proteinuria is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 125 adult-onset minimal change disease patients diagnosed by kidney biopsy between 2000 and 2009 and treated initially with corticosteroid in five nephrology centers in Japan participating in the Study of Outcomes and Practice Patterns of Minimal Change Disease. Times to first remission and first relapse of proteinuria after initiating the first immunosuppressive therapy were compared between 65 patients with initial use of intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone and 60 patients with initial use of prednisolone alone using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. After calculating the probability of receiving methylprednisolone and prednisolone using a logistic regression model (propensity score), the results were ascertained using propensity score-matched and -stratified models. Results During the median 3.6 years of observation (interquartile range=2.0–6.9), all 65 patients in the methylprednisolone and prednisolone group achieved remission within 11 (8–20) days of the corticosteroid initiation, whereas in the prednisolone group, 58 of 60 patients (96.7%) achieved remission within 19 (12–37) days (P<0.001). After achieving first remission, 32 (49.2%) patients in the methylprednisolone and prednisolone group and 43 (74.1%) patients in the prednisolone group developed at least one relapse. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models revealed that methylprednisolone and prednisolone use was significantly associated with early remission (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.30) and lower incidence of relapse (0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.85) compared with prednisolone use

  11. Cardiovascular alterations heralded by intrathecal baclofen bolus.

    PubMed

    Rifici, Carmela; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; D'Aleo, Piercataldo; Bramanti, Placido; Saltuari, Leopold; Kofler, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We describe two patients in whom serious bradycardia and arterial hypotension occurred after a small intrathecal baclofen (ITB) test bolus. Both patients suffered from severe spasticity (one due to brain injury, one due to spinal cord injury). Medical history and diagnostic examinations revealed no previous cardiological problems. Ten minutes following a 50 μg ITB bolus, patient 1 developed bradycardia (58 bpm) and incomplete right branch block, lasting for 3 hours. In patient 2, a 20 μg ITB bolus was followed after 5 minutes by severe bradycardia (30 bpm) and hypotension (60/30 mmHg), without loss of consciousness, lasting for 10 minutes. Exaggerated muscle tone was alleviated in both patients after 2 hours by the applied doses. Neither patient underwent implantation of a permanent pump system, both were continued on oral baclofen. Despite numerous unremarkable repeat cardiological exams, both patients suffered fatal cardiac arrest one and two months later, respectively. Our observations suggest that ITB may herald cardiovascular dysfunction in predisposed patients. Careful cardiological examination before ITB treatment, and close monitoring during ITB testing in particular, is advised.

  12. Use of an automated bolus calculator reduces fear of hypoglycemia and improves confidence in dosage accuracy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with multiple daily insulin injections.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Katharine; Parkin, Christopher; Young, Amanda; Ashraf, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Many patients do not intensify their insulin regimens. It is believed that lack of adherence may be largely due to fear of hypoglycemia. We hypothesized that utilization of an automated bolus calculator (bolus advisor) might reduce fear of hypoglycemia and encourage patients to achieve improved glycemic control. We surveyed 1,412 type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients treated with multiple daily insulin injection therapy at 270 hospitals in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland to assess their attitudes and behaviors regarding insulin therapy after use of a bolus advisor (Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert blood glucose meter and bolus advisor system, Roche Diagnostics). The device automatically calculates bolus dosages based on current blood glucose values, anticipated meal intake, and other parameters. Five hundred eighty-eight T1DM patients responded to the survey. Respondents were predominantly female, age <1 to 70 years, with diabetes duration of <1 to >15 years. Respondents had 4-12 weeks prior experience using the bolus advisor. 76.7% of respondents indicated current bolus advisor use to calculate insulin boluses for meals/snacks always or quite often. 52.0% of respondents indicated that fear of hypoglycemia was reduced (39.0%) or significantly reduced (13.0%). 78.8% indicated that confidence in the insulin dose calculation improved (50.8%) or significantly improved (28.0%). 89.3% indicated that the bolus advisor made bolus calculation easy or very easy compared with manual calculation. Most patients felt that using the bolus advisor was easier than manual bolus calculation, improved their confidence in the accuracy of their bolus dosage, and reduced their fear of hypoglycemia. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these perceptions and determine whether bolus advisor use improves clinical outcomes. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Normal swallowing acoustics across age, gender, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume.

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2011-12-01

    Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

  14. Methylprednisolone reduces the rates of postextubation stridor and reintubation associated with attenuated cytokine responses in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, K. C.; CHEN, C. M.; TAN, C. K.; CHEN, H. M.; LU, C. L.; ZHANG, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment with corticosteroids can reduce the incidence of postextubation stridor (PES) and reintubation in critically ill adult patients, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in an adult medical and surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a teaching hospital. Seventy-one patients who had a cuff leak percentage <24% of tidal volume received either a bolus injection of methylprednisolone at 40 mg (treated group, n=38) or normal saline (placebo group, n=33) 4 h prior to a planned extubation. The cuff leak percentage was re-assessed 1 h and 4 h post-injection. Eighty patients who had a cuff leak percentage ≥24% served as a control group. Plasma concentrations of multiple cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at baseline, 4 h and 24 h after the intervention. Results The incidences of PES (15.8% vs. 39.4%, P<0.05) and reintubation rate (7.9% vs. 30.3%, P<0.05) were lower in the treated group compared to the placebo group. The plasma concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 increased while the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 decreased at 24 h in the treated group compared to the placebo group. No difference in CRP levels was observed between the treated and placebo groups. Conclusion A single injection of methylprednisolone at the dose used 4 h prior to planned extubation effectively reduced the incidence of PES and the reintubation rate. These beneficial effects were associated with the up-regulation of IL-4 and IL-10 and the down-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 in the critically ill adult patients. PMID:21540805

  15. Effect of methylprednisolone on mammalian neuronal networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wittstock, Matthias; Rommer, Paulus S; Schiffmann, Florian; Jügelt, Konstantin; Stüwe, Simone; Benecke, Reiner; Schiffmann, Dietmar; Zettl, Uwe K

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids (GCS) are widely used for the treatment of neurological diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis. High levels of GCS are toxic to the central nervous system and can produce adverse effects. The effect of methylprednisolone (MP) on mammalian neuronal networks was studied in vitro. We demonstrate a dose-dependent excitatory effect of MP on cultured neuronal networks, followed by a shut-down of electrical activity using the microelectrode array technique.

  16. Pharmacoimmunodynamics of Methylprednisolone: Trafficking of Helper T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Lynn E.; Ludwig, Elizabeth A.; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    A two-compartment closed model was used to characterize the cell trafficking behavior of helper T cells in response to various single doses of methylprednisolone. Steroids are assumed to inhibit the circadian-determined cell return from extravascular sites to blood in a classic inhibitory pattern reflected by an IC50. The rate of cell efflux from tissues is modeled with a cosine function having a period of 24 hr and a maximum at about 1 AM. Nonlinear least-squares regression employing differential equations was used to analyze helper T-cell data from three human studies from our laboratory. The IC50 value of methylprednisolone of 12–19 ng/ml approximates receptor KD values. Simulations were performed to demonstrate the log-linear role of steroid dose or AUC on the integral of effect of helper T cells over a wide range of methylprednisolone doses. This pharmacodynamic model allows flexibility for characterizing any type of steroid dosing regimen and is relevent in describing complex response data for corticosteroid immunosuppressive effects PMID:1479558

  17. Synthesis of methylprednisolone loaded ibuprofen modified inulin based nanoparticles and their application for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luzhong; Li, Yue; Wang, Caiping; Li, Guicai; Zhao, Yahong; Yang, Yumin

    2014-09-01

    Ibuprofen modified inulin was synthesized through a direct esterification linkage in which the in situ activation of the carboxylic acid with N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole was carried out. The critical aggregation concentration of the ibuprofen modified inulin was determined by using pyrene as the fluorescence probe. Methylprednisolone loaded nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of the ibuprofen modified inulin copolymer and methylprednisolone. In vitro release of the methylprednisolone and the cytotoxicity of the methylprednisolone loaded nanoparticles against RSC-96 cells were evaluated. Since the ibuprofen and methylprednisolone could stimulate a significant neurite growth and diminish the human neurological deficits after the spinal cord injury, the methylprednisolone loaded nanoparticles based on the ibuprofen modified inulin copolymer may have a great potential in the synergetic effect treatment for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Manually calculated oesophageal bolus clearance time increases in parallel with reflux severity at impedance-pH monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Savarino, Edoardo V; Frazzoni, Marzio; Tutuian, Radu; Tolone, Salvatore; Piaggi, Paolo; Furnari, Manuele; Russo, Salvatore; Bertani, Lorenzo; Macchia, Lorenzo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Marchi, Santino

    2015-12-01

    Oesophageal clearance has been scarcely studied. Oesophageal clearance in endoscopy-negative heartburn was assessed to detect differences in bolus clearance time among patients sub-grouped according to impedance-pH findings. In 118 consecutive endoscopy-negative heartburn patients impedance-pH monitoring was performed off-therapy. Acid exposure time, number of refluxes, baseline impedance, post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index and both automated and manual bolus clearance time were calculated. Patients were sub-grouped into pH/impedance positive (abnormal acid exposure and/or number of refluxes) and pH/impedance negative (normal acid exposure and number of refluxes), the former further subdivided on the basis of abnormal/normal acid exposure time (pH+/-) and abnormal/normal number of refluxes (impedance+/-). Poor correlation (r=0.35) between automated and manual bolus clearance time was found. Manual bolus clearance time progressively decreased from pH+/impedance+ (42.6s), pH+/impedance- (27.1s), pH-/impedance+ (17.8s) to pH-/impedance- (10.8s). There was an inverse correlation between manual bolus clearance time and both baseline impedance and post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index, and a direct correlation between manual bolus clearance and acid exposure time. A manual bolus clearance time value of 14.8s had an accuracy of 93% to differentiate pH/impedance positive from pH/impedance negative patients. When manually measured, bolus clearance time reflects reflux severity, confirming the pathophysiological relevance of oesophageal clearance in reflux disease. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequential changes in compliance and resistance after bolus administration or slow infusion of surfactant in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, R; Brune, T; Franke, N; Harms, E; Jorch, G

    2002-05-01

    As bolus instillation of surfactant can lead to acute pulmonary, hemodynamic and cerebral side effects, we tested whether pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange differ between slow surfactant infusion and bolus administration. Prospective, randomized pilot study in a tertiary care university hospital. Of 20 consecutive preterm infants (27-35 weeks' gestation) with severe respiratory distress syndrome) who were enrolled 14 with bovine surfactant finally were analyzed. Six treatments were administered by slow endotracheal surfactant infusion and eight as a bolus. Static compliance (C(stat)) and resistance (R(rs)) were measured every 3 min. C(stat) first decreased and then increased in both groups. In the infusion group C(stat) after 90 min was significantly higher than after bolus treatment but not after 15 or 45 min. R(rs) increased about threefold, with large fluctuations in the bolus group. After 90 min PaO(2)/FIO(2) had increased from 111+/-44 to 254+/-69 in the bolus group and from 86+/-40 to 238+/-102 in the infusion group, but early FIO(2) reduction and increase in PaO(2)/FIO(2) seemed delayed in the infusion group. Very slow infusion of natural surfactant is at least as effective as bolus instillation in terms of improvement in C(stat) and oxygenation after 90 min. However, until 90 min the course of C(stat) and indices of gas exchange seem superior after bolus therapy. Because R(rs) is substantially increased, long expiratory times are required to yield complete exhalation.

  20. Optical tracking of contrast medium bolus to optimize bolus shape and timing in dynamic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisa, Fabian; Brauweiler, Robert; Peetz, Alexander; Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is the optimal synchronization of scan start and duration with contrast medium administration in order to optimize image contrast and to reduce the amount of contrast medium. We present a new optically based approach, which was developed to investigate and optimize bolus timing and shape. The time-concentration curve of an intravenously injected test bolus of a dye is measured in peripheral vessels with an optical sensor prior to the diagnostic CT scan. The curves can be used to assess bolus shapes as a function of injection protocols and to determine contrast medium arrival times. Preliminary results for phantom and animal experiments showed the expected linear behavior between dye concentration and absorption. The kinetics of the dye was compared to iodinated contrast medium and was found to be in good agreement. The contrast enhancement curves were reliably detected in three mice with individual bolus shapes and delay times of 2.1, 3.5 and 6.1 s, respectively. The optical sensor appears to be a promising approach to optimize injection protocols and contrast enhancement timing and is applicable to all modalities without implying any additional radiation dose. Clinical tests are still necessary.

  1. Effect of Heparin on Coagulation Tests: A Comparison of Continuous and Bolus Infusion in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ahmadidarrehsima, Sudabeh; Balouchi, Abbas; Moghadam, Mahdiye Poodine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Haemodialysis is one of the most conventional treatments of chronic renal failure. The risk of clot formation is high during haemodialysis due to regular contact of blood with the surfaces of foreign objects such as catheters, dialyzers’ membrane, and other materials used for dialysis. Therefore, to prevent clot formation during haemodialysis, the dialysis system requires anticoagulation; this is usually done by heparin. Aim The present study aimed to compare two heparinization methods and determine the proper impacts of these methods. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 haemodialysis patients covered by the dialysis center of Amir-al-momenin Hospital of Zabol were studied in two 40-member groups of heparin therapy methods of bolus injection and continuous infusion. PT and PTT were measured in blood samples collected from all patients before starting haemodialysis. The first group received 3000 units of heparin once the haemodialysis machine started to work and 2000 units of heparin two hours later as bolus injection. In the second group, 1500 units of heparin was injected at the start of dialysis after then, 5000 units of heparin (one mL) were mixed with 11 mL of distilled water and infused using a heparin injection pump up to half an hour before the end of dialysis. At 30 minutes after starting dialysis and at the end of 4 hours of haemodialysis, PT and PTT were measured and compared between the two groups. Results According to the results, the mean partial thromboplastin time in the bolus and continuous heparin-receiving group was 41.75±6.29 and 37.90±4.77, respectively, which was statistically significant (p=0.036). But PT was 14.45±1.82 in the bolus heparin group and 13.95±1.39 in the continuous heparin group, which was not significant according to the results of independent t-test (p=0.336). Conclusion The results indicated a statistically significant difference between the bolus heparin injection and the continuous

  2. Intra-arterial Methylprednisolone Infusion in Treatment-Resistant Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Weintraub, Joshua L. Belanger, Adam R.; Sung, Chris C.; Stangl, P. Anondo; Nowakowski, F. Scott; Lookstein, Robert L.

    2010-06-15

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a potentially fatal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Standard primary therapy for acute GVHD includes systemic steroids, often in combination with other agents. Unfortunately, primary treatment failure is common and carries a high mortality. There is no generally accepted secondary therapy for acute GVHD. Although few data on localized therapy for GVHD have been published, intra-arterial injection of high-dose corticosteroids may be a viable option. We treated 11 patients with steroid-resistant GVHD using a single administration of intra-arterial high-dose methylprednisolone. Three patients (27%) died periprocedurally. Four patients (36%) had a partial response to intra-arterial treatment and were discharged on total parenteral nutrition and oral medication. Four patients (36%) had a complete response and were discharged on oral diet and oral medication. No immediate treatment or procedure-related complications were noted. Twenty-seven percent of patients survived long-term. Our preliminary results suggest that regional intra-arterial treatment of steroid-resistant GVHD is a safe and potentially viable secondary therapy in primary treatment-resistant GVHD.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg), or...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or...

  4. Effect of pycnocline thickness on internal wave bolus transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allshouse, Michael; Swinney, Harry

    2016-11-01

    Internal waves shoaling on a continental slope can produce boluses, which are vortices that develop and travel upslope with the shoaling internal wave. In contrast to propagating solitary waves, boluses can trap and transport nutrient rich water upslope. Past laboratory investigations of bolus generation and transport have examined systems that have two layers of uniform density. The present laboratory experiment examines bolus formation and transport as a function of the thickness of a model pyncnocline where there is a continuous variation in density between two regions of constant density. Our dye based measurements for transition layers varying in thickness from 2 to 30 cm demonstrate that fluid transport by boluses exhibits a maximum as the thickness of the transition layer is varied. Complementary Navier-Stokes direct numerical simulations, analyzed using Lagrangian coherent structure techniques, compare well with the laboratory observations. ONR MURI Grant No. N000141110701.

  5. Rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin in the treatment of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Steve; Bansal, Pranshu; Lynch, David; Rojas Hernandez, Cristhiam Mauricio; Dayao, Zoneddy

    2016-12-20

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is becoming an increasingly recognized disorder in adults. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma is a relatively uncommon etiology of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and may complicate treatment options. Rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin are discussed here as a treatment regimen. A 66-year-old Hispanic man previously in good health presented with a 1-month history of recurrent fevers, chills, and night sweats and a 3-week history of new onset jaundice. A bone marrow biopsy revealed a normocellular bone marrow with increased histiocytes with areas of hemophagocytic activity. He met five out of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis diagnosis including fevers, pancytopenia, hemophagocytosis, ferritin of 23,292 ng/mL (>500 ng/mL), and soluble-CD25 of 15,330 pg/mL (>1033 pg/mL). A right cervical lymph node biopsy revealed CD15, CD30, MUM-1, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small ribonucleic acid-positive cells with morphologic findings of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, lymphocyte-rich subtype. He completed 2 weeks of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-directed therapy with etoposide and dexamethasone, but then was switched to rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin due to minimal improvement in his pancytopenia and hepatic impairment. He completed one full cycle of rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin with notable improvement in serial hepatic function panels and had an undetectable Epstein-Barr virus viral load. However, he eventually died due to complications of Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia and colonic microperforation in the setting of persistent pancytopenia. This case discusses the challenges facing treatment of adult malignancy-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin may be a viable option for patients with secondary

  6. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  7. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  8. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) prevents methylprednisolone-induced inhibition of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Laato, M; Heino, J; Kähäri, V M; Niinikoski, J; Gerdin, B

    1989-10-01

    Subcutaneously implanted cylindrical hollow viscose cellulose sponges were used to study the effect of locally applied epidermal growth factor (EGF) on methylprednisolone-induced inhibition of granulation tissue formation in rats. In in vivo studies the sponges were treated immediately after implantation with a single injection of 2 mg (approximately 1.7 x 10(-3) M) of depot methylprednisolone or with its carrier solution only. Thereafter the implants were injected daily with 5 micrograms of EGF or with its carrier solution 0.1% albumin for 7 days. Methylprednisolone treatment decreased the accumulation of nucleic acids, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans in the developing granulation tissue. After daily injections of EGF the concentrations of these tissue components returned close to the control values. In cultures of rat granulation tissue fibroblasts, 10(-4) M and 10(-3)M methylprednisolone decreased collagen synthesis by 41 and 81% from the control level, respectively. In the presence of methylprednisolone EGF treatment could not increase collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. Methylprednisolone treatment resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in pro alpha 1(I) collagen mRNA levels, which was partially inhibited by low EGF concentrations (1 and 10 ng/ml). In the presence of methylprednisolone all concentrations of EGF increased fibronectin mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that EGF treatment can prevent the inhibitory effect of methylprednisolone on wound healing by stimulating fibroblast proliferation but does not stimulate collagen synthesis per cell.

  9. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone and methylprednisolone and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Archer, V Corbrion; Diquet, B; Levron, J C; Chosidow, O; Puech, A J; Warot, D

    2001-01-01

    Aims Itraconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 activity and is often used in combination with corticosteroids. Since the latter are partly metabolized by CYP3A4, we studied the interaction between itraconazole, prednisone and methylprednisolone in healthy male subjects. Methods The effects of 4 days administration of oral itraconazole (400 mg on the first day then 200 mg day−1 for 3 days) on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone after a single oral dose of prednisone (60 mg) and the pharmacokinetics of methylprednisolone after single oral dose of methylprednisolone (48 mg) were studied in 14 healthy male subjects in a two-period cross-over trial. Plasma cortisol concentrations were determined as a pharmacodynamic index. Results Itraconazole increased the mean area under the methylprednisolone concentration-time curve from 2773 ng ml−1 h to 7011 ng ml−1 h (P < 0.001) and the elimination half-life from 3.2 h to 5.5 h (P < 0.001). The pharmacokinetics of prednisolone were unchanged. Cortisol concentrations at 24 h were lower after administration of methylprednisolone with itraconazole than after methylprednisolone alone (24 ng ml−1 vs 109 ng ml−1, P < 0.001). Conclusions Itraconazole increased methylprednisolone concentrations markedly with enhanced suppression of endogenous cortisol secretion, but had no effect on prednisolone pharmacokinetics. The pharmacokinetic interaction between methylprednisolone and itraconazole is probably related to inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 activity by itraconazole. PMID:11422002

  10. Protective effect of methylprednisolone on ischaemic myocardium assessed by ventricular function.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, B L; Hassan, M A; McMilan, A B; Brown, A H

    1977-01-01

    Intracardiac surgical procedures are best carried out when the heart is still and bloodless. This condition, however, produces myocardial cellular damage with loss of contractility and compliance unless some protection can be provided. Myocardial contractility and compliance is best studied by isovolumic ventricular function tests, which were used to evaluate the protective effect of methylprednisolone on the isolated cross-perfused canine heart made ischaemic for 2 hours. Control experiments included 2 hours of ischaemia without methylprednisolone, and 2 hours of continuous normothermic cross-perfusion. The methylprednisolone-treated hearts had probably significantly better ventricular function after 2 hours of ischaemia than did hearts without the methylprednisolone, while the cross-perfused hearts were best overall. This work suggests that methylprednisolone may have a protective effect on the ischaemic myocardium of the intact canine heart. PMID:867332

  11. Induced liver injury after high-dose methylprednisolone in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Torres; Lopes, Sandra; Cipriano, Maria Augusta; Sofia, Carlos

    2015-07-21

    A 33-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis, medicated with high doses of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and glatiramer acetate, was referred to our department due to acute liver injury. The laboratory investigation was normal except for weakly positive antinuclear antibodies. Cyclophosphamide and glatiramer acetate were suspended, and intravenous immunoglobulin with maintenance of high doses of methylprednisolone was initiated. The patient developed another episode of acute hepatitis so the immunoglobulin was stopped. After that, she had three more episodes of elevation of liver enzymes with no hepatic insufficiency while medicated only with high doses of methylprednisolone. At this time, liver biopsy showed focal centrilobubar hepatocyte necrosis with minimal interface hepatitis. After the high doses of methylprednisolone were suspended, the patient remained asymptomatic, with normal hepatic enzymes. This case emphasises that, although rare, induced liver injury after high doses of methylprednisolone can occur. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Clinical outcomes of intracoronary eptifibatide bolus only versus intracoronary bolus and intravenous infusion of eptifibatide in primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Soon, Dinna; Ho, Hee Hwa; Loh, Kwok Kong; Ooi, Yau Wei; Foo, David; Jafary, Fahim H; Ong, Paul Jau

    2012-03-01

    Intracoronary bolus of eptifibatide during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been shown to result in higher local platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy with improved microvascular perfusion. It is unclear whether intracoronary administration of eptifibatide in a larger patient population results in favourable clinical outcomes. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of two regimens of intracoronary eptifibatide (bolus only versus bolus followed by intravenous infusion) in patients undergoing primary PCI for ST-elevation MI. They were divided into two groups: Group A (n=67) who received fixed-dose intracoronary eptifibatide bolus only and Group B (n=88) who received intracoronary bolus and continuous intravenous infusion of eptifibatide for 18 h. The preliminary findings from our registry showed that both regimens were associated with good angiographic outcomes, few bleeding events and low in-hospital major adverse cardiac events. A large prospective randomized, multi-centre trial is needed to confirm our observation.

  13. Randomized trial comparing protracted infusion of 5-fluorouracil with weekly doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with a monthly bolus FAC regimen in metastatic breast carcinoma (SPM90).

    PubMed Central

    Pierga, J. Y.; Jouve, M.; Asselain, B.; Livartowski, A.; Beuzeboc, P.; Diéras, V.; Scholl, S.; Dorval, T.; Palangié, T.; Garcia-Giralt, E.; Pouillart, P.

    1998-01-01

    Infusional 5-fluorouracil in advanced breast cancer has been associated with improved clinical response rates when compared with conventional bolus therapy. As a first line of chemotherapy in proven metastatic breast carcinoma, 258 women were randomly assigned to receive FAC consisting of 5-fluorouracil (F) 600 mg m(-2) intravenously (i.v.) over 1 h on days 1, 2 and 3, doxorubicin (A) 50 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on day 1 and cyclophosphamide (C), 400 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on days 1, 2 and 3 or 'FULON' consisting of 5-fluorouracil 250 mg m(-2) day(-1) continuously infused from day 1 to day 22, doxorubicin 15 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 and cyclophosphamide 300 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on days 1, 8, 15 and 22. Chemotherapy courses were administered 4-weekly for the bolus regimen and 6-weekly for FULON. Pretreatment characteristics were identical between the two groups. Response rates were 54% in the FAC arm and 53% in the FULON arm. Time to progression was 14 months in the FAC arm and 12 months in the FULON arm. Differences were not statistically significant. Median overall survival duration for all patients was 22 months. Haematological toxicity was more severe in the bolus-treated group (P = 0.05), as were nausea and vomiting (P < or = 0.01). We conclude that the two regimens appeared equally effective but have different toxicities. PMID:9652764

  14. Randomized double-blind study of the effect of dexamethasone and methylprednisolone pulse in the control of rheumatoid arthritis flare-up: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sadra, Vahideh; Khabbazi, Alireza; Kolahi, Susan; Hajialiloo, Mehrzad; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone and methylprednisolone for pulse therapy of rheumatoid arthritis flare-up. This randomized double-blind controlled study was performed in the Emam Reza Educational Hospital of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Thirty rheumatoid arthritis patients who had severely active disease were recruited to the dexamethasone and methylprednisolone pulse groups. Disease activity of all the patients was measured by the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) at baseline, and days 4 and 30. The differences in the DAS28 at days 4 and 30, and the number of patients whose DAS28 obtained less than 3.2 and 2.6 in the dexamethasone and methylprednisolone groups were non-significant. There was not any significant difference between the adverse effects of the treatments in the two groups. The results of the study suggest that dexamethasone pulse therapy is a safe and effective treatment for severe rheumatoid arthritis flare-up. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Methylprednisolone pulsing of heart transplant patients in the home.

    PubMed

    Miska, P T; Bates, L R; Collins, C L; Bolling, S F; Deeb, G M

    1988-01-01

    Methylprednisolone pulsing is the first form of treatment used to reverse acute moderate rejection in heart transplant patients at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Before May 1986, patients who needed administration of medications to be pulsed were admitted to the hospital. With our increasing number of transplant patients, lack of hospital beds, and efforts toward cost containment, a new system was established. From June 1986 to April 1988, 53 heart transplantations were performed in 40 adults and 13 children. Home care agency nurses received in-service training by the heart transplant clinical specialist. Insurance companies were contacted directly to obtain financial approval when it was not considered a covered benefit. Of 47 episodes of rejection, 45 were successfully treated in the home with resolution, whereas hospital admission was required in two cases of rejection episodes for successful resolution. There were marked financial savings, increased patient satisfaction, no patient infections, and minimal side effects, which included hypertension in five patients, headaches in two patients, and difficulty gaining venous access in two patients. Most problems were easily handled by telephone communication. Therefore, after a 22-month experience with administration of methylprednisolone pulses in the home, we believe that this is a satisfactory method of treating patients. It is cost-effective, has minimal side effects, and leads to increased patient satisfaction.

  16. The challenge of mastication: preparing a bolus suitable for deglutition.

    PubMed

    Mishellany, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labas, Roland; Peyron, Marie-Agnès

    2006-04-01

    The main function of mastication is to transform a solid food into a bolus that can be swallowed safely. The bolus characteristics such as particles size or cohesiveness, are continuously sensed during mastication and they are important in initiating deglutition. This study examined the following question: What is the condition of the bolus just before swallowing? Ten subjects with normal dentition aged 37.5 +/- 3.7 years were asked to chew without swallowing six different foods (three nuts and three vegetables) while the number of cycles and the duration of the sequence were recorded. The particle size distribution shown by the expectorated food bolus just before swallowing was examined by image analysis. The results showed that, for a given food, the sizes of the bolus particles just before swallowing were comparable in all subjects. However, the number of cycles and duration of the sequence varied between subjects. Taken together these data strongly suggest that the granularity of the bolus before swallowing has to reach a predetermined state which is obtained by using an individual chewing strategy. This suggests that the bolus structure reflects a key factor for homeostasis and explains the large interindividual variability of the mastication physiologic parameters.

  17. A single plan solution to chest wall radiotherapy with bolus?

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez-Sanz, C; Bowles, S; Hirst, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Radiotherapy treatments of post-mastectomy chest walls are complex, requiring treatment close to skin, necessitating bolus use. Commonly used 5- and 10-mm-thick boluses develop full skin dose, needing removal for the latter half of treatment and requiring two treatment plans to be generated. Can a thinner bolus be used for all treatment fractions, requiring only one plan? Methods: Investigation of doses received using (A) a half-time 10-mm-thick Vaseline® bolus (current situation); (B) a brass mesh (Whiting & Davis, Attleboro Falls, MA) and (C) 3- and 5-mm Superflab™ (Mick Radio-Nuclear Instruments, Mount Vernon, NY) for 6 and 15 MV. Dosimetric measurements in Barts WT1 solid water and an anthropomorphic phantom, using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosemeters, were used to study the effect of different bolus regimes on the photon depth–dose curves (DDCs) and skin doses. Results: Measured skin doses for the current 10-mm-thick Vaseline bolus, brass mesh and 3-mm bolus were compared (5 mm bolus has been rejected). The brass mesh has the least effect on the DDC, with changes <0.7% for depths greater than dmax. Brass mesh conforms superiorly to skin surfaces. Measurements on an anthropomorphic phantom demonstrate an increased skin dose compared with our current treatment protocol. Conclusion: Brass mesh has the smallest effect on the DDC, whilst sufficiently increasing surface dose. It can be removed at any fraction, based on a clinical decision, without the need for generating a new plan. Treating with one plan significantly reduces planning times. Advances in knowledge: Quantification of skin doses required and achieved from wax-on/wax-off treatment compared with alternative available breast boluses. PMID:24646288

  18. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique

    PubMed Central

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis. PMID:23737670

  19. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis.

  20. Effects of Methylprednisolone on Neuroprotective Effects of Delay Hypothermia on Spinal Cord Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Akhtarshomar, Sadegh; Saied, Alireza; Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of delayed hypothermia on spinal cord injuries in rats. In addition, the effect of methylprednisolone on therapeutic window of hypothermia was evaluated. Overview of Literature Several studies have demonstrated that early hypothermia is the most effective neuroprotective modality. However, delayed hypothermia seems to be more practical for patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries. A combination of hypothermia and other neuroprotective methods, such as using methylprednisolone, may help extend the therapeutic window of hypothermia. Methods One hundred and twenty male rats were categorized into six groups. The rats in five groups were subjected to spinal cord injury using the weight drop method, followed by treatment, consisting of early hypothermia, late hypothermia, late hypothermia plus methylprednisolone, or methylprednisolone only. Biochemical tests including catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide level were evaluated in the injured spinal cord. Behavioral functions of the hind limb were evaluated by Basso-Battle-Bresnaham locomotor rating scale and tail-flick tests. Results Functional and biochemical evaluation showed both early and late hypothermia had significant neuroprotective effects. The treated groups did not differ significantly from one another in the behavioral tests. Hypothermia had better biochemical results compared to methylprednisolone. Also, methylprednisolone was shown to extend the therapeutic window of delayed hypothermia. Conclusions Hypothermia showed a significant neuroprotective effect, which can be improved with further studies optimizing the duration of hypothermia and the rewarming period. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of the delayed hypothermia can be extended by methylprednisolone. PMID:25705328

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methylprednisolone when administered at 8 am versus 4 pm

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Lynn E.; Ludwig, Elizabeth A.; Wald, Jeffrey A.; Sloan, Rita R.; Middleton, Elliott; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The temporal variations in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methylprednisolone at 8 am versus 4 pm were investigated in six healthy male volunteers. Subjects completed three phases: no drug administration, 20 mg intravenous methylprednisolone at 8 am, and the same dose at 4 pm. Methylprednisolone clearance was 28% greater in the afternoon. The suppressive effects of methylprednisolone on basophils (measured as whole blood histamine), helper T lymphocytes, and cortisol concentrations, assessed by the ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) after methylprednisolone to the baseline AUC, were not different between the phases. The 50% inhibitory concentration values for methylprednisolone derived from pharmacodynamic models were also similar, indicating no difference in intrinsic responsiveness. However, cortisol concentrations returned to baseline about 4 hours earlier after the 4 pm compared with the 8 AM dose because of the enhanced afternoon methylprednisolonc clearance. These findings are in agreement with other studies that suggest adequate clinical effects and less disturbance of cortisol circadian behavior when methylprednisolone is administered as a single dose in the morning. PMID:1535301

  2. Role of methylprednisolone in the prevention of postpericardiotomy syndrome after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Sevuk, U; Baysal, E; Altindag, R; Yaylak, B; Adiyaman, M S; Ay, N; Beyazit, U; Alp, V

    2016-01-01

    Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) occurs in 10-40% of patients after cardiac operations. Pericardial effusions and tamponade occurring > 7 days after surgery are usually related to PPS and remain an important cause of cardiac surgery-related morbidity and mortality; therefore, preventing PPS is important. Colchicine affords safe and efficacious protection against PPS and related complications. However, the roles of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in PPS prevention remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether the intraoperative use of single-dose methylprednisolone can effectively prevent PPS. This retrospective study included 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) who received a single intraoperative dose of 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone. A further 100 patients undergoing CABG, who were not given methylprednisolone, comprised the control group. The presence and severity of pericardial effusion was determined by echocardiography, with chest X-ray used to assess pleural effusion. PPS occurrence and pericardial effusion occurrence were significantly lower in patients who received methylprednisolone (p = 0.02 and p = 0.007 respectively). Although the differences were not statistically significant, pericardial and pleural effusions were more severe in the control group than in the methylprednisolone group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that methylprednisolone administration was independently associated with prevention of PPS (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.25-0.91, p <  0.026). Intraoperative, single-dose methylprednisolone may confer protection against PPS in patients undergoing CABG.

  3. The Effect of Adjuvant Postmastectomy Radiotherapy Bolus Technique on Local Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Tieu, Minh Thi; Graham, Peter; Browne, Lois; Chin, Yaw Sinn

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Postmastectomy radiotherapy bolus is heterogenous, with little evidence to guide clinical practise. This study explores the effect of chest wall bolus technique on chest wall recurrence. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study of 254 patients treated with adjuvant postmastectomy radiotherapy between 1993 and 2003. Patient and treatment characteristics including bolus details were extracted. Outcomes considered were treatment toxicities, treatment delivery, and local recurrence. Results: In all, 143 patients received radiotherapy with whole chest wall bolus, 88 patients with parascar bolus, and 23 with no bolus. Twenty patients did not complete radiotherapy because of acute skin toxicity: 17 in the whole chest wall bolus group, 2 in the parascar bolus group, and 1 in the group not treated with bolus. On multivariate analysis, whole chest wall bolus and chemotherapy were found to be significant predictors for early cessation of radiotherapy resulting from acute skin toxicity. There were 19 chest wall failures: 13 in the whole chest wall bolus group, 4 in the parascar bolus group, and 2 in the no-bolus group. On multivariate analysis, lymphovascular invasion and failure to complete radiotherapy because of acute skin toxicity were associated with chest wall recurrence. Conclusions: From our results, parascar bolus and no bolus performed no worse than did whole chest wall bolus with regard to chest wall recurrence. However, bolus may have an impact on early cessation of radiotherapy caused by skin toxicity, which then may influence chest wall recurrence.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Alterations with penicillin and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Scheld, W M; Dacey, R G; Winn, H R; Welsh, J E; Jane, J A; Sande, M A

    1980-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis may be associated with increased intracranial pressure, neurological sequelae such as communicating hydrocephalus, and a slow response to antibiotic therapy. Alterations in cerebrospinal hydrodynamics are at least partially responsible for these complications. Constant, low-flow short-duration manometric infusion studies through a hollow-bore pressure monitoring device in direct continuity with the supracortical subarachnoid space were performed in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Maximal resistance to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow from the subarachnoid to vascular space was markedly increaed in acute pneumococcal meningitis when compared to control, uninfected animals (6.77 +/- 3.52 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.04 mm Hg/microliter per min, P less than 0.001). Similar elevations (8.93 +/- 4.15 mm Hg/microliter per min were found in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. Despite eradication of viable bacteria from the CSF by penicillin therapy during the acute stage of pneumococcal meningitis, resistance remained elevated (6.07 +/- 4.68 mm Hg/microliter per min) and had not returned to normal up to 15 d later. Administration of methylprednisolone during the early stages of acute pneumococcal meningitis reduced mean peak outflow resistance towards control values (0.59 mm Hg/microliter per min) and no "rebound" effect was apparent 24 h later. These hydrodynamic alterations in experimental meningitis prevent normal CSF absorption and decrease the ability of the bran to compensate for changes in intracranial volume and pressure. PMID:6995482

  5. [To treat or not to treat asymptomatic bacteriuria before methylprednisolone perfusion].

    PubMed

    Donzé, C; Dinh, A; Heinzlef, O; Hautecoeur, P

    2015-09-01

    The prescription of methylprednisolone for multiple sclerosis acute relapse involves sterilization of urine. An observational study was conducted to clarify the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in case of asymptomatic bacteriuria found before methylprednisolone. Ninety-seven patients were included; 32 patients had asymptomatic bacteriuria. Seventeen patients were treated and 15 were not. The number of urinary tract infections in the month following the methylprednisolone was the same in the two groups. The results seem in favor of a therapeutic abstention. A larger study will be performed to confirm these results and determine appropriate recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Open-label randomized clinical trial of atropine bolus injection versus incremental boluses plus infusion for organophosphate poisoning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Mohammed Joynal; Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; Basher, Ariful; Maude, Richard J; Hoque, Gofranul; Faiz, M A

    2012-06-01

    Severe organophosphate compound (OPC) poisoning is an important clinical problem in many countries of the world. Unfortunately, little clinical research has been performed and little evidence exists with which to determine the best therapy. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the optimal dosing regimen for atropine in the treatment of OPC poisoning. An open-label randomized clinical trial was conducted in Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, on 156 hospitalized individuals with OPC poisoning from June to September 2006. The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of conventional bolus doses with individualized incremental doses of atropine for atropinization followed by continuous atropine infusion for management of OPC poisoning. Inclusion criteria were patients with a clear history of OPC poisoning with clear clinical signs of toxicity, i.e. features of cholinergic crisis. The patients were observed for at least 96 h. Immediate outcome and complications were recorded. Out of 156 patients, 81 patients received conventional bolus dose atropine (group A) and 75 patients received rapidly incremental doses of atropine followed by infusion (group B). The mortality in group 'A' was 22.5% (18/80) and in group 'B' 8% (6/75) (p < 0.05). The mean duration of atropinization in group 'A' was 151.74 min compared to 23.90 min for group 'B' (p < 0.001). More patients in group A experienced atropine toxicity than in group 'B' (28.4% versus 12.0%, p < 0.05); intermediate syndrome was more common in group 'A' than in group 'B' (13.6% versus 4%, p < 0.05), and respiratory support was required more often for patients in group 'A' than in group 'B' (24.7% versus 8%, p < 0.05). Rapid incremental dose atropinization followed by atropine infusion reduces mortality and morbidity from OPC poisoning and shortens the length of hospital stay and recovery. Incremental atropine and infusion should become the treatment of choice for OPC

  7. Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Kathryn; Kiguli, Sarah; Opoka, Robert O; Engoru, Charles; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Akech, Samuel O; Nyeko, Richard; Mtove, George; Reyburn, Hugh; Lang, Trudie; Brent, Bernadette; Evans, Jennifer A; Tibenderana, James K; Crawley, Jane; Russell, Elizabeth C; Levin, Michael; Babiker, Abdel G; Gibb, Diana M

    2011-06-30

    The role of fluid resuscitation in the treatment of children with shock and life-threatening infections who live in resource-limited settings is not established. We randomly assigned children with severe febrile illness and impaired perfusion to receive boluses of 20 to 40 ml of 5% albumin solution (albumin-bolus group) or 0.9% saline solution (saline-bolus group) per kilogram of body weight or no bolus (control group) at the time of admission to a hospital in Uganda, Kenya, or Tanzania (stratum A); children with severe hypotension were randomly assigned to one of the bolus groups only (stratum B). All children received appropriate antimicrobial treatment, intravenous maintenance fluids, and supportive care, according to guidelines. Children with malnutrition or gastroenteritis were excluded. The primary end point was 48-hour mortality; secondary end points included pulmonary edema, increased intracranial pressure, and mortality or neurologic sequelae at 4 weeks. The data and safety monitoring committee recommended halting recruitment after 3141 of the projected 3600 children in stratum A were enrolled. Malaria status (57% overall) and clinical severity were similar across groups. The 48-hour mortality was 10.6% (111 of 1050 children), 10.5% (110 of 1047 children), and 7.3% (76 of 1044 children) in the albumin-bolus, saline-bolus, and control groups, respectively (relative risk for saline bolus vs. control, 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.90; P=0.01; relative risk for albumin bolus vs. saline bolus, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.29; P=0.96; and relative risk for any bolus vs. control, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86; P=0.003). The 4-week mortality was 12.2%, 12.0%, and 8.7% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.004 for the comparison of bolus with control). Neurologic sequelae occurred in 2.2%, 1.9%, and 2.0% of the children in the respective groups (P=0.92), and pulmonary edema or increased intracranial pressure occurred in 2.6%, 2.2%, and 1.7% (P=0

  8. Combining Basal–Bolus Insulin Infusion for Tight Postprandial Glucose Control: An in Silico Evaluation in Adults, Children, and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Revert, Ana; Rossetti, Paolo; Calm, Remei; Vehí, Josep; Bondia, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Background Achieving good postprandial glycemic control, without triggering hypoglycemia events, is a challenge of treatment strategies for type 1 diabetes subjects. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the gold standard of therapy, is based on heuristic adjustments of both basal and prandial insulin. Some tools, such as bolus calculators, are available to aid patients in selecting a meal-related insulin dose. However, they are still based on empiric parameters such as the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio and on the physicians’ and patients’ ability to fit bolus mode to meal composition. Method In this article, a nonheuristic method for assessment of prandial insulin administration is presented and evaluated. An algorithm based on set inversion via interval analysis is used to coordinate basal and bolus insulin infusions to deal with postprandial glucose excursions. The evaluation is carried out through an in silico study using the 30 virtual patients available in the educational version of the Food and Drug Administration-accepted University of Virginia simulator. Results obtained using the standard bolus strategy and different coordinated basal–bolus solutions provided by the algorithm are compared. Results Coordinated basal–bolus solutions improve postprandial glucose performance in most cases, mainly in terms of reducing hypoglycemia risk, but also increasing the percentage of time in normoglycemia. Moreover, glycemic variability is reduced considerably by using these innovative solutions. Conclusions The algorithm presented here is a robust nonheuristic alternative to deal with postprandial glycemic control. It is shown as a powerful tool that could be integrated in future smart insulin pumps. PMID:21129338

  9. Systemic treatment with glutathione PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone (2B3-201) improves therapeutic efficacy in a model of ocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, Arie; Appeldoorn, Chantal C M; Rip, Jaap; de Boer, Marco; Gaillard, Pieter J

    2014-04-28

    Ocular inflammation is associated with the loss of visual acuity and subsequent blindness. Since their development, glucocorticoids have been the mainstay of therapy for ocular inflammatory diseases. However, the clinical benefit is limited by side effects due to the chronic use and generally high dosage that is required for effective treatment. We have developed the G-Technology to provide a means for sustained drug delivery, increased drug half-life, and reduced bodily drug exposure. Glutathione PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone (2B3-201) has been developed as treatment for neuroinflammatory conditions and was evaluated in ocular inflammation. The efficacy of 2B3-201 was investigated in rats with experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Rats received 10 mg/kg of 2B3-201 intravenously at disease onset and at peak of the disease. The same dose of free methylprednisolone served as control treatment. Clinical signs of ocular inflammation were assessed by slit-lamp and immunohistochemistry. Whereas free methylprednisolone was ineffective, two doses of 2B3-201 almost completely abolished clinical signs of EAU. This was corroborated further by immunohistochemical analyses of isolated eyes. Treatment with 2B3-201 significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and subsequent destruction of the retina cell layers. In this study, we show that systemic treatment with 2B3-201, a glutathione PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone formulation, resulted in a superior efficacy in rats with EAU. Altogether, our findings hold promise for the development of a safe and more convenient systemic treatment for uveitis.

  10. Comparison of the protective effects of intratympanic dexamethasone and methylprednisolone against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Özel, H E; Özdoğan, F; Gürgen, S G; Esen, E; Genç, S; Selçuk, A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacies of intratympanic dexamethasone and methylprednisolone in preventing in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats. Experimental groups of rats (n = 8 each) received intratympanic isotonic saline, intraperitoneal cisplatin and intratympanic isotonic saline, intraperitoneal cisplatin and intratympanic dexamethasone, or intraperitoneal cisplatin and intratympanic methylprednisolone. Distortion product otoacoustic emission thresholds were compared on days 0 and 10 in all rats, and correlations between drug effects and changes in cochlear histology were evaluated. Distortion product otoacoustic emission thresholds were comparable in groups III and IV (p > 0.05). Significant protection against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity was seen in groups III and IV compared with group II (p < 0.05). Dexamethasone and, to a lesser extent, methylprednisolone protected against cellular apoptosis in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Dexamethasone (and possibly methylprednisolone) may be clinically useful as an intratympanic chemopreventive agent to treat cisplatin ototoxicity. Future clinical studies should investigate the use of dexamethasone for this purpose in adult patients.

  11. A Single-Center Analysis of Methylprednisolone Use during Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Molly; Glatz, Andrew C; Kennedy, Andrea; Rosenthal, Tami; Gaynor, J William

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to induce an inflammatory response in patients. This response may be even more pronounced in pediatric patients given their small body size compared to adults. Several interventions have been instituted in an effort to attenuate this response, including the use of corticosteroids in the pump prime. However, the clinical effectiveness and potential harmful effects of steroid use have been the source of recent debate. Therefore, our institution made the decision to evaluate the use of methylprednisolone in our CPB prime. This evaluation was performed as a formal quality improvement project at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Methylprednisolone was eliminated from the CPB prime for 6 months. At the end of this time period, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database was used to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients (n = 222). These outcomes were then compared to patients operated on during the 6 months prior to elimination of methylprednisolone (n = 303). No significant clinical benefit was identified in the group of patients who received methylprednisolone. When compared to the group who did not receive methylprednisolone, significantly more patients in the steroids group had a postoperative wound infection (p = .037) or respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy ( p = .035). No other differences in clinical outcomes were identified between the two groups. No significant differences in clinical outcomes were identified between neonates who received methylprednisolone (n = 55) and neonates who did not receive steroids (n = 58). Due to the lack of clinical benefit seen with its use, as well as its potential contribution to the incidence of wound infection, methylprednisolone continues to be excluded from the CPB prime at our institution. Methylprednisolone is still given intraoperatively at the request of the attending anesthesiologist and on bypass during orthotopic

  12. A Single-Center Analysis of Methylprednisolone Use during Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Dreher, Molly; Glatz, Andrew C.; Kennedy, Andrea; Rosenthal, Tami; Gaynor, J. William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to induce an inflammatory response in patients. This response may be even more pronounced in pediatric patients given their small body size compared to adults. Several interventions have been instituted in an effort to attenuate this response, including the use of corticosteroids in the pump prime. However, the clinical effectiveness and potential harmful effects of steroid use have been the source of recent debate. Therefore, our institution made the decision to evaluate the use of methylprednisolone in our CPB prime. This evaluation was performed as a formal quality improvement project at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Methylprednisolone was eliminated from the CPB prime for 6 months. At the end of this time period, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database was used to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients (n = 222). These outcomes were then compared to patients operated on during the 6 months prior to elimination of methylprednisolone (n = 303). No significant clinical benefit was identified in the group of patients who received methylprednisolone. When compared to the group who did not receive methylprednisolone, significantly more patients in the steroids group had a postoperative wound infection (p = .037) or respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy ( p = .035). No other differences in clinical outcomes were identified between the two groups. No significant differences in clinical outcomes were identified between neonates who received methylprednisolone (n = 55) and neonates who did not receive steroids (n = 58). Due to the lack of clinical benefit seen with its use, as well as its potential contribution to the incidence of wound infection, methylprednisolone continues to be excluded from the CPB prime at our institution. Methylprednisolone is still given intraoperatively at the request of the attending anesthesiologist and on bypass during

  13. Effect of timing and route of methylprednisolone administration during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Keski-Nisula, Juho; Suominen, Pertti K; Olkkola, Klaus T; Peltola, Kaija; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Tynkkynen, Paula; Salminen, Jukka T; Andersson, Sture; Pesonen, Eero

    2015-01-01

    We compared the antiinflammatory and cardioprotective effects of the two most common regimens of corticosteroid administration in pediatric cardiac surgical procedures: a single dose delivered either at anesthesia induction or by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prime. Forty-five children, aged between 1 and 18 months and undergoing ventricular septal or atrioventricular septal defect correction, were randomized in double-blind fashion into three groups. The anesthesia induction group received 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone intravenously after anesthesia induction, and the CPB-prime group received 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone by CPB circuit. The placebo group received saline solution. Plasma concentrations of methylprednisolone, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10, and troponin were measured at anesthesia induction before the study drug, 30 minutes on CPB, after patients were weaned from CPB, and 6 hours after cessation of CPB. Equally high methylprednisolone concentrations were detected in both methylprednisolone groups, but the measured peak concentration occurred earlier in the induction group. Significantly lower IL-8 concentrations were observed just after patients were weaned from and 6 hours after CPB in the anesthesia induction group compared with the placebo (p = 0.002, p = 0.001) and prime groups (p = 0.003, p = 0.006). Significant reductions of troponin were detected in both methylprednisolone groups compared with placebo (induction, p = 0.001; prime, p = 0.002) 6 hours after patients were weaned from CPB. Methylprednisolone administration at anesthesia induction was superior in terms of antiinflammatory action. Methylprednisolone administration in CPB-prime only a few minutes before aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegia resulted in mean troponin reductions similar to those of administration at anesthesia induction. Corticosteroids may have direct cardioprotective properties, as reported in experimental studies. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

  14. The use of boluses of propofol for the management of severe tetanus in a child.

    PubMed

    Petitjeans, Fabrice; Turc, Jean; Coulet, Olivier; Puidupin, Marc; Eve, Olivier; Benois, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Tetanus is endemic in many developing countries. Although propofol has been proposed for sedation in tetanus, the routine use of this drug has not been clearly documented in published reports. A few studies have reported its beneficial effects but no randomized studies are available. We describe the case of a five-year-old boy who presented with severe tetanus in East Africa. The antispastic therapy consisted of benzodiazepine infusion with the addition of titrated boluses of propofol. Intubation and mechanical ventilation were avoided.

  15. The effect of aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriyanti, Niken; Garmana, Afrillia Nuryanti; Setiawan, Finna; Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Adnyana, I. Ketut

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves had immunosupressant effect on lupus nephritis model. When it combined with methylprednisolone, there is a risk of interaction. In this study rats divided into two groups, a group that received methylprednisolone (MP) (0.72 mg/kgBW) and a group that received MP in combination with extract (0.36 mg/kg BW MP and 140 mg/kg BW extract). These treatment were given everyday for 4 weeks. Methylprednisolone concentration in rats serum was measured using HPLC with extraction method according to Lawson method (1985). The column used was Inertsil C-18 using mobile phase KH2PO4 : metanol (15:85) buffer, flow rate 0.6 mL/minutes, UV detector (λ = 230 nm) and pressure 1319 psi. The result showed that there was an interaction occurred. The combination of MP and aqueous extract of K. pinnata leaves showed interaction which causing methylprednisolone level comparable with methylprednisolone level in MP group. Mean of decreasing MP level in serum was 0.285 ppm. It means that aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium could elevate methylprednisolone concentration in plasma. Adjustment of the dose must be considered in this combination.

  16. Combination of methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi-gong; Lin, Xiang-jin; Du, Jun-hua; Xu, San-zhong; Lou, Xian-feng; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone exhibits anti-inflammatory antioxidant properties, and rosiglitazone acts as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the spinal cord. Methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone have been clinically used during the early stages of secondary spinal cord injury. Because of the complexity and diversity of the inflammatory process after spinal cord injury, a single drug cannot completely inhibit inflammation. Therefore, we assumed that a combination of methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone might promote recovery of neurological function after secondary spinal cord injury. In this study, rats were intraperitoneally injected with methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg) and rosiglitazone (2 mg/kg) at 1 hour after injury, and methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg) at 24 and 48 hours after injury. Rosiglitazone was then administered once every 12 hours for 7 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that a combined treatment with methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone had a more pronounced effect on attenuation of inflammation and cell apoptosis, as well as increased functional recovery, compared with either single treatment alone, indicating that a combination better promoted recovery of neurological function after injury. PMID:27904502

  17. Effects of montelukast and methylprednisolone on experimental spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cavus, G; Altas, M; Aras, M; Ozgür, T; Serarslan, Y; Yilmaz, N; Sefil, F; Ulutas, K T

    2014-01-01

    The development of secondary brain injury after trauma is known to involve in many cellular mediators. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the use of both methylprednisolone and montelukast on serum and tissue concentrations of NO, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and tissue glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI was induced in Wistar albino rats by dropping a 10 g rod from a 5.0 cm height at T9-10. The 28 rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: montelukast, methylprednisolone, non-treatment and sham groups. Rats were neurologically tested at 24 hours after trauma and spinal cord tissue levels of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX, CAT levels and blood CK, CK-BB, LDH levels were measured. In addition, histopathological changes were also examined. There was a significant improvement in Tarlov scores in methylprednisolone and montelukast administered group compared to the trauma group (p = 0.001). When compared to trauma group, methylprednisolone and montelukast groups had significant differences in MDA (p < 0.05), SOD (p < 0.001), CK-BB (p < 0.001) and LDH (p < 0.05) levels. Histopathologically, no significant changes were observed. The present study shows effects of montelukast with biochemical and histopathological parameters and compares its effects with those of methylprednisolone for the first time. Our research has shown that montelukast and methylprednisolone have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord injury.

  18. High-dose methylprednisolone treatment of laser-induced retinal injury exacerbates acute inflammation and long-term scarring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuschereba, Steven T.; Cross, Michael E.; Scales, David K.; Pizarro, Jose M.; Edsall, Peter R.; Stuck, Bruce E.; Marshall, John

    1999-06-01

    Purpose. To evaluate therapeutics for attenuating retinal laser injury. Methods. New Zealand Red rabbits (n=76) were pretreated (IV) with either a single dose of hydroxyethyl starch conjugated deferoxamine (HES-DFO, n=29) (6.1 ml/kg, 16.4 mg/ml) or methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MP, n=22) (30 mg/kg, followed by taper of 30, 20, 20, and 10 mg/kg/day for a total of 5d). Controls were untreated (n=25). Fifteen min later, animals were irradiated with a multiline cw argon laser (285 mW, 10 msec pulse durations, 16 lesions/eye). Funduscopy, fluorescein angiography, histology, and morphometry were performed at 10 min, 1h, 3h, 24h, 1 mo, and 6 mo after irradiation. Leukocytes were counted at lesion centers for retinal and choroidal compartments at 1, 3, and 24h. Results. At 3h, percent area incrase for the lesions was highest for MP (44%) and lowest for HES-DFO (16%)(p<0.05). In hemorrhagic lesions, MP treatment resulted in the highest increase of retinal neotrophils by 24h (p<0.05), and by 1 and 6 mo extensive chorio-retinal scarring occurred in nonhemorrhagic and hemorrhagic lesions. Also, no benefit was demonstrated on sparing of photoreceptors with MP treatment. Conclusions. Treatment of laser-induced retinal injury with methylprednisolone (MP) exacerbates acute inflammation and long-term chorio-retinal scarring; however, hydroxyethyl starch conjugated deferoxamine therapy ameliorates these aspects of injury. Data suggest caution in the use of MP therapy for laser injuries.

  19. Esophageal Transit, Contraction and Perception of Transit After Swallows of Two Viscous Boluses

    PubMed Central

    Dalmazo, Jucileia; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background There have been results showing the influence of bolus viscosities and consistency on esophageal motility and transit. However, there is no description about the influence of two different viscous boluses on esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses. Methods By impedance and manometric methods, we measured the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses of 5 mL volume, 100% barium sulfate and yogurt, swallowed in duplicate in the supine and upright positions. The bolus transit, esophageal contractions and the perception of bolus transit through the esophagus were evaluated in both positions. Impedance and contraction were measured at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. After each swallow, the volunteers were asked about the sensation of bolus transit through the esophagus. Results In supine position, the yogurt had a less frequent complete bolus transit than barium. Also in the supine position, the esophageal transit was longer with yogurt than with barium. Esophageal contractions after swallows were similar between barium and yogurt boluses. There was no difference in perception of transit between the two boluses. Conclusion Although both 100% barium sulfate and yogurt are viscous boluses and have similar viscosities, the transit through the esophagus is slower with yogurt bolus than with barium bolus, which suggests that viscosity may be not the sole factor to determine transit. PMID:27785308

  20. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  1. Esophageal Transit, Contraction and Perception of Transit After Swallows of Two Viscous Boluses.

    PubMed

    Dalmazo, Jucileia; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    There have been results showing the influence of bolus viscosities and consistency on esophageal motility and transit. However, there is no description about the influence of two different viscous boluses on esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses. By impedance and manometric methods, we measured the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses of 5 mL volume, 100% barium sulfate and yogurt, swallowed in duplicate in the supine and upright positions. The bolus transit, esophageal contractions and the perception of bolus transit through the esophagus were evaluated in both positions. Impedance and contraction were measured at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. After each swallow, the volunteers were asked about the sensation of bolus transit through the esophagus. In supine position, the yogurt had a less frequent complete bolus transit than barium. Also in the supine position, the esophageal transit was longer with yogurt than with barium. Esophageal contractions after swallows were similar between barium and yogurt boluses. There was no difference in perception of transit between the two boluses. Although both 100% barium sulfate and yogurt are viscous boluses and have similar viscosities, the transit through the esophagus is slower with yogurt bolus than with barium bolus, which suggests that viscosity may be not the sole factor to determine transit.

  2. Sustained Local Release of Methylprednisolone From a Thiol-Acrylate Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel for Treating Chronic Compressive Radicular Pain.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Ness, Jennifer K; Snyder, Kristin M; Skiles, Amanda A; Woodard, Eric J; OʼShea, Timothy; Layer, Rick T; Aimetti, Alex A; Toms, Steven A; Langer, Robert; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    A preclinical animal model of chronic ligation of the sciatic nerve was used to compare the effectiveness of a slow-release hydrogel carrying methylprednisolone to methylprednisolone injection alone, which simulates the current standard of care for chronic compressive radiculopathy (CR). To extend the short-term benefits of steroid injections by using a nonswelling, biodegradable hydrogel as carrier to locally release methylprednisolone in a regulated and sustained way at the site of nerve compression. CR affects millions worldwide annually, and is a cause of costly disability with significant societal impact. Currently, a leading nonsurgical therapy involves epidural injection of steroids to temporarily alleviate the pain associated with CR. However, an effective way to extend the short-term effect of steroid treatment to address the chronic component of CR does not exist. We induced chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerves of rats by permanent ligation. Forty-eight hours later we injected our methylprednisolone infused hydrogel and assessed the effectiveness of our treatment for 4 weeks. We quantified mechanical hyperalgesia using a Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer (Ugo Basile, Stoelting Co., IL, USA), whereas gait analysis was conducted using the Catwalk automated gait analysis platform (Noldus, Leesburg, VA, USA). Macrophage staining was performed with immunohistochemistry and quantification of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in sciatic nerve lysates was performed with multiplex immunoassay using a SECTOR Imager 2400A (Meso Scale Discovery, Rockville, MA, USA). We demonstrate that using the hydrogel to deliver methylprednisolone results in significant (P < 0.05) reduction of hyperalgesia and improvement in the gait pattern of animals with chronic lesions as compared with animals treated with steroid alone. In addition, animals treated with hydrogel plus steroid showed significant reduction in the number of infiltrating macrophages at the sciatic

  3. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W J

    2016-06-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care.

  4. Epidural Analgesia for Labor: Continuous Infusion Versus Programmed Intermittent Bolus.

    PubMed

    Onuoha, Onyi C

    2017-03-01

    Despite the traditional practice to maintain labor analgesia with a combination of continuous epidural infusion and patient-controlled epidural analgesia using an automated epidural pump; compelling data now shows that bolus injection through the epidural catheter may result in better distribution of anesthetic solution in the epidural space. The programmed intermittent epidural bolus technique is proposed as a better maintenance mode and may represent a more effective mode of maintaining epidural analgesia for labor, especially prolonged labor. Additional prospective and adequately powered studies are needed to confirm findings and determine the optimal combination of volume, rate, time, and drug concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolution test development for complex veterinary dosage forms: oral boluses.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Raafat; Marnane, Bill; Bensley, Dennis; Hollenbeck, R Gary

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of electrolyte chemistry were used to design an appropriate dissolution medium with the capacity to maintain sink conditions throughout the test. Dissolution of various bolus dosage forms was studied using USP Apparatus II at various stirring speeds. Complete dissolution of each drug in the designed medium was achieved, and there is evidence that such a dissolution test could be discriminating. This review details the development of potentially discriminating in vitro dissolution tests for veterinary boluses using USP Apparatus II and examines the potential role of such testing during product quality assessments, in the evaluation of postapproval manufacturing changes and for the establishment of the generic equivalence of veterinary products.

  6. Protective effects of ulinastatin and methylprednisolone against radiation-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Du, Yu-Jun; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Sun, Ni; Li, Xiu-Jiang

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of ulinastatin and methylprednisolone in treating pathological changes in mice with radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) was evaluated. Forty C57BL/6 female mice received whole-chest radiation (1.5 Gy/min for 12 min) and were randomly allocated into Group R (single radiation, n = 10), Group U (ulinastatin treatment, n = 10), Group M (methylprednisolone treatment, n = 10), or Group UM (ulinastatin and methylprednisolone treatment, n = 10). Another 10 untreated mice served as controls (Group C). Pathological changes in lung tissue, pulmonary interstitial area density (PIAD) and expression levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in lung tissue, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. Alleviation of pathological changes in lung tissue was observed in Groups U, M and UM. Treatment with ulinastatin, methylprednisolone or both effectively delayed the development of fibrosis at 12 weeks after radiation. Ulinastatin, methylprednisolone or both could alleviate the radiation-induced increase in the PIAD (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Treatment with ulinastatin, methylprednisolone or both significantly reduced the expression of TNF-α, but not TGF-β1, at 9 weeks after radiation compared with Group R (P < 0.01). Ulinastatin and /: or methylprednisolone effectively decreased the level of TNF-α in lung tissue after RILI and inhibited both the inflammatory response and the development of fibrosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  7. Randomized clinical trial of prevention of seroma formation after mastectomy by local methylprednisolone injection.

    PubMed

    Qvamme, G; Axelsson, C K; Lanng, C; Mortensen, M; Wegeberg, B; Okholm, M; Arpi, M R; Szecsi, P B

    2015-09-01

    Seroma formation, the most prevalent postoperative complication after mastectomy, is an inflammatory process that is potentially preventable via local steroid administration. This study investigated the effect of local steroid administration on seroma formation. This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled intervention study of a single dose of 80 mg methylprednisolone versus saline on seroma formation after mastectomy. Patients were further classified according to the surgical axillary procedure: mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy (M + SLNB) or mastectomy with level I-II axillary lymph node dissection (M + ALND). Treatments were administered into the wound cavity via the drain orifice following removal of the drain on the first day after surgery. The primary endpoint was seroma formation; secondary endpoints included the frequency of side-effects and complications. A total of 212 women scheduled for mastectomy for primary breast cancer were included. After M + SLNB, 32 (46 per cent) of 69 women developed a seroma in the methylprednisolone group, compared with 52 (78 per cent) of 67 in the saline group (P < 0.001). The mean cumulative seroma volume in the intention-to-treat population for the first 10 and 30 days was significantly lower in the methylprednisolone group (24 ml versus 127 ml in the saline group, and 177 versus 328 ml respectively) (P < 0.001). After M + ALND, similar proportions of patients developed a seroma in the methylprednisolone (35 of 37, 95 per cent) and saline (34 of 36, 94 per cent) groups, and methylprednisolone administration had no significant effect on seroma formation. No differences in infection rate were observed. Methylprednisolone administered into the wound cavity on the first day after M + SLNB exerted a highly significant preventive effect against seroma formation during the next 30 days. This effect was not seen in the M + ALND group. Future studies may clarify whether higher or repeated methylprednisolone doses

  8. Compare the efficacy of inhaled budesonide and systemic methylprednisolone on systemic inflammation of AECOPD.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuejiao; He, Zhiyi; Zhang, Jianquan; Deng, Jingmin; Bai, Jing; Li, Meihua; Zhong, Xiaoning

    2015-04-01

    Corticosteroids have been shown to improve the outcome of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, whether inhaled corticosteroids (IC) alone have similar effects with systemic corticosteroid (SCS) is still unclear. To compare the efficacy of inhaled budesonide and systemic methylprednisolone on systemic inflammation of AECOPD. 30 AECOPD patients were randomly divided into two group. Budesonide group (15 cases) were treated with inhaled budesonide (3 mg Bid); methylprednisolone group (15 cases) were treated with systemic methylprednisolone (methylprednisolone acetate injectable suspension 40 mg Qd for three days and then methylprednisolone tablets 8 mg Bid). Observe symptoms, lung function, blood gas analysis and adverse effects of the patients in two groups. Peripheral blood samples were collected before and after treatment for 1 day, 4 days and 7 days. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and TNF-α levels were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hs-CRP levels were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. Western blotting was used to determine histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) protein expression. Symptoms, pulmonary function and blood gas analysis were significantly improved after treatment in the two groups (P < 0.05) and no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences of IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP levels in the two groups (P > 0.05). Besides, the levels of HDAC2 protein expression before treatment were significantly lower comparing to that after treatment for 4 and 7 days. Incidence of adverse events (heart rate, blood pressure, glycemic, sleep condition, gastrointestinal symptoms) in budesonide group was lower than methylprednisolone group (P < 0.05). Inhaled budesonide and systemic methylprednisolone have the same effects on systemic inflammation of AECOPD. Inhaled corticosteroid alone could instead systemic corticosteroid in AECOPD treatment. Copyright

  9. Locoregional Outcomes of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Standard Fractionation Radiation and Daily Skin Bolus in the Taxane Era

    SciTech Connect

    Damast, Shari; Ho, Alice Y.; Montgomery, Leslie; Fornier, Monica N.; Ishill, Nicole; Elkin, Elena; Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To assess locoregional outcomes of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients who received standard fractionation radiation with daily skin bolus and taxanes as part of combined-modality therapy (CMT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 107 patients diagnosed with IBC between January 1995 and March 2006 who presented to our department for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Results: All patients received chemotherapy (95% anthracycline and 95% taxane), modified radical mastectomy, and RT to the chest wall and regional lymphatics using standard fractionation to 50 Gy and daily skin bolus. The RT to the chest wall was delivered via electrons (55%) or photons (45%) in daily fractions of 180 cGy (73%) or 200 cGy (27%). Scar boost was performed in 11%. A majority (84%) of patients completed the prescribed treatment. Median follow-up was 47 months (range, 10-134 months). Locoregional control (LRC) at 3 years and 5 years was 90% and 87%, respectively. Distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) at 3 years and 5 years was 61% and 47%, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent locoregional control was observed in this population of IBC patients who received standard fractionation radiation with daily skin bolus and taxanes as part of combined-modality therapy. Distant metastases-free survival remains a significant therapeutic challenge.

  10. High-dose methylprednisolone for veno-occlusive disease of the liver in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kasiani C; Lawrence, Julia; Marsh, Rebecca A; Davies, Stella M; Jodele, Sonata

    2013-03-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver is a well-recognized serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with few successful treatment modalities available for severe disease. Some reports have demonstrated success in adults with the use of high-dose steroid therapy, but experience in the pediatric population is lacking. We retrospectively reviewed HSCT patients treated at our institution since 2003 and identified 15 (2.4%) who developed VOD. Of these, nine (60%) were treated with intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone (500 mg/m(2) per dose every 12 hours for six doses). Steroid therapy was initiated at or before first ultrasound evidence of reversal of portal venous flow and before meeting criteria for initiation of defibrotide therapy. Four patients were also treated with defibrotide starting 2 to 5 days after initiation of steroids. Eight of nine patients (88%) with VOD were diagnosed with multiorgan failure. Response to high-dose steroid therapy as defined by decrease in bilirubin by 50% in 10 days from therapy initiation was noted in six of nine patients (67%), occurring within 3 to 6 days of steroid therapy. Two patients died from multiorgan failure due to VOD. Seven survivors of VOD recovered at the median 6 days (range, 5 to 38) from VOD diagnosis. Overall, VOD survival as a group was 78%; however, survival among responders was 100%. No serious toxicities related to high-dose steroid therapy were observed. We conclude that high-dose steroid therapy if initiated early may reverse VOD of the liver in pediatric HSCT patients, abrogating the need for defibrotide therapy with its associated toxicities and regulatory difficulties.

  11. Facilitating Early-In-Day Discharge for Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Intravenous Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Gina; Burnett, Margie; Gibson, Lorrie; Carter, Kathryn; Harlow, Elizabeth; Russell, Holly; Huffman, Linda; Adams, Jane; Ziegler, Terry; Sporney, Hilary; Levy, Michael; Puttgen, Hans A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Delays in patient hospital discharge affect care value through costs of prolonged length of stay and barriers to patient flow within the hospital. We sought to facilitate early-in-day discharges (EIDDs) without extending length of stay for inpatients with multiple sclerosis admitted for acute exacerbations and treated with intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone. Methods: We developed a standardized admission order set, a provider checklist, and a patient checklist to better coordinate in-hospital care and discharge planning for patients with multiple sclerosis admitted for IV methylprednisolone treatment. The order set allowed providers to enter an accelerated dosing schedule of methylprednisolone, as appropriate, to ensure administration of the final dose of methylprednisolone in the morning on the anticipated day of discharge. We compared a prospective intervention cohort to a retrospective, preintervention baseline cohort. Results: At baseline (N = 25), 12.0% of patients were EIDD compared to 40.7% of intervention patients (N = 27; P = .03). In all, 85.2% of intervention patients compared to 64.0% of baseline patients were discharged on the same day as last methylprednisolone treatment (P = .11). No difference was observed in median length of stay and 30-day readmission rate between groups. Conclusions: Use of a standard admission order set as well as provider and patient checklists can facilitate EIDD and hospital bed availability without compromising care quality for a select group of neurology inpatients. PMID:26425247

  12. Randomized Clinical Trial of Intraosseous Methylprednisolone Injection for Acute Pulpitis Pain.

    PubMed

    Bane, Khaly; Charpentier, Emmanuel; Bronnec, François; Descroix, Vianney; Gaye-N'diaye, Fatou; Kane, Abdoul Wahabe; Toledo, Rafael; Machtou, Pierre; Azérad, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a randomized clinical trial comparing local intraosseous methylprednisolone injection and emergency pulpotomy in the management of acute pulpitis on efficacy, safety, and efficiency end points. After providing prior informed written consent, 94 patients consulting for acute irreversible pulpitis pain at university-affiliated teaching hospital dental clinics in Dakar, Senegal were randomly assigned to either the methylprednisolone treatment group (n = 47) or the pulpotomy treatment group (n = 47). Patients were followed up at 1 week and assessed 6 months later to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of their treatment. At day 7 the patients in the methylprednisolone group reported less intense spontaneous and percussion pain in the day 0-day 7 period than the patients in the pulpotomy group. Methylprednisolone treatment took approximately 7 minutes (4.6-9.3) less to accomplish than pulpotomy (or about half the time). No difference in the therapeutic outcome was found between the 2 treatment groups at 6 months (all credible intervals span 0). This study establishes that methylprednisolone injection for acute pulpitis is relieved by a minimally invasive pharmacologic approach more effectively than by the reference pulpotomy and conserves scarce dental resources (ie, endodontic equipment and supplies, dental surgeon's time). Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered Methylprednisolone Pharmacodynamics in Healthy Subjects With Histamine N-Methyltransferase C314T Genetic Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Yuen Yi; Jusko, William J.; Spratlin, Vicky E.; Jann, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential differences in methylprednisolone pharmacodynamics between healthy subjects with different histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) C314T genotypes. Six individuals with C/C genotype and 4 with C/T genotype were administered a single intravenous dose of methylprednisolone 0.6 mg/kg ideal body weight in a randomized 2-period manner. Methylprednisolone plasma concentrations were fitted with a 1-compartment model. Cortisol and whole blood histamine suppression were assessed by indirect response models, with circadian baseline cortisol analyzed by Fourier analysis. The area between the baseline and effect curve and the area under the effect versus time curve suppression ratiowere used to characterize plasma histamine suppression. Methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and plasma and whole blood histamine suppression were similar between the 2 genotype groups. Median nadir of cortisol and the 50% inhibitory concentration for cortisol were significantly higher in subjects with C/T genotype than those with C/C genotype (P = .031 and .033, respectively, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Subjects who are heterozygous for the T314 variant allele thus appeared less sensitive to the suppressive effects of methylprednisolone on cortisol secretion. PMID:16554448

  14. High-Dose Methylprednisolone to Prevent Platelet Decline in Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pourrat, Olivier; Dorey, Marie; Ragot, Stéphanie; de Hauteclocque, Astrid; Deruelle, Philippe; Dreyfus, Michel; Pierre, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate whether early administration of high-dose methylprednisolone limits the fall of platelets in preeclampsia. A randomized trial of 180 mg methylprednisolone or placebo administered in divided doses over 36 hours was conducted in women admitted for preeclampsia and platelet counts below 150×10/L in four French academic centers. Patients were not included when platelet counts were below 50×10/L or when immediate delivery was required. The primary study outcome was the proportion of patients with platelet counts above 100×10/L 36 hours after the first dose of study medication. The total sample size needed to detect a 23% difference in the rate of this outcome between groups with a one-tailed α of 0.05 and 90% power was 94 patients. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive methylprednisolone and 34 placebo between October 2007 and May 2011. Platelet counts above 100×10/L at 36 hours after the first dose of study medication were recorded in 30 (83%) in the active group and 29 (85%) in the placebo group (relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.20; P=.82). The only adverse potentially study-related event was hyperglycemia in one woman allocated to methylprednisolone. In women with preeclampsia and platelet counts under 150×10/L, methylprednisolone was not effective in maintaining platelet counts above 100×10/L. EU Clinical Trials Register, http://clinicaltrialsregister.eu, EudraCT 2006-004881-15-FR.

  15. Effect of methylprednisolone use on the rotator cuff in rats: biomechanical and histological study☆

    PubMed Central

    Ghellioni, Gustavo Vinícius; da Silva, Lucas Souto; Piovezan, Anna Paula; Martins, Rafael Olívio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of treatment with different doses of methylprednisolone on the mechanical resistance and possible histological alterations of the rotator cuff tendon in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four treatment groups: sham, vehicle or 0.6 mg/kg or 6.0 mg/kg of methylprednisolone. Changes to mechanical resistance (in N) and histological parameters (fibrillar appearance, presence of collagen, edema and vascular proliferation) of the rotator cuff tendon were evaluated. The analyses were conducted after administration of one treatment (24 h afterwards), two treatments (7 days afterward) or three treatments (14 days afterwards), into the subacromial space. Results Seven and fourteen days after the treatments were started, it was found that in a dose-dependent manner, methylprednisolone reduced the mechanical resistance of the rotator cuff tendon (p < 0.05 in relation to the vehicle group). Modifications to the histological parameters were observed on the 7th and 14th days after the first infiltration, especially regarding the presence of collagen and vascular proliferation, for the dose of 0.6 mg/kg of methylprednisolone, and also regarding the presence of collagen, edema and vascular proliferation for the dose of 6.0 mg/kg of corticoid. Conclusion The results obtained demonstrated a relationship between methylprednisolone use through infiltration into the subacromial space and reduction of the mechanical resistance of and histological modifications to the rotator cuff tendon in rats. PMID:26229927

  16. Subacromial triamcinolone mexacetonide and methylprednisolone injections in treatment of supra spinam tendinitis. A comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, E J

    1976-01-01

    This statistical report describes a clinical trial on 60 patients with supraspinal tendinitis for the comparison of triamcinolone hexacetonide (in a 20 mg/cc suspension in 1 cc ampoules) with methylprednisolone acetate (in a 40 mg/cc suspension in 1 cc ampoules). The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic activity, including onset and duration of relief, of triamcinolone hexacetonide as a subacromial injection, and to compare these results with those obtained with similar injections of methylprednisolone acetate. The following results were obtained. Triamcinolone hexacetonide reduced pain, local tenderness and functional impairment to a greater degree than did methylprednisolone acetate. A significantly smaller proportion of patients needed a second injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide (33%) than needed a second injection of methylprednisolone acetate (63%). Triamcinolone hexacetonide appears to have longer duration of activity than does methyl-prednisolone acetate, judging by the percentage of patients still getting relief from their first injection at the end of the study period. The drugs were similar as regards side effect incidence rates and time to onset of action.

  17. Effects of cortisone acetate, methylprednisolone and medroxyprogesterone on wound contracture and epithelization in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Lenco, W; Mcknight, M; Macdonald, A S

    1975-01-01

    Standardized flank wounds were made on 20 rabbits divided into the following five groups: Group 1 served as controls, Group 2 were given cortisone acetate 6.25 mg/kg/day (I.M.), Group 3--methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) 1 mg/kg/day, Group 4--medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) 35 mg/kg/day, Group 5--methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day and medroxyprogresterone 35 mg/kg/day. Wound contracture and epithelization was measured by planimetry of photographs taken twice weekly; weekly weights were recorded, and the maturation phase of wound healing followed in the control and methylprednisolone groups. All three steroids prolonged the latent phase of wound healing, slowed the rate and decreased the total amount of contracture. Cortisone showed the most inhibition of wound contracture and was the only steroid to inhibit epithelization suggesting it may have a slightly different or more potent mode of action. When the methylprednisolone group was followed for seven weeks on daily injections, the maturation phase of wound healing was inhibited, and this inhibition persisted during the next nine weeks after the drug was withdrawn. Only the control and the medroxyprogesterone group gained weight. Combining medroxyprogesterona and methylprednisolone resulted in the severest weight loss of 20% with a 60% mortality. PMID:1119869

  18. Analysis of bolus formation from the micropipette ejection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Diwen; Mirbod, Parisa

    2013-11-01

    Ejection of drugs from micropipettes has significant applications in biomedical research and clinical studies, however little is known about the dynamics of the process involved. The experimental results show that micropipette ejection systems operate in a tip Reynolds number (Ret). A series of experiments was performed from a micropipette to visualize the shape of the droplet. The observations led to the following conclusions: a) A nearly spherical bolus, closely corresponding to Sampson flow through a circular orifice, could be achieved provided at Ret <0.05 b) Pear-like bolus distortions are observed at a Ret as small as 0.1. (d) Large distortions are observed at Ret = 0.5 and (e) for Ret > 1 an axial jet develops. Consequently, the transition point between the flow domains represents an important operating point. In this research, laminar is demarcated from turbulent regime by studying the influence of the various material and process parameters on the transition point. Three-dimensional numerical simulations on bolus formation and growth with different tip diameter were investigated and the results were validated with the experimental observations. Effects of fluid physical properties, operation conditions and tip exit size on bolus behavior were also analyzed.

  19. 21 CFR 520.1197 - Ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawal time has not been established, do not use in female dairy cattle of breeding age. Do not slaughter cattle within 180 days of treatment. Consult your veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment..., and ticks Amblyomma americanum. (3) Limitations. The bolus was specifically designed for use in...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2380c - Thiabendazole bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... slaughter; milk taken from treated animals within 96 hours (8 milkings) after the latest treatment must not... latest treatment must not be used for food. (2) Sheep and goats. In a bolus. (i) Amount. 2 grams per 100... within 96 hours (8 milkings) after the latest treatment must not be used for food; in severe infections...

  1. Effects of Verbal Cue on Bolus Flow during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…

  2. 21 CFR 520.1120b - Haloxon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... week of slaughter. (6) Do not treat dairy animals of breeding age or older. ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1120b Haloxon boluses....

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a... not use this product on animals simultaneously with, or within 2 weeks, before or after treatment with...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a... not use this product on animals simultaneously with, or within 2 weeks, before or after treatment with...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a... not use this product on animals simultaneously with, or within 2 weeks, before or after treatment with...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a... not use this product on animals simultaneously with, or within 2 weeks, before or after treatment with...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a... not use this product on animals simultaneously with, or within 2 weeks, before or after treatment with...

  8. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section 520.88e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88e Amoxicillin...

  9. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section 520.88e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88e Amoxicillin...

  10. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section 520.88e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88e Amoxicillin...

  11. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section 520.88e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88e Amoxicillin...

  12. Effects of Verbal Cue on Bolus Flow during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…

  13. 21 CFR 520.443 - Chlortetracycline tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...., Klesbsiella spp., and Hemophilus spp. (ii) Limitations. Administer bolus directly by mouth or crush and... Klebsiella spp., susceptible to chlortetracycline. (ii) Limitations. Administer tablet directly by mouth or... chlortetracycline. (ii) Limitations. Administer directly by mouth or crush and dissolve in water for drenching; if...

  14. Methylprednisolone protects oligodendrocytes but not neurons following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Moo; Yan, Ping; Xiao, Qingli; Chen, Shawei; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Hsu, Chung Y.; Xu, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Methylprednisolone (MP) is used to treat a variety of neurological disorders involving white matter injury, including multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and spinal cord injury (SCI). While its mechanism of action has been attributed to anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant properties, we examined the possibility that MP may have direct neuroprotective activities. Neurons and oligodendrocytes treated with AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionate) or staurosporine died within 24 hrs after treatment. MP attenuated oligodendrocyte death in a dose-dependent manner; however, neurons were not rescued by the same doses of MP. This protective effect was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, RU486, and siRNA directed against GR, suggesting a receptor-dependent mechanism. MP reversed AMPA-induced decreases in the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL, caspase-3 activation, and DNA laddering, suggesting anti-apoptotic activity in oligodendrocytes. To examine if MP demonstrated this selective protection in vivo, neuronal and oligodendrocyte survival was assessed in rats subjected to SCI; groups of rats were treated with or without MP in the presence or absence of RU486. Eight days after SCI, MP significantly increased oligodendrocytes (CC-1 immunoreactive cells) following SCI, but neuronal (NeuN immunoreactive cells) number remained unchanged; RU486 reversed this protective effect. MP also inhibited SCI-induced decreases in Bcl-xL and caspase-3 activation. Consistent with these findings, the volume of demyelination, assessed by Luxol Fast Blue staining, was attenuated by MP and reversed by RU486. These results suggest that MP selectively inhibits oligodendrocyte but not neuronal cell death via a receptor-mediated action, and may be a mechanism for its limited protective effect following SCI. PMID:18354017

  15. Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries Favor Administration of Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Rosenbluth, Jeffrey; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) for treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with both benefits and adverse events. MPSS administration was the standard of care for acute SCI until recently when its use has become controversial. Patients with SCI have had little input in the debate, thus we sought to learn their opinions regarding administration of MPSS. A summary of the published literature to date on MPSS use for acute SCI was created and adjudicated by 28 SCI experts. This summary was then emailed to 384 chronic SCI patients along with a survey that interrogated the patients’ neurological deficits, communication with physicians and their views on MPSS administration. 77 out of 384 patients completed the survey. 28 respondents indicated being able to speak early after injury and of these 24 reported arriving at the hospital within 8 hours of injury. One recalled a physician speaking to them about MPSS and one patient reported choosing whether or not to receive MPSS. 59.4% felt that the small neurological benefits associated with MPSS were ‘very important’ to them (p<0.0001). Patients had ‘little concern’ for potential side-effects of MPSS (p = 0.001). Only 1.4% felt that MPSS should not be given to SCI patients regardless of degree of injury (p<0.0001). This is the first study to report SCI patients’ preferences regarding MPSS treatment for acute SCI. Patients favor the administration of MPSS for acute SCI, however few had input into whether or not it was administered. Conscious patients should be given greater opportunity to decide their treatment. These results also provide some guidance regarding MPSS administration in patients unable to communicate. PMID:26789007

  16. Characteristics of oesophageal bolus transport in patients with mild oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Gerson R; Winograd, Ron; Lemme, Eponina M; Lammert, Frank; Silny, Jiri; Matern, Siegfried; Nguyen, Huan N

    2005-03-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently have oesophageal motility disturbance. However, detailed data about bolus transport characteristics in these patients are still lacking. In the present study the new technology of concurrent impedance manometry was applied for characterization of oesophageal motor function in patients with mild GORD. Oesophageal motility testing was performed in 25 patients with mild GORD (group 1) as compared to 25 healthy subjects (group 2) employing the technique of concurrent impedancometry and manometry. Oesophageal motility as well as patterns and parameters of bolus transport after the swallowing of saline or yogurt were analysed. According to manometry the velocity of the contraction wave was similar in both groups. Mid-distal contraction amplitude in group 1 was still in the normal range but significantly lower than in group 2 (57.4+/-4.5 mmHg vs 91.4+/-7.5 mmHg for saline, and 47+/-4.1 vs 80.7+/-9.4 mmHg for yogurt). According to impedance measurements, bolus transport was significantly slower (3.6+/-0.1 vs 4.0+/-0.1 cm/s for saline and 3.0+/-0.1 vs 3.2+/-0.1 cm/s for yogurt), and post-deglutitive impedance was significantly lower in group 1: 2110 omega+/-116 omega versus 2542 omega+/-152 omega (P<0.01) with saline and 1862 omega+/-108 omega versus 2348 omega+/-148 omega with yogurt (P<0.01). GORD patients showed several pathological bolus transport patterns, which were not observed in healthy subjects. Gastroesophageal liquid reflux was observed between the swallows. In patients with mild GORD concurrent impedancometry and manometry is sufficiently sensitive for the detection of minor oesophageal dysmotility. Several pathological features have been characterized including delayed bolus transport, impaired propulsive volume clearance, pathological transport patterns and pathological reflux patterns.

  17. Bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling: theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. E.; Blau, C. W.; Kerskens, C. M.

    2009-03-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can be used to provide a quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion. Despite the development of a number of theoretical models to facilitate quantitative ASL, some key challenges still remain. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel quantitative ASL method based on a macroscopic model that reduces the number of variables required to describe the physiological processes involved. To this end, a novel Fokker-Planck equation consisting of stochastically varying macroscopic variables was derived from a general Langevin equation. ASL data from the rat brain was acquired using a bolus-tracking ASL protocol where a bolus of labelled spins flowing from an inversion plane in the neck into an imaging plane in the brain can be observed. Bolus durations of 1.5 s, 2.0 s and 3.0 s were used and the solution to the Fokker-Planck equation for the boundary conditions of bolus-tracking ASL was fitted to the experimental data using a least-squares fit. The mean transit time (MTT) and capillary transit time (CTT) were calculated from the first and second moments of the resultant curve respectively and the arterial transit time (ATT) was calculated by subtracting the CTT from the MTT. The average MTT, CTT and ATT values were 1.75 ± 0.22 s, 1.43 ± 0.12 s and 0.32 ± 0.04 s respectively. In conclusion, a new ASL protocol has been developed by combining the theoretical model with ASL experiments. The technique has the unique ability to provide solutions for varying bolus volumes and the generality of the new model is demonstrated by the derivation of additional solutions for the continuous and pulsed ASL (CASL and PASL) techniques.

  18. A Simplified Semiquantitative Meal Bolus Strategy Combined with Single- and Dual-Hormone Closed-Loop Delivery in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Véronique; Haidar, Ahmad; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2016-08-01

    Single- and dual-hormone closed-loop systems can improve glycemic control and have the potential to reduce carbohydrate-counting burden for patients with type 1 diabetes; however, simplification of meal insulin calculation should not compromise glycemic control. We compared in a randomized outpatient pilot trial: (1) a single-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy, and (2) a dual-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy. Carbohydrate-matched boluses were based on the participant's carbohydrate meal content estimation whereas the simplified strategy involved the selection, by participants, of a semi-quantitative meal carbohydrate-content size: snack, regular, large, or very large meal. Each participant also underwent sensor-augmented pump therapy. Basal insulin delivery was more aggressive with the simplified bolus. The primary outcome was mean sensor glucose level over a 15-h daytime period. Twelve participants were recruited (48.2 ± 16.0 years old; HbA1c 7.4% ± 0.9%) to compare the two bolus strategies during single- and dual-hormone closed-loop delivery. A similar mean sensor glucose level (15 h) was achieved with the carbohydrate-matched boluses and simplified strategy using single-hormone (median [interquartile]: 7.6 [7.2-8.1] vs. 8.0 [7.0-8.6] mmol/L; P = 0.90) and dual-hormone closed-loop systems (7.6 [6.7-9.1] vs. 7.0 [6.4-8.2] mmol/L; P = 0.08). Exploratory analyses showed that, as compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy, there was an increased time spent in hypoglycemia with the simplified strategy but not with the carbohydrate-matched boluses. Though the algorithm employed in this pilot study may lead to an increased risk for hypoglycemia, this strategy has the potential to reduce the carbohydrate-counting burden in patients with type

  19. The cost-effectiveness and budget impact of stepwise addition of bolus insulin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: evaluation of the FullSTEP trial.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Rhodri; Lian, Jean; Karolicki, Boris; Valentine, William

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Intensification of basal insulin-only therapy in type 2 diabetes is often achieved through addition of bolus insulin 3-times daily. The FullSTEP trial demonstrated that stepwise addition (SWA) of bolus insulin aspart was non-inferior to full basal-bolus (FBB) therapy and reduced the rate of hypoglycemia. Here the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of SWA is evaluated. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact models were developed to assess the cost and quality-of-life (QoL) implications of intensification using SWA compared with FBB in the US setting. At assessment, SWA patients added one bolus dose to their current regimen if the HbA1c target was not met. SWA patients reaching three bolus doses used FBB event rates. Outcomes were evaluated at trial end and projected annually up to 5 years. Models captured hypoglycemic events, the proportion meeting HbA1c target, and self-measured blood glucose. Event rates and QoL utilities were taken from trial data and published literature. Costs were evaluated from a healthcare-payer perspective, reported in 2013 USD, and discounted (like clinical outcomes) at 3.5% annually. This analysis applies to patients with HbA1c 7.0-9.0% and body mass index <40 kg/m(2). SWA was associated with improved QoL and reduced costs compared with FBB. Improvement in QoL and cost reduction were driven by lower rates of hypoglycemia. Sensitivity analyses showed that outcomes were most influenced by the cost of bolus insulin and QoL impact of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Budget impact analysis estimated that, by moving from FBB to SWA, a health plan with 77,000 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 7.8% annually intensified to basal-bolus therapy, would save USD 1304 per intensifying patient over the trial period. SWA of bolus insulin should be considered a beneficial and cost-saving alternative to FBB therapy for the intensification of treatment in type 2 diabetes.

  20. SU-E-T-437: Dosimetric Assessment of Brass Mesh Bolus for Postmastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, R; Paxton, A; Cervino, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the use of a brass mesh bolus for chest wall irradiation sufficiently increases surface dose while having little effect on the dose at depth. This work quantified the increase in surface dose when using a brass mesh bolus in postmastectomy chest wall radiotherapy compared to tissue-equivalent bolus and assessed its effect on dose at depth. Methods: Percent depth doses with brass bolus, 5mm tissue-equivalent bolus, and no bolus were determined for a 6 MV photon beam in a solid water phantom using a parallel plate ionization chamber. Gafchromic film was used to determine the surface dose for the same three experimental setups. For comparison to a realistic treatment setup, gafchromic film and OSLDs were used to determine the surface dose over the irradiated area of a 6 MV chest wall plan with tangential beams delivered to a heterogeneous thorax phantom. The plan was generated using a CT of the phantom and delivered using brass mesh bolus, 5mm tissue-equivalent bolus, and no bolus. Results: For the en face beam, the central surface dose increased to 90% of maximum with the tissue-equivalent bolus, but to only 62% of maximum with the brass mesh. Using tangential beams on the thorax phantom, the surface dose increased from 40–72% to 75–110% of prescribed dose, with the brass mesh, and to 85–109% with the tissue-equivalent bolus. At depths beyond dmax in the plastic water phantom, the dose with and without brass mesh bolus differed by less than 0.5%. Conclusion: A brass mesh may be considered as a substitute for tissue-equivalent bolus to increase the superficial dose of 6 MV chest wall tangent plans. The brass mesh does not significantly change the dose at depth, so a non-bolus plan could be used for bolus and non-bolus treatments.

  1. SU-C-213-06: Dosimetric Verification of 3D Printed Electron Bolus

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, K; Corbett, M; Pelletier, C; Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Jung, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effect of 3D printed bolus in an anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: Conformable bolus material was generated for an anthropomorphic phantom from a DICOM volume. The bolus generated was a uniform expansion of 5mm applied to the nose region of the phantom, as this is a difficult area to uniformly apply bolus clinically. A Printrbot metal 3D Printer using PLA plastic generated the bolus. A 9MeV anterior beam with a 5cm cone was used to deliver dose to the nose of the phantom. TLD measurements were compared to predicted values at the phantom surface. Film planes were analyzed for the printed bolus, a standard 5mm bolus sheet placed on the phantom, and the phantom with no bolus applied to determine depth and dose distributions. Results: TLDs measured within 2.5% of predicted value for the 3D bolus. Film demonstrated a more uniform dose distribution in the nostril region for the 3d printed bolus than the standard bolus. This difference is caused by the air gap created around the nostrils by the standard bolus, creating a secondary build-up region. Both demonstrated a 50% central axis dose shift of 5mm relative to the no bolus film. HU for the bolus calculated the PLA electron density to be ∼1.1g/cc. Physical density was measured to be 1.3g/cc overall. Conclusion: 3D printed PLA bolus demonstrates improved dosimetric performance to standard bolus for electron beams with complex phantom geometry.

  2. Cardiopulmonary adjustments following single high dosage administration of methylprednisolone in traumatized man.

    PubMed Central

    Lozman, J; Dutton, R E; English, M; Powers, S R

    1975-01-01

    Pharmacologic doses of methylprednisolone sodium succinate were administered to 10 critically ill patients when the steroid was the only variable. Measurements of respiratory and circulatory physiologic parameters were obtained in all patients prior to injection and at 30 and 90 minutes following injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate. A significant increase in Cardiac Index was seen (P less than .01) which appeared to be in association with a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (P less than .01) at a time when physiologic shunting of blood through the lungs increased (P less than .01). These changes imply improved perfusion of non- or poorly ventilated portions of the lungs. Four of ten patients demonstrated removal of lactate by the lung during the control period. Following methylprednisolone sodium succinate injection, 9 of 10 patients demonstrated production or a washout of lactate from the lungs. PMID:1130849

  3. Effect of methylprednisolone on return of sexual function after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J Kellogg; Marschke, Penny; Maples, Patricia; Walsh, Patrick C

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether postoperative methylprednisolone improves the recovery of sexual function after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. We randomized men undergoing bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy by a single surgeon to receive 6 days of placebo or methylprednisolone beginning on postoperative day 1. At 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, we assessed potency with the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire and urinary continence with participant-reported pad use. We used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and the two-sample t test with equal variances for comparisons between study groups. No operative complications occurred and 70 (100%) of 70 participants experienced normal wound healing. The odds of being potent for participants who received methylprednisolone (n = 34) compared with those who received placebo (n = 36) did not significantly differ at 3 (odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 1.05), 6 (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 2.4), or 12 (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 4.8) months. The mean International Index of Erectile Function scores did not significantly differ at 3 (P = 0.08), 6 (P = 0.50), or 12 (P = 0.71) months. At 12 months, 74% of the methylprednisolone and 71% of the placebo participants were potent (P = 0.8). The proportions of participants who were continent did not differ significantly at 3 (P = 0.89), 6 (P = 0.25), or 12 (P = 0.49) months. At 12 months, 96% of the methylprednisolone and 100% of the placebo participants were continent. At doses sufficient to produce a systemic anti-inflammatory effect, postoperative methylprednisolone was not associated with improved potency at up to 12 months after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy in men 40 to 60 years old.

  4. High-dose methylprednisolone and endothelial glycocalyx in paediatric heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, E; Keski-Nisula, J; Andersson, S; Palo, R; Salminen, J; Suominen, P K

    2016-11-01

    Corticosteroids are used in paediatric heart surgery to attenuate systemic inflammatory response. Glycocalyx regulates vascular permeability, shear stress and cell adhesion on the endothelium. Syndecan-1 serves as a biomarker of glycocalyx degradation. Hydrocortisone decreased endothelial glycocalyx degradation in an experimental model. Our hypothesis was that high-dose methylprednisolone decreases glycocalyx degradation as measured by plasma sydecan-1 concentration in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Two double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trials were conducted. In the first trial ('neonatal trial'), 40 neonates undergoing open heart surgery received either 30 mg/kg intravenous methylprednisolone (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20). In the second trial ('VSD trial'), 45 infants and very young children, undergoing ventricular or atrioventricular septal defect correction received one of the following: 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone intravenously after anaesthesia induction (n = 15), 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone in the cardiopulmonary bypass prime solution (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Plasma syndecan-1 concentrations were measured. Results were expressed both as absolute concentrations and in relative concentrations as multiples of the baseline values of syndecan-1. There were no statistically significant differences between the neonate trial groups for absolute syndecan-1 concentrations. However, operative administration of methylprednisolone to neonates significantly reduced the relative increases of syndecan-1 at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (P = 0.008) and at 6 h post-operatively (P = 0.018). There were no statistically significant differences in absolute or relative increases of syndecan-1 between the VSD trial study groups. High-dose methylprednisolone reduces shedding of glycocalyx in neonates after complex cardiac surgery but not in older infants after repair of VSD/AVSD with shorter ischaemia times. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica

  5. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  10. EFFECT OF BOLUS SIZE ON DEGLUTITION AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Diane M; Marks, Stanley L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2016-07-01

    Contrast videofluoroscopy is the gold standard procedure for evaluating dysphagia in humans, but quantitative measures vary depending on bolus size and consistency. We hypothesized that quantitative measures made during videofluoroscopy of swallowing in dogs would differ between bolus sizes and consistencies. Ten healthy adult dogs were enrolled a prospective, crossover experimental study and underwent contrast videofluoroscopy while swallowing liquid (5, 10, and 15 ml) and canned food (3, 8, and 12 g) boluses. Maximum pharyngeal contraction occurred significantly later with medium solid boluses than with medium liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.021 s (adjusted P = 0.042). Upper esophageal sphincter opening occurred significantly earlier with large solid boluses than with medium solid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.018 s (adjusted P = 0.025). Thoracic esophageal transit time was significantly longer with small solid boluses than with small liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.68 s (adjusted P = 0.004). Odds of primary esophageal peristalsis occurring were significantly (18.5 times) higher with large solid vs. large liquid boluses (adjusted P = 0.031). No other statistical comparisons reached significance. Based on these results, we recommend a standardized approach to videofluoscopy in dogs with determination of quantitative measures using medium liquid and soft food boluses to minimize effects of size. Furthermore, we conclude that measurements made on liquid swallows should not be directly compared to measurements made on soft food boluses. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. A simple formula to determine the bolus thickness on an oblique surface

    SciTech Connect

    Vossler, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    For certain clinical situations such as breast treatments, a bolus is used and must be accounted for in monitor unit calculations. Because of the oblique incidence involved, the thickness of bolus traversed by the radiation beam, as opposed to its nominal thickness, must be used. Using principles of geometry, a simple method is derived to calculate the thickness of bolus for these calculations.

  12. Methylprednisolone liver toxicity: A new case and a French regional pharmacovigilance survey.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, Jérôme; Cottin, Judith; Lavie, Caroline; Guillaud, Olivier; Hervieu, Valérie; Chambon-Augoyard, Christine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Vukusic, Sandra; Vial, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Reported hepatotoxicity induced by corticosteroids is very rare, and the diagnosis is highly challenging in the context of auto-immune disease. We report here a case of high-dose methylprednisolone (MP)-induced acute hepatitis confirmed by liver histology in a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and a case series (n=4) notified to the French Pharmacovigilance center of Lyon. In all 5 cases, other common causes of hepatitis were excluded. The causal relationship with MP pulse therapy was supported by the fact that MP was the only culprit drug. In addition, 3 of these 5 patients underwent unintended single or multiple positive MP rechallenge. Our 5 patients scored a RUCAM score from 6 (probable) to 10 (highly probable). MP-induced liver injury is probably very rare, since only less than 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, our cases strongly illustrates that many cases could have been unrecognized; final diagnosis in 3 of 5 of our patients was made after the second or third episode of acute hepatitis. In conclusion, these cases we report here strongly illustrates that high-dose MP-induced liver injury can occur in patients treated for MS or auto-immune disorder. Unintended re-challenge can confirm the diagnosis and can help to distinguish it from autoimmune hepatitis. Performing liver function tests routinely both before and after MP administration would be beneficial, as the timely recognition of this complication and early drug withdrawal may prevent progression of severe necrosis hepatic injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of combined treatment with methylprednisolone and soluble Nogo-66 receptor after rat spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Benxiu; Li, Mingwei; Budel, Stephane; Pepinsky, R. Blake; Walus, Lee; Engber, Thomas M.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; Relton, Jane K.

    2010-01-01

    Methylprednisolone (MP) is a synthetic glucocorticoid used for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Soluble Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) ectodomain is a novel experimental therapy for SCI that promotes axonal regeneration by blocking the growth inhibitory effects of myelin constituents in the adult central nervous system. To evaluate the potential complementarity of these mechanistically distinct pharmacological reagents we compared their effects alone and in combination after thoracic (T7) dorsal hemisection in the rat. Treatment with an ecto-domain of the rat NgR (27–310) fused to a rat IgG [NgR(310)ecto-Fc] (50 μM intrathecal, 0.25 μL/h for 28 days) or MP alone (30 mg/kg i.v., 0, 4 and 8 h postinjury) improved the rate and extent of functional recovery measured using Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and footprint analysis. The effect of MP treatment on BBB score was apparent the day after SCI whereas the effect of NgR(310)ecto-Fc was not apparent until 2 weeks after SCI. NgR(310)ecto-Fc or MP treatment resulted in increased axonal sprouting and/or regeneration, quantified by counting biotin dextran amine-labeled corticospinal tract axons, and increased the number of axons contacting motor neurons in the ventral horn gray matter caudal to the lesion. Combined treatment with NgR(310)ecto-Fc and MP had a more pronounced effect on recovery of function and axonal growth compared with either treatment alone. The data demonstrate that NgR(310)ecto-Fc and MP act in a temporally and mechanistically distinct manner and suggest that they may have complementary effects. PMID:16101740

  14. [Disseminated histoplasmosis treated by boluses of fluconazole].

    PubMed

    Mandengue Ebenye, C; Takuefou Mfangam, B; Nouédoui, C; Atangana, P J A

    2015-01-01

    We report a case in which an HIV-infected man was cured of disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii) after treatment by high-dose fluconazole (1,600 mg taken four times daily) for 2 months, combined with active antiretroviral therapy. The choice of fluconazole at this dosage was motivated by its availability as a generic and thus inexpensive medication, the patient's precarious status, and his critical clinical condition. At the end of the second month of treatment, the patient chose to stop the fluconazole, which he could no longer afford, while continuing the antiretroviral treatment, which was free. The clinical and laboratory improvement observed from the first week has continued to progress for more than 8 months after fluconazole treatment stopped. This single case needs - and deserves - to be confirmed in a series of patients. Nonetheless it makes it possible to envision fluconazole as a low-cost and efficacious antifungal agent for the treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Acute synovitis and intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate in ponies.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, R J; Fubini, S L; Vernier-Singer, M; Wootton, J A; Lust, G; Freeman, K P; MacLeod, J N

    1998-03-01

    To determine how acute synovitis, with and without intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), affect synthesis of proteoglycan, total protein, and collagen in articular cartilage and total protein synthesis in synovial membrane. Synovitis was induced in 10 ponies by the injection of 0.5 ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the left radiocarpal and midcarpal joints every 2 days for a total of four treatments. Synovitis was documented by clinical examination and synovial fluid analyses. Two days before euthanasia, MPA (0.1 mg/kg) was injected with the last dose of LPS into both the left and right radiocarpal and midcarpal joints of five of these ponies. Proteoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage explants from these joints was measured by incorporation of sodium [35S]sulfate. The size of the proteoglycan monomers and their aggregation with hyaluronan was assessed by size-exclusion chromatography. Protein synthesis in articular cartilage was measured by incorporation of [3H]proline and collagen synthesis by conversion of [3H]proline into [3H]hydroxyproline. Protein synthesis was measured in synovial membrane explants by incorporation of [35S]methionine. Ponies developed carpal effusion and mild lameness accompanied by increased total nucleated cell count and total solids in synovial fluid in response to the LPS injections. Moderate to severe synovial membrane proliferation and inflammation were observed histopathologically in joints injected with LPS but no consistent light-microscopical changes were observed in the articular cartilage from these joints. Intra-articular MPA alone was associated with decreased proteoglycan synthesis and increased protein and collagen synthesis in the cartilage explants. Total protein synthesis by synovial membrane was also increased by MPA alone. In contrast, no differences in protein or proteoglycan synthesis were observed in explants from the joints with synovitis, with or without intra-articular MPA. Treatment with MPA, LPS

  16. Effect of swallowed bolus viscosity and body position on esophageal transit, contraction and perception of transit.

    PubMed

    Dalmazo, Juciléia; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The esophagus has a different response in relation to the characteristics of a swallowed bolus. Bolus viscosity and body position may affect esophageal contraction and transit. Objectives To investigate the effect of bolus viscosity and body position on esophageal contraction, transit and perception. Esophageal contraction, transit and perception of transit were evaluated in 26 asymptomatic volunteers, 13 men and 13 women aged 18-60 years, mean: 33.6 (12.2) years. Esophageal contraction (manometry) and transit (impedance) were measured with a solid state catheter with sensors located 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. Each volunteer swallowed in duplicate and in random sequence a 5 mL low viscous (LV) liquid bolus of an isotonic drink with pH 3.3, and a 5 mL high viscous (HV) paste bolus, which was prepared with 7.5 g of instant food thickener diluted in 50 mL of water (pH: 6.4). Total bolus transit time, in the sitting position, was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus. Esophageal transit was longer in the supine position than in the sitting position. Bolus head advance time was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus in both positions. Contraction esophageal amplitude was higher in the supine position than in the sitting position. The perception of bolus transit was more frequent with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus, without differences related to position. The viscosity of the swallowed bolus and body position during swallows has an influence on esophageal contractions, transit and perception of transit.

  17. Analysis of pressure generation and bolus transit during pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    McConnel, F M

    1988-01-01

    Current pharyngeal deglutition theory has stressed the role of the pharyngeal constrictors as producing a peristaltic wave responsible for bolus propulsion through the pharynx. This thesis presents data obtained using manofluorography which supports the significance of tongue and laryngeal motion in swallowing. The usage of the term peristalsis to describe the constrictor contraction is challenged. The results of this quantitative study of swallowing in normal subjects, laryngectomized patients, and patients with restricted tongue motion show that tongue driving pressure and the negative pressure developed in the pharyngeal esophageal segment appear more important than the peristaltic-like pressure of the constrictors. Bolus transit is really dependent upon these two pressures. This model for analysis has clinical significance because it permits quantification of the pharyngeal swallowing mechanism.

  18. Dose Reduction with Adaptive Bolus Chasing Computed Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhijun; Bai, Er-Wei; Wang, Ge; Sharafuddin, Melhem J.; Abada, Hicham T.

    2010-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has become an effective diagnosis and evaluating tool in clinical; however, its radiation exposure has drawn great attention as more and more CT scans are performed every year. How to reduce the radiation dose and meanwhile keep the resultant CT images diagnosable becomes an important research topic. In this paper, we propose a dose reduction approach along with the adaptive bolus chasing CT Angiography (CTA) techniques, which are capable of tracking the contrast bolus peak over all the blood vessel segments during the CTA scan. By modulating the tube current (and collimator width) online, we can reduce the total radiation dose and maintain the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the blood vessel. Numerical experiments on reference DSA data sets show that by using the proposed dose reduction method, the effective radiation dose can be saved about 39%. PMID:20421701

  19. Dose reduction with adaptive bolus chasing computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhijun; Bai, Er-Wei; Wang, Ge; Sharafuddin, Melhem J; Abada, Hicham T

    2010-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has become an effective diagnosis and evaluating tool in clinical; however, its radiation exposure has drawn great attention as more and more CT scans are performed every year. How to reduce the radiation dose and meanwhile keep the resultant CT images diagnosable becomes an important research topic. In this paper, we propose a dose reduction approach along with the adaptive bolus chasing CT Angiography (CTA) techniques, which are capable of tracking the contrast bolus peak over all the blood vessel segments during the CTA scan. By modulating the tube current (and collimator width) online, we can reduce the total radiation dose and maintain the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the blood vessel. Numerical experiments on reference DSA data sets show that by using the proposed dose reduction method, the effective radiation dose can be saved about 39%.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or 1-g...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or 1-g...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 000859 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or 1-g...

  3. Dosimetric characterization of 3D printed bolus at different infill percentage for external photon beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Rosalinda; Ciardo, Delia; Pansini, Floriana; Bazani, Alessia; Comi, Stefania; Spoto, Ruggero; Noris, Samuele; Cattani, Federica; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto; Vavassori, Andrea; Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    3D printing is rapidly evolving and further assessment of materials and technique is required for clinical applications. We evaluated 3D printed boluses with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactide (PLA) at different infill percentage. A low-cost 3D printer was used. The influence of the air inclusion within the 3D printed boluses was assessed thoroughly both with treatment planning system (TPS) and with physical measurements. For each bolus, two treatment plans were calculated with Monte Carlo algorithm, considering the computed tomography (CT) scan of the 3D printed bolus or modelling the 3D printed bolus as a virtual bolus structure with a homogeneous density. Depth dose measurements were performed with Gafchromic films. High infill percentage corresponds to high density and high homogeneity within bolus material. The approximation of the bolus in the TPS as a homogeneous material is satisfying for infill percentages greater than 20%. Measurements performed with PLA boluses are more comparable to the TPS calculated profiles. For boluses printed at 40% and 60% infill, the discrepancies between calculated and measured dose distribution are within 5%. 3D printing technology allows modulating the shift of the build-up region by tuning the infill percentage of the 3D printed bolus in order to improve superficial target coverage. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bolus calculator with nutrition database software, a new concept of prandial insulin programming for pump users.

    PubMed

    Pańkowska, Ewa; Błazik, Marlena

    2010-05-01

    Bolus calculators are effective tools in controlling blood glucose levels in patients treated with insulin. Diabetics is a new software devised for patients to facilitate and improve self-managing for prandial insulin dosing and for better controlling food intake. This device contains two integral parts: a nutrition database and a bolus calculator. The algorithm is based on a formula in which carbohydrate (CHO) and either fat and/or protein (FP) products are engulfed in insulin. The insulin dose setting is programmed individually for CHO in a normal bolus (N-W) and for FP in a square-wave bolus (S-W). The device calculates the dose of insulin for N-W or S-W, suggests the optimal kind of bolus, and indicates the timing in hours for an S-W bolus. In addition, this calculator, which contains a nutrition database and insulin dosing software, helps determine the correct type of necessary boluses for selected foods.

  5. Comparisons of analgesic effects of different doses of morphine and morphine plus methylprednisolone after knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Kizilkaya, M; Yildirim, O S; Ezirmik, N; Kursad, H; Karsan, O

    2005-08-01

    In this double-blind randomized study, the analgesic effects of morphine alone and with methylprednisolone were examined in 72 patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery. At the end of arthroscopy, patients were allocated randomly to one of four groups to receive intra-articular administrations of saline, morphine 1 mg, morphine 5 mg or morphine 1 mg with methylprednisolone 40 mg. Preoperative and postoperative pain levels at rest and during movement (active flexion of the knee) were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS). Postoperative analgesic requirements to alleviate pain were evaluated. Pain scores were significantly lower for the patients who received 5 mg morphine and 1 mg morphine with 40 mg methylprednisolone than for those who received saline or 1 mg morphine. This was accompanied by a decrease in the postoperative consumption of analgesics and prolongation of the duration of pain relief. This study confirms that the analgesic effect of morphine given intra-articularly is dose dependent and that combination of methylprednisolone with morphine has an additive effect on analgesia.

  6. Effect of Pulsed Methylprednisolone on Pain, in Patients with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Buell, Kevin G; Puri, Aiysha; Demontis, Maria Antonietta; Short, Charlotte L; Adonis, Adine; Haddow, Jana; Martin, Fabiola; Dhasmana, Divya; Taylor, Graham P

    2016-01-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an immune mediated myelopathy caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The efficacy of treatments used for patients with HAM/TSP is uncertain. The aim of this study is to document the efficacy of pulsed methylprednisolone in patients with HAM/TSP. Data from an open cohort of 26 patients with HAM/TSP was retrospectively analysed. 1g IV methylprednisolone was infused on three consecutive days. The outcomes were pain, gait, urinary frequency and nocturia, a range of inflammatory markers and HTLV-1 proviral load. Treatment was well tolerated in all but one patient. Significant improvements in pain were: observed immediately, unrelated to duration of disease and maintained for three months. Improvement in gait was only seen on Day 3 of treatment. Baseline cytokine concentrations did not correlate to baseline pain or gait impairment but a decrease in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration after pulsed methylprednisolone was associated with improvements in both. Until compared with placebo, treatment with pulsed methylprednisolone should be offered to patients with HAM/TSP for the treatment of pain present despite regular analgesia.

  7. Baseline clinical status as a predictor of methylprednisolone response in multiple sclerosis relapses.

    PubMed

    Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Tintoré, Mar; Rovira, Alex; Ramió-Torrenta, Luis; Brieva, Luis; Saiz, Albert; Cano, Antonio; Carmona, Olga; Hervás, Jose V; Grau-López, Laia

    2016-01-01

    To date, there are no available factors to predict the outcome after multiple sclerosis relapse. To investigate factors that may be useful for predicting response to methylprednisolone treatment, following a relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS). The study included 48 MS patients enrolled in a double-blind multicenter trial to receive intravenous versus oral high-dose methylprednisolone treatment. Associations were sought between the disability status prior to relapse and the relapse severity, determined by changes in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, as well as the improvements after treatment. We also analyzed the relationships between the number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gadolinium-enhancing lesions (Gd+) and improvement. A higher EDSS score before relapse was associated with more severe relapses (p = 0.04) and less marked improvement (odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI (1.2-2.2); p = 0.05) after methylprednisolone treatment. Relapse severity (p = 0.29) and the number of Gd+ lesions at relapse (p = 0.41) were not related with improvement. Clinical baseline status prior to MS relapse is a predictor of response to methylprednisolone treatment. © The Author(s), 2015.

  8. Effects of methylprednisolone, dantrolene, and their combination on experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Isabel R; Lavor, Mário Sérgio L; Alves, Endrigo G L; Fukushima, Fabiola B; Oliveira, Karen M; Silva, Carla Maria O; Caldeira, Fatima Maria C; Costa, Paula M; Melo, Eliane G

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone sodium succinate, dantrolene sodium, and their combination on experimental spinal cord injury. We used 25 rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were divided into five groups. The negative control group (NC) consisted of animals without spinal cord trauma. In the groups with spinal cord trauma, the positive control group (PC) was given no treatment, the MS group was treated with methylprednisolone, the MS/DS group was treated with methylprednisolone and dantrolene, and the DS group was treated with dantrolene alone. The animals' motor function was evaluated daily, as measured with the open field test. Eight days after surgery, the animals were euthanized for spinal cord collection. Descriptive morphological evaluation, anti-NeuN immunohistochemistry, TUNEL, and anti-Bax immunofluorescence were performed. There was no significant difference between the PC, MS, MS/DS and DS groups with respect to BBB scores, neuronal and glial staining, or Bax expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that methylprednisolone sodium succinate, dantrolene sodium, or the combination of these drugs did not reduce neuronal and glial loss, intrinsic pathway apoptosis, or promote functional recovery.

  9. Effect of Pulsed Methylprednisolone on Pain, in Patients with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Kevin G.; Puri, Aiysha; Demontis, Maria Antonietta; Short, Charlotte L.; Adonis, Adine; Haddow, Jana; Martin, Fabiola; Dhasmana, Divya

    2016-01-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an immune mediated myelopathy caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The efficacy of treatments used for patients with HAM/TSP is uncertain. The aim of this study is to document the efficacy of pulsed methylprednisolone in patients with HAM/TSP. Data from an open cohort of 26 patients with HAM/TSP was retrospectively analysed. 1g IV methylprednisolone was infused on three consecutive days. The outcomes were pain, gait, urinary frequency and nocturia, a range of inflammatory markers and HTLV-1 proviral load. Treatment was well tolerated in all but one patient. Significant improvements in pain were: observed immediately, unrelated to duration of disease and maintained for three months. Improvement in gait was only seen on Day 3 of treatment. Baseline cytokine concentrations did not correlate to baseline pain or gait impairment but a decrease in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration after pulsed methylprednisolone was associated with improvements in both. Until compared with placebo, treatment with pulsed methylprednisolone should be offered to patients with HAM/TSP for the treatment of pain present despite regular analgesia. PMID:27077747

  10. Comparison of the Effects of Methotrexate and Methylprednisolone in Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, H; Liu, Y; Li, K; Li, J

    2015-08-01

    There are many biochemical and inflammatory reactions which develop due to the effect of secondary spinal cord injury (SCI) which is also called secondary cord damage. SCI can also create edema during acute stage. This study was designed to assess the probable protective effects of low-dose methotrexate and methylprednisolone in the spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. A total of 100 Wistar albino rats having weights in the range 250-350 g were used for this experiment. All the animals were divided into 5 groups. Laminectomy was performed in which SCI was induced using a temporary aneurysm clip. After clip compression, methotrexate and/or methylprednisolone was administered intraperitoneally. Control group is at 0 grades as there is no damage in the spinal cord tissue. MTX and MP treated groups are at grade 1 as they showed mild damage in spinal cord tissue. But the group 4 and group 5 also showed the grade 1 as they were treated with combination of both MTX and MP. Neither methotrexate nor methylprednisolone was shown to decrease the histopathological grade in either stage of SCI. Low-dose methotrexate was shown to decrease lipid peroxidation levels only in the sub-acute stage of SCI. Low dose methotrexate is more effective as compared to methylprednisolone in secondary spinal cord injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effects of methylprednisolone, dantrolene, and their combination on experimental spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Isabel R; Lavor, Mário Sérgio L; Alves, Endrigo GL; Fukushima, Fabiola B; Oliveira, Karen M; Silva, Carla Maria O; Caldeira, Fatima Maria C; Costa, Paula M; Melo, Eliane G

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone sodium succinate, dantrolene sodium, and their combination on experimental spinal cord injury. We used 25 rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were divided into five groups. The negative control group (NC) consisted of animals without spinal cord trauma. In the groups with spinal cord trauma, the positive control group (PC) was given no treatment, the MS group was treated with methylprednisolone, the MS/DS group was treated with methylprednisolone and dantrolene, and the DS group was treated with dantrolene alone. The animals’ motor function was evaluated daily, as measured with the open field test. Eight days after surgery, the animals were euthanized for spinal cord collection. Descriptive morphological evaluation, anti-NeuN immunohistochemistry, TUNEL, and anti-Bax immunofluorescence were performed. There was no significant difference between the PC, MS, MS/DS and DS groups with respect to BBB scores, neuronal and glial staining, or Bax expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that methylprednisolone sodium succinate, dantrolene sodium, or the combination of these drugs did not reduce neuronal and glial loss, intrinsic pathway apoptosis, or promote functional recovery. PMID:25197334

  12. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  13. Effect of a bitter bolus on oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Secaf, Marie; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea), and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m). There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  14. A Customized Bolus Produced Using a 3-Dimensional Printer for Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient’s skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. Methods We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. Results The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. Conclusions A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses. PMID:25337700

  15. Albumin-based nanoparticles as methylprednisolone carriers for targeted delivery towards the neonatal Fc receptor in glomerular podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lin; Chen, Mingyu; Mao, Huijuan; Wang, Ningning; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xiufen; Qian, Jun; Xing, Changying

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome. However, high doses and long periods of GC therapy can result in severe side effects. The present study aimed to selectively deliver albumin-methylprednisolone (MP) nanoparticles towards glomerular podocytes, which highly express the specific neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) of albumin. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was labeled with a fluorescent dye and linked with modified MP via an amide bond. The outcome nanoparticle named BSA633-MP showed a uniform size with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and contained 12 drug molecules on average. The nanoconjugates were found to be stable at pH 7.4 and acid-sensitive at pH 4.0, with approximately 72% release of the MP drug after 48 h of incubation. The nanoparticle demonstrated a 36-fold uptake in receptor-specific cellular delivery in the FcRn-expressing human podocytes compared to the uptake in the non-FcRn-expressing control cells. Co-localization further confirmed that uptake of the nanoconjugates involved receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by lysosome associated transportation. In vitro cellular experiments indicated that the BSA633-MP ameliorated puromycin aminonucleoside-induced podocyte apoptosis. Moreover, in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging showed that BSA633-MP was mainly accumulated in the liver and kidney after intravenous dosing for 24 h. Collectively, this study may provide an approach for the effective and safe therapy of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:28259932

  16. Assessment of gemcitabine, cisplatin and methylprednisolone (GEM-P) combination treatment for non-Hodgkin T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kein-Leong; Ashley, Sue

    2012-12-01

    T cell lymphoma is rare with few dedicated studies and no consensus regarding optimal treatment. We undertook a retrospective hospital review to assess the efficacy of gemcitabine, cisplatin and methylprednisolone (GEM-P) combination therapy. Twenty-nine patients were followed up for a median duration of 28 months. Twenty-three patients received standard GEM-P. Due to hearing impairment, 3 patients had cisplatin substituted with carboplatin and 1 with oxaliplatin. In 2 cases, rituximab was added to GEM-P in view of the presence of EBV + B cell clones. Overall response rate (RR) [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] was 73 % (95 % CI range 54-86 %). 11/29 (38 %) achieved CR and 10/29 (35 %) had PR. In first-line treatment, 4/10 patients achieved CR and 4/10 had PR relating to a RR of 80 %. CR was seen in 4/9 (45 %), 2/8 (25) and 1/2 (50 %) patients treated in the second, third and fifth-sixth line respectively. Thus, GEM-P was found to be effective as first-line or salvage therapy in T cell lymphoma.

  17. High-Dose Methylprednisolone Has No Benefit Over Moderate Dose for the Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Keski-Nisula, Juho; Pesonen, Eero; Olkkola, Klaus T; Ahlroth, Terri; Puntila, Juha; Andersson, Sture; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Suominen, Pertti K

    2016-09-01

    The optimal dose of methylprednisolone during pediatric open heart surgical procedures is unknown. This study compared the antiinflammatory and cardioprotective effects of high and lower doses of methylprednisolone in children undergoing cardiac operations. Thirty children, between 1 and 18 months old and undergoing total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, were randomized in double-blind fashion to receive either 5 or 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone after anesthesia induction. Plasma concentrations of methylprednisolone, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10, troponin T, and glucose were measured at anesthesia induction before administration of the study drug, at 30 minutes on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), just after weaning from CPB, and at 6 hours after CPB. Troponin T and blood glucose were also measured on the first postoperative morning. Significantly higher methylprednisolone concentrations were measured in patients receiving 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone at 30 minutes on CBP, after weaning from CPB and at 6 hours after CPB (p < 0.001). No differences were detected in IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, or troponin concentrations at any time point. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher in patients receiving 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone at 6 hours after CPB (p = 0.04) and on the first postoperative morning (p = 0.02). Based on the measured concentrations of interleukins or troponin T, a 30 mg/kg dose of methylprednisolone during pediatric open heart operations does not offer any additional antiinflammatory or cardioprotective benefit over a 5 mg/kg dose. Higher dose of methylprednisolone exposes patients more frequently to hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prophylactic Methylprednisolone to Reduce Inflammation and Improve Outcomes from One Lung Ventilation in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Theroux, Mary C.; Olivant Fisher, Aliciat; Rodriguez, Maria E.; Brislin, Robert P.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Shah, Suken A.; McCoy, Matt; Brown, Melinda; Dabney, Kirk W.; Mackenzie, William G.; Katz, Douglas A.; Shaffer, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Background One lung ventilation (OLV) results in inflammatory and mechanical injury, leading to intraoperative and postoperative complications in children. No interventions have been studied in children to minimize such injury. Objective We hypothesized that a single 2-mg/kg dose of methylprednisolone given 45–60 minutes prior to lung collapse will minimize injury from OLV and improve physiological stability. Methods Twenty-eight children scheduled to undergo OLV were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg/kg methylprednisolone (MP) or normal saline (placebo group) prior to OLV. Anesthetic management was standardized, and data were collected for physiological stability (bronchospasm, respiratory resistance, and compliance). Plasma was assayed for inflammatory markers related to lung injury at timed intervals related to administration of methylprednisolone. Results Three children in the placebo group experienced clinically significant intraoperative and postoperative respiratory complications. Respiratory resistance was lower (P = 0.04) in the methylprednisolone group. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was lower (P = 0.01) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was higher (P = 0.001) in the methylprednisolone group. Tryptase, measured before and after OLV, was lower (P = 0.03) in the methylprednisolone group while increased levels of tryptase were seen in placebo group after OLV (did not achieve significance). There were no side effects observed that could be attributed to methylprednisolone in this study. Conclusions Methylprednisolone at 2 mg/kg given as a single dose prior to OLV provides physiological stability to children undergoing OLV. In addition, methylprednisolone results in lower pro-inflammatory markers and higher anti-inflammatory markers in the children's plasma. PMID:25557228

  19. Prophylactic methylprednisolone to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes from one lung ventilation in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Theroux, Mary C; Fisher, Alicia Olivant; Rodriguez, Maria E; Brislin, Robert P; Reichard, Kirk W; Shah, Suken A; McCoy, Matt; Brown, Melinda; Dabney, Kirk W; Mackenzie, William G; Katz, Douglas A; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2015-06-01

    One lung ventilation (OLV) results in inflammatory and mechanical injury, leading to intraoperative and postoperative complications in children. No interventions have been studied in children to minimize such injury. We hypothesized that a single 2-mg·kg(-1) dose of methylprednisolone given 45-60 min prior to lung collapse would minimize injury from OLV and improve physiological stability. Twenty-eight children scheduled to undergo OLV were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg·kg(-1) methylprednisolone (MP) or normal saline (placebo group) prior to OLV. Anesthetic management was standardized, and data were collected for physiological stability (bronchospasm, respiratory resistance, and compliance). Plasma was assayed for inflammatory markers related to lung injury at timed intervals related to administration of methylprednisolone. Three children in the placebo group experienced clinically significant intraoperative and postoperative respiratory complications. Respiratory resistance was lower (P = 0.04) in the methylprednisolone group. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was lower (P = 0.01), and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was higher (P = 0.001) in the methylprednisolone group. Tryptase, measured before and after OLV, was lower (P = 0.03) in the methylprednisolone group while increased levels of tryptase were seen in placebo group after OLV (did not achieve significance). There were no side effects observed that could be attributed to methylprednisolone in this study. Methylprednisolone at 2 mg·kg(-1) given as a single dose prior to OLV provides physiological stability to children undergoing OLV. In addition, methylprednisolone results in lower pro-inflammatory markers and higher anti-inflammatory markers in the children's plasma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantitative benefit-risk assessment of methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis relapses.

    PubMed

    Caster, Ola; Edwards, I Ralph

    2015-10-16

    High-dose short-term methylprednisolone is the recommended treatment in the management of multiple sclerosis relapses, although it has been suggested that lower doses may be equally effective. Also, glucocorticoids are associated with multiple and often dose-dependent adverse effects. This quantitative benefit-risk assessment compares high- and low-dose methylprednisolone (at least 2000 mg and less than 1000 mg, respectively, during at most 31 days) and a no treatment alternative, with the aim of determining which regimen, if any, is preferable in multiple sclerosis relapses. An overall framework of probabilistic decision analysis was applied, combining data from different sources. Effectiveness as well as risk of non-serious adverse effects were estimated from published clinical trials. However, as these trials recorded very few serious adverse effects, risk intervals for the latter were derived from individual case reports together with a range of plausible distributions. Probabilistic modelling driven by logically implied or clinically well motivated qualitative relations was used to derive utility distributions. Low-dose methylprednisolone was not a supported option in this assessment; there was, however, only limited data available for this treatment alternative. High-dose methylprednisolone and the no treatment alternative interchanged as most preferred, contingent on the risk distributions applied for serious adverse effects, the assumed level of risk aversiveness in the patient population, and the relapse severity. The data presently available do not support a change of current treatment recommendations. There are strong incentives for further clinical research to reduce the uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness and the risks associated with methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis relapses; this would enable better informed and more precise treatment recommendations in the future.

  1. The effects of aminoguanidine, methylprednisolone, and melatonin on nerve recovery in peripheral facial nerve neurorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Yanilmaz, Muhammed; Akduman, Davut; Sagun, Ömer Faik; Haksever, Mehmet; Yazicilar, Osman; Orhan, Israfil; Akpolat, Nusret; Gök, Uzeyir

    2015-05-01

    The medications may enhance the recovery after nerve paralysis. We aimed to evaluate the effects of aminoguanidine (AG), melatonin, and methylprednisolone on peripheral facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected and autografted in 32 New Zealand rabbits. Subjects were divided into 4 groups equally (AG, melatonin, methylprednisolone, and control). After the medical treatment latency and amplitude were measured with nerve conduction study at 3, 6, and 10 weeks. Then, coapted segments of nerve were examined microscopically. The groups were compared with each other. The latent period was shortened, and the amplitudes were increased in the AG group; the latent period was shortened, and the amplitudes did not show significant change in the melatonin group with the time. There were no significant differences between the amplitudes at 3 to 6 and 3 to 10 weeks in the methylprednisolone group, and the latent period was shortened. There was no significant difference between the amplitude values at 3, 6, and 10 weeks in the control group. In the histological examination, AG had the best influence on preventing myelin degeneration and reducing the accumulation of myelin debris. Considering the increase in collagen fibers, the best results were achieved in the melatonin group. The degree of myelin-axonal degeneration was higher in the methylprednisolone group. The degree of collagen fiber increase, axonal degeneration, myelin degeneration, and the accumulation of myelin debris were detected quite high in the control group. Aminoguanidine and melatonin alone achieved an increase in regeneration after peripheral facial nerve neurorrhaphy, but methylprednisolone did not. The best healing was determined in the AG group.

  2. Methylprednisolone Stiffens Aortas in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chronic Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Liang, Jin-Tung; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Glucocorticoids are commonly used as therapeutic agents in many acute and chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. The current study investigated the effects of methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) on aortic distensibility and vascular resistance in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods Chronic inflammation was induced by implanting a subcutaneous slow-release ALZET osmotic pump (1 mg kg−1 day−1 lipopolysaccharide) for either 2 or 4 weeks. Arterial wave transit time (τ) was derived to describe the elastic properties of aortas using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. Results Long-term lipopolysaccharide challenge enhanced the expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the aortas. Lipopolysaccharide also upregulated the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase to produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO), which resulted in vasodilation, as evidenced by the fall in total peripheral resistance (Rp). However, lipopolysaccharide challenge did not influence the elastic properties of aortas, as shown by the unaltered τ. The NO-mediated vascular relaxation may counterbalance the AGEs-induced arterial stiffening so that the aortic distensibility remained unaltered. Treating lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats with methylprednisolone prevented peripheral vasodilation because of its ability to increase Rp. However, methylprednisolone produced an increase in aorta stiffness, as manifested by the significant decline in τ. The diminished aortic distensibility by methylprednisolone paralleled a significant reduction in NO plasma levels, in the absence of any significant changes in AGEs content. Conclusion Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas and elastic arteries in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats, for NO activity may be dominant as a counteraction of AGEs. PMID:23874978

  3. Isoproternenol increases vascular volume expansion and urinary output after a large crystalloid bolus in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, Sven; Salter, Michael; Prough, Donald S; Kramer, George C; Svensen, Christer; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Kinsky, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    The primary goal of fluid therapy is to maintain fluid homeostasis. Commonly used isotonic crystalloids are only marginally effective and contribute to fluid excess syndrome. In patients with decreased cardiovascular reserve, fluid therapy alone is not sufficient to maintain end-organ perfusion. Therefore, inotropes or vasoactive drugs are used to supplement fluid infusion. Recent animal data suggest that coinfusion of adrenergic agents modulate the distribution of fluid between the vascular and extravascular/interstitial compartments after a fluid bolus. We sought to determine if this effect would translate in humans by coadministering a β-adrenergic agonist with fluid. Nine healthy volunteers (aged 21-50 years) were randomly paired and received either a continuous isoproterenol infusion (ISO: 0.05 μg/kg per minute) or 0.9% saline (control [CON]) 30min prior to a 25 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl fluid bolus. Hemodynamics, ventricular volume and function, and microcirculatory determinants (capillary filtration coefficient and oncotic pressure) were measured. Vascular and extravascular volume and fluid balance were determined. Compared with CON, ISO significantly increased heart rate (CON: 64.2 ± 4.1 beats/min vs. ISO: 97.4 ± 5.7 beats/min) and cardiac output (CON: 4.4 ± 0.7 L/min vs. ISO: 10.2 ± 0.9) before fluid bolus. Isoproterenol significantly increased urinary output (ISO: 10.86 ± 1.95 vs. control: 6.53 ± 1.45 mL/kg) and reduced extravascular volume (7.98 ± 2.0 vs. 14.15 ± 1.1mL/kg). Isoproterenol prevented an increase in capillary filtration coefficient (1.74 ± 0.4 vs. 3.21 ± 0.4 mL/min per mmHg · 10). Isoproterenol, a nonselective β-adrenergic agonist, augments vascular volume expansion and eliminates extravascular volume via enhanced diuresis, which may in part be due to enhanced endothelial barrier function.

  4. ISOPROTERNENOL INCREASES EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF A LARGE FLUID BOLUS IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    PubMed Central

    Asmussen, Sven; Salter, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Kramer, George C.; Svensen, Christer; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Kinsky, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary goal of fluid therapy is to maintain fluid homeostasis. Commonly used isotonic crystalloids are only marginally effective and contribute to fluid excess syndrome. In patients with decreased cardiovascular reserve, fluid therapy alone is not sufficient to maintain end-organ perfusion. Therefore, inotropes or vasoactive drugs are used to supplement fluid infusion. Recent animal data suggests that co-infusion of adrenergic agents modulate the distribution of fluid between the vascular and extravascular/interstitial compartments after a fluid bolus. We sought to determine if this effect would translate in humans by co-administering a beta (β)-adrenergic agonist with fluid. Methods Nine healthy volunteers (age 21–50 yrs) were randomly paired and received either a continuous isoproterenol infusion (ISO:0.05μg/kg/min) or 0.9% saline (control(CON)) 30min prior to a 25mL/kg 0.9% NaCl fluid bolus. Hemodynamics, ventricular volume and function and microcirculatory determinants (capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) and oncotic pressure) were measured. Vascular and extra-vascular volume (EVV) and fluid balance were determined. Results Compared to CON, ISO significantly increased heart rate (CON:64.2 ±4.1 bpm vs. ISO:97.4±5.7 bpm) and cardiac output (CON 4.4±0.7L/min vs. ISO:10.2±0.9) before fluid bolus. ISO significantly increased urinary output (ISO: 10.86±1.95 vs Control: 6.53±1.45 mL/kg) and reduced EVV (7.98±2.0 vs 14.15±1.1mL/kg). ISO prevented an increase in CFC (1.74±0.4 vs 3.21±0.4 mL/min/mmHg•10−3). Conclusion Isoproterenol, a non-selective β-adrenergic agonist, augments vascular volume expansion and eliminates EVV via enhanced diuresis, which may in part be due to enhanced endothelial barrier function. PMID:25046539

  5. Oesophageal bolus transit and clearance by secondary peristalsis in normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Szczesniak, Michal M; Cook, Ian J

    2008-12-01

    Secondary peristalsis is important for the clearance of retained refluxate or material from the oesophagus. Combined impedance and manometry can directly detect both oesophageal contraction and bolus transit. To apply combined impedance and manometry to characterize oesophageal bolus transit and clearance by secondary peristalsis in healthy individuals. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent combined impedance and manometry with a catheter containing seven impedance-measuring segments and eight water-perfusion pressure transducers. Saline and solid agar boluses of 5 ml were applied for primary peristalsis and secondary peristalsis was stimulated by rapid mid-oesophageal injections of saline. The rate for complete bolus clearance of secondary peristalsis with saline injections was less than that of primary peristalsis with saline swallows (69 vs. 95%, P=0.02). No statistical difference in bolus propagation time between primary and secondary peristalsis was observed (P=0.45). Bolus presence time of secondary peristalsis was significantly longer than that of primary peristalsis for all impedance-measuring segments (all P<0.05). Solid swallows differed from saline swallows with lower rate of complete bolus transit and longer bolus transit time. Our data show that the impedance technique can successfully characterize oesophageal bolus transit and clearance by secondary peristalsis. These findings suggest that secondary peristalsis may be less effective than primary peristalsis regarding oesophageal transit and clearance of a liquid bolus.

  6. The Effect of Oblique Electron Beams to the Surface Dose Under the Bolus

    SciTech Connect

    Demir, Bayram Okutan, Murat; Cakir, Aydin; Goeksel, Evren; Bilge, Hatice

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of bolus to the surface dose in oblique electron incidences. Irradiations with 4.5, 6, 7.5, 9, and 12-MeV electron beams were made for the incidence angles of 0 deg., 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg., 75 deg. and using 3 different bolus setups: (1) unbolused (no bolus), (2) 5-mm bolus, and (3) 10-mm bolus. A set of EBT gafchromic film pieces placed on the phantom surface was irradiated with a 400-cGy dose at D{sub max} for each setup. Whereas surface dose increased with increasing incidence degrees in the absence of a bolus, it was seen that there was a large surface dose decreasing in the presence of a bolus with increasing incidence angles. For 60 deg. incidence angle, the relative surface doses with unbolused setup were: 88.10%, 90.06%, 89.35%, 90.25%, and 97.10%; with 5-mm bolus: 66.45%, 81.20%, 99.78%, 124.43%, and 116.07%; and with 10-mm bolus: 22.65%, 45.20%, 55.20%, 65.82%, and 90.27% for 4.5, 6, 7.5, 9, and 12 MeV, respectively. The use of bolus in the treatment of highly oblique surfaces with low-energy electron beams significantly decreases the surface dose.

  7. Impacts of wearing complete dentures on bolus transport during feeding in elderly edentulous.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Furuya, J; Tamada, Y; Kondo, H

    2013-12-01

    Prosthetic treatment with dentures is often required for the elderly who have reduced swallowing function. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship between denture-wearing and feeding function from the perspective of swallowing. To clarify changes in bolus transport during feeding in elderly edentulous patients with or without complete dentures. Subjects were 15 elderly edentulous volunteers who were treated with maxillary and mandibular complete dentures. The test food was 10 g of minced agar jelly containing barium sulphate with a particle diameter of 4·0-5·6 mm. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed to assess the position of the leading edge of the bolus, the bolus volume in each area at swallow onset, bolus transit time and the mandibular position during pharyngeal swallowing. There were significant changes between the bolus transport with and without dentures. Without dentures, the leading edge of the bolus at swallow onset fell from the valleculae area to the hypopharynx, and the bolus volume in the hypopharynx increased. Bolus transit time increased in the oral cavity, valleculae and hypopharynx. The mandibular position shifted anterosuperior direction. The results arose owing to anatomical changes in the oral and pharyngeal structure and the following functional changes: poor food manipulation, poor bolus formation and delayed swallowing reflex. Removing dentures in elderly edentulous individuals influences bolus transport during feeding, resulting in the exacerbation of the reduced swallowing reserve capacity that accompanies ageing, and may increase the risk of dysphagia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pharyngeal swallow adaptations to bolus volume measured with high resolution manometry

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Mielens, Jason D.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of bolus volume on pharyngeal swallowing using high resolution manometry (HRM). Study design Repeated measures with subjects serving as own controls. Methods Twelve subjects swallowed four bolus volumes in the neutral head position: saliva; 5 ml water; 10 ml water; and 20 ml water. Pressure measurements were taken along the length of the pharynx using a high resolution manometer, with emphasis placed on the velopharynx, tongue base, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Variables were analyzed across bolus volumes using three-way repeated measures analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) investigating the effect of sex, bolus volume, and pharynx length. Pearson’s product moment tests were performed to evaluate how pharyngeal pressure and timing events changed across bolus volume. Results Velopharyngeal duration, maximum tongue base pressure, tongue base pressure rise rate, UES opening duration, and total swallow duration varied significantly across bolus volume. Sex did not have an effect, while pharynx length appeared to affect tongue base pressure duration. Maximum velopharyngeal pressure and minimum UES pressure had a direct relationship with bolus volume, while maximum tongue base pressure had an inverse relationship. Velopharyngeal pressure duration, UES opening duration, and total swallow duration increased as bolus volume increased. Conclusions Differences in pharyngeal pressures and timing of key pressure events were detected across varying bolus volumes. Knowing the relationships between bolus volume and pharyngeal pressure activity can be valuable when diagnosing and treating dysphagic patients. Level of evidence N/A. PMID:21108425

  9. Design of a Water Coupling Bolus with Improved Flow Distribution for Multielement Superficial Hyperthermia Applicators

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Schlorff, Jaime L.; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    A water bolus used in superficial hyperthermia couples the electromagnetic (EM) or acoustic energy into the target tissue and cools the tissue surface to minimize thermal hotspots and patient discomfort during treatment. Parametric analyses of the fluid pressure inside the bolus computed using 3D fluid dynamics simulations are used in this study to determine a bolus design with improved flow and surface temperature distributions for large area superficial heat applicators. The simulation results are used in the design and fabrication of a 19×32 cm prototype bolus with dual input-dual output (DIDO) flow channels. Sequential thermal images of the bolus surface temperature recorded for a step change in the circulating water temperature are used to assess steady state flow and surface temperature distributions across the bolus. Modeling and measurement data indicate substantial improvement in bolus flow and surface temperature distributions when changing from the previous single input-single output (SISO) to DIDO configuration. Temperature variation across the bolus at steady state was measured to be less than 0.8°C for the DIDO bolus compared to 1.5°C for the SISO waterbolus. The new DIDO bolus configuration maintains a nearly uniform flow distribution and low variation in surface temperature over a large area typically treated in superficial hyperthermia. PMID:19848618

  10. [Continuous infusion versus bolus injection of loop diuretics in acute heart failure: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Leto, Laura; Aspromonte, Nadia; Feola, Mauro

    2012-04-01

    Intravenous loop diuretics are increasingly used to treat symptoms and signs of fluid overload in acute heart failure, a clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Although diuretic therapy is widely used and strongly recommended by most recent clinical guidelines, prospective studies and randomized clinical trials are lacking and hence there is no reliable evidence regarding the best therapy in terms of doses, ways and methods of administration. With heart failure progression, the efficacy of loop diuretics is impaired by diuretic resistance characterized by a decreased diuretic and natriuretic effect of drugs. This review focuses on the current management of acute heart failure with diuretic therapy. Continuous diuretic infusion seems to be a good choice, from a pharmacokinetic point of view, when fluid overload is refractory to conventional therapy. Several available studies comparing bolus injection to continuous infusion of loop diuretics proved the latter to be an effective and safe method of administration. Continuous infusion seems to produce a constant plasma drug concentration with a more uniform daily diuretic and natriuretic effect and a greater safety profile (fewer adverse events such as worsening renal failure, electrolyte imbalance, ototoxicity). In addition, the analysis of available literature data did not provide conclusive evidence about the effects on clinical outcomes (mortality, rehospitalization rates, adverse events).

  11. Impact of bolus volume on small intestinal intra-luminal impedance in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Bryant, Laura K; Burgstad, Carly M; Fraser, Robert J; Sifrim, Daniel; Holloway, Richard H

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of bolus volume on the characteristics of small intestinal (SI) impedance signals. METHODS: Concurrent SI manometry-impedance measurements were performed on 12 healthy volunteers to assess the pattern of proximal jejunal fluid bolus movement over a 14 cm-segment. Each subject was given 34 boluses of normal saline (volume from 1 to 30 mL) via the feeding tube placed immediately above the proximal margin of the studied segment. A bolus-induced impedance event occurred if there was > 12% impedance drop from baseline, over ≥ 3 consecutive segments within 10 s of bolus injection. A minor or major impedance event was defined as a duration of impedance drop < 60 s or ≥ 60 s, respectively. RESULTS: The minimum volume required for a detectable SI impedance event was 2 mL. A direct linear relationship between the SI bolus volume and the occurrence of impedance events was noted until SI bolus volume reached 10 mL, a volume which always produced an impedance flow event. There was a moderate correlation between the bolus volume and the duration of impedance drop (r = 0.63, P < 0.0001) and the number of propagated channels (r = 0.50, P < 0.0001). High volume boluses were associated with more major impedance events (≥ 10 mL boluses = 63%, 3 mL boluses = 17%, and < 3 mL boluses = 0%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Bolus volume had an impact on the type and length of propagation of SI impedance events and a threshold of 2 mL is required to produce an event. PMID:20440856

  12. Multicenter Closed-Loop/Hybrid Meal Bolus Insulin Delivery with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chase, H. Peter; Doyle, Francis J.; Zisser, Howard; Renard, Eric; Nimri, Revital; Cobelli, Claudio; Buckingham, Bruce A.; Maahs, David M.; Anderson, Stacey; Magni, Lalo; Lum, John; Calhoun, Peter; Kollman, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study evaluated meal bolus insulin delivery strategies and associated postprandial glucose control while using an artificial pancreas (AP) system. Subjects and Methods: This study was a multicenter trial in 53 patients, 12–65 years of age, with type 1 diabetes for at least 1 year and use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for at least 6 months. Four different insulin bolus strategies were assessed: standard bolus delivered with meal (n=51), standard bolus delivered 15 min prior to meal (n=40), over-bolus of 30% delivered with meal (n=40), and bolus purposely omitted (n=46). Meal carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 1 g of CHO/kg of body weight up to a maximum of 100 g for the first three strategies or up to a maximum of 50 g for strategy 4. Results: Only three of 177 meals (two with over-bolus and one with standard bolus 15 min prior to meal) had postprandial blood glucose values of <60 mg/dL. Postprandial hyperglycemia (blood glucose level >180 mg/dL) was prolonged for all four bolus strategies but was shorter for the over-bolus (41% of the 4-h period) than the two standard bolus strategies (73% for each). Mean postprandial blood glucose level was 15.9 mg/dL higher for the standard bolus with meal compared with the prebolus (baseline-adjusted, P=0.07 for treatment effect over the 4-h period). Conclusions: The AP handled the four bolus situations safely, but at the expense of having elevated postprandial glucose levels in most subjects. This was most likely secondary to suboptimal performance of the algorithm. PMID:25188375

  13. A Tracer Bolus Method for Investigating Glutamine Kinetics in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Maiko; Smedberg, Marie; Klaude, Maria; Tjäder, Inga; Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Glutamine transport between tissues is important for the outcome of critically ill patients. Investigation of glutamine kinetics is, therefore, necessary to understand glutamine metabolism in these patients in order to improve future intervention studies. Endogenous glutamine production can be measured by continuous infusion of a glutamine tracer, which necessitates a minimum measurement time period. In order to reduce this problem, we used and validated a tracer bolus injection method. Furthermore, this method was used to measure the glutamine production in healthy volunteers in the post-absorptive state, with extra alanine and with glutamine supplementation and parenteral nutrition. Healthy volunteers received a bolus injection of [1-13C] glutamine, and blood was collected from the radial artery to measure tracer enrichment over 90 minutes. Endogenous rate of appearance (endoRa) of glutamine was calculated from the enrichment decay curve and corrected for the extra glutamine supplementation. The glutamine endoRa of healthy volunteers was 6.1±0.9 µmol/kg/min in the post-absorptive state, 6.9±1.0 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine (p = 0.29 versus control), 6.1±0.4 µmol/kg/min with extra alanine only (p = 0.32 versus control), and 7.5±0.9 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine and parenteral nutrition (p = 0.049 versus control). In conclusion, a tracer bolus injection method to measure glutamine endoRa showed good reproducibility and small variation at baseline as well as during parenteral nutrition. Additionally, we showed that parenteral nutrition including alanyl-glutamine increased glutamine endoRa in healthy volunteers, which was not attributable to the alanine part of the dipeptide. PMID:24810895

  14. Radionuclide esophageal transit of a liquid bolus: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, R.H.; Lange, R.C.; Magyar, L.; Greene, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of radionuclide esophageal transit (RT) using a liquid bolus has been suggested as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders (EMD). The authors prospectively evaluated RT in 49 patients referred for esophageal manometry. Ten subjects with normal manometry served as controls. RT was performed using two 10 ml boluses of water labeled with 250 ..mu..Ci /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. Patients were studied supine and the swallow sequences framed in 1 second intervals. Transit time was measured from the time of entry to the time of exit from the esophagus. Mean transit time in normal subjects was 9.1 +- 2.1 (SD) sec. The test was abnormal if the transit time was prolonged (> 15 sec) in at least 1 of 2 swallows. RT agreed with manometry in 36/49 patients (75%), including 9/9 achalasics, 3/3 diffuse esophageal spasm, 3/7 'nutcracker esophagus' and 7/8 non-specific motor disorders (NSMD). 4/18 patients with normal manometry had abnormal RT. 9/31 patients with abnormal manometry had normal RT, including 4/7 nutcracker esophagus, 3/3 hypertrensive LES, 1/1 scleroderma and 1/8 NSMD. Sensitivity of RT was 70% and specificity 77%. The false positive rate was 15% and the false negative rate 39%. The authors conclude the following: 1) RT identifies patients with absent or impaired peristalsis; 2) There is substantial incidence of false negatives among patients with manometric disorders but normal peristalsis; and 3) Abnormal RT did occur in some patients with normal menometry. RT using a liquid bolus may not be sensitive enough as a screening test for EMD, but it may be an important adjunct to manometry.

  15. Review of Prescribing Practices for Intermittent Bolus Administration of Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Keith; Vaillancourt, Régis; Pascuet, Elena; Martelli, Brenda; Lamontagne, Christine; Ellis, Jacqueline; Wong, Elaine; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several changes to medication safety practices were proposed in a pediatric hospital, including changing the period of patient observation after administration of opioids and limiting the availability of various concentrations of morphine in the patient care unit. Objective: To document and review postoperative pain management for children on a surgical ward, specifically with regard to intermittent IV bolus administration of morphine, to help in assessing the impact of the proposed nursing practice changes. Methods: Data were collected from records for narcotics and controlled drugs for the surgical ward over a 3-month period (April to June 2006). For each patient, data had been recorded for up to 7 consecutive days after surgery. A patient’s data were included in the review if he or she had received at least 2 doses of morphine by IV bolus, except for the review of weight-based dosing pattern (mg/kg), for which all patients who had received at least one dose of IV morphine were included. Results: Charts for 193 patients were audited. Of these, 163 patients (84.5%) had recieved up to 0.1 mg/kg per dose, and 53 (27.5%) had received only one dose of morphine. Among patients who received more than one dose, the median dose was 0.080 mg/kg on day 1, with a decrease by day 5 to 0.065 mg/kg. Most patients received morphine over the first 2 days after surgery. The median time elapsed between doses was 4.3 h on day 1 and 6.2 h on day 2. Of the 1020 doses included in the analysis, most (801 [78.5%]) were 4 mg or less. Conclusion: The intermittent administration of IV bolus doses of morphine at the study hospital followed common standards for the treatment of postoperative pain. Most doses were no more than 4 mg. On the basis of this information, only 2-mg vials of morphine are now stocked on the ward. The hospital’s change in monitoring practices will increase the surveillance of patients receiving IV bolus doses of morphine. PMID:22479025

  16. Methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (SIRS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-09-26

    Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared

  17. The effect of a preoperative single-dose methylprednisolone on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Holst, Lars B; Jørgensen, Jørgen C; Secher, Niels J

    2014-09-01

    Methylprednisolone has been shown to have analgesic effects after orthopedic surgery. The objective of this trial was to compare the effect of 125 mg methylprednisolone with placebo on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. In this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial women scheduled for elective abdominal hysterectomy (n=59) were randomized to preoperatively receive either 125 mg methylprednisolone or saline intravenously. Primary outcome was postoperative pain measured on a 0.0-10.0 visual analog scale and assessed at rest and during mobilization repeatedly the first 24h and daily on the 2nd to 7th postoperative day. Secondary outcomes were postoperative use of opioids and antiemetics, vomiting, C-reactive protein levels, and time to mobilization and discharge. Repeated measures including the primary outcome were analyzed with linear mixed models. Forty-nine cases were analyzed (methylprednisolone n=25, placebo n=24). Pain scores were significantly higher in the methylprednisolone group compared to the placebo group during mobilization (0.79 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.07-1.50] P=0.03) but not at rest (0.55 [95% CI: -0.06 to 1.16] P=0.08). There was no difference between the methylprednisolone and placebo group regarding use of opioids (P=0.24) and antiemetics (P=0.14), number of vomits (P=0.26), and time to mobilization (P=0.24) and discharge (P=0.28). C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the placebo group (P=0.01). This trial showed no beneficial effect of methylprednisolone on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Methylprednisolone significantly lowered postoperative CRP levels. ClinicalTrial.gov: www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01106547. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between bolus transit and LES-relaxation studied with concurrent impedance and manometry.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H N; Domingues, G R; Winograd, R; Lammert, F; Silny, J; Matern, S

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular mechanisms regulating esophageal bolus transport are well studied. However, detailed data about the relationship between bolus transit and lower esophageal sphincter (LES)-relaxation during conventional motility testing are still lacking. We performed systematic studies in 25 normal subjects, employing a catheter that integrates the two techniques impedancometry and manometry in a single instrument for simultaneous recording and analysis of the relationship between bolus transit and LES relaxation after swallowing saline or yogurt. 195 swallows were analyzed. LES relaxation occurred frequently later than UES relaxation. The mean latency between bolus entry into the esophagus and LES relaxation was 3.6 +0.2 sec. Two types of swallow-induced LES relaxation were observed: (a) LES relaxation preceding bolus transit (46 cases or 24%) and (b) LES relaxation occurring during bolus transit (149 cases or 76%). In the later case, during 114 (76%) cases of this deglutition, the position of the bolus was very close to the LES. During deglutition, LES relaxation seems to be modulated by bolus transit and occurs predominantly upon arrival of the bolus in the distal esophagus.

  19. Assessment of bolus transit with intraluminal impedance measurement in patients with esophageal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Bogte, A; Bredenoord, A J; Oors, J; Siersema, P D; Smout, A J P M

    2015-10-01

    The clinical management of patients with non-obstructive dysphagia is notoriously difficult. Esophageal impedance measurement can be used to measure esophageal bolus transit without the use of radiation exposure to patients. However, validation of measurement of bolus transit with impedance monitoring has only been performed in healthy subjects with normal motility and not in patients with dysphagia and esophageal motility disorders. The aim was, therefore, to investigate the relationship between transit of swallowed liquid boluses in healthy controls and in patients with dysphagia. Twenty healthy volunteers and 20 patients with dysphagia underwent concurrent impedance measurement and videofluoroscopy. Each subject swallowed five liquid barium boluses. The ability of detecting complete or incomplete bolus transit by means of impedance measurement was assessed, using radiographic bolus transit as the gold standard. Impedance monitoring recognized stasis and transit in 80.5% of the events correctly, with 83.9% of bolus transit being recognized and 77.2% of stasis being recognized correctly. In controls 79.8% of all swallows were scored correctly, whereas in patients 81.3% of all swallows were scored correctly. Depending on the contractility pattern, between 77.0% and 94.3% of the swallows were scored correctly. Impedance measurement can be used to assess bolus clearance patterns in healthy subjects, but can also be used to reliably assess bolus transit in patients with dysphagia and motility disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Split-bolus MR urography: synchronous visualization of obstructing vessels and collecting system in children.

    PubMed

    Battal, Bilal; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Akgün, Veysel; İnce, Selami; Gök, Faysal; Taşar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Several vascular abnormalities related with urinary system such as crossing accessory renal vessels, retroiliac ureters, retrocaval ureters, posterior nutcracker syndrome, and ovarian vein syndrome may be responsible for urinary collecting system obstruction. Split-bolus magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using contrast material as two separate bolus injections provides superior demonstration of the collecting system and obstructing vascular anomalies simultaneously and enables accurate preoperative radiologic diagnosis. In this pictorial review we aimed to outline the split-bolus MRU technique in children, list the coexisting congenital collecting system and vascular abnormalities, and exhibit the split-bolus MRU appearances of concurrent urinary collecting system and vascular abnormalities.

  1. Split-bolus MR urography: synchronous visualization of obstructing vessels and collecting system in children

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Akgün, Veysel; İnce, Selami; Gök, Faysal; Taşar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Several vascular abnormalities related with urinary system such as crossing accessory renal vessels, retroiliac ureters, retrocaval ureters, posterior nutcracker syndrome, and ovarian vein syndrome may be responsible for urinary collecting system obstruction. Split-bolus magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using contrast material as two separate bolus injections provides superior demonstration of the collecting system and obstructing vascular anomalies simultaneously and enables accurate preoperative radiologic diagnosis. In this pictorial review we aimed to outline the split-bolus MRU technique in children, list the coexisting congenital collecting system and vascular abnormalities, and exhibit the split-bolus MRU appearances of concurrent urinary collecting system and vascular abnormalities. PMID:26359874

  2. Dispersion of a Nanoliter Bolus in Microfluidic Co-Flow.

    PubMed

    Conway, A J; Saadi, W M; Sinatra, F L; Kowalski, G; Larson, D; Fiering, J

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidic systems enable reactions and assays on the scale of nanoliters. However, at this scale nonuniformities in sample delivery become significant. To determine the fundamental minimum sample volume required for a particular device, a detailed understanding of mass transport is required. Co-flowing laminar streams are widely used in many devices, but typically only in the steady-state. Because establishing the co-flow steady-state consumes excess sample volume and time, there is a benefit to operating devices in the transient state, which predominates as the volume of the co-flow reactor decreases. Analysis of the co-flow transient has been neglected thus far. In this work we describe the fabrication of a pneumatically controlled microfluidic injector constructed to inject a discrete 50nL bolus into one side of a two-stream co-flow reactor. Using dye for image analysis, injections were performed at a range of flow rates from 0.5-10μL/min, and for comparison we collected the co-flow steady-state data for this range. The results of the image analysis were also compared against theory and simulations for device validation. For evaluation, we established a metric that indicates how well the mass distribution in the bolus injection approximates steady-state co-flow. Using such analysis, transient-state injections can approximate steady-state conditions within predefined errors, allowing straight forward measurements to be performed with reduced reagent consumption.

  3. Dispersion of a nanoliter bolus in microfluidic co-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, A. J.; Saadi, W. M.; Sinatra, F. L.; Kowalski, G.; Larson, D.; Fiering, J.

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidic systems enable reactions and assays on the scale of nanoliters. However, at this scale non-uniformities in sample delivery become significant. To determine the fundamental minimum sample volume required for a particular device, a detailed understanding of mass transport is required. Co-flowing laminar streams are widely used in many devices, but typically only in the steady-state. Because establishing the co-flow steady-state consumes excess sample volume and time, there is a benefit to operating devices in the transient state, which predominates as the volume of the co-flow reactor decreases. Analysis of the co-flow transient has been neglected thus far. In this work we describe the fabrication of a pneumatically controlled microfluidic injector constructed to inject a discrete 50 nL bolus into one side of a two-stream co-flow reactor. Using dye for image analysis, injections were performed at a range of flow rates from 0.5-10 µL min-1, and for comparison we collected the co-flow steady-state data for this range. The results of the image analysis were also compared against theory and simulations for device validation. For evaluation, we established a metric that indicates how well the mass distribution in the bolus injection approximates steady-state co-flow. Using such analysis, transient-state injections can approximate steady-state conditions within pre-defined errors, allowing straightforward measurements to be performed with reduced reagent consumption.

  4. Dispersion of a Nanoliter Bolus in Microfluidic Co-Flow

    PubMed Central

    Conway, A J; Saadi, W M; Sinatra, F L; Kowalski, G; Larson, D; Fiering, J

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic systems enable reactions and assays on the scale of nanoliters. However, at this scale nonuniformities in sample delivery become significant. To determine the fundamental minimum sample volume required for a particular device, a detailed understanding of mass transport is required. Co-flowing laminar streams are widely used in many devices, but typically only in the steady-state. Because establishing the co-flow steady-state consumes excess sample volume and time, there is a benefit to operating devices in the transient state, which predominates as the volume of the co-flow reactor decreases. Analysis of the co-flow transient has been neglected thus far. In this work we describe the fabrication of a pneumatically controlled microfluidic injector constructed to inject a discrete 50nL bolus into one side of a two-stream co-flow reactor. Using dye for image analysis, injections were performed at a range of flow rates from 0.5-10μL/min, and for comparison we collected the co-flow steady-state data for this range. The results of the image analysis were also compared against theory and simulations for device validation. For evaluation, we established a metric that indicates how well the mass distribution in the bolus injection approximates steady-state co-flow. Using such analysis, transient-state injections can approximate steady-state conditions within predefined errors, allowing straight forward measurements to be performed with reduced reagent consumption. PMID:25045205

  5. Automatic measurement of contrast bolus distribution in carotid arteries using a C-arm angiography system to support interventional perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieselmann, Andreas; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Yu, Deuerling-Zheng; Boese, Jan; Hornegger, Joachim; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Brain perfusion CT using a C-arm angiography system capable of CT-like imaging could optimize patient treatment during stroke therapy procedures. For this application, an intra-arterial contrast bolus injection at the aortic arch could be used provided that the location of the injection catheter enables uniform distribution of the bolus into the two common carotid arteries (CCA). In this work, we present a novel method to support optimal injection catheter placement by providing additional quantitative information about the distribution of the contrast bolus into the CCAs. Our fully automatic method uses 2-D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images following a test bolus injection. It segments both CCAs and computes the relative contrast distribution. We have tested the method in DSA data sets from 5 healthy pigs and our method achieved successful segmentation of both CCAs in all data sets. The results showed that the contrast is uniformly distributed (mean relative difference less or equal than 10%) if the injection location is properly chosen.

  6. Effect of admission oral diuretic dose on response to continuous versus bolus intravenous diuretics in acute heart failure: an analysis from diuretic optimization strategies in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi V; McNulty, Steven; O'Connor, Christopher M; Felker, G Michael; Braunwald, Eugene; Givertz, Michael M

    2012-12-01

    Results from the DOSE-AHF study suggest that an initial continuous infusion of loop diuretics is not superior to bolus dosing with regard to clinical endpoints in acute heart failure. We hypothesized that outpatient furosemide dose was associated with congestion and poorer renal function and explored the hypothesis that a continuous infusion may be more effective in patients on higher outpatient diuretic doses. The DOSE-AHF study randomized 308 patients within 24 hours of admission to high versus low initial intravenous diuretic dose given as either a continuous infusion or bolus. We compared baseline characteristics and assessed associations between mode of administration (bolus vs continuous) and outcomes in patients receiving high-dose (≥120 mg furosemide equivalent, n = 177) versus low-dose (<120 mg furosemide equivalent, n = 131) outpatient diuretics. Patients on higher doses of furosemide were less frequently on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P = .01) and had worse renal function and more advanced symptoms. There was a significant interaction between outpatient dose and mode of therapy (P = .01) with respect to net fluid loss at 72 hours after adjusting for creatinine and intensification strategy. Admission diuretic dose was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization at 60 days (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08 per 20-mg increment in dose, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, P = .03). In acute heart failure, patients on higher diuretic doses have greater disease severity and may benefit from an initial bolus strategy. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors predicting incremental administration of antihypertensive boluses during deep brain stimulator placement for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Shobana; Deogaonkar, Milind; Kaw, Roop; Nada, Eman Ms; Hernandez, Adrian V; Ebrahim, Zeyd; Avitsian, Rafi

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is common in deep brain stimulator (DBS) placement predisposing to intracranial hemorrhage. This retrospective review evaluates factors predicting incremental antihypertensive use intraoperatively. Medical records of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS procedure between 2008-2011 were reviewed after Institutional Review Board approval. Anesthesia medication, preoperative levodopa dose, age, preoperative use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes mellitus, anxiety, motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score and PD duration were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done between each patient characteristic and the number of antihypertensive boluses. From the 136 patients included 60 were hypertensive, of whom 32 were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), told to hold on the morning of surgery. Antihypertensive medications were given to 130 patients intraoperatively. Age (relative risk [RR] 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.02; p=0.005), high Joint National Committee (JNC) class (p<0.0001), diabetes mellitus (RR 1.4; 95%CI 1.2-17; p<0.0001) and duration of PD >10 years (RR 1.2; 95%CI 1.1-1.3; p=0.001) were independent predictors for antihypertensive use. No difference was noted in the mean dose of levodopa (p=0.1) and levodopa equivalent dose (p=0.4) between the low (I/II) and high severity (III/IV) JNC groups. Addition of dexmedetomidine to propofol did not influence antihypertensive boluses required (p=0.38). Intraoperative hypertension during DBS surgery is associated with higher age group, hypertensive, diabetic patients and longer duration of PD. Withholding ACEI or ARB is an independent predictor of hypertension requiring more aggressive therapy. Levodopa withdrawal and choice of anesthetic agent is not associated with higher intraoperative antihypertensive medications.

  8. Methylprednisolone administration in primary biliary cirrhosis increases cholic acid turnover, synthesis, and deoxycholate concentration in bile.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, G; Fusaroli, P; Pezzoli, A; Azzaroli, F; Mazzeo, C; Zambonin, L; Simoni, P; Festi, D; Roda, E

    1999-12-01

    As immunosuppressive agents, corticosteroids may be considered an appropriate treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis, even if bone loss and other side effects may occur. We studied biliary lipid metabolism in 10 nonicteric patients, with histologically proven primary biliary cirrhosis (stage I-IV). We administered methylprednisolone (24 mg daily) for 30 days to ascertain its effects on biliary lipid metabolism, which are largely still unknown. All patients underwent a 30-day drug-washout period before entering the trial. The following parameters were studied before and after methylprednisolone treatment: serum biochemistry; cholic acid pool size, kinetics and synthesis; biliary lipid secretion; biliary bile acid pattern; biliary lipid molar percentage; and cholesterol saturation index. Methylprednisolone induced a statistically significant (Wilcoxon rank test) increase in cholic acid turnover (from 0.26+/-0.04 to 0.50+/-0.05 K/day, P = 0.005) and synthesis (from 0.42+/-0.12 to 0.78+/-0.11 mmol/day, P = 0.04), and in bile deoxycholic acid molar percentage (from 19.4+/-2.7 to 30.6+/-4.4% molar, P = 0.01). On the other hand, a significant decrease in biliary cholesterol molar percentage (from 7.9+/-0.7 to 6.4+/-0.5% molar, P = 0.005), cholesterol saturation index (from 1.11+/-0.11 to 0.95+/-0.07, P = 0.05), and biliary cholesterol secretion (from 64.7+/-5.4 to 53.0+/-4.5 micromol/hr, P = 0.005) was observed. These findings show that short-term administration of methylprednisolone in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis does not induce expansion of the cholic acid pool but increases cholic acid synthesis and turnover, as well as intestinal production of deoxycholic acid. If long-term treatment is considered, the beneficial immunosuppressive effects of corticosteroids have to be weighed against the hepatotoxic properties of deoxycholic acid.

  9. Atorvastatin calcium in combination with methylprednisolone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis relapse.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-ling; Zhang, Zhen-chang; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Hua; Yu, Chun-mei; Zhang, Wen-jing; Yan, Xiang; Wang, Man-xia

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of combined atorvastatin calcium and methylprednisolone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis relapse. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at the relapse phase were randomized to receive either combined treatment of atorvastatin calcium and methylprednisolone (n = 19) or methylprednisolone alone (n = 19). Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was administered at baseline, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment initiation. The number and volume of brain lesions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 6 months. The levels of IL-13, IL-35, IFN-γ, and IL-10 in the cerebrospinal fluid were examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There was no significant difference in EDSS scores at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. At 3 and 6 months, the combined treatment group showed significantly lower EDSS scores than the monotherapy group (P < 0.05). The number and volume of brain lesions in the combined treatment group were significantly lower than the monotherapy group at 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean time to relapse was significantly extended in the combined treatment group than the monotherapy group (P < 0.001). At 2 and 4 weeks, the combined treatment group had significantly higher levels of IL-13, IL-35, and IL-10 in the cerebrospinal fluid than the monotherapy group (P < 0.05), but significantly lower level of IFN-γ (P < 0.001). The levels of IL-13 and IL-10 in the combined treatment group were positively correlated with EDSS scores (r = 0.632, P = 0.001; r = 0.731, P = 0.002). Combined treatment with atorvastatin calcium and methylprednisolone can improve the outcomes of MS relapse compared with glucocorticosteroid alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modification of procine stress ulceration by methylprednisolone, vitaminA and methysergide treatment.

    PubMed

    Kivilaakso, E; Kalima, T V; Lempinen, M

    1976-01-01

    Using a swine shock ulcer model, three pharmacological agents, methylprednisolone, vitamin A and methysergide were evaluated, as they protect gastric mucosa against acute ulceration. Following haemorrhagic shock (3 h duration; mean arterial pressure 40 mm Hg) nine of the ten control animals (90%) developed gastric ulceration. Of the six test animals treated with intravenous methylprednisolone during the shock, only one (17%) developed gastric lesions (p less than 0.02; x2 = 5.76). Of the ten test animals pretreated with massive doses of parenteral vitamin A, only three (30%) developed lesions (p less than 0.05; x2 = 5.21). In contrast to this, treatment with methysergide, a serotonin antagonist, did not significantly effect the ulceration rate, since four of the six test animals (67%) had gastric lesions. The results suggest that methylprednisolone and vitamin A do protect the gastric mucosa from experiment stress ulceration, but their mechanism of action remain obscure and further investigation is needed to judge their value in clinical use.

  11. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Single Dose Methylprednisolone on Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Function After Thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Emre, Ali; Karadeniz Cakmak, Guldeniz; Karakaya Arpaci, Dilek; Uygun Ilikhan, Sevil; Damar, Murat

    2016-03-23

    Primary endpoint is to determine whether intraoperative steroid affect post-thyroidectomy recurrent laryngeal palsy or not Background: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy is an important complication of thyroid surgery. Injuries can either be permanent or temporary. Prevention or shortening the recovery period of temporary palsies is an area of interest. Some surgeons prefer to use corticosteroids for this purpose as is used for facial nerve palsies although there are conflicting data in the literature. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of perioperative single dose methylprednisolone on RLN function. 438 nerves under risk in 237 surgeries are investigated in two groups. Group 1, patients are administered a single intraoperative dose of methylprednisolone (1mg/kg) intravenously for 220 nerves under risk. 218 nerves under risk in Group 2 were operated and followed without methylprednisolone. The demographic data of the patients, operation time, the final pathology reports, incidence of RLNP and recovery time are documented and compared. No statistically significant difference was determined in terms of age, sex distribution, number of nerves under risk and the operation time between groups. There were 3 unilateral RLNP in each group and the mean recovery time for Group 1 and 2 palsies were 20.4 and 19.8 days respectively, without statistical significance. The presented data indicates that a single intraoperative dose of steroid does not seem to effect the rate and recovery period of RLNP in thyroid surgery.

  12. An Economical Online Solid-Phase Extraction LC-MS/MS Method for Quantifying Methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingjiang; Zheng, Yunliang; Wu, Guolan; Liu, Jian; Chen, Junchun; Huang, Mingzhu; Zhou, Huili; Wu, Lihua; Shen-Tu, Jianzhong

    2015-07-01

    An economical, reproducible and automated online solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify methylprednisolone in human plasma. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, precision/accuracy, process efficiency, stability, cartridge reproducibility and carryover studies. Sample pretreatment was performed by protein precipitation and elimination using methanol followed by water dilution. Then, the mixture was passed onto the HySphere C8 EC-SE online solid-phase extraction cartridge followed by the separation of the analytes on an Agilent Eclipse XDB column. Electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring were used to monitor the ion transitions at m/z 375.4/160.8 for methylprednisolone, and m/z 361.2/147.0 for prednisolone. The calibration curve ranged from 5.25 to 525 ng/mL. Meanwhile both the intra-day and inter-day precision values (relative standard deviation) were within 4.45%. The method which turns out to be less laborious, faster and lower consumable cost per sample has already been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in which the oral administration of 16 mg methylprednisolone was conducted in Chinese volunteers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Methylprednisolone use during radiotherapy extenuates hearing loss in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junming; Zhao, Yuanxin; Zhou, Xiaowei; Tan, Lingmei; Ou, Zeying; Yu, Youjun; Wang, Yuejian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the hearing protective effects of methylprednisolone use during radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Prospective, controlled clinical study. Fifty-three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (106 ears). Twenty-five patients (50 ears) received radiotherapy with intravenous methylprednisolone for 14 days, and another 28 patients (56 ears) received radiotherapy alone. Pure tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) results were reviewed before and 1 year after radiotherapy. One year after radiotherapy, the air-and-bone conduction pure tone hearing thresholds increased, and the DPOAE levels decreased in the control group. There was no difference in the ABR wave I, III, and V latencies and the I to V interwave latencies before and 1 year after radiotherapy. The pure tone air conduction thresholds decreased, and the DPOAE levels increased in the treatment group compared with the control group. Early sensorineural hearing loss after radiotherapy primarily affected the outer hair cells. The use of methylprednisolone during radiotherapy can extenuate early sensorineural hearing loss caused by irradiation. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Protective role of methylprednisolone and heparin in ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the rat testicle.

    PubMed

    Mertoğlu, C; Senel, U; Cayli, S; Tas, U; Küskü Kiraz, Z; Özyurt, H

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of heparin and methylprednisolone in the treatment of ischaemic reperfusion (IR) injury of the testis. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated equally into three groups of eight animals each. The left testes were rotated 720° for 2 h in the rats in the torsion-detorsion group. Rats in the treatment groups underwent the same surgical procedure as the torsion-detorsion group but were also given methylprednisolone (group II) or heparin (group III) by an intraperitoneal route 30 min prior to detorsion. Left orchiectomy was performed in all rats from each experimental animal at 2 h after detorsion, and the tissue was harvested for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and nitric oxide (NO) and the endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase. Additional tissue was evaluated using histopathological and immunohistochemical changes. PC and MDA levels were significantly reduced in the treated groups compared to the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in NO level or SOD, GSH-Px and catalase activity among the treatment groups. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings supported biochemical changes. It is concluded that pre-treatment with methylprednisolone or heparin protects the testis in ischaemic reperfusion injury caused by testicular torsion-detorsion. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of Methylprednisolone And Ganglioside GM-1 on a Spinal Lesion: A Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Márcio Oliveira Penna; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Tebet, Marcos Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The pharmacological effects of methylprednisolone (MP) and ganglioside GM-1 on spinal injuries have been thoroughly investigated, but only a few studies have evaluated the interaction between these two drugs. METHODS Twenty-four Wistar rats were subjected to contusive injury of the spinal cord produced by the NYU system. These animals were divided into four groups: group I was injected with MP; group II was injected with GM-1; group III was injected with MP together with GM-1; and group control received physiological serum. The animals were evaluated with regard to their recovery of locomotive function by means of the BBB test on the second, seventh and fourteenth days after receiving the contusive injury to the spinal cord. They were sacrificed on the fourteenth day. RESULTS This study demonstrated that the MP and GM-1 groups presented functional results that were better than those of the control group, although the enhanced recovery of group II (GM-1) relative to the control group was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The most notable recovery of locomotive function was observed in the group that received MP alone (p<0.05). The group that received MP together with GM-1 presented results that were better than those of the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Administration of methylprednisolone alone or with GM-1 was shown to be effective for recovery of locomotive function. Combined administration of these drugs resulted in better outcomes than administration of methylprednisolone alone. PMID:18568249

  16. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) with complete occlusion of liver venules after tandem autologous stem cell transplantation-- successful treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone and defibrotide.

    PubMed

    Sayer, H G; Will, U; Schilling, K; Vogt, T; Wollina, K; Höffken, K

    2002-03-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a life-threatening complication following allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation. We report on a patient with a high grade B-cell lymphoma who presented 28 days after the second autologous stem cell transplantation with weight gain, ascites, hyperbilirubinemia, and liver venules occlusion as demonstrated by sonography. Starting with high-dose methylprednisolone treatment followed by defibrotide maintenance therapy the patient showed dramatic complete response of VOD, resulting in a normal sonography of the liver and normalization of laboratory values. The response of the occlusion of nearly all liver venules underlines the value of anti-inflammatory treatment combined with new thrombolytic medication such as defibrotide for the treatment of severe VOD.

  17. SU-E-T-09: A Dosimetric Analysis of Various Clinically Used Bolus Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, M; Yeager, C; Zhou, F; Hand, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric effect of various clinically used bolus materials. Methods: Materials investigated include solid water, superflab, wet gauze, wet sheets, Play-Doh{sup ™}, and gauze embedded with petroleum jelly. Each bolusing material was scanned in a Philips CT to determine the Hounsfield unit (HU) and to verify uniformity throughout the material. Using the corresponding HU, boluses of 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm thicknesses were created in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) on a solid water phantom. Dose was calculated at various depths for beam energies 6 MV, 6 MeV, 9 MeV, and 12 MeV to determine the effects of each material on deposition of dose. In addition, linac-based measurements at these energies were made using a farmer chamber in solid water. Wet sheets and wet gauze were measured with various water content to quantify the effects on dose. Results: Preliminary CT scans find a range in HU of bolus materials from −120 to almost 300. There is a trend in the dose at depth based on the HU of the material; however inconsistencies are found when the bolus materials have a negative HU value. The measured data indicates that there is a linear relationship between the mass of water in a material and the dose reading, the slope of which is material dependent. Conclusion: Due to the variation in HU of the bolus materials studied, it is recommended that any new bolus be evaluated before clinical use to determine physical and dosimetric properties. If possible, patients should have bolus included in their CT scans; or if the bolus is created in the TPS, the HU should correspond to the material used. For water-soaked materials, once the bolus material is selected (gauze or sheet), the bolusing effect is only dependent on the amount of water applied to the material.

  18. The Comparison of Patient-Controlled Remifentanil Administered by Two Different Protocols (Bolus and Bolus+Infusion) and Intramuscular Meperidine for Labor Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Süleyman; Türktan, Mediha; Güleç, Ümran Küçükgöz; Hatipoğlu, Zehra; Ünlügenç, Hakkı; Işık, Geylan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nowadays, there are many pain relief methods for reducing the pain and stress of labor and delivery. In our study, two different remifentanil protocols (bolus and bolus+infusion) administered by patient-controlled analgesia method were compared with intramuscular meperidine for labor analgesia. Methods Ninety parturients who were scheduled for vaginal delivery were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 15 primiparous and 15 multiparous patients in each group. Whenever a patient requested analgesics during the labor, Group M was given 1 mg kg−1 intramuscular meperidine, Group B was given intravenous bolus patient-controlled remifentanil, and Group IB was given intravenous bolus+infusion patient-controlled remifentanil. Patients’ systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, pain-comfort and sedation scores, remifentanil consumption, side effects, and Apgar scores of the newborns were evaluated during the labor and delivery. Results Patients’ mean pain and comfort scores were significantly lower in Groups B and IB than in Group M at all time intervals except the first minute. Compared with Group IB, mean pain and comfort scores at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes were significantly higher in Group B. The mean sedation scores were similar among the groups. Total remifentanil consumption was lower in Group IB than in Group B, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion Patient-controlled intravenous bolus or bolus+infusion remifentanil provided more effective analgesia and patient comfort than intramuscular meperidine for labor analgesia. Especially during labor, bolus+infusion remifentanil administration provided better pain and patient comfort scores than bolus alone, without increasing remifentanil consumption. PMID:27366433

  19. Efficacy of intraruminal albendazole boluses against Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I

    1992-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of albendazole (ABZ) in intraruminal boluses (Proftril-Captec) was investigated in sheep harbouring naturally acquired Dicrocoelium infection. The anthelmintic efficacy was assessed by coprological testing during the autumn pasture and comparison of worm counts in 22 necropsied animals (11 treated and 11 untreated) at the end of the experiment. The mean faecal egg count (EPG) in treated animals dropped significantly during week 2, and between the 4th and the 12th week the faecal samples were almost negative. The health status of treated animals improved significantly during the first 2 weeks. Helminthological dissection of livers and small intestines revealed 91.8% efficacy, but a small number of live adult flukes were found in all treated animals.

  20. Basal-Bolus Insulin Protocols Enter the Computer Age

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nancy J.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes affects approximately one quarter of all hospitalized patients. Poor inpatient glycemic control has been associated with increased risk for multiple adverse events including surgical site infections, prolonged hospital length of stay, and mortality. Inpatient glycemic control protocols based on physiologic basal-bolus insulin regimens have been shown to improve glycemia and clinical outcomes and are recommended by the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the Society of Hospital Medicine for inpatient glycemic management of noncritically ill patients. The 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act will catalyze widespread computerized medication order entry implementation over the next few years. Here, we focus on the noncritical care setting and review the background on inpatient glycemic management as it pertains to computerized order entry, the translation and efficacy of computerizing glycemic control protocols, and the barriers to computerizing glycemic protocols. PMID:22015856

  1. Modélisation du bolus urétéral humain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gintz, Daniel; Elmabsout, Badaoui; Renaudeaux, Jean-Pierre

    We propose an improvement of the bolus passive viscoelastic wall model [1], by adding an active muscular layer situated on the internal side of the wall. This new model permits, for a suitable choice of the active force, to obtain analytically a closed bolus on its two ends and to get a close approach of the medical observations.

  2. [Observation on the best dose of methylprednisolone improving lung injury in swine with paraquat intoxication].

    PubMed

    Lan, Chao; Li, Haina; Li, Li; Wang, Jinzhu; Pei, Hui; Li, Lu; Liu, Lanping; Di, Min

    2015-01-01

    To observe the best dose of methylprednisolone improving lung injury in swine with paraquat intoxication. Acute lung injury (ALI/ARDS) model was made by an intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of 20%PQ solution20 millilitres in swine. Then 24 swine were randomly divided into 4 groups: exposed PQ control group, 5 mg/kg of methylprednisolone group, 15 mg/kg of methylprednisolone group, 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone group. All groups were based on the conventional rehydration for intervention, Arterial blood samples were collected before modeling and 0, 12, 24, 36 hours after different processing for blood gas analysis. At the same time heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured by using PICCO (pulse indicator continuous cardiac output), lung tissue was obtained by punctureneedle to produce lung biopsy, then observe the pathological changes of lung tissue in the microscope. 1. Comparison between groups: there is no significant difference about extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and semi-quantitative score of lung tissue pathology in four groups (P > 0.05) before modeling, so is t0, there is significant difference at about extravascular lung water index and semi-quantitative score of lung tissue pathology 12 h, 24 h and 36 h after different processing (P < 0.05). Within the group: EVLWI and semi-quantitative score of Lung tissue pathology in four groups significantly increased when the model was made (P < 0.05), after different processing, EVLWI and semi-quantitative score of Lung tissue pathology in exposed PQ control group kept going up, in other three groups, EVLWI and semi-quantitative score of lung tissue pathology went down first and then went up, there is significant difference compared with t0 (P < 0.05). 2. Comparison between groups: there is no significant difference about oxygenation index in four groups (P > 0.05) before modeling, so is t0

  3. Utility of Operative Glaucoma Tube Shunt Viscoelastic Bolus Flush

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Sylvia L; Greider, Kelsi L

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the utility of viscoelastic injection to induce bleb expansion and decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with encapsulated glaucoma tube shunt blebs. Design: Case series. Subjects and participants: Forty-three glaucomatous eyes, including 13 eyes with congenital, 13 uveitic, 5 neovascular, 5 open angle, 4 narrow angle and 3 traumatic glaucomas. Methods, interventions or testing: All patients underwent viscoelastic flush procedure. A pre-bent 27 or 30-gauge cannula was passed through a 25-gauge paracentesis, advanced over the iris across the anterior chamber, and insinuated into the tube shunt lumen. Once the cannula was firmly lodged in position, 0.45 to 0.85 ml of viscoelastic was injected to hyperinflate the bleb. Main outcome measures: Paired t-tests were performed comparing preoperative IOP and number of medications used preoperatively vs levels measured at 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results: Intraocular pressure was reduced from a mean preoperative level of 26.0 ± 1.2 (sem) mm Hg to 15.8 ± 1.0 at 1 month, remaining stable thereafter at each 6-month interval with 15.1 ± 1.1 mm Hg at 24 months (p < 0.0001). Medication use did not vary significantly from baseline. Pressure remained < 21 mm Hg after 2 years in 85% of eyes cannulated within 1 year of primary tube shunt implantation (n = 23), and in 62% of eyes cannulated more than 1 year after tube shunt placement (n = 20). Conclusion: Tube shunt expansion with bolus viscoelastic flush successfully restored encapsulated bleb function, providing a substantial (~10 mm Hg) IOP decrease into the mid-normal pressure range. This persisted in the majority of treated eyes for the entire study period. How to cite this article: Groth SL, Greider KL, Sponsel WE. Utility of Operative Glaucoma Tube Shunt Viscoelastic Bolus Flush. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):73-76. PMID:26997840

  4. Accurate bolus arrival time estimation using piecewise linear model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Elhassan; de Mey, Johan; De Ridder, Mark; Vandemeulebroucke, Jef

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is an emerging radiological technique, which consists in acquiring a rapid sequence of CT images, shortly after the injection of an intravenous contrast agent. The passage of the contrast agent in a tissue results in a varying CT intensity over time, recorded in time-attenuation curves (TACs), which can be related to the contrast supplied to that tissue via the supplying artery to estimate the local perfusion and permeability characteristics. The time delay between the arrival of the contrast bolus in the feeding artery and the tissue of interest, called the bolus arrival time (BAT), needs to be determined accurately to enable reliable perfusion analysis. Its automated identification is however highly sensitive to noise. We propose an accurate and efficient method for estimating the BAT from DCE-CT images. The method relies on a piecewise linear TAC model with four segments and suitable parameter constraints for limiting the range of possible values. The model is fitted to the acquired TACs in a multiresolution fashion using an iterative optimization approach. The performance of the method was evaluated on simulated and real perfusion data of lung and rectum tumours. In both cases, the method was found to be stable, leading to average accuracies in the order of the temporal resolution of the dynamic sequence. For reasonable levels of noise, the results were found to be comparable to those obtained using a previously proposed method, employing a full search algorithm, but requiring an order of magnitude more computation time.

  5. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile: a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vial, Pablo A; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Andes virus (ANDV)-related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. NCT00128180.

  6. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924

  7. Comparison of clinical efficacy of methylprednisolone and serratiopeptidase for reduction of postoperative sequelae after lower third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chappi D., Mouneshkumar; Patil, Manisha R.; Desai, Rajendra; Tauro, David P.; Bharani K.N.S., Shiva; Parkar, Mushtaq I.; Babaji, Harsha V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of mandibular third molars results in some degree of post-operative pain, swelling and trismus. These can be controlled by proper administration of local anesthesia, careful bone removal, minimal trauma to adjacent soft tissues and administration of methylprednisolone and serratiopeptidase drugs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of methylprednisolone and serratiopeptidase in controlling post-operative pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Material and Methods The subjects were divided into two groups of 50 patients each undergoing surgical removal of mandibular third molars. Group A was given methylprednisolone 4mg orally every 8th hourly and Group B was given serratiopeptidase 10 mg every 12th hourly orally. Post-operatively pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated at the end of 1st, 3rd and 5thday. Results The results of this study showed that methylprednisolone is an effective analgesic, while serratiopeptidase has moderate analgesic activity. Serratiopeptidase is more effective than methylprednisolone in controlling post surgical swelling and trismus. Hence combination of these two drugs would be very effective than individual drug when widespread post-operative sequelae are expected after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. Conclusions We conclude that methylprednisolone affords better pain relief while serratiopeptidase exerts better anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling effects in the post-operative period. Synergistic combinations of these two drugs would however prove to be more effective when extensive post-operative sequelae are expected. Key words:Methylprednisolone, serratiopeptidase, pain, swelling, trismus, third molar. PMID:26155332

  8. Methylprednisolone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury: association with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gong-biao; Niu, Fu-wen; Zhang, Ying-chun; Du, Lin; Liang, Zhi-yuan; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Ting-zhen; Nie, Zhi-kui; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that methylprednisolone treatment significantly promoted locomotor functional recovery between 2 and 6 weeks post-injury. The number of surviving motor neurons increased, whereas the lesion size significantly decreased following methylprednisolone treatment at 7 days post-injury. Additionally, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax protein expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells were reduced at 3 and 7 days post-injury, while Bcl-2 levels at 7 days post-injury were higher in methylprednisolone-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, methylprednisolone up-regulated expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These results indicate that methylprednisolone-induced neuroprotection may correlate with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:28123427

  9. Insulin Bolusing Software: The Potential to Optimize Health Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Hogan, John; Gill, Elizabeth; Wright, Nancy; Deeb, Larry C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Insulin bolusing calculators alleviate the burden of having to calculate insulin bolus doses for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Three important pieces of information are needed: a blood glucose monitoring (BGM) result, carbohydrates to be consumed, and the amount of insulin bolus delivered. The purpose of this study was to describe insulin pump adherence behaviors associated with the use of bolus calculators in youth who use Medtronic insulin pumps. Methods: Data were downloaded from the MiniMed Paradigm insulin pumps (Medtronic) of 31 youth with T1DM. Areas of adherence that were evaluated included fundamental insulin pump adherence behaviors (e.g., BGM, carbohydrate entry, and insulin bolusing), decisions about Wizard® recommendations, and three Wizard steps: BGM result–carbohydrate input–insulin bolus. Results: On average, patients conducted BGM ≥4 times/day on 69% of days, inputted carbohydrates ≥3 times/day on 63% of days, and insulin bolused ≥3 times/day on 85% of days. Participants generally followed Wizard recommendations. Finally, participants completed all three Wizard steps (BGM, carbohydrate input, insulin bolus) within 30 min for an average of 29% of boluses. Almost 3% of boluses that were preceded by Wizard use were delivered without conducting BGM or inputting carbohydrates. Conclusion: There was substantial variability in insulin pump adherence behaviors (e.g., days when no BGM occurred, reliance on basal insulin). Interventions targeting insulin pump adherence behaviors have the potential to optimize diabetes health outcomes and glycemic control. Improving insulin pump software reports is one promising avenue for improving adherence. PMID:23759397

  10. Discounting the duration of bolus exposure in impedance testing underestimates acid reflux.

    PubMed

    Vikneswaran, Namasivayam; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-06-08

    Combined impedance-pH testing (MII) allows for detection of reflux episodes regardless of pH. However impedance-based diagnosis of reflux may not routinely account for duration of the reflux episode. We hypothesize that impedance testing may be less sensitive than pH-testing in detecting acid reflux off therapy as a result of discounting duration of exposure. Baseline characteristics and reflux parameters of MII studies performed off-anti-secretory medications were analyzed. Studies on acid suppressive medication and those with recording times less than 20 h or low baseline impedance were excluded. A total of 73 consecutive MII studies were analyzed of which 31 MII studies had elevated acid exposure while 16 were abnormal by impedance criteria. MII testing off-therapy was more likely to be abnormal by pH criteria (percent time pH < 4) than impedance criteria (total reflux):[42 vs 22 % (p =0.02)]. Acid exposure (percent time pH < 4) identified more studies as abnormal than MII-detected acid reflux episodes [42 vs 34 % (p < 0.01)]. Mean acid clearance time (pH-detected) was significantly longer than median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) in the total [98.7 s vs 12.6 s (p < 0.01)], upright [58.6 s vs 13.1 s (p < 0.01)], and recumbent positions [136.7 s vs 14.2 s (p < 0.01)] with the greatest difference seen in the recumbent position. The mean ratio of mean acid clearance time (pH-detected) and the median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) was significantly higher in the recumbent position compared to the upright position [11. vs 5.3 (p = 0.01)]. Ambulatory impedance testing underestimates acid reflux compared to esophageal acid exposure by discounting the prolonged period of mucosal contact with each acid reflux episode, particularly in the recumbent position.

  11. The Effect of Methylprednisolone on Plasma Concentrations of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Pediatric Heart Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Eero J; Suominen, Pertti K; Keski-Nisula, Juho; Mattila, Ilkka P; Rautiainen, Paula; Jahnukainen, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a kidney injury marker used in pediatric heart surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is also a constituent of specific granules of neutrophils. Corticosteroids are widely used in pediatric heart surgery. Methylprednisolone inhibits degranulation of neutrophil-specific granules. Use of corticosteroids has not been taken into account in studies of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in pediatric heart surgery. We studied the influence of systemically administered methylprednisolone on plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations in pediatric heart surgery. Two separate double-blinded randomized trials. PICU at a university-affiliated hospital. Forty neonates undergoing open-heart surgery and 45 children undergoing ventricular and atrioventricular septal defect correction. First trial (neonate trial), 40 neonates undergoing open-heart surgery received either 30 mg/kg IV methylprednisolone (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20). Second trial (ventricular septal defect trial), 45 children undergoing ventricular or atrioventricular septal defect correction received one of the following: 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone IV after anesthesia induction (n = 15), 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone in the cardiopulmonary bypass prime solution (n = 15), or placebo (n = 15). Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and creatinine were measured in both series. Lactoferrin levels were measured as a marker of neutrophil-specific granules in the ventricular septal defect trial only. No differences in creatinine levels occurred between the groups of either trial. Preoperative, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin did not differ between the study groups of either trial. Preoperatively administered methylprednisolone in the neonate trial reduced neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin by 41% at 6 hours postoperatively (p = 0.002). Preoperatively administered methylprednisolone in the

  12. Modeling the retention of rumen boluses for the electronic identification of goats.

    PubMed

    Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K

    2011-02-01

    We constructed a regression model to estimate the retention of electronic boluses in goats. With this aim, 2,482 boluses were administered to goats from dairy (Murciano-Granadina, n=1,326; French Alpine, n=381) and meat (Blanca de Rasquera, n=532) breeds. A total of 19 bolus types made of materials (ceramic, plastic tubes filled with concrete or silicone, and ballasts) differing in their specific gravity (SG) were used, thereby obtaining a wide variation in bolus features: diameter (9 to 22 mm), length (37 to 84 mm), weight (5 to 111 g), volume (2.6 to 26 mL), and SG (1.0 to 5.5). Each bolus contained a half-duplex glass encapsulated transponder (32 × 3.8mm) and was administered using adapted balling guns. Murciano-Granadina and Blanca de Rasquera goats also wore 2 visual plastic ear tags: V1 (double flag, 5.1g) and V2 (flag-button, 4.2g). No data on ear tags in French Alpine goats was available. Bolus and ear tag retention [(retained/monitored) × 100] was recorded for at least 1 yr. Dynamic reading efficiency [(dynamic reading/static reading) × 100] was also evaluated from 1,496 bolus readings. No administration incidences or apparent negative behavior or performance effects were observed for any bolus type. Static reading efficiency of retained boluses was 100%, except for the prototypes with metal ballasts, which yielded a 93.3% reading efficiency. Retention of metal-ballasted boluses was confirmed using x-ray equipment. Excluding ballasted boluses, a 99.5% dynamic reading efficiency was obtained. Ear tag losses were 6.5% for V1 and 3.7% for V2, ranging from 3.2 to 7.8% depending on ear tag type and goat breed. Bolus retention varied (0 to 100%) according to their physical features. Obtained data allowed the fitting of a logistic model of bolus retention rate according to bolus volume and weight (R(2) = 0.98); the SG was implicitly considered. Estimated weight and SG to produce medium- (15 mL) and standard-sized (22 mL) boluses for 99.95% retention rate in

  13. The liver protective effect of methylprednisolone on a new experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure model in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao; Shen, Shiqiang; Zhang, Aimin; Ren, Bo; Lin, Fusheng

    2014-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a severe, life-threatening entity and the comprehension of this disease is incomplete. Currently, a reasonable surgical model of acute-on-chronic liver failure is still lacking. The aim of this study was to establish a new model of acute-on-chronic liver failure in rats and to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone on this model. An obstructive jaundice model in rats was established. Two weeks later, the animals were subjected to a choledochoduodenostomy and a reduced-size hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Animals were randomly divided into a control group, a methylprednisolone injected via the tail vein group and a methylprednisolone injected via the portal vein group. The survival rates and serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma of the rats were measured and the pathological changes in liver tissues were observed. The survival rate was significantly improved in the methylprednisolone treatment groups. Serum levels of the biochemical indexes were the lowest in the portal vein injection group. Liver tissues under microscopy presented severe pathological injury in the control group. This model could be useful for further research into acute-on-chronic liver failure and methylprednisolone may be a potential therapeutic agent for this disease. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methylcobalamin, but not methylprednisolone or pleiotrophin, accelerates the recovery of rat biceps after ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer.

    PubMed

    Liao, W-C; Chen, J-R; Wang, Y-J; Tseng, G-F

    2010-12-15

    Using ulnar nerve as donor and musculocutaneous nerve as recipient we recently demonstrated that end-to-end neurorrhaphy in young adult male Wistar rats resulted in good recovery following protracted survival. Here we explored whether anti-inflammatory drug- methylprednisolone, regeneration/myelination-enhancing agent- methylcobalamin and neurite growth-enhancing and angiogenic factor- pleiotrophin accelerated its recovery. Methylprednisolone suppressed the perineuronal microglial reaction and periaxonal ED-1 expression while pleiotrophin increased the blood vessel density and nerve fiber densities in the reconnected nerve as expected. Neither methylprednisolone nor methylcobalamin altered the expression of growth associated protein 43 in the neurons examined suggesting that they did not interfere with axonal regeneration attempt. Surprisingly methylcobalamin enhanced the recovery of compound muscle action potentials and motor end plate innervation and the performance on sticker removal grooming test and augmented the diameters and myelin thicknesses of regenerated axons dramatically while enhancing S-100 expression in Schwann cells; remarkable recovery was achieved 1 month following neurorrhaphy. Simultaneous methylcobalamin and pleiotrophin treatment resulted in quick and persistent supernumerary reinnervation but failed to enhance the recovery over that of the former alone. Methylprednisolone transiently suppressed the enumeration of regrowing axons. In conclusion, methylcobalamin may be preferred over methylprednisolone to facilitate the recovery of peripheral nerves following end-to-end neurorrhaphy. The long-term effect of this treatment however remains to be clarified. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  16. Esophageal solid bolus transit: studies using combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Yi, C H; Chou, A S B; Liu, T T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry (MII-EM) to test esophageal function during solid swallowing in a normal healthy population. We determined whether combined MII-EM with solid bolus is more sensitive than that with viscous bolus in the detection of motility abnormality. Eighteen healthy volunteers (11 men and 7 women; mean age 22 years, range 20-26 years) underwent combined MII-EM with a catheter containing four impedance-measuring segments and five solid-state pressure transducers. Each subject received 10 viscous and 10 solid materials. Tracings were analyzed manually for bolus presence time, total bolus transit time, contraction amplitude, duration, and onset velocity. Three hundred and sixty swallows including viscous and solid materials were analyzed. Contraction amplitude for the viscous swallows was higher at 20 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) (P= 0.049) but lower at 15 cm above the LES (P < 0.001). Duration of contractions for the solid swallows was longer at 15 cm (P= 0.002) and 10 cm above the LES (P= 0.011) compared with viscous swallows. The total bolus transit time for solid was significantly shorter than that for viscous boluses (6.8 vs. 7.7 seconds, P < 0.001). Bolus presence time appeared to be similar between viscous and solid boluses (except in the proximal esophagus). The percentage of swallows with ineffective peristalsis by manometry, as well as those with incomplete bolus transit by impedance, did not differ between viscous and solid swallows. The proportion of manometrically ineffective solid swallows with incomplete bolus transit was greater than that of viscous swallows (62.1% vs. 34.8%, P= 0.05). Application of solid boluses may potentially enhance diagnostic capability of esophageal function testing. Solid boluses can be regarded as a valuable complement to viscous boluses in the detection of esophageal motility abnormalities when applied with

  17. Bolusing frequency and amount impacts glucose control during hybrid closed-loop.

    PubMed

    Bally, L; Thabit, H; Ruan, Y; Mader, J K; Kojzar, H; Dellweg, S; Benesch, C; Hartnell, S; Leelarathna, L; Wilinska, M E; Evans, M L; Arnolds, S; Pieber, T R; Hovorka, R

    2017-07-29

    To compare bolus insulin delivery patterns during closed-loop home studies in adults with suboptimally [HbA1c 58-86 mmol/mol (7.5%-10%)] and well-controlled [58 mmol/mol (< 7.5%)] Type 1 diabetes. Retrospective analysis of daytime and night-time insulin delivery during home use of closed-loop over 4 weeks. Daytime and night-time controller effort, defined as amount of insulin delivered by closed-loop relative to usual basal insulin delivery, and daytime bolus effort, defined as total bolus insulin delivery relative to total daytime insulin delivery were compared between both cohorts. Correlation analysis was performed between individual bolus behaviour (bolus effort and frequency) and daytime controller efforts, and proportion of time spent within and below sensor glucose target range. Individuals with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes had significantly lower bolus effort (P = 0.038) and daily bolus frequency (P < 0.001) compared with those with well-controlled diabetes. Controller effort during both daytime (P = 0.007) and night-time (P = 0.005) were significantly higher for those with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes. Time when glucose was within the target range (3.9-10.0 mmol/L) during daytime correlated positively with bolus effort (r = 0.37, P = 0.016) and bolus frequency (r = 0.33, P = 0.037). Time when glucose was below the target range during daytime was comparable in both groups (P = 0.36), and did not correlate significantly with bolus effort (r = 0.28, P = 0.066) or bolus frequency (r = -0.21, P = 0.19). More frequent bolusing and higher proportion of insulin delivered as bolus during hybrid closed-loop use correlated positively with time glucose was in target range. This emphasises the need for user input and educational support to benefit from this novel therapeutic modality. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  18. Continuous versus bolus intermittent loop diuretic infusion in acutely decompensated heart failure: a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous loop diuretics are a cornerstone of therapy in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We sought to determine if there are any differences in clinical outcomes between intravenous bolus and continuous infusion of loop diuretics. Methods Subjects with ADHF within 12 hours of hospital admission were randomly assigned to continuous infusion or twice daily bolus therapy with furosemide. There were three co-primary endpoints assessed from admission to discharge: the mean paired changes in serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and reduction in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Secondary endpoints included the rate of acute kidney injury (AKI), change in body weight and six months follow-up evaluation after discharge. Results A total of 43 received a continuous infusion and 39 were assigned to bolus treatment. At discharge, the mean change in serum creatinine was higher (+0.8 ± 0.4 versus -0.8 ± 0.3 mg/dl P <0.01), and eGFR was lower (-9 ± 7 versus +5 ± 6 ml/min/1.73 m2P <0.05) in the continuous arm. There was no significant difference in the degree of weight loss (-4.1 ± 1.9 versus -3.5 ± 2.4 kg P = 0.23). The continuous infusion arm had a greater reduction in BNP over the hospital course, (-576 ± 655 versus -181 ± 527 pg/ml P = 0.02). The rates of AKI were comparable (22% and 15% P = 0.3) between the two groups. There was more frequent use of hypertonic saline solutions for hyponatremia (33% versus 18% P <0.01), intravenous dopamine infusions (35% versus 23% P = 0.02), and the hospital length of stay was longer in the continuous infusion group (14. 3 ± 5 versus 11.5 ± 4 days, P <0.03). At 6 months there were higher rates of re-admission or death in the continuous infusion group, 58% versus 23%, (P = 0.001) and this mode of treatment independently associated with this outcome after adjusting for baseline and intermediate variables (adjusted

  19. [Effects of methylprednisolone plus Xuebijing on bleomycin-induced acute exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Xu, Qinxing; Huang, Sheng; Ye, Jian; Wang, Jiaoli; Ren, Zhenyi

    2014-01-28

    To explore the effect of Xuebijing plus methylprednisolone in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of control, model control, Xuebijing, methylprednisolone and combined treatment (Xuebijing plus methylprednisolone). Pulmonary fibrosis model was induced by an intra-tracheal injection of bleomycin. The treatment groups were administrated with 4.5 ml · kg(-1) · d(-1) Xuebijing and 4.5 ml · kg(-1) · d(-1) physiologic saline, 4.5 ml · kg(-1) · d(-1) methylprednisolone and 4.5 ml · kg(-1) · d(-1) physiologic saline, or 4.5 ml · kg(-1) · d(-1) methylprednisolone and 4.5 ml · kg(-1) · d(-1) Xuebijing respectively by intraperitoneal injection. And the control and model control groups received 9 ml · kg(-1) · d(-1) physiological saline. The animals were sacrificed at Days 14 and 28 respectively. The degrees of lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis were detected by hematoxylin & eosin and Masson staining. The serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in lung tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Compared between the combined treatment and model control groups, at Days 14 and 28, the degree of alveolitis ((1.09 ± 0.30) vs (2.03 ± 0.25) and (0.75 ± 0.27) vs (1.78 ± 0.36) ng/L) , the degree of pulmonary fibrosis ((0.91 ± 0.19 )vs (1.34 ± 0.23) and (0.75 ± 0.27) vs (1.78 ± 0.36)) . The expression of TGF-β1 in lung tissue ((12.11 ± 3.06)% vs (17.70 ± 2.70)% & (10.96 ± 2.53)% vs (16.72 ± 2.20)%). And the serum level of TNF-α ((68.39 ± 9.28) vs (90.94 ± 11.16) ng/L & (67.14 ± 10.88) vs (81.73 ± 7.23) ng/L) all significantly decreased (all P < 0.05). At Day 14, the serum level of IL-6 in the combined treatment group significantly decreased as compared with the model control group ((199 ± 31) vs (250 ± 43)ng

  20. Rituximab, Gemcitabine, Cisplatin and Methylprednisolone (R-GEM-P) is an effective regimen in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barton, Sarah; Hawkes, Eliza A; Cunningham, David; Peckitt, Clare; Chua, Sue; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Attygalle, Ayoma; Horwich, Alan; Potter, Mike; Ethell, Mark; Dearden, Claire; Gleeson, Mary; Chau, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have a poor prognosis. Gemcitabine, methylprednisolone, cisplatin +/- rituximab (GEM-P+/-R) is a salvage regimen with limited overlap in toxicity with first-line therapy and short duration of inpatient delivery. We assessed the efficacy and safety of GEM-P+/-R in a retrospective single-centre analysis including patients meeting criteria of ≥ 18 yr of age, histologically proven DLBCL, treated between 2001 and 2011 in second-line with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) day 1, 8 and 15, methylprednisolone 1000 mg day 1-5, cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) day 15 (replaced with carboplatin AUC5 if contraindication/toxicity) +/- rituximab 375 mg/m(2) day 1 and 15, every 28 d. Forty-five patients aged 25-74 received a median of three cycles of GEM-P+/-R; 64% received rituximab. In 44 evaluable patients receiving GEM-P+/-R, overall response rate (ORR) was 48%; in 28 evaluable patients treated with rituximab + GEM-P (R-GEM-P), ORR was 61%. With median follow-up of 50.5 months (95% CI: 28.3-72.7), 3-yr overall survival (OS) from start of GEM-P+/-R was 31.4% (95% CI: 16.5-46.3); in patients treated with R-GEM-P, 3-yr OS was 49.1% (95% CI: 28.7-69.5). Predominant grade ≥ 3 toxicities were haematological; thrombocytopenia 69%, neutropenia 60% and febrile neutropenia 7%. R-GEM-P is a deliverable regimen with useful activity in second-line treatment of DLBCL. Our data suggest that rituximab should be given concurrently. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The use of Coca-Cola in the management of bolus obstruction in benign oesophageal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Karanjia, N. D.; Rees, M.

    1993-01-01

    Oesophageal stricture is a complication of oesophageal reflux and may itself be complicated by bolus obstruction. We reviewed the records of patients presenting with dysphagia and who were found to have benign oesophageal strictures. We studied the outcome of bolus obstruction in 13 episodes affecting eight patients. In six episodes Coca-Cola was administered on the day before endoscopy, and in all these patients the bolus had cleared. In seven episodes nothing was administered before endoscopy, and in all seven a bolus was evident at endoscopy. In five of these seven the bolus was removed piecemeal and in each of these instances the endoscope had to be passed between two and five times. In the remaining two instances the procedure was abandoned and the patients returned to the ward for the administration of Coca-Cola. At subsequent endoscopy these patients were found to be clear of any bolus. These results suggest that the administration of Coca-Cola (or other aerated drinks) may clear a bolus in the acutely obstructed oesophagus. PMID:8476194

  2. Numerical simulation of interaction between organs and food bolus during swallowing and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takahiro; Michiwaki, Yukihiro; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Kamiya, Tetsu; Toyama, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of swallowing is still not fully understood, because the process of swallowing is a rapid and complex interaction among several involved organs and the food bolus. In this work, with the aim of studying swallowing and aspiration processes noninvasively and systematically, a computer simulation method for analyzing the involved organs and water (considered as the food bolus) is proposed. The shape and motion of the organs involved in swallowing are modeled in the same way as in our previous study, by using the Hamiltonian moving particle simulation (MPS) method and forced displacements on the basis of motion in a healthy volunteer. The bolus flow is simulated using the explicit MPS method for fluid analysis. The interaction between the organs and the bolus is analyzed using a fluid-structure coupling scheme. To validate the proposed method, the behavior of the simulated bolus flow is compared qualitatively and quantitatively with corresponding medical images. In addition to the healthy motion model, disorder motion models are constructed for reproducing the aspiration phenomenon by computer simulation. The behaviors of the organs and the bolus considered as the food bolus in the healthy and disorder motion models are compared for evaluating the mechanism of aspiration.

  3. The modification of specific absorption rates in interstitial microwave hyperthermia via tissue-equivalent material bolus.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, S; Denman, D L; Legorreta, R A; Foster, A E; Redmond, K P; Elson, H R; Born, A M; Samaratunga, R C; Lewis, G C; Kereiakes, J G

    1990-09-01

    Patterns of specific absorption rates generated by interstitial, microwave antenna arrays must be experimentally ascertained and quantified to facilitate their clinical incorporation. Phantom studies involved the use of four single-gap, coaxial antennas oriented in a 2 cm square array. These dipoles were driven in phase by a microwave generator at a frequency of 915 MHz. The inherent limitations in modifying the specific absorption rate patterns were addressed with the addition of bolus to the phantom. These additions of Guy's muscle tissue-equivalent material were made either proximal or distal to the phantom proper. Experiments conducted in the presence and absence of tissue-equivalent material bolus showed the ability to achieve broader bands of 50% power deposition in certain bolus conditions. These heating patterns were sufficiently reproducible and predictable to warrant clinical application of the bolus addition. A through-and-through method of catheter implantation allowed for bolus addition when deemed necessary. Treatments with veterinary and human patients using the bolus method to modify heating patterns yielded augmented patterns of power deposition. The effective length of the antennas that would radiate efficiently was essentially broadened via introduction of a microwave-interacting medium. As a result of the tissue equivalent material's ability to absorb microwave power, it was necessary to interpose minimally-interactive styrofoam spacers to limit heat transfer effects at the tissue-bolus interfaces.

  4. An Adaptive Nonlinear Basal-Bolus Calculator for Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Aradóttir, Tinna Björk; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2017-01-01

    Bolus calculators help patients with type 1 diabetes to mitigate the effect of meals on their blood glucose by administering a large amount of insulin at mealtime. Intraindividual changes in patients physiology and nonlinearity in insulin-glucose dynamics pose a challenge to the accuracy of such calculators. We propose a method based on a continuous-discrete unscented Kalman filter to continuously track the postprandial glucose dynamics and the insulin sensitivity. We augment the Medtronic Virtual Patient (MVP) model to simulate noise-corrupted data from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). The basal rate is determined by calculating the steady state of the model and is adjusted once a day before breakfast. The bolus size is determined by optimizing the postprandial glucose values based on an estimate of the insulin sensitivity and states, as well as the announced meal size. Following meal announcements, the meal compartment and the meal time constant are estimated, otherwise insulin sensitivity is estimated. We compare the performance of a conventional linear bolus calculator with the proposed bolus calculator. The proposed basal-bolus calculator significantly improves the time spent in glucose target ( P < .01) compared to the conventional bolus calculator. An adaptive nonlinear basal-bolus calculator can efficiently compensate for physiological changes. Further clinical studies will be needed to validate the results.

  5. Bolus matters: the influence of food oral breakdown on dynamic texture perception.

    PubMed

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, Marine; van de Velde, Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2017-02-22

    This review article focuses on design of food structure, characterisation of oral processing by boli characterisation and dynamic texture perception. Knowledge of the food properties governing bolus formation and bolus properties determining temporal changes in texture perception is of major importance. Such knowledge allows academia to better understand the mechanisms underlying texture perception and food industry to improve product texture. For instance, such knowledge can be used for developing foods with desired texture perception that fit in a healthy diet or that are customized to specific consumer groups. The end point of oral processing is the formation of a safe-to-swallow bolus. The transitions of solid and soft solid foods into bolus are accompanied by tremendous modifications of food properties. The review discusses dynamic changes in bolus properties resulting in dynamic changes of texture perception during oral processing. Studies monitoring chewing behaviour are discussed to complement the relationships between bolus properties and dynamic texture perception. We conclude that texture perception evolves over mastication time and depends on food properties, such as mechanical properties, mainly in the beginning of oral processing. Towards the middle and end of oral processing, bolus properties depend on food properties and explain texture perception better than food properties.

  6. Comparison of peroperative subconjunctival injection of methylprednisolone and standard postoperative steroid drops after uneventful cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Merkoudis, Nikolaos; Wikberg Matsson, Anna; Granstam, Elisabet

    2014-11-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of a single subconjunctival injection of methylprednisolone and a standard postoperative steroid regimen in terms of intraocular inflammation and intraocular pressure (IOP) after uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery. Two groups of 25 patients each were included in this prospective randomized controlled trial. Patients in the injection group were given a subconjunctival injection of 20 mg methylprednisolone and the topical group received the conventional postoperative care with steroid eye drops (dexamethasone 1 mg/ml). The patients were examined 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Slit-lamp evaluation of anterior chamber inflammation and IOP were performed. Changes in IOP of ≥2.4 mmHg were considered clinically relevant. In the injection group, mean IOP decreased from 15.4 ± 2.2 mmHg (baseline) to 14.1 ± 3.2 mmHg at 1 week (p = 0.03). The topical group had a stable IOP at 1 week (16.3 ± 2.6 mmHg) compared to baseline (16.1 ± 2.7 mmHg; p = 0.74). At 1 month, mean IOP was 14.3 ± 2.6 mmHg (p = 0.03) in the injection group and 15.6 ± 2.3 mmHg (p = 0.2) in the topical group. The intragroup changes were neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant at any postoperative visit. Both groups had the highest values of intraocular inflammation at the 1-week postoperative visit, followed by a decline to barely traceable levels at 1 month. The difference was not clinically relevant at any postoperative visit. The subconjunctival injection of methylprednisolone appears to be as safe and effective as the conventional treatment, and it might therefore be considered for treatment of individuals with compliance issues. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In vitro evaluation of the impact of ultrasound scanner settings and contrast bolus volume on time-intensity curves.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Thomas P; Chebil, Mohamed; Peronneau, Pierre; Lassau, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the impact of ultrasound scanner settings and contrast bolus volume on time-intensity curves formed from dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound image loops. An indicator-dilution experiment was developed with an in vitro flow phantom setup used with SonoVue contrast agent (Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy). Imaging was performed with a Philips iU22 scanner and two transducers (L9-3 linear and C5-1 curvilinear). The following ultrasound scanner settings were investigated, along with contrast bolus volume: contrast-specific nonlinear pulse sequence, gain, mechanical index, focal zone depth, acoustic pulse center frequency and bandwidth. Four parameters (rise time, mean transit time, peak intensity, and area under the curve) were derived from time-intensity curves which were obtained after pixel by pixel linearization of log-compressed data (also referred to as video data) included in a region of interest. Rise time was found to be the parameter least impacted by changes to ultrasound scanner settings and contrast bolus volume; the associated coefficient of variation varied between 0.7% and 6.9% while it varied between 0.8% and 19%, 12% and 71%, and 9.2% and 66%, for mean transit time, peak intensity, and area under the curve, respectively. The present study assessed the impact of ultrasound scanner settings and contrast bolus volume on time-intensity curve analysis. One should be aware of these issues to standardize their technique in each specific organ of interest and to achieve accurate, sensitive, and reproducible data using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound. One way to mitigate the impact of ultrasound scanner settings in longitudinal, multi-center quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound studies may be to prohibit any adjustments to those settings throughout a given study. Further clinical studies are warranted to confirm the reproducibility and diagnostic or prognostic value of time-intensity curve

  8. Disseminated nocardiosis in a patient on infliximab and methylprednisolone for treatment-resistant Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drone, Elizabeth R; McCrory, Allison L; Lane, Natalie; Fiala, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    A 62-year-old white man with a 10-year history of treatment-refractory Sweet's syndrome was admitted to the hospital with the onset of purpuric lesions. Methylprednisolone and infliximab were administered. Our patient developed disseminated Nocardia infection and eventually succumbed. Opportunistic infections such as Nocardia have been associated with infliximab and other tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. The astute clinician should be aware of the risk of rare opportunistic infections, particularly in patients on TNF-α inhibitors and systemic corticosteroids.

  9. Disseminated nocardiosis in a patient on infliximab and methylprednisolone for treatment-resistant Sweet's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Drone, Elizabeth R.; McCrory, Allison L.; Lane, Natalie; Fiala, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old white man with a 10-year history of treatment-refractory Sweet's syndrome was admitted to the hospital with the onset of purpuric lesions. Methylprednisolone and infliximab were administered. Our patient developed disseminated Nocardia infection and eventually succumbed. Opportunistic infections such as Nocardia have been associated with infliximab and other tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. The astute clinician should be aware of the risk of rare opportunistic infections, particularly in patients on TNF-α inhibitors and systemic corticosteroids. PMID:25165648

  10. The effect of epidural methylprednisolone acetate injection on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Habib, George; Jabbour, Adel; Salman, Jameel; Hakim, Geries; Haddad, Henry

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of an epidural corticosteroid injection of 80 mg and 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and on back pain. Randomized, single-blinded prospective study. Operating room of a university-affiliated hospital. 42 patients with low back pain due to radiculopathy. Group 1 received an epidural corticosteroid injection of 80 mg of methylprednisolone acetate, and Group 2 received an epidural corticosteroid injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate. All study patients underwent a stimulation test of one μg of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and their pain levels were graded just prior to and following the epidural corticosteroid injection on weeks one, 3, and 4. Serum cortisol of the ACTH stimulation tests and back pain levels were rated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Serum cortisol levels lower than 18 ng/mL 30 minutes following the ACTH stimulation test were considered to be secondary adrenal insufficiency. 21 patients were enrolled in each group. The rate of secondary adrenal insufficiency in Group 1 was ~86%, ~ 22%, and ~17% of patients versus ~53% (P = 0.024), 15% (P = 0.874), and ~12% (P = 0.715) of Group 2 patients at weeks one, 3, and 4, respectively. About 62%, 56%, and 39% of Group 1 patients had a favorable clinical response as opposed to ~47% (P = 0362), 35% (P = 0.21), and ~6% (P = 0.049) of Group 2 patients at weeks one, 3, and 4, respectively. Epidural corticosteroid injection of methylprednisolone acetate in both groups was associated with very high rates of secondary adrenal insufficiency, but significantly more so in Group 1 at week one. This suppression was transient, with recovery of the gland in most patients noted over the ensuing weeks. An epidural corticosteroid injection of 80 mg had higher rates of favorable clinical response than a 40 mg injection, but significantly more so at week 4 only. This favorable response waned over a few weeks in both groups. © 2013 Elsevier

  11. A comparison of the effects of methylprednisolone and tenoxicam on pain, edema, and trismus after impacted lower third molar extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Ozgur; Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Gunes, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of preemptive intravenous tenoxicam and methylprednisolone administrations on extraction of impacted third molars. Material/Methods This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. A total of 60 adult patients ages 18–40 years with the complaints of impacted third molar teeth were included in the study. Results The postoperative swelling ratios (p<0.05) and pain scores (p<0.05) were significantly better in both study groups than in the control group and there was no statistically significant difference between methylprednisolone and tenoxicam groups with regards to the edema and pain relief. Conclusions Preoperative administration of 80 mg methylprednisolone achieves better control of trismus than tenoxicam without any significant differences in edema and pain control in impacted third molar teeth extraction. PMID:24473372

  12. A comparison of the effects of methylprednisolone and tenoxicam on pain, edema, and trismus after impacted lower third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Ozgur; Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Gunes, Nedim

    2014-01-29

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of preemptive intravenous tenoxicam and methylprednisolone administrations on extraction of impacted third molars. This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. A total of 60 adult patients ages 18-40 years with the complaints of impacted third molar teeth were included in the study. The postoperative swelling ratios (p<0.05) and pain scores (p<0.05) were significantly better in both study groups than in the control group and there was no statistically significant difference between methylprednisolone and tenoxicam groups with regards to the edema and pain relief. Preoperative administration of 80 mg methylprednisolone achieves better control of trismus than tenoxicam without any significant differences in edema and pain control in impacted third molar teeth extraction.

  13. 12-h pretreatment with methylprednisolone versus placebo for prevention of postextubation laryngeal oedema: a randomised double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    François, Bruno; Bellissant, Eric; Gissot, Valérie; Desachy, Arnaud; Normand, Sandrine; Boulain, Thierry; Brenet, Olivier; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Vignon, Philippe

    2007-03-31

    The efficacy of corticosteroids in reducing the incidence of postextubation laryngeal oedema is controversial. We aimed to test our hypothesis that methylprednisolone started 12 h before a planned extubation could prevent postextubation laryngeal oedema. We did a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicentre trial in 761 adults in intensive-care units. Patients who were ventilated for more than 36 h and underwent a planned extubation received intravenous 20 mg methylprednisolone (n=380) or placebo (381) 12 h before extubation and every 4 h until tube removal. The primary endpoint was occurrence of laryngeal oedema within 24 h of extubation. Laryngeal oedema was clinically diagnosed and deemed serious if tracheal reintubation was needed. Analyses were done on a per protocol and intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00199576. 63 patients could not be assessed, mainly because of self-extubation (n=16) or cancelled extubation (44) between randomisation and planned extubation. 698 patients were analysed (343 in placebo group, 355 in methylprednisolone group). Methylprednisolone significantly reduced the incidence of postextubation laryngeal oedema (11 of 355, 3%vs 76 of 343, 22%, p<0.0001), the global incidence of reintubations (13 of 355, 4%vs 26 of 343, 8%, p=0.02), and the proportion of reintubations secondary to laryngeal oedema (one of 13, 8 %vs 14 of 26, 54%, p=0.005). One patient in each group died after extubation, and atelectasia occurred in one patient given methylprednisolone. Methylprednisolone started 12 h before a planned extubation substantially reduced the incidence of postextubation laryngeal oedema and reintubation. Such pretreatment should be considered in adult patients before a planned extubation that follows a tracheal intubation of more than 36 h.

  14. Effect of the systemic administration of methylprednisolone on the lungs of brain-dead donor rats undergoing pulmonary transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; de Oliveira Paludo, Artur; Silva, Éverton Franco; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Forgiarini, Luiz Felipe; Silva, Mariel Barbachan e; Andrade, Cristiano Feijó

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most lung transplants are obtained from brain-dead donors. The physiopathology of brain death involves hemodynamics, the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammatory mechanisms. Administering methylprednisolone 60 min after inducing brain death in rats has been shown to modulate pulmonary inflammatory activity. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of methylprednisolone on transplanted rat lungs from donors treated 60 min after brain death. METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats were anesthetized, and brain death was induced. They were randomly divided into two groups (n = 6), namely a control group, which was administered saline solution, and a methylprednisolone group, which received the drug 60 min after the induction of brain death. All of the animals were observed and ventilated for 2 h prior to being submitted to lung transplantation. We evaluated the hemodynamic and blood gas parameters, histological score, lung tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, level of superoxide dismutase, level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and level of interleukin-1 beta. RESULTS: After transplantation, a significant reduction in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1β was observed in the group that received methylprednisolone (p = 0.0084 and p = 0.0155, respectively). There were no significant differences in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and superoxide dismutase levels between the control and methylprednisolone groups (p = 0.2644 and p = 0.7461, respectively). There were no significant differences in the blood gas parameters, hemodynamics, and histological alterations between the groups. CONCLUSION: The administration of methylprednisolone after brain death in donor rats reduces inflammatory activity in transplanted lungs but has no influence on parameters related to oxidative stress. PMID:24519204

  15. Effect of the systemic administration of methylprednisolone on the lungs of brain-dead donor rats undergoing pulmonary transplantation.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Silva, Éverton Franco; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Forgiarini, Luiz Felipe; Barbachan E Silva, Mariel; Andrade, Cristiano Feijó

    2014-02-01

    Most lung transplants are obtained from brain-dead donors. The physiopathology of brain death involves hemodynamics, the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammatory mechanisms. Administering methylprednisolone 60 min after inducing brain death in rats has been shown to modulate pulmonary inflammatory activity. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of methylprednisolone on transplanted rat lungs from donors treated 60 min after brain death. Twelve Wistar rats were anesthetized, and brain death was induced. They were randomly divided into two groups (n=6), namely a control group, which was administered saline solution, and a methylprednisolone group, which received the drug 60 min after the induction of brain death. All of the animals were observed and ventilated for 2 h prior to being submitted to lung transplantation. We evaluated the hemodynamic and blood gas parameters, histological score, lung tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, level of superoxide dismutase, level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and level of interleukin-1 beta. After transplantation, a significant reduction in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1β was observed in the group that received methylprednisolone (p=0.0084 and p=0.0155, respectively). There were no significant differences in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and superoxide dismutase levels between the control and methylprednisolone groups (p=0.2644 and p=0.7461, respectively). There were no significant differences in the blood gas parameters, hemodynamics, and histological alterations between the groups. The administration of methylprednisolone after brain death in donor rats reduces inflammatory activity in transplanted lungs but has no influence on parameters related to oxidative stress.

  16. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction

    PubMed Central

    Truskaite, Kotryna

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17–96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  17. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    PubMed

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI.

  18. Diclofenac Sodium Bolus Injection (Dyloject(TM)): A Review in Acute Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2016-08-01

    An intravenous bolus formulation of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium has been developed using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) as a solubility enhancer. HPβCD diclofenac (Dyloject(TM)) is available for use in adults in the USA for the management of mild to moderate pain, and as monotherapy or in combination with opioid analgesics for the management of moderate to severe pain. In two multicentre, phase III studies in adults with acute moderate to severe postoperative pain, HPβCD diclofenac significantly reduced pain intensity and the need for rescue medication compared with placebo. In these studies, the tolerability profile of HPβCD diclofenac was generally similar to that of placebo and adverse events were mostly mild to moderate in severity. Constipation, infusion-site pain and dizziness were the most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring numerically more frequently with HPβCD diclofenac than placebo. Therapy with HPβCD diclofenac does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, renal or bleeding-related adverse events versus placebo. Thus, HPβCD diclofenac extends the treatment options currently available for the management of moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults.

  19. Effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density in rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss and suppressed endogenous adrenaline levels by metyrosine.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Isaoglu, Unal; Uslu, Turan; Yildirim, Kadir; Seven, Bedri; Akcay, Fatih; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    In this study, effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in rats with overiectomy induced bone lose and suppressed endogenous adrenalin levels, and compared to alendronate. Severity of bone loss in the examined material (femur bones) was evaluated by BMD measurement. The group with the highest BMD value was metyrosinemetyrosine + methylprednisolone combination (0.151 g/cm(2)), while that with the lowest BMD was methylprednisolone (0.123 g/cm(2)). Alendronate was effective only when used alone in ovariectomized rats (0.144 g/cm(2)), but not when used in combination with methylprednisolone (0.124 g/cm(2)). In the ovariectomized rat group which received only metyrosine, BMD value was statistically indifferent from ovariectomized control group. Methylprednisolone protected bone loss in rats with suppressed adrenaline levels because of metyrosinemetyrosine.

  20. Premixed vs basal-bolus insulin regimen in Type 2 diabetes: comparison of clinical outcomes from randomized controlled trials and real-world data.

    PubMed

    Anyanwagu, U; Mamza, J; Gordon, J; Donnelly, R; Idris, I

    2017-09-25

    To evaluate the concordance between data derived from randomized controlled trial (RCT) and real-world estimates of HbA1c and weight change after 24 weeks of initiation of a basal-bolus compared with a premixed insulin regimen in people with Type 2 diabetes. Data eight RCTs were pooled after a systematic review of studies examining basal-bolus (n = 1893) or premixed (n = 1517) regimens. Real-world data were extracted from the UK primary care dataset for people on basal-bolus (n = 7483) or premixed insulin regimens (n=10 744). The mean differences between HbA1c and weight from baseline were calculated using t-tests, while analysis of variance was used to compare the two populations. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of this change. Both insulin regimens were associated with HbA1c reductions (real-world data -0.28%; RCT data, -1.4%) and weight gain (real-world data, +0.27 kg; RCT data, +2.96 kg) but there were no significant differences between basal-bolus and premixed insulin. Discordances in the pattern of treatment response were observed, however, between real-world and RCT data for both insulin regimens. For any given baseline HbA1c concentration, the change in HbA1c in the RCTs was greater than in real-world conditions and for those with baseline weight above ~60 kg, RCT data showed overall weight gain in contrast to slight weight loss in the real-world population. Lastly, for both randomized controlled trial and real-world populations, while greater baseline weight was associated with reduced response to treatment, the association was much steeper in the RCT than in the real-world population. In addition, greater baseline weight was associated with greater weight reductions after both premixed insulin and basal-bolus insulin regimens, although to a lesser extent with the latter. These results highlight discrepancies between real-world outcomes and RCT results with respect to starting basal-bolus insulin therapy (which is lower in

  1. Design of a water coupling bolus with improved flow distribution for multi-element superficial hyperthermia applicators.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Schlorff, Jaime L; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Stauffer, Paul R

    2009-11-01

    A water bolus used in superficial hyperthermia couples the electromagnetic (EM) or acoustic energy into the target tissue and cools the tissue surface to minimise thermal hotspots and patient discomfort during treatment. Parametric analyses of the fluid pressure inside the bolus computed using 3D fluid dynamics simulations are used in this study to determine a bolus design with improved flow and surface temperature distributions for large area superficial heat applicators. The simulation results are used in the design and fabrication of a 19 x 32 cm prototype bolus with dual input-dual output (DIDO) flow channels. Sequential thermal images of the bolus surface temperature recorded for a step change in the circulating water temperature are used to assess steady state flow and surface temperature distributions across the bolus. Modelling and measurement data indicate substantial improvement in bolus flow and surface temperature distributions when changing from the previous single input-single output (SISO) to DIDO configuration. Temperature variation across the bolus at steady state was measured to be less than 0.8 degrees C for the DIDO bolus compared to 1.5 degrees C for the SISO water bolus. The new DIDO bolus configuration maintains a nearly uniform flow distribution and low variation in surface temperature over a large area typically treated in superficial hyperthermia.

  2. A double-blind clinical trial of mitoxantrone versus methylprednisolone in relapsing, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    van de Wyngaert, F A; Beguin, C; D'Hooghe, M B; Dooms, G; Lissoir, F; Carton, H; Sindic, C J

    2001-12-01

    A double-blind clinical trial of mitoxantrone versus methylprednisolone was performed in 49 patients with relapsing, secondary multiple sclerosis. Patients were randomized to receive 13 infusions of mitoxantrone 12 mg/m2 (n = 28), or 13 infusions of 1 g of methylprednisolone (n = 21), over 32 months. Twenty-four patients completed the trial. There were no statistical differences between the two groups of patients at study entry. A significant improvement in the Expanded Disability Scale Score (EDSS) was observed in the mitoxantrone group after one year of treatment (p < 0.0022). The total number of relapses, the mean number of relapses/patient/year, and the total number of gadolinium-enhanced lesions on bi-annual MRI scans were significantly decreased in the mitoxantrone group throughout the study period. Nausea, vomiting, and alopecia were more frequent in the mitoxantrone-treated patients. Mitoxantrone has a role in the treatment of MS patients with frequent exacerbations and rapid disease progression.

  3. Similar biological effect of high-dose oral versus intravenous methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis relapses.

    PubMed

    Grau-López, L; Teniente-Serra, A; Tintoré, M; Rovira, A; Ramió-Torrenta, L; Brieva, L; Saiz, A; Cano, A; Carmona, O; Hervás, J V; Martínez-Cáceres, E M; Ramo-Tello, C

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate differences in immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse, after high-dose oral methylprednisolone (oMP) or intravenous methylprednisolone (ivMP). We measured serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ) in 39 of 49 MS patients with moderate-severe relapse, whom were treated with ivMP or oMP in a placebo-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial. We assessed these cytokine levels at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks post-treatment. The cytokine levels between oMP and ivMP were similar at any time. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IFN-γ) were significantly decreased in both groups at week 1 (p = 0.05 / p = 0.03) and at week 4 (p = 0.04 / p = 0.05). This study provides further confirmatory evidence that oMP is not inferior to ivMP. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00753792. © The Author(s), 2014.

  4. Visual Outcome after Treatment with High Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone in Indirect Traumatic Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, S; Sherpa, D; Shrestha, R; Shakya, K; Shrestha, R; Malla, O K; Pradhananga, C L; Pokhrel, R P; Shrestha, P

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic optic neuropathy is an acute injury of the optic nerve due to trauma. It is an ocular emergency, requiring early treatment though there is no proven standard treatment protocol for the condition. Various studies have shown improvement in vision after intravenous steroids, but not statistically significant. Studies have revealed even optical decompression surgery is not the ultimate treatment because of no significant improvement of vision. Our study aims to assess visual outcome after high dose (1 gram) of intravenous methylprednisolone in cases with indirect optic neuropathy. This was a non-randomized interventional study carried out in Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from May 1st 2013- June 1st 2014. There were 10 cases with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy included in the study. Four cases received IV methylprednisolone and six cases were observed without steroid treatment. Traumatic optic neuropathy was observed more in males[8 (80%)]with higher number in age group 21-30 years old. The visual recovery after intravenous steroid treatment was rapid and beneficial in cases with vision better than Non Perception of Light (NPL), even in cases presented 4 days after the trauma. There was rapid and beneficial improvement in visual acuity after high dose of intravenous steroid treatment in cases with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy with vision better than Non Perception of Light (NPL).

  5. INDUCED SPUTUM DERIVES FROM THE CENTRAL AIRWAYS: CONFIRMATION USING A RADIOLABELED AEROSOL BOLUS DELIVERY TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indirect evidence suggests that induced sputum derives from the surfaces of the bronchial airways. To confirm this experimentally, we employed a radiolabeled aerosol bolus delivery technique that preferentially deposits aerosol in the central airways in humans. We hypothesized th...

  6. INDUCED SPUTUM DERIVES FROM THE CENTRAL AIRWAYS: CONFIRMATION USING A RADIOLABELED AEROSOL BOLUS DELIVERY TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indirect evidence suggests that induced sputum derives from the surfaces of the bronchial airways. To confirm this experimentally, we employed a radiolabeled aerosol bolus delivery technique that preferentially deposits aerosol in the central airways in humans. We hypothesized th...

  7. Ultrasound perfusion analysis combining bolus-tracking and burst-replenishment.

    PubMed

    Jirik, Radovan; Nylund, Kim; Gilja, Odd H; Mezl, Martin; Harabis, Vratislav; Kolar, Radim; Standara, Michal; Taxt, Torfinn

    2013-02-01

    A new signal model and processing method for quantitative ultrasound perfusion analysis is presented, called bolus-and-burst. The method has the potential to provide absolute values of blood flow, blood volume, and mean transit time. Furthermore, it provides an estimate of the local arterial input function which characterizes the arterial tree, allowing accurate estimation of the bolus arrival time. The method combines two approaches to ultrasound perfusion analysis: bolus-tracking and burst-replenishment. A pharmacokinetic model based on the concept of arterial input functions and tissue residue functions is used to model both the bolus and replenishment parts of the recording. The pharmacokinetic model is fitted to the data using blind deconvolution. A preliminary assessment of the new perfusion-analysis method is presented on clinical recordings.

  8. Timing of events during deglutition after chemoradiation therapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Katherine A; Tanner, Kristine; Kosek, Steven R

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if persistent changes in the duration of bolus movement through the pharynx and bolus movement coordination with pharyngeal swallowing gestures occur after treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma with chemoradiation therapy. The timing of bolus movement and coordination with swallowing gestures was evaluated in 30 patients using a modified barium swallowing study at least 1 year after completion of treatment. Patients were recruited irrespective of any swallowing complaints. The mean of each measure from the study subjects was compared to those from a group of age-matched controls. Bolus transit duration in the study population was unchanged compared with normal controls. Unlike normal controls, the patients were found to allow the bolus to arrive in the vallecula before the initiation of swallowing gestures that resulted in a swallow. Earlier opening of the upper esophageal sphincter was found for a 1-cc bolus (p = .004). For the 20 cc bolus size, the onset of hyoid and aryepiglottic fold elevation was delayed (p = .029 and .037, respectively). Gesture timing did not change to accommodate larger bolus sizes, as it normally does, resulting in a delay in airway protection for the 20-cc bolus. Patients are able to move a liquid bolus through the pharynx in a timely manner. However, patients are unable to modify swallowing gestures to safely protect the airway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Plasma and Electrolyte Changes in Exercising Humans After Ingestion of Multiple Boluses of Pickle Juice

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, Michael A.; Miller, Kevin C.; Deal, James E.; Garden-Robinson, Julie A.; Rhee, Yeong S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Twenty-five percent of athletic trainers administer pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Anecdotally, some clinicians provide multiple boluses of PJ during exercise but warn that repeated ingestion of PJ may cause hyperkalemia. To our knowledge, no researchers have examined the effect of ingesting multiple boluses of PJ on the same day or the effect of ingestion during exercise. Objective: To determine the short-term effects of ingesting a single bolus or multiple boluses of PJ on plasma variables and to characterize changes in plasma variables when individuals ingest PJ and resume exercise. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine euhydrated men (age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 180.9 ± 5.8 cm, mass = 80.7 ± 13.8 kg, urine specific gravity = 1.009 ± 0.005). Intervention(s): On 3 days, participants rested for 30 minutes, and then a blood sample was collected. Participants ingested 0 or 1 bolus (1 mL·kg−1 body weight) of PJ, donned sweat suits, biked vigorously for 30 minutes (approximate temperature = 37°C, relative humidity = 18%), and had a blood sample collected. They either rested for 60 seconds (0- and 1-bolus conditions) or ingested a second 1 mL·kg−1 body weight bolus of PJ (2-bolus condition). They resumed exercise for another 35 minutes. A third blood sample was collected, and they exited the environmental chamber and rested for 60 minutes (approximate temperature = 21°C, relative humidity = 18%). Blood samples were collected at 30 and 60 minutes postexercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, plasma osmolality, and changes in plasma volume. Results: The number of PJ boluses ingested did not affect plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, plasma osmolality, or changes in plasma volume over time. The plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, and plasma osmolality did not exceed 144.6 mEq·L−1 (144.6 mmol

  10. Laterality of bolus passage through the pharynx in patients with unilateral medullary infarction.

    PubMed

    Mikushi, Shinya; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Baba, Mikoto; Tohara, Haruka; Saitoh, Eiichi

    2014-02-01

    Laterality of bolus passage in the pharynx is often seen in patients with medullary infarction. We evaluated the dominant side of bolus passage in the pharynx and investigated the factors that cause the passage to dominantly occur on the affected side. Forty-one patients (35 men and 6 women, 64 ± 9 years) with unilateral medullary infarction participated in this study. Bolus passage of 4 mL of thick liquid was evaluated in 3 regions (oropharyngeal, thyropharyngeal, and cricopharyngeal) and classified into 4 patterns (dominantly on the unaffected side [UAS], on both sides without clear laterality [BS], dominantly on the affected side [AS], and nonpassage of the bolus [NP]) by videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing. The bolus passages were as follows: UAS, BS, and AS occurred in 2, 32, and 7 patients in the oropharyngeal region; UAS, BS, and AS occurred in 5, 20, and 16 patients in the thyropharyngeal region; and UAS, BS, AS, and NP occurred in 11, 9, 10, and 11 patients in the cricopharyngeal region, respectively. In the thyropharyngeal region, the proportion of patients in whom the swallowing reflex occurred when the bolus was in the oropharynx and the proportion of patients with unilateral pharyngeal constrictor paralysis were greater in patients whose bolus passage was AS than in patients whose passage was BS. This suggests that the bolus predominantly passed through the affected side of the thyropharyngeal portion because of the asymmetry of pharyngeal contraction during swallowing in the early period after onset. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of fluid bolus administration rates using ruggedized field intravenous systems.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Theodore R

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2 ruggedized field intravenous (IV) systems currently in use by US military medics and to determine their effect on fluid bolus administration rates. A series of 500 mL fluid boluses consisting of either Lactated Ringer's solution or Hextend were delivered to 2 artificial intravenous training arms using a standard 18G catheter (control) and 2 separate ruggedized field IV systems. Fluid boluses were delivered under both gravity force and pressure infusion (constant 300 mm Hg), and total bolus times were recorded. Using Lactated Ringer's solution, the standard IV system took a mean time of 9:33 minutes (95% CI: 9:13-9:54) to deliver a 500 mL fluid bolus whereas the 2 ruggedized field systems took mean times of 14:50 minutes (95% CI: 14:00-15:40) and 12:20 minutes (95% CI: 11:54-12:45). Using Hextend, the mean bolus time for the control system was 24:39 minutes (95% CI: 22:47-26:32). The 2 ruggedized field systems required an average of 49:32 minutes (95% CI: 48:07-50:58) and 39:46 minutes (95% CI: 37:30-42:01) to deliver an equivalent bolus. Pressure infusion significantly increased flow rate in all systems. Ruggedized field IV systems can significantly delay fluid bolus rates. In instances where ruggedized field systems are deemed necessary, pressure infusion devices should be considered to overcome the constrictive effects of the ruggedized system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Parameters for quantifying bolus retention with high-resolution impedance manometry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyue; Nicodème, Frederic; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Mogni, Benjamin; Friesen, Laurel; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a methodology for quantifying esophageal bolus retention using a high-resolution esophageal impedance topography (EIT) technique. Methods The ability of impedance to quantify bolus retention was validated by comparison with concurrent fluoroscopic imaging (barium bolus) in 10 healthy subjects. High-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) studies without fluoroscopy were performed in another 15 healthy subjects to define normal values using saline. HRIM data from each subject were analyzed using a MATLAB program customized for calculating the esophageal impedance integral (EII) prior to the contraction wave-front as EII1 and after the contraction as EII2, and presented as a ratio of EII2/EII1, which was compared to the percent of barium areas retained in the esophagus on fluoroscopy determined by a blinded reviewer. Key Results In 93% (37/40) of barium swallows, the results from the EIT method were in agreement with fluoroscopy results with one of three patterns: 1) 25 normal bolus transit, 2) 8 bolus stasis, and 3) 4 retrograde escape or reflux. Three swallows (8%) had slight retention identified by EIT, but no retention detected by fluoroscopy. The correlation between percent of bolus retained in the esophagus detected by fluoroscopy and percent of bolus retention (EII2/EII1) after swallows with EIT method was r=0.96 (p<0.001) in supine and r=0.69 (p<0.001) in upright position. Conclusions & Inferences The EII ratio (EII2/EII1) is a surrogate for the fraction of retained bolus after a swallow and this metric may be useful in better defining esophageal function. PMID:24750336

  13. Potential of 3D printing technologies for fabrication of electron bolus and proton compensators.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Fisher, Ted; Zhang, Miao; Kim, Leonard; Chen, Ting; Narra, Venkat; Swann, Beth; Singh, Rachana; Siderit, Richard; Yin, Lingshu; Teo, Boon-Keng Kevin; McKenna, Michael; McDonough, James; Ning, Yue J

    2015-05-08

    In electron and proton radiotherapy, applications of patient-specific electron bolus or proton compensators during radiation treatments are often necessary to accommodate patient body surface irregularities, tissue inhomogeneity, and variations in PTV depths to achieve desired dose distributions. Emerging 3D printing technologies provide alternative fabrication methods for these bolus and compensators. This study investigated the potential of utilizing 3D printing technologies for the fabrication of the electron bolus and proton compensators. Two printing technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS), and two printing materials, PLA and polyamide, were investigated. Samples were printed and characterized with CT scan and under electron and proton beams. In addition, a software package was developed to convert electron bolus and proton compensator designs to printable Standard Tessellation Language file format. A phantom scalp electron bolus was printed with FDM technology with PLA material. The HU of the printed electron bolus was 106.5 ± 15.2. A prostate patient proton compensator was printed with SLS technology and polyamide material with -70.1 ± 8.1 HU. The profiles of the electron bolus and proton compensator were compared with the original designs. The average over all the CT slices of the largest Euclidean distance between the design and the fabricated bolus on each CT slice was found to be 0.84 ± 0.45 mm and for the compensator to be 0.40 ± 0.42 mm. It is recommended that the properties of specific 3D printed objects are understood before being applied to radiotherapy treatments.

  14. Bolus Estimation—Rethinking the Effect of Meal Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Reifman, Jaques; Edwards, Stephanie S.; Wolpert, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traditionally, insulin bolus calculations for managing postprandial glucose levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes rely solely on the carbohydrate content of a meal. However, recent studies have reported that other macronutrients in a meal can alter the insulin required for good postprandial control. Specifically, studies have shown that high-fat (HF) meals require more insulin than low-fat (LF) meals with identical carbohydrate content. Our objective was to assess the mechanisms underlying the higher insulin requirement observed in one of these studies. Materials and Methods: We used a combination of previously validated metabolic models to fit data from a study comparing HF and LF dinners with identical carbohydrate content in seven subjects with type 1 diabetes. For each subject and dinner type, we estimated the model parameters representing the time of peak meal-glucose appearance (τm), insulin sensitivity (SI), the net hepatic glucose balance, and the glucose effect at zero insulin in four time windows (dinner, early night, late night, and breakfast) and assessed the differences in model parameters via paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: During the HF meal, the τm was significantly delayed (mean and standard error [SE]: 102 [14] min vs. 71 [4] min; P = 0.02), and SI was significantly lower (7.25 × 10−4 [1.29 × 10−4] mL/μU/min vs. 8.72 × 10−4 [1.08 × 10−4] mL/μU/min; P = 0.02). Conclusions: In addition to considering the putative delay in gastric emptying associated with HF meals, we suggest that clinicians reviewing patient records consider that the fat content of these meals may alter SI. PMID:26270134

  15. Antiemetic Corticosteroid Rotation from Dexamethasone to Methylprednisolone to Prevent Dexamethasone-Induced Hiccup in Cancer Patients Treated with Chemotherapy: A Randomized, Single-Blind, Crossover Phase III Trial.

    PubMed

    Go, Se-Il; Koo, Dong-Hoe; Kim, Seung Tae; Song, Haa-Na; Kim, Rock Bum; Jang, Joung-Soon; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Kyung Hee; Lee, Soon Il; Kim, Seong-Geun; Park, Lee Chun; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Park, Byeong-Bae; Ji, Jun Ho; Yi, Seong Yoon; Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Yun, Jina; Bruera, Eduardo; Hwang, In Gyu; Kang, Jung Hun

    2017-07-07

    To assess whether the rotation of dexamethasone to methylprednisolone decreases the intensity of dexamethasone-induced hiccup (DIH) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Adult patients who experienced DIH within 3 days after the administration of dexamethasone as an antiemetic were screened. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive dexamethasone (n = 33) or methylprednisolone (n = 32) as an antiemetic (randomization phase). In the next cycle of chemotherapy, the dexamethasone group received methylprednisolone and vice versa in the methylprednisolone group (crossover phase). The primary endpoint was the difference in hiccup intensity as measured using the numeric rating scale (NRS) between two groups. No female patients were enrolled, although the study did not exclude them. At the randomization phase, hiccup frequency was 28/33 (84.8%) in the dexamethasone group versus 20/32 (62.5%) in the methylprednisolone group (p = .04). Intensity of hiccup was significantly higher in the dexamethasone group than that in the methylprednisolone group (mean NRS, 3.5 vs. 1.4, p < .001). At the crossover phase, hiccup intensity was further decreased after the rotation of dexamethasone to methylprednisolone in the dexamethasone group (mean NRS, 3.5 to 0.9, p < .001), while it was increased by rotating methylprednisolone to dexamethasone in the methylprednisolone group (mean NRS, 1.4 to 3.3, p = .025). There were no differences in emesis intensity between the two groups at either the randomization or crossover phases. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01974024. Dexamethasone-induced hiccup is a male-predominant phenomenon that can be ameliorated by rotating dexamethasone to methylprednisolone without compromising the antiemetic efficacy. In this randomized, multicenter, phase III trial, hiccup intensity was significantly lower when the antiemetic corticosteroid was rotated from dexamethasone to methylprednisolone without a change in emesis

  16. Oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Baddini-Martinez, José; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may have swallowing dysfunction. Objective The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing in patients with COPD. Methods We studied 16 patients with clinical manifestations and pulmonary function tests diagnosis of COPD (mean age: 68 years) and 15 nonsmoking healthy volunteers (mean age: 65 years) with normal pulmonary function tests. All subjects were submitted to clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Each subject performed in duplicate swallows of 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid bolus, paste bolus, and a solid bolus. Results In general, the duration of the events of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was longer in COPD patients than controls. The difference was significant in the laryngeal vestibular closure, hyoid movement, and pharyngeal transit with swallows of both volumes of liquid bolus; in oral–pharyngeal transit with 5 mL paste bolus; and in pharyngeal and oral–pharyngeal transit with solid bolus. The difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit was higher in control subjects than in patients with COPD. Conclusion The results suggested that patients with COPD have a longer pharyngeal swallowing phase than normal subjects, which is associated with a decrease in the difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit. PMID:25784795

  17. Bolus versus continuous infusion of microbubble contrast agent for liver US: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Hoffmann, Christian W; Wolf, Karl J; Albrecht, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. To prospectively assess if continuous infusion of galactose-palmitic acid can prolong the duration of hepatic enhancement at ultrasonography over bolus injection, 11 patients received two injections--one bolus injection (2 mL/sec) and one continuous infusion (1.5 mL/min)--with the same dose of galactose-palmitic acid (4 g, 300 mg/dL). Two unenhanced baseline sweep scans (mechanical index of 0.7 and 1.3) of the relevant liver lobe were acquired followed by contrast-enhanced sweeps after bolus injection and continuous infusion. Each sweep was saved as cine loops and analyzed with a personal computer. Duration of enhancement more than 3 dB was prolonged by continuous infusion from 4.3 minutes +/- 2.4 (+/-standard deviation) at bolus injection to 10.1 minutes +/- 3.0 (P < .005). Maximal parenchymal enhancement was 11.0 dB +/- 3.2 (bolus injection) and 9.2 dB +/- 3.8 (infusion, P < .05). Peak liver-to-lesion contrast was 14.2 dB +/- 6.3 (bolus injection) and 13.2 dB +/- 7.1 (infusion, not significant). Continuous infusion of galactose-palmitic acid markedly prolongs but slightly diminishes hepatic enhancement; liver-to-lesion contrast remains unchanged.

  18. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT).

    PubMed

    Javor, D; Wressnegger, A; Unterhumer, S; Kollndorfer, K; Nolz, R; Beitzke, D; Loewe, C

    2017-04-01

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. • A single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction. • Endoleak development is the most common complication after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). • CT angiography is the imaging modality of choice for aortic aneurysm evaluation.

  19. Effects of bolus size and hardness on within-subject variability of chewing cycle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Wintergerst, Ana M; Throckmorton, Gaylord S; Buschang, Peter H

    2008-04-01

    This study analysed how bolus hardness and size affect within-subject variability of chewing cycle kinematics. Two independent prospective studies were performed; both tracked chin movements using an optoelectronic recording system. Computer programs identified each subject's ten most representative cycles, and multilevel modelling procedures were used to estimate variances. One study evaluated 38 subjects who chewed 1, 2, 4 or 8 g of gum presented in random order. The second study evaluated 26 subjects who chewed approximately 2.5 g of harder (670 g) or softer (440 g) gum, also presented in random order. In terms of bolus size, the 2g and 1g boluses produced the least and greatest relative within-subject variability, respectively; the largest differences were found for cycle duration and excursions. Within-subject variability when chewing the harder gum was consistently greater than when chewing the softer gum, except for lateral movement towards the balancing side. Because bolus hardness and bolus size influence within-subject variability differently, they must be taken into consideration when designing experiments to study masticatory kinematics. We conclude that a 2g bolus of soft gum should be used in studies of chewing cycle kinematics in order to reduce within-subject variability and increase statistical power.

  20. Oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Baddini-Martinez, José; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Patients with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may have swallowing dysfunction. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing in patients with COPD. We studied 16 patients with clinical manifestations and pulmonary function tests diagnosis of COPD (mean age: 68 years) and 15 nonsmoking healthy volunteers (mean age: 65 years) with normal pulmonary function tests. All subjects were submitted to clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Each subject performed in duplicate swallows of 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid bolus, paste bolus, and a solid bolus. In general, the duration of the events of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was longer in COPD patients than controls. The difference was significant in the laryngeal vestibular closure, hyoid movement, and pharyngeal transit with swallows of both volumes of liquid bolus; in oral-pharyngeal transit with 5 mL paste bolus; and in pharyngeal and oral-pharyngeal transit with solid bolus. The difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit was higher in control subjects than in patients with COPD. The results suggested that patients with COPD have a longer pharyngeal swallowing phase than normal subjects, which is associated with a decrease in the difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit.

  1. The effect of bolus viscosity on swallowing function in neurogenic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Clavé, P; de Kraa, M; Arreola, V; Girvent, M; Farré, R; Palomera, E; Serra-Prat, M

    2006-11-01

    To assess the pathophysiology and treatment of neurogenic dysphagia. 46 patients with brain damage, 46 with neurodegenerative diseases and eight healthy volunteers were studied by videofluoroscopy while swallowing 3-20 mL liquid (20.4 mPa s), nectar (274.4 mPa s) and pudding (3931.2 mPa s) boluses. Volunteers presented a safe and efficacious swallow, short swallow response (< or =740 ms), fast laryngeal closure (< or =160 ms) and strong bolus propulsion (> or =0.33 mJ). Brain damage patients presented: (i) 21.6% aspiration of liquids, reduced by nectar (10.5%) and pudding (5.3%) viscosity (P < 0.05) and (ii) 39.5% oropharyngeal residue. Neurodegenerative patients presented: (i) 16.2% aspiration of liquids, reduced by nectar (8.3%) and pudding (2.9%) viscosity (P < 0.05) and (ii) 44.4% oropharyngeal residue. Both group of patients presented prolonged swallow response (> or =806 ms) with a delay in laryngeal closure (> or =245 ms), and weak bolus propulsion forces (< or =0.20 mJ). Increasing viscosity did not affect timing of swallow response or bolus kinetic energy. Patients with neurogenic dysphagia presented high prevalence of videofluoroscopic signs of impaired safety and efficacy of swallow, and were at high risk of respiratory and nutritional complications. Impaired safety is associated with slow oropharyngeal reconfiguration and impaired efficacy with low bolus propulsion. Increasing bolus viscosity greatly improves swallowing function in neurological patients.

  2. Cost comparison of insulin glargine with insulin detemir in a basal-bolus regime with mealtime insulin aspart in type 2 diabetes in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Pscherer, Stefan; Dietrich, Eva Susanne; Dippel, Franz-Werner; Neilson, Aileen Rae

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the treatment costs of insulin glargine (IG; Lantus®) to detemir (ID; Levemir®), both combined with bolus insulin aspart (NovoRapid®) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Germany. Methods: Cost comparison was based on data of a 1-year randomised controlled trial [1]. IG was administered once daily and ID once (57% of patients) or twice daily (43%) according to treatment response. At the end of the trial, mean daily basal insulin doses were 0.59 U/kg (IG) and 0.82 U/kg (ID). Aspart doses were 0.32 U/kg (IG) and 0.36 U/kg (ID). Costs were calculated from the German statutory health insurance (SHI) perspective using official 2008 prices. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test robustness of the results. Results: Annual basal and bolus insulin costs per patient were € 1,473 (IG) and € 1,940 (ID). The cost of lancets and blood glucose test strips were € 1,125 (IG) and € 1,286 (ID). Annual costs for needles were € 393 (IG) and € 449 (ID). The total annual cost per patient of administering IG was € 2,991 compared with € 3,675 for ID, translating into a 19% annual cost difference of € 684/patient. Base case results were robust to varying assumptions for insulin dose, insulin price, change in weight and proportion of ID once daily administrations. Conclusion: IG and ID basal-bolus regimes have comparative safety and efficacy, based on the Hollander study, IG however may represent a significantly more cost saving option for T2D patients in Germany requiring basal-bolus insulin analogue therapy with potential annual cost savings of € 684/patient compared to ID. PMID:20725588

  3. Effect of Admission Oral Diuretic Dose on Response to Continuous versus Bolus Intravenous Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure: An Analysis from DOSE-AHF

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ravi V.; McNulty, Steven; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael; Braunwald, Eugene; Givertz, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from the Diuretic Optimization Strategies in Acute Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) study suggest that an initial continuous infusion of loop diuretics is not superior to bolus dosing with regard to clinical endpoints in AHF. We hypothesized that outpatient furosemide dose was associated with congestion and poorer renal function, and explored the hypothesis that a continuous infusion may be more effective in patients on higher outpatient diuretic doses. Methods DOSE-AHF randomized 308 patients within 24 hours of admission to high vs. low initial intravenous diuretic dose given as either a continuous infusion or bolus. We compared baseline characteristics and assessed associations between mode of administration (bolus vs. continuous) and outcomes in patients receiving high-dose (≥120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=177) versus low-dose (<120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=131) outpatient diuretics. Results Patients on higher doses of furosemide were less frequently on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P=.01), and had worse renal function and more advanced symptoms. There was a significant interaction between outpatient dose and mode of therapy (P=0.01) with respect to net fluid loss at 72 hours after adjusting for creatinine and intensification strategy. Admission diuretic dose was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization at 60 days (adjusted HR=1.08 per 20-mg increment in dose, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, P=.03). Conclusions In acute HF, patients on higher diuretic doses have greater disease severity, and may benefit from an initial bolus strategy. PMID:23194486

  4. Fungal DNA detected in blood samples of patients who received contaminated methylprednisolone injections reveals increased complexity of causative agents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Armeanu, Emilian; DiVerniero, Richard; Lewis, Terri A; Dobson, Richard C; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S

    2014-06-01

    Using Exserohilum rostratum-specific and panfungal real-time PCR, we studied 24 blood samples and 2 synovial fluid specimens from 20 patients with persistent or worsening pain following injections of contaminated methylprednisolone. Seven blood specimens from 6 patients were significantly positive for fungal DNA by panfungal PCR, with multiple fungal species identified.

  5. Long-term effects of intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion treatment on intractable Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    She, W; Lv, L; Du, X; Li, H; Dai, Y; Lu, L; Ma, X; Chen, F

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy of intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion treatment for intractable Ménière's disease. A retrospective analysis of 17 intractable Ménière's disease patients treated with intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion was performed. Treatment efficacy was evaluated according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria. Short and long-term control or improvement rates were calculated after 6 and 24 months, respectively. Sixteen patients were followed for more than two years. Short- and long-term vertigo control rates were 94 per cent and 81 per cent, respectively; short- and long-term functional activity improvements were 94 per cent and 88 per cent, respectively. The pure tone average was 53 ± 14 dB before treatment, and 50 ± 16 dB at 6 months and 52 ± 20 dB at 24 months after intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion. Tinnitus was controlled or improved in five patients over the two-year follow-up period. Intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion can effectively control vertigo and improve functional activity in intractable Ménière's disease patients with good hearing preservation. It may therefore be a viable alternative treatment for intractable Ménière's disease.

  6. Comparison of the effects of chronic intra-articular administration of tenoxicam, diclofenac, and methylprednisolone in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Orak, Mehmet Müfit; Ak, Dursun; Midi, Ahmet; Laçin, Berna; Purisa, Sevim; Bulut, Güven

    2015-01-01

    Lyophilized drug manufacturing and intra-articular (IA) applications have increased to address gastrointestinal side effects resulting from chronic treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for degenerative joint disease. Accordingly, we histologically examined joint and stomach tissues from rats to determine and compare the effects of long-term treatment with an IA corticosteroid (methylprednisolone acetate), lyophilized NSAID (tenoxicam), and non-lyophilized NSAID (diclofenac) following application to the knee joint. One hundred Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 25 rats: control, methylprednisolone, tenoxicam, and diclofenac. Ten IA injections were administered at 1-week intervals. Rats were sacrificed at 48 h and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the tenth injection. Histomorphologically, knee joint samples were examined for osteoarthritic changes and stomach tissue samples for gastric changes. Unlike methylprednisolone, diclofenac and tenoxicam caused increased fibrosis and fibroblast production; furthermore, chronic methylprednisolone use had no negative effects on the synovium or cartilage. Chronic tenoxicam and diclofenac use affects joints more negatively than chronic steroid treatment.

  7. Comparison of the efficacy of low doses of methylprednisolone, acetaminophen, and dexketoprofen trometamol on the swelling developed after the removal of impacted third molar

    PubMed Central

    Ataoglu, Hanife; Yildirim, Gulsun; Kiresi, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of low doses of methylprednisolone, acetaminophen and dexketoprofen trometamol, which are among the drug groups used in our clinic, on postoperative swelling developing after removal of impacted third molar. Material and Methods The three group of patients received either 40 mg methylprednisolone or 300 mg acetaminophen or 12.5 mg dexketoprofen trometamol one hour before the procedure, according to the patient groups. The patients in the methylprednisolone group were injected with methylprednisolone at a dose of 20 mg 24 hour after the procedure and prescribed 300 mg acetaminophen as rescue analgesic. During the postoperative period, the doses that were given before the procedure were continued 3 times a day for 2 days in the acetaminophen and dexketoprofen trometamol groups. Maximal swelling was assessed preoperatively and at the postoperative 48 hours by ultrasound images. Results Swelling was 34% lower in the methylprednisolone than in the other groups; however, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. The acetaminophen and dexketoprofen trometamol groups exhibited clinical results close to each other. Conclusions Combination of low doses of methylprednisolone and acetaminophen provide a safe and adequate clinical success on swelling. Key words: Methylprednisolone, acetaminophen, dexketoprofen trometamol, third molar extraction, swelling. PMID:26241458

  8. Lessons learned from administration of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate for acute pediatric spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Michelle C; Daugherty, Margot C; Moody, Suzanne M; Falcone, Richard A; Bierbrauer, Karin S; Geis, Gary L

    2017-10-06

    OBJECTIVE Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) has been studied as a pharmacological adjunct that may be given to patients with acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) to improve neurological recovery. MPSS treatment became the standard of care in adults despite a lack of evidence supporting clinical benefit. More recently, new guidelines from neurological surgeon groups recommended no longer using MPSS for ASCI, due to questionable clinical benefit and known complications. However, little information exists in the pediatric population regarding MPSS use in the setting of ASCI. The aim of this paper was to describe steroid use and side effects in patients with ASCI at the authors' Level 1 pediatric trauma center in order to inform other hospitals that may still use this therapy. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine adherence in ordering and delivery according to the guideline of the authors' institution and to determine types and frequency of complications. Inclusion criteria included age < 17 years, blunt trauma, physician concern for ASCI, and admission for ≥ 24 hours or treatment with high-dose intravenous MPSS. Exclusion criteria included penetrating trauma, no documentation of ASCI, and incomplete medical records. Charts were reviewed for a predetermined list of complications. RESULTS A total of 602 patient charts were reviewed; 354 patients were included in the study. MPSS was administered in 59 cases. In 34 (57.5%) the order was placed correctly. In 13 (38.2%) of these 34 cases, MPSS was administered according to the recommended timeline protocol. Overall, only 13 (22%) of 59 patients received the therapy according to protocol with regard to accurate ordering and administration. Among the patients with ASCI, 20 (55.6%) of the 36 who received steroids had complications, which was a significantly higher rate than in those who did not receive steroids (8 [24.2%] of 33, p = 0.008). Among the patients without ASCI, 10 (43.5%) of the 23

  9. Mortality and morbidity after high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury: a propensity-matched analysis using a nationwide administrative database.

    PubMed

    Chikuda, Hirotaka; Yasunaga, Hideo; Takeshita, Katsushi; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-03-01

    To examine the magnitude of the adverse impact of high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). We examined the abstracted data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, and included patients with ICD-10 code S141 who were admitted on an emergency basis between 1 July and 31 December in 2007-2009. The investigation evaluated the patients' sex, age, comorbidities, Japan Coma Scale, hospital volume and the amount of methylprednisolone administered. One-to-one propensity-score matching between high-dose methylprednisolone group (>5000 mg) and control group was performed to compare the rates of in-hospital death and major complications (sepsis; pneumonia; urinary tract infection; gastrointestinal ulcer/bleeding; and pulmonary embolism). We identified 3508 cervical SCI patients (2652 men and 856 women; mean age, 60.8 ± 18.7 years) including 824 (23.5%) patients who received high-dose methylprednisolone. A propensity-matched analysis with 824 pairs of patients showed a significant increase in the occurrence of gastrointestinal ulcer/bleeding (68/812 vs 31/812; p<0.001) in the high-dose methylprednisolone group. Overall, the high-dose methylprednisolone group demonstrated a significantly higher risk of complications (144/812 vs 96/812;OR, 1.66; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.24; p=0.001) than the control group. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the high-dose methylprednisolone group and the control group (p=0.884). Patients receiving high-dose methylprednisolone had a significantly increased risk of major complications, in particular, gastrointestinal ulcer/bleeding. However, high-dose methylprednisolone treatment was not associated with any increase in mortality.

  10. Mortality and morbidity after high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury: a propensity-matched analysis using a nationwide administrative database

    PubMed Central

    Chikuda, Hirotaka; Yasunaga, Hideo; Takeshita, Katsushi; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the magnitude of the adverse impact of high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods We examined the abstracted data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, and included patients with ICD-10 code S141 who were admitted on an emergency basis between 1 July and 31 December in 2007–2009. The investigation evaluated the patients’ sex, age, comorbidities, Japan Coma Scale, hospital volume and the amount of methylprednisolone administered. One-to-one propensity-score matching between high-dose methylprednisolone group (>5000 mg) and control group was performed to compare the rates of in-hospital death and major complications (sepsis; pneumonia; urinary tract infection; gastrointestinal ulcer/bleeding; and pulmonary embolism). Results We identified 3508 cervical SCI patients (2652 men and 856 women; mean age, 60.8±18.7 years) including 824 (23.5%) patients who received high-dose methylprednisolone. A propensity-matched analysis with 824 pairs of patients showed a significant increase in the occurrence of gastrointestinal ulcer/bleeding (68/812 vs 31/812; p<0.001) in the high-dose methylprednisolone group. Overall, the high-dose methylprednisolone group demonstrated a significantly higher risk of complications (144/812 vs 96/812;OR, 1.66; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.24; p=0.001) than the control group. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the high-dose methylprednisolone group and the control group (p=0.884). Conclusions Patients receiving high-dose methylprednisolone had a significantly increased risk of major complications, in particular, gastrointestinal ulcer/bleeding. However, high-dose methylprednisolone treatment was not associated with any increase in mortality. PMID:23449889

  11. An in vitro evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of platelet-rich plasma, ketorolac, and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Mazzocca, Augustus D; McCarthy, Mary Beth R; Intravia, Jessica; Beitzel, Knut; Apostolakos, John; Cote, Mark P; Bradley, James; Arciero, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent of the anti-inflammatory effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a controlled in vitro environment. Through the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ), cell adhesion molecule expression (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and human leukocyte antigen DR) and PRP's anti-inflammatory effect can be measured. PRP was produced from 3 individuals using a single-spin (PRPLP) process. Treatment groups include negative (unstimulated) controls, positive (stimulated) controls, ketorolac tromethamine, methylprednisolone, PRP, ketorolac-PRP, and methylprednisolone-PRP. A fluorescence assay of the cellular inflammation markers was measured by the BioTek Synergy HT plate reader (BioTek Instruments, Winooski, VT) at 0, 1, 2, and 5 days. At days 2 and 5, methylprednisolone treatment showed a 2.1- to 5.8-fold reduction (P < .05) in inflammation markers over PRP. In addition, PRP and ketorolac showed a 1.4- to 2.5-fold reduction (P < .05) in cellular inflammation markers over the control. There was no statistically significant difference between ketorolac and PRP. Although PRP and ketorolac reduced cellular inflammation markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and human leukocyte antigen DR) compared with control, neither caused as great a reduction as methylprednisolone. Although PRP and ketorolac did not produce as significant a reduction in cellular inflammation markers as methylprednisolone, they reduced cellular inflammation compared with the control. These agents may have clinical application as injectable anti-inflammatory medications. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The histopathological and electrophysiological effects of thymoquinone and methylprednisolone in a rabbit traumatic facial nerve paralysis model.

    PubMed

    Sereflican, Murat; Yurttas, Veysel; Ozyalvacli, Gulzade; Terzi, Elcin Hakan; Turkoglu, Sule Aydin; Yildiz, Serpil; Ilgaz, Yasin; Seyhan, Sinan; Oral, Mesut; Dagli, Muharrem

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of methylprednisolone and thymoquinone on nerve healing in a traumatic facial nerve paralysis animal model. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: group I: control group received no medication and no trauma; group II: sham group received no medication after facial nerve trauma group III: 5mg/kg/day thymoquinone administered; group IV: 1mg/kg/day methylprednisolone administered. An initial electrophysiological assessment was performed in all the animals. The buccal branch of the facial nerve was then clipped to form a traumatic facial paralysis model. The drugs were administered for two weeks once a day. At the end of the second month, the electrophysiological assessments were performed and the distal part of the traumatic facial nerve were dissected and examined under light microscopy. Best nerve regeneration was observed in the control and the thymoquinone groups, respectively, whereas the weakest regeneration was determined in the sham group. Thymoquinone and methylprednisolone significantly increased nerve recovery, as measured by histopathological scores and electrophysiological assessment. In the thymoquinone group, due to postoperative amplitude, axon diameter and thickness of myelin sheath values were significantly further increased nerve regeneration compared to that of the methylprednisolone group and these values were close to those of the values of the control group. Thymoquinone was slightly better than methylprednisolone for functional nerve recovery. The neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone was attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thymoquinone can have a new treatment option to ameliorate the nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase I trial of cremophor EL with bolus doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Millward, M J; Webster, L K; Rischin, D; Stokes, K H; Toner, G C; Bishop, J F; Olver, I N; Linahan, B M; Linsenmeyer, M E; Woodcock, D M

    1998-10-01

    Cremophor EL (cremophor), a component of the paclitaxel formulation, can potentially reverse P-glycoprotein-associated multidrug resistance. A Phase I trial of cremophor as a 6-h infusion every 3 weeks was performed with bolus doxorubicin (50 mg/m2). The cremophor dose was escalated from 1 to 60 ml/m2. A standard paclitaxel premedication was given before cremophor. Using a bioassay, potentially active cremophor levels (> or = 1 microl/ml) were measured in plasma from patients receiving cremophor doses of 30, 45, and 60 ml/m2. A cross-over design was used to assess the influence of cremophor 30 ml/m2 on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol. The plasma area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of doxorubicin increased from 1448 +/- 350 to 1786 +/- 264 ng/ml x h (P = 0.02) in the presence of cremophor, whereas the AUC of doxorubicinol increased from 252 +/- 104 to 486 +/- 107 ng/ml x h (P = 0.02). This pharmacokinetic interaction was associated with significantly increased neutropenia. With reduction of the doxorubicin dose to 35 mg/m2, the cremophor dose was increased to 60 ml/m2. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in two of six patients after 45 ml/m2 and two of four patients after 60 ml/m2, which included febrile neutropenia and grade III cremophor-related toxicities of rash, pruritus, headache, and hypotension. All patients who received 45 ml/m2 cremophor reached plasma levels > or = 1.5 microl/ml, but at 60 ml/m2, only two of four reached this level, and the calculated plasma clearance of cremophor was significantly faster at this dose. One patient with hepatoma resistant to epirubicin achieved a near-complete response. Cremophor 45 ml/m2 over 6 h with 35 mg/m2 doxorubicin is recommended for further studies. The pharmacokinetic interaction between cremophor and doxorubicin is quantitatively similar to that described in trials of paclitaxel with doxorubicin and suggests that the cremophor in the paclitaxel formulation is responsible.

  14. Effect of bolus volume on pharyngeal swallowing assessed by high-resolution manometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tuo; Xu, Guangqing; Dou, Zulin; Lan, Yue; Yu, Fan; Jiang, Lisheng

    2014-04-10

    Solid-state high-resolution manometry (HRM) is fast becoming the gold standard for studying pharyngeal and esophageal motility. However, very few studies have ever evaluated the effect of bolus volume on the physiology of swallowing using HRM. We aimed to determine the effect of bolus volume on pressure, duration and velocity of the hypopharynx as well as the upper esophageal sphincter during pharyngeal swallowing using HRM. Thirty-four healthy subjects completed nine swallows (3 ml, 5 ml and 10 ml of water, thick liquid, and paste, respectively) in the natural sitting position. Pressure and duration measurements were acquired from the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) using HRM. The UES residual pressure, UES relaxation duration, maximum preopening UES pressure, maximum postclosure UES pressure, maximum hypopharyngeal pressure, maximum hypopharyngeal pressure rise rate and hypopharyngeal pressure duration were analyzed across bolus volumes using repeated measures of one-way analysis of variance. A significant increase in UES residual pressure associated with increased bolus volume during water and paste swallowing was observed. Furthermore, UES relaxation duration was significantly increased with increasing in bolus volume for all three material swallows. No significant volume effects were found on the hypopharynx. In summary, bolus volume has a significant effect on the residual pressure and relaxation duration, but no effect on maximum preopening pressure or maximum postclosure pressure of the UES. Maximum hypopharyngeal pressure, maximum hypopharyngeal pressure rise rate and pressure duration were also not affected by bolus volume. Consideration of these variables is paramount in understanding normal and pathological swallowing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of glucocorticoids on neuropathic pain: a review with emphasis on intrathecal methylprednisolone acetate delivery.

    PubMed

    Rijsdijk, Mienke; van Wijck, Albert J M; Kalkman, Cornelis J; Yaksh, Tony L

    2014-05-01

    Methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) has a long history of use in the treatment of sciatic pain and other neuropathic pain syndromes. In several of these syndromes, MPA is administered in the epidural space. On a limited basis, MPA has also been injected intrathecally in patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia and complex regional pain syndrome. The reports on efficacy of intrathecal administration of MPA in neuropathic pain patients are contradictory, and safety is debated. In this review, we broadly consider mechanisms whereby glucocorticoids exert their action on spinal cascades relevant to the pain arising after nerve injury and inflammation. We then focus on the characteristics of the actions of MPA in pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety when administered in the intrathecal space.

  16. Variance of spinal osteoporosis induced by dexamethasone and methylprednisolone and its associated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hui; Liang, De; Jiang, Xiaobing; Tang, Jingjing; Cui, Jianchao; Wei, Qiushi; Zhang, Shuncong; Yao, Zhensong; Shen, Gengyang; Lin, Shunxin

    2015-10-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) administration is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis. Previous studies investigated GCs dose and frequency correlated positively with the side effects of glucocorticoid on bone health, however the impaired effect of various types of GCs on bone has not yet been reported. The aim is to compare the effect of long-acting (dexamethasone) and relatively short-acting glucocorticoid (methylprednisolone) on rat lumbar spine and try to explore the associated mechanism. Sprague Dawley rats (N=48) were randomly divided into four groups: baseline group (BL), control group (CON), methylprednisolone group (MP) and dexamethasone group (DEXA). BL rats were euthanized to remain as baseline (M0) at the beginning of experiment. CON group were injected daily with vehicle, while the other groups were given a daily subcutaneous injection of 1mg/kg methylprednisolone and were given a subcutaneous injection of 0.6mg/kg dexamethasone per 3days, respectively. CON, MP and DEXA groups were monitored at 4th week (M1), 8th week (M2) and 12th week (M3) after intervention. Dual-energy X-ray, micro-computed tomography, compressive test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been used for bone mineral density, microarchitecture, biomechanical property of vertebrae and levels of estrogen, PINP and β-CTX, respectively. mRNA expression analysis of Biglycan, Col1a1, MMP9, Cathepsin K, Runx2, OPG, LRP5, Sclerostin were performed. We found that the bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in DEXA rats at M3 compared with MP rats. The relative surface and trabecular number were significantly lower in DEXA group than that in MP group at M2, while trabecular separation was significantly higher in DEXA group than that in MP group at the same point. The compressive strength was significantly lower in L4 of DEXA than that in MP rats at M2 and M3. The levels of both PINP and estradiol in DEXA group were lower than MP group at M3, even though without statistical

  17. A randomized clinical trial of oral versus intravenous methylprednisolone for relapse of MS.

    PubMed

    Ramo-Tello, C; Grau-López, L; Tintoré, M; Rovira, A; Ramió i Torrenta, L; Brieva, L; Cano, A; Carmona, O; Saiz, A; Torres, F; Giner, P; Nos, C; Massuet, A; Montalbán, X; Martínez-Cáceres, E; Costa, J

    2014-05-01

    Steroids improve multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses but therapeutic window and dose, frequency and administration route remain uncertain. The objective of this paper is to compare the clinical and radiologic efficacy, tolerability and safety of intravenous methylprednisolone (ivMP) vs oral methylprednisolone (oMP), at equivalent high doses, for MS relapse. Forty-nine patients with moderate or severe relapse within the previous 15 days were randomized in a double-blind, noninferiority, multicenter trial to receive ivMP or oMP and their matching placebos. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were determined at baseline and weeks 1, 4 and 12. Brain MRI were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1 and 4. Primary endpoint was a noninferiority assessment of EDSS improvement at four weeks (noninferiority margin of one point), with further key efficacy assessments of number and volume of T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+), and new or enlarged T2 lesions at four weeks' post-treatment initiation. Secondary outcomes were safety and tolerability. The study achieved the main outcome of noninferiority at four weeks for improved EDSS score. No differences were found between ivMP and oMP in the number of Gd+ lesions (0 (0-1) vs 0 (0-0.5), p = 0.630), volume of Gd+ lesions (0 (0-88.0) vs 0 (0-32.9) mm(3), p = 0.735), or new or enlarged T2 lesions (0 (0-194) vs 0 (0-123), p = 0.769). MP was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported. This study provides confirmatory evidence that oMP is not inferior to ivMP in reducing EDSS, similar in MRI lesions at four weeks for MS relapses and is equally well tolerated and safe. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00753792.

  18. Monte Carlo based modeling of indocyanine green bolus tracking in the adult human head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2011-02-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly being investigated in critical care settings to assess cerebral hemodynamics, because of its potential for guiding therapy during the recovery period following brain injury. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be quantified by NIRS using indocyanine green (ICG) as an intravascular tracer. However, extracting accurate measurements from complex tissue geometries, such as the human head, is challenging and has hindered the clinical applications. With the development of fast Monte Carlo simulations that can take into account a priori anatomical information (e.g. near-infrared light propagation in tissue from MRI or CT imaging data), it is now possible to investigate signal contamination arising from the extracerebral layers, which can confound NIRS-CBF measurements. Here, we present a theoretical model that combines Monte Carlo simulations of broadband time-resolved near-infrared measurements with indicator-dilution theory to model time-dependent changes in light propagation following ICG bolus injection. Broadband, time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy measurements were simulated for three source-detector positions. Individual simulations required 56 seconds for 5x108 photons, and a set of simulations consisting of baseline measurements at 40 wavelengths, and single-wavelength measurements at 160 time-points required on average 3.4 hours. To demonstrate the usefulness of our model, the propagation of errors associated with varying both the scalp blood flow and the scalp thickness was investigated. For each simulation the data were analyzed using four independent approaches-simple-subtraction blood flow index (ΔBFISS), time-resolved variance time-to-peak (ΔTTPTR), and absolute and relative CBF with depth-resolved NIRS (CBFDR and ΔCBFDR)-to assess cerebral hemodynamics.

  19. Intravenous salbutamol bolus compared with an aminophylline infusion in children with severe asthma: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G; Newsom, D; Gomez, K; Raffles, A; Saglani, S; Begent, J; Lachman, P; Sloper, K; Buchdahl, R; Habel, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: The relative efficacies of aminophylline and salbutamol in severe acute childhood asthma are currently unclear. A single bolus of salbutamol was compared with a continuous aminophylline infusion in children with severe asthma in a randomised double blind study. Methods: Children aged 1–16 years with acute severe asthma were enrolled if they showed little improvement with three nebulisers (combined salbutamol and ipratropium) administered over an hour and systemic steroids. Subjects were randomised to receive either a short intravenous bolus of salbutamol (15 µg/kg over 20 minutes) followed by a saline infusion or an aminophylline infusion (5 mg/kg over 20 minutes) followed by 0.9 mg/kg/h. Results: Forty four subjects were enrolled, with 18 randomly allocated to receive salbutamol and 26 to receive aminophylline. The groups were well matched at baseline. An intention to treat analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the asthma severity score (ASS) at 2 hours between the two groups (median (IQR) 6 (6, 8) and 6.5 (5, 8) for salbutamol and aminophylline respectively, p=0.93). A similar improvement in ASS to 2 hours was seen in the two groups (mean difference –0.08, 95% CI –0.97 to 0.80), there was a trend (p=0.07) towards a longer duration of oxygen therapy in the salbutamol group (17.8 hours (95% CI 8.5 to 37.5) v 7.0 hours (95% CI 3.4 to 14.2)), and a significantly (p=0.02) longer length of hospital stay in the salbutamol group (85.4 (95% CI 66.1 to 110.2) hours v 57.3 hours (95% CI 45.6 to 72.0)). There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions: This study suggests that, in severe childhood asthma, there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of a bolus of salbutamol and an aminophylline infusion in the first 2 hours of treatment. Overall, the aminophylline infusion was superior as it significantly reduced the length of stay in hospital. PMID:12668792

  20. A combination of simvastatin and methylprednisolone improves the quality of vitrified-warmed ovarian tissue after auto-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewang; Kim, Eun Jung; Kong, Hyun Sun; Youm, Hye Won; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Does the preoperative administration of simvastatin and methylprednisolone enhance mouse ovarian quality after auto-transplantation of vitrified-warmed ovarian tissue (OT)? Treatment with combined simvastatin and methylprednisolone enhances the quality of transplanted mouse OTs. The prevention of ischemic injury after transplantation of OT is critical for preserving the ovarian follicles. Preoperative administration of simvastatin (a cholesterol-lowering drug) has beneficial effects on various organ transplantations. Moreover, donor treatment with simvastatin and methylprednisolone (main effects are on immune response) prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury and has a beneficial effect on allograft survival in rat cardiac allografts. A total of 232 6-week-old B6D2F1 mice were randomly distributed into fresh control, vitrified-warmed control and experimental groups (n = 10-17 per group). The experimental groups were as follows: sham control, simvastatin, methylprednisolone and co-treatment groups. In the experimental groups, the mice were administered simvastatin (5 mg/kg, orally), methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg, i.v.) or a combination of simvastatin and methylprednisolone 2 h before ovariectomy, whereas the sham control mice received normal saline. Whole ovaries were removed from the mice and vitrified by two-step vitrification procedures. The vitrified ovaries were warmed 1 week later and auto-transplanted under the bilateral kidney capsules. The ovaries and blood samples were collected 2, 7 and 21 days (D) after transplantation for histological analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for CD31 and serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level estimation. Embryonic development was evaluated after IVF of oocytes obtained from the transplanted ovary. The group that received simvastatin and methylprednisolone showed a significantly improved intact (Grade 1) follicle ratio (D2: P < 0.001, D7: P < 0.05 and D21: P

  1. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2009-07-07

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 x 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

  2. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 × 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

  3. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 × 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid setup monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network. PMID:19494426

  4. Bronchoalveolar lavage versus bolus administration of lucinactant, a synthetic surfactant in meconium aspiration in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Rey-Santano, C; Alvarez-Diaz, F J; Mielgo, V; Murgia, X; Lafuente, H; Ruiz-Del-Yerro, E; Valls-I-Soler, A; Gastiasoro, E

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to study effects of lung lavage versus the classical bolus instillation with a peptide-based synthetic surfactant (lucinactant) in a model of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS). Eighteen newborn lambs received meconium and were randomized to: the experimental meconium installation (eMAS) group-lambs with eMAS kept on conventional mechanical ventilation (control); the SF-Bolus group-eMAS receiving a lucinactant bolus (30 mg/ml); or the D-SF-Lavage group-eMAS treated with dilute lucinactant bronchoalveolar lavage (10 mg/ml). Systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, blood gases, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded for 180 min. In addition, the intrapulmonary distribution of the lucinactant was determined using dye-labeled microspheres. Following meconium instillation, severe hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, and pulmonary hypertension developed, and dynamic compliance decreased (50% from baseline). After lung lavage with dilute lucinactant, gas exchange significantly improved versus bolus instillation (P < 0.05). Further, only in the lavage group did pulmonary arterial pressure return to basal values and dynamic compliance significantly increased. Both lung lavage and bolus techniques for the administration of lucinactant resulted in a non-uniform lung distribution. In conclusion, in newborn lambs with respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension induced by meconium, lung lavage with dilute lucinactant seems to be an effective and safe alternative for treatment for MAS.

  5. Use of glucagon in relieving esophageal food bolus impaction in the era of eosinophilic esophageal infiltration.

    PubMed

    Thimmapuram, Jayaram; Oosterveen, Scott; Grim, Rodney

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal food bolus impaction may require an urgent endoscopy. Glucagon is often administered to promote spontaneous passage of the food bolus. Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia, and food impaction is often the presenting symptom. Our study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of glucagon in relieving esophageal foreign body obstruction in general and in the setting of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration (EEI). A retrospective chart review was performed using the ICD codes and the emergency department database of adult patients presenting with symptoms of esophageal food bolus impaction from July 2004 to October 2010. Response to glucagon was defined as symptomatic relief of obstruction prior to endoscopic intervention. A total of 213 episodes of esophageal food bolus obstruction in 192 patients were identified during the study period. Glucagon was given in 125 cases of which 41 had a response (32.8 %). A total of 170 episodes had an Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed either during the impaction event or at a later date. Of the 60 patients' biopsies, 45 had received glucagon (17 with EEI, 28 without EEI). None of the 17 episodes with EEI as compared to 8 of the 28 without EEI responded to glucagon (0 % vs. 28.5 %, p = 0.017). Glucagon is effective in about one third of patients with esophageal food bolus impaction, which is consistent with historical data. Patients with EEI appear less likely to respond to glucagon.

  6. A Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus versus Methylprednisolone in Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abud, Tulio B; Amparo, Francisco; Saboo, Ujwala S; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Dohlman, Thomas H; Ciolino, Joseph B; Hamrah, Pedram; Dana, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.05% vs. topical methylprednisolone 0.5% in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Phase I/II, prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. Subjects Eighty eyes from 40 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD were enrolled. Methods Forty patients with ocular GVHD were randomized; 24 patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.05% and 16 patients with topical methylprednisolone 0.5% twice a day for 10 weeks, in addition to continuing their baseline treatment regimen. Main Outcome Measures Safety was evaluated based on occurrence of adverse events. Tolerability was assessed based on subjects’ reports of discomfort after drop instillation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored. The main efficacy endpoints were: corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test, and expression of the ocular surface inflammatory markers human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Results After 10 weeks of treatment, no major adverse events occurred in either treatment group, and there was no significant difference in the composite tolerability scores between the two groups (P=0.06). However, burning sensation was more pronounced with tacrolimus (P=0.002). Topical tacrolimus was more effective than methylprednisolone in reducing the CFS score at week 10 (55% vs. 23% reduction, respectively; P=0.01), and achieved significant improvement in TBUT when compared to baseline (P<0.001). OSDI score reduction achieved statistical significance with tacrolimus (27% reduction; P=0.02) but was marginal with methylprednisolone (32% reduction; P=0.06). ICAM-1 expression by ocular surface epithelium decreased significantly in both groups (tacrolimus P=0.003; methylprednisolone P=0.008), while HLA-DR expression significantly decreased only in the tacrolimus

  7. A Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus versus Methylprednisolone in Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Abud, Tulio B; Amparo, Francisco; Saboo, Ujwala S; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Dohlman, Thomas H; Ciolino, Joseph B; Hamrah, Pedram; Dana, Reza

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.05% versus topical methylprednisolone 0.5% in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Phase 1/2 prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. Eighty eyes of 40 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD were enrolled. Forty patients with ocular GVHD were randomized; 24 patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.05% and 16 patients were treated with topical methylprednisolone 0.5% twice daily for 10 weeks, in addition to continuing their baseline treatment regimen. Safety was evaluated based on occurrence of adverse events. Tolerability was assessed based on subject reports of discomfort after drop instillation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored. The main efficacy end points were corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test results, and expression of the ocular surface inflammatory markers human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). After 10 weeks of treatment, no major adverse events occurred in either treatment group, and there was no significant difference in the composite tolerability scores between the 2 groups (P = 0.06). However, burning sensation was more pronounced with tacrolimus (P = 0.002). Topical tacrolimus was more effective than methylprednisolone in reducing the CFS score at week 10 (55% vs. 23% reduction, respectively; P = 0.01) and achieved significant improvement in TBUT when compared with baseline (P < 0.001). Reduction in OSDI score achieved statistical significance with tacrolimus (27% reduction; P = 0.02), but was marginal with methylprednisolone (32% reduction; P = 0.06). Expression of ICAM-1 by ocular surface epithelium decreased significantly in both groups (tacrolimus, P = 0.003; methylprednisolone, P = 0.008), whereas HLA-DR expression decreased significantly only in the tacrolimus group

  8. New approach for quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion with magnetic resonance first-pass bolus imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Helmut; Schnackenburg, Bernd; Bornstedt, Axel; Gross, Michael; Al-Saadi, Nidal; Nagel, Eicke; Fleck, Eckart

    1999-05-01

    Myocardial perfusion reserve can be noninvasively assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. With magnetic resonance (MR) multislice dynamic imaging techniques it is possible to acquire the complete heart during the first pass of a contrast agent bolus. For diagnostic reasons an important question is to obtain quantitative parameters of the perfusion of the myocardium. We developed a model for the analysis of the contrast agent bolus pass in the myocardium and established a process for the complete task, which will support a routine clinical use delivering these quantitative parameters in a reproducible way. To evaluate the analysis in a collective of patients with single vessel disease and without significant coronary artery disease the signal intensity curves of the first pass of a gadolinium-DTPA bolus injected via a central vein were estimated before and after dipyridamole infusion.

  9. Continuous transversus abdominis plane block vs intermittent bolus for analgesia after abdominal surgery: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Rao Kadam, Vasanth; Van Wijk, Roelof M; Moran, John L; Ganesh, Shantan; Kumar, A; Sethi, Rajesh; Williams, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and intermittent bolus techniques of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been used for analgesia after abdominal surgery. Although both are effective, there are no studies comparing them. The aim of this study is to compare analgesia and cost-effectiveness between these groups. After obtaining ethical approval, 20 American Society of Anesthesiologists ASA grade I to III patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were recruited with 10 patients allocated to each arm. Bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP blocks were performed with an initial bolus of 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL per side, followed by catheter insertion. After surgery, the continuous infusion group received 0.2% ropivacaine 8 mL/hour on each side and the intermittent bolus group received doses of 0.2% ropivacaine 20 mL per side every 8 hours for 48 hours. Both groups received intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia and regular oral paracetamol. Parameters recorded included numerical rating scores for pain and post-operative analgesic consumption at baseline (time 0) and at 1 hour, 1 day and 2 days post-operatively. The duration of catheter insertion, complications, patient satisfaction and information regarding costs were also recorded. Patient satisfaction was assessed utilizing a 4-point "Likert" scale on day 2 and on day 30. Pain and Likert scores were analysed by non-parametric sum rank test and all two-sampled t-tests assumed unequal variances. There was no difference between duration of TAP block, anesthetic and surgical technique and length of stay (p=0.23). Primary outcomes: pain scores at rest and cough were not significantly different (p=0.20) between the groups. Satisfaction scores were similar at day 2 and 30 (p=0.77). However, the bolus group was more cost-effective (AU$347.98 vs AU$429.43). Continuous or bolus TAP blocks are effective analgesic techniques in abdominal surgery, with bolus technique being more economical.

  10. Factors Influencing Bolus Dwell Times in Healthy Older Adults Assessed Endoscopically

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Susan G.; Maslan, Jonathan; Stuart, Andrew; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wilhelm, Erika; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Williamson, Jeff; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Scant data exist on normal bolus dwell time assessed during Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES). The purpose of this study was to examine bolus dwell time in healthy older adults. Since it has been previously reported that some healthy older adults aspirate, we also sought to determine if bolus dwell time varied as function of aspiration status. Study Design Prospective Methods Seventy-six healthy volunteers from the 7th, 8th, and 9th decades of life participated. Dwell times were analyzed via FEES as a function of pharyngeal location, liquid type, delivery method, purée type, viscosity, age, and gender. Results Longer dwell times were evidenced with the eldest participants, straw delivery, and the smallest volume. Adults in the 9th decade were 4.8 (p = 0.01) and 3.8 (p = 0.02) times more likely to have longer dwell times at the vallecula and 7.1 (p = 0.002) and 3.8 (p = 0.02) at the pyriform sinus than those in the 7th and 8th decades, respectively. Longer dwell times at the vallecula and pyriform sinuses were 2 and 2.38 times (p < 0.0001) more likely for straw than cup delivery, respectively. Five ml boluses were 1.5 times (p < 0.05) more likely to result in longer dwell times than larger volumes. Bolus dwell times did not significantly differ as a function of aspiration status. Conclusions Advanced age, straw delivery, and small volumes yielded longer dwell times. These variables should be considered before diagnosing an abnormal bolus dwell time in elder patients. PMID:22081498

  11. Chewing behaviour and bolus formation during mastication of meat with different textures.

    PubMed

    Mioche, Laurence; Bourdiol, Pierre; Monier, Sandra

    2003-03-01

    During chewing, meat is mashed under compression and shear bite forces whilst saliva is incorporated. The resulting mixture is shaped into a cohesive bolus by agglomeration of small particles, and triggers a swallow. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chewing behaviour and bolus formation of meat with different textures. Twenty-five consenting young adults participated in this study. Electromyographic activity was recorded from surface electrodes on the elevator muscles (masseter and temporalis) during mastication of cold beef. Two different textures (T(1): tough and dry; T(2): tender and juicy) were studied, and subjects were asked to chew the beef and then spit out the bolus either: (1) after a constant chewing period of 7s or (2) when the bolus was ready to be swallowed. Meat samples were weighed before and after chewing to determine weight changes due to saliva incorporation and the release of meat juice. Cutting tests were applied to measure the maximum shear force. The mechanical shear force was maximal for meat before chewing (T(1)=124 N/cm(2); T(2)=83 N/cm(2)) and decreased with increased chewing duration. Texture differences analysed from mechanical measurements remained significant even when the boli were ready for swallowing (T(1)=39 N/cm(2); T(2)=32 N/cm(2)); the toughest meat gave the toughest bolus. Muscular activity adapted to the texture of the meat as soon as chewing began, and remained constant over the observed chewing period. Mean muscular activity was higher during the chewing of tough meat than during the chewing of tender meat. As a consequence, by the time a bolus was ready to be swallowed, more saliva had been incorporated into the tough meat samples (mean weight increase: 36%) than the tender meat samples (mean weight increase: 30%).

  12. Regulation of Inflammatory Biomarkers by Intravenous Methylprednisolone in Pediatric ARDS Patients: Results from a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Kimura, Dai; Rovnaghi, Cynthia R.; Saravia, Jordy S.; Cormier, Stephania A; Teng, Bin; West, Alina N.; Meduri, Umberto G.; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A double-blind, randomized controlled trial showed that low-dose glucocorticoid therapy in pediatric ARDS patients is feasible and may improve both ventilation and oxygenation indices in these patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying potential changes in outcomes remain unclear. Based on these clinical findings, this study was designed to examine the effects of intravenous methylprednisolone on circulating inflammatory biomarkers in pediatric ARDS patients. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial with blood collection on study entry and day 7. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital. Patients Children (0–18 years) with ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation. Interventions 35 children were randomized within 72 hours of mechanical ventilation. The glucocorticoid group received methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg loading dose followed by 1 mg/kg/day continuous infusion from days 1–7. Both groups were ventilated following the ARDSnet recommendations. WBC and differential cell counts, plasma cytokines and CRP levels, and coagulation parameters were analyzed on days 0 and 7. Results At study entry, the placebo group had higher IL-15 and basophil levels. On day 7, in comparison to study entry, the placebo group had lower IL-1α, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels. The glucocorticoid group had lower INF-α, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, G-CSF and GM-CSF levels, and higher IL-17α levels on day 7 in comparison to study entry. Total and differential cell counts remained unchanged within the placebo group between days 0 and 7, whereas in the glucocorticoid group total WBC and platelets counts were increased on day 7. Pearson’s correlation studies within the placebo and glucocorticoid groups revealed positive and negative correlations between cytokine levels, cell counts, coagulation parameters and relevant clinical parameters of disease severity identified in our previous study. Multiple regression models identified several cytokines as predictors for

  13. An unusual cause of generalised seizure following cardiac surgery: with bolus cefazolin administration.

    PubMed

    Ceviker, K; Kocaturk, O; Demir, D

    2015-02-23

    Although some of the aetiological factors of seizure, such as cerebral microemboli, cerebral oedema, hypoperfusion, cerebral hypoxia and metabolic encephalopathy cannot be completely controlled during cardiac surgery, cautious management of all steps in the procedure may prevent the administrative causes of seizure. Cefazolin, which is known to be a proconvulsant agent, may be a suspected agent of seizure complications in patients with renal insufficiency. Surprisingly, intravenous bolus administration of cefazolin may also trigger seizure in patients with normal renal function. In this case report, a complication of generalised seizure after cardiac surgery with intravenous bolus administration of cefazolin is described, along with a brief review of the literature.

  14. Safety and tolerability of adjunctive brivaracetam as intravenous infusion or bolus in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Pavel; Biton, Victor; Dilley, Deanne; Barnes, Matthew; Schiemann, Jimmy; Lu, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    An intravenous (IV) formulation of brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, has been developed. We investigated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of adjunctive IV BRV administered as a bolus or infusion to adults with epilepsy. A phase III, multicenter, randomized, four-arm, parallel-group study (NCT01405508) of patients aged 16-70 years with focal or generalized epilepsy uncontrolled by 1-2 antiepileptic drugs was undertaken. The study comprised a 7-day baseline period, a 7-day double-blind run-in period (oral BRV 200 mg/day or placebo [PBO] twice daily [BID]), and 4.5-day open-label evaluation period (IV BRV 200 mg/day BID; 2-min bolus or 15-min infusion, total nine doses). Patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 PBO/BRV bolus; PBO/BRV infusion; BRV/BRV bolus; BRV/BRV infusion. Safety and tolerability were assessed using adverse events, electrocardiography, vital signs, and laboratory assessments. BRV plasma concentrations were measured before and 15 min after the first and last IV doses. Of the 105 patients randomized (53.3% women; 77.1% white; mean [standard deviation; SD] age 41.6 [12.2] years), 103 (98.1%) completed the study. Treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) incidence during IV BRV was similar whether IV BRV was initiated first (70.6%) or followed oral BRV (66.0%), and whether it was administered as a bolus (71.2%) or infusion (65.4%). Injection-related TEAEs were reported by 9.6% of patients following bolus and 11.5% following infusion. No serious TEAEs were reported. IV BRV plasma concentrations were higher after the first dose in the conversion groups than initiation groups, and slightly higher in the bolus arm than the infusion arm; concentrations were similar in all patients after the last IV dose. IV BRV was generally well tolerated, with similar tolerability as a bolus or infusion and independent of de novo administration or as conversion from oral BRV tablets. IV BRV may be an option for

  15. Infusional mitoxantrone plus bolus melphalan as a stem cell transplant conditioning regimen for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Beaven, Anne W; Moore, Dominic T; Sharf, Andrew; Serody, Jonathan S; Shea, Thomas C; Gabriel, Don A

    2011-03-01

    This study combined infusional mitoxantrone with bolus melphalan as a transplant preparative regimen for multiple myeloma. Mitoxantrone was infused over 6 hr on days 6 and 5. Melphalan was given as a 15 min bolus on day 1 followed by autologous transplant on day 0. Thirty-five patients were enrolled; 57% of enrollees had received ≥ 2 prior treatments. The median overall survival was 5 years and 8 months, with 37% of the subjects alive >7 years posttransplantation. Myelosuppression and mucositis were the most frequent adverse events. This regimen is well tolerated and the survival compares well to other transplant trials.

  16. Methylprednisolone for prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing in-vitro fertilisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Yeganeh, Ladan; Moini, Ashraf; Shiva, Marzieh; Mirghavam, Naimeh; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone on prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). This randomised controlled trial was carried out between November 2009 and December 2013. A total of 219 eligible patients were randomly allocated for treatment (n = 108) or control groups (n = 111). The treatment group received oral methylprednisolone starting from the first day of stimulation. These patients also received an intravenous dose of methylprednisolone on the days of egg collection and embryo transfer. The control group received no glucocorticoid treatment to prevent OHSS. Nineteen percent of patients (18/93) who received methylprednisolone developed OHSS compared with 16.5% (15/91) in the control group and no significant difference was found (p = .61). There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups in the rates of implantation (10% versus 11%, p = .77) and clinical pregnancy (23.2% versus 17.7%, p = .46). Methylprednisolone did not reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS in PCOS patients undergoing IVF and no improvement in clinical outcomes was observed. Impact statement No significant differences were found in OHSS incidence and clinical outcomes between women who received methylprednisolone and control group. There seems to be no benefit for the routine use of glucocorticoids in IVF/ICSI treatments.

  17. Clinical effects of computed tomography-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Annalisa P; Girod, Maud; Peeters, Dominique; Sandersen, Charlotte; Couvreur, Thierry; Bolen, Géraldine

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement. Neurologic examinations were performed 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after the injection. In dogs with neurologic abnormalities, a final neurologic examination was performed 24 days after the procedure. RESULTS Methylprednisolone injections were successfully performed in 14 of the 15 dogs. In 1 dog, vascular puncture occurred, and the methylprednisolone injection was not performed. No major or minor complications were identified during or immediately after the procedure, other than mild transient hyperthermia. During follow-up neurologic examinations, no motor, sensory, or postural deficits were identified, other than mild alterations in the patellar, withdrawal, cranial tibial, and perineal reflexes in some dogs. Overall, altered reflexes were observed in 11 of the 14 dogs, during 27 of 65 neurologic examinations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate were associated with few complications in healthy dogs. However, the number of dogs evaluated was small, and additional studies are needed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of these procedures.

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of low doses of methylprednisolone, acetaminophen, and dexketoprofen trometamol on the swelling developed after the removal of impacted third molar.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Cennet-Neslihan; Ataoglu, Hanife; Yildirim, Gulsun; Kiresi, Demet

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of low doses of methylprednisolone, acetaminophen and dexketoprofen trometamol, which are among the drug groups used in our clinic, on postoperative swelling developing after removal of impacted third molar. The three group of patients received either 40 mg methylprednisolone or 300 mg acetaminophen or 12.5 mg dexketoprofen trometamol one hour before the procedure, according to the patient groups. The patients in the methylprednisolone group were injected with methylprednisolone at a dose of 20 mg 24 hour after the procedure and prescribed 300 mg acetaminophen as rescue analgesic. During the postoperative period, the doses that were given before the procedure were continued 3 times a day for 2 days in the acetaminophen and dexketoprofen trometamol groups. Maximal swelling was assessed preoperatively and at the postoperative 48 hours by ultrasound images. Swelling was 34% lower in the methylprednisolone than in the other groups; however, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. The acetaminophen and dexketoprofen trometamol groups exhibited clinical results close to each other. Combination of low doses of methylprednisolone and acetaminophen provide a safe and adequate clinical success on swelling.

  19. Commentary on “Performance of a Glucose Meter with a Built-In Automated Bolus Calculator versus Manual Bolus Calculation in Insulin-Using Subjects”

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Paolo; Vehí, Josep; Revert, Ana; Calm, Remei; Bondia, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, there has been an exponentially increasing development of new diabetes-applied technology, such as continuous glucose monitoring, bolus calculators, and “smart” pumps, with the expectation of partially overcoming clinical inertia and low patient compliance. However, its long-term efficacy in glucose control has not been unequivocally proven. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sussman and colleagues evaluated a tool for the calculation of the prandial insulin dose. A total of 205 insulin-treated patients were asked to compute a bolus dose in two simulated conditions either manually or with the bolus calculator built into the FreeStyle InsuLinx meter, revealing the high frequency of wrong calculations when performed manually. Although the clinical impact of this study is limited, it highlights the potential implications of low diabetes-related numeracy in poor glycemic control. Educational programs aiming to increase patients’ empowerment and caregivers’ knowledge are needed in order to get full benefit of the technology. PMID:22538145

  20. Commentary on "Performance of a glucose meter with a built-in automated bolus calculator versus manual bolus calculation in insulin-using subjects".

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Paolo; Vehí, Josep; Revert, Ana; Calm, Remei; Bondia, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    Since the early 2000s, there has been an exponentially increasing development of new diabetes-applied technology, such as continuous glucose monitoring, bolus calculators, and "smart" pumps, with the expectation of partially overcoming clinical inertia and low patient compliance. However, its long-term efficacy in glucose control has not been unequivocally proven. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sussman and colleagues evaluated a tool for the calculation of the prandial insulin dose. A total of 205 insulin-treated patients were asked to compute a bolus dose in two simulated conditions either manually or with the bolus calculator built into the FreeStyle InsuLinx meter, revealing the high frequency of wrong calculations when performed manually. Although the clinical impact of this study is limited, it highlights the potential implications of low diabetesrelated numeracy in poor glycemic control. Educational programs aiming to increase patients' empowerment and caregivers' knowledge are needed in order to get full benefit of the technology. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. The effect of steroid treatment with inhaled budesonide or intravenous methylprednisolone on phosgene-induced acute lung injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam; Brown, Roger; Jugg, Bronwen; Platt, Janet; Mann, Thomas; Masey, Charles; Jenner, John; Rice, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals e.g., phosgene, are widely used as reactive intermediates in industrial processes. Inhalation exposure to these chemicals can result in life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI), to which no specific antidote exists. This study aimed to assess the potential benefit of steroids in treating phosgene induced ALI. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented, exposed to phosgene Ct 2000 mg.min.m(-3) (Ct is the product of concentration [mg.m(-3)] x time [min]), and ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation before being randomized to study part 1: treatment with intravenous glucose saline (20 mL) or methylprednisolone (12.5 mg.kg(-1) in 20 mL) 6 h postexposure or study part 2: treatment with inhaled glucose saline (2 mL) or budesonide (2 mL of 0.5 mg.mL(-1) solution) at 1, 6, 12, and 18 h postexposure. Biochemical parameters and animal physiology were monitored to 24 h postexposure. The results show no change in mortality, lung edema, or shunt fraction; however, some beneficial effects on cardiac parameters e.g., stroke volume, left ventricular stroke work, were noted. Steroids were neither beneficial nor detrimental in the treatment of phosgene induced ALI. This study does not support the use of steroids alone as a treatment, but their use in a combined therapy strategy should be investigated.

  2. Effects on peritoneal proteolysis and hemodynamics by high doses of methyl-prednisolone in experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ruud, T E; Aasen, A O; Røise, O; Lium, B; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Stadaas, J O

    1986-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis was induced in 15 anesthetized pigs by injection of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Seven animals were pretreated with methyl-prednisolone sodium succinate 30 mg/kg intravenously. Using chromogenic peptide substrate assays, values of trypsin (TRY), plasma prekallikrein (PKK), plasma kallikrein (KK) and functional plasma kallikrein inhibition capacity (KKI) were studied in the peritoneal exudate. Cardiac output (CO) and arterial pressure (AP) were regularly monitored before and during a six hour observation period. In acute untreated pancreatitis a 40% reduction of PKK levels was found paralleled by an increased KK activity and a reduction of KKI capacity. High TRY levels were found in several animals. The mortality rate was 63%. The pretreated animals all survived. CO and AP were significantly less reduced than in the untreated animals. Components of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system and TRY in the exudate remained mainly unchanged. Methyl-prednisolone given as pretreatment significantly improves hemodynamic parameters and increases the survival rate. Methyl-prednisolone suppresses generation of trypsin activity and activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system in the peritoneal exudate which may be of significant importance to the outcome.

  3. Effect of the route of administration of methylprednisolone on oedema and trismus in impacted lower third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Koçer, G; Yuce, E; Tuzuner Oncul, A; Dereci, O; Koskan, O

    2014-05-01

    Due to their anatomical position, the surgical removal of impacted third molars results in oedema, pain, and trismus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of supraperiosteal injection of methylprednisolone compared with an oral tablet form and intravenous (i.v.) injection in the prevention of postoperative pain and oedema associated with inflammation. This randomized, prospective, and controlled study included 44 patients. The patients were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 (control; no steroids), group 2 (local injection), group 3 (oral tablets), and group 4 (i.v. injection). On days 2 and 7 following surgery, linear oedema was determined using facial landmarks, and maximal mouth opening was measured. Postoperative mouth opening and swelling were evaluated for each route of methylprednisolone administration and compared. The female (59%) to male (41%) ratio was 1.44; the mean age of the patients was 29.6 years. The level of significance was set at P<0.01 for mouth opening and P<0.05 for oedema. With regard to trismus, all three routes of administration demonstrated better efficacy in comparison to the control. While oral administration and i.v. injection of methylprednisolone achieved similar results, masseter injection provided better results in reducing oedema and trismus when compared to the control following lower third molar surgery.

  4. Otoprotective properties of 6α-methylprednisolone-loaded nanoparticles against cisplatin: In vitro and in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Palao-Suay, Raquel; Trinidad, Almudena; Aguilar, María Rosa; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; San Román, Julio

    2016-05-01

    6α-Methylprednisolone-loaded surfactant-free nanoparticles have been developed to palliate cisplatin ototoxicity. Nanoparticles were based on two different amphiphilic pseudo-block copolymers obtained by free radical polymerization and based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone and a methacrylic derivative of α-tocopheryl succinate or α-tocopherol. Copolymers formed spherical nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation in aqueous media that were able to encapsulate 6α-methylprednisolone in their inner core. The obtained nanovehicles were tested in vitro using HEI-OC1 cells and in vivo in a murine model. Unloaded nanoparticles were not able to significantly reduce the cisplatin ototoxicity. Loaded nanoparticles reduced cisplatin-ototoxicity in vitro being more active those based on the methacrylic derivative of vitamin E, due to their higher encapsulation efficiency. This formulation was able to protect hair cells in the base of the cochlea, having a positive effect in the highest frequencies tested in a murine model. A good correlation between the in vitro and the in vivo experiments was found. Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent against many cancers clinically. However, one of the significant side-effects remains ototoxicity. Here, the authors presented their data on using 6α-methylprednisolone-loaded nanoparticles in the reduction of ototoxicity in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. Early promising results should enable further refinement of adopting this new approach in future experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic modeling of direct suppression effects of methylprednisolone on serum cortisol and blood histamine in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ah-Ng; Ludwig, Elizabeth A.; Slaughter, Richard L.; DiStefano, Providence M.; DeMasi, James; Middleton, Elliott; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic models for “directly suppressive” effects of methylprednisolone are based on the premise that receptor interactions of steroids are followed by immediate suppression of either the circadian secretion of cortisol or the constant rate recirculation of histamine-containing basophils that persists until inhibitory concentrations of methylprednisolone disappear. Methylprednisolone doses of 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg were given as the 21-succinate sodium salt in a balanced crossover study to six normal men. Plasma steroid concentrations and blood histamine were measured simultaneously. Both forms of methylnisolone exhibited linear kinetic parameters. One dynamic model quantitates the baseline circadian pattern and the decline and return of cortisol with similar parameter estimates for all three dose levels. A similar model describes the monoexponential decline and the log-linear return to steady-state baseline of blood histamine. Similar inhibitory concentration values for both effects approximated the equilibrium dissociation constant of in vitro steroid receptor binding. The new models are more physiologically appropriate for these steroid effects than three other models that are commonly employed in pharmacodynamics. Steroid effects generally appear to be receptor mediated with either nongene immediate responses or gene-mediated delayed effects. These models allow quantitation of the rapid effects of steroids with simple equations and common fitted parameters for all steroid dose levels. PMID:2689044

  6. Viscera and muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than by continuous feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continuous and intermittent bolus orogastric feedings are strategies used in infants unable to tolerate normal feeds. To determine the effects of feeding modality on protein synthesis in different tissues, neonatal pigs received a balanced formula by orogastric tube as an intermittent bolus feed eve...

  7. Randomised trial of continuous nasogastric, bolus nasogastric, and transpyloric feeding in infants of birth weight under 1400 g.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, P D; Skeoch, C H; Carse, H; Dryburgh, F; Alroomi, L G; Galea, P; Gettinby, G

    1992-04-01

    Forty three infants under 1400 g were fed by a bolus nasogastric, continuous nasogastric, or transpyloric route. There were more complications with transpyloric feeding and no identifiable benefits in the growth rate, oral energy input, or chosen biochemical indices of nutrition. Bolus or continuous nasogastric feeds rather than transpyloric are better routine methods in infants of low birth weight.

  8. Randomised trial of continuous nasogastric, bolus nasogastric, and transpyloric feeding in infants of birth weight under 1400 g.

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, P D; Skeoch, C H; Carse, H; Dryburgh, F; Alroomi, L G; Galea, P; Gettinby, G

    1992-01-01

    Forty three infants under 1400 g were fed by a bolus nasogastric, continuous nasogastric, or transpyloric route. There were more complications with transpyloric feeding and no identifiable benefits in the growth rate, oral energy input, or chosen biochemical indices of nutrition. Bolus or continuous nasogastric feeds rather than transpyloric are better routine methods in infants of low birth weight. PMID:1586185

  9. Effect of bolus hardness on the chewing pattern and activation of masticatory muscles in subjects with normal dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Bracco, Pietro; Vallelonga, Teresa; Merlo, Andrea; Farina, Dario

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of bolus hardness on the kinematic of mastication and jaw-elevator muscle activity in subjects with normal dental occlusion and function. The mandibular motion and the surface EMG envelope of the masseter and temporalis anterior muscles were assessed in twelve subjects during mastication of a soft and hard bolus of the same size. When chewing the hard bolus, the chewing pattern in the frontal plane was significantly higher and wider, with smaller closure angle and higher peak velocity than when chewing the soft bolus. EMG peak amplitude of both the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was higher for the side of the bolus but the contralateral side increased its activity significantly more than the ipsilateral side when the hardness of the bolus increased (for the masseter, mean+/-SD: 130.4+/-108.1% increase for the contralateral side and 29.6+/-26.9% for the ipsilateral side). Moreover, the peak EMG activity for both muscles occurred more distant from the closure point with hard bolus. The increased activity of the contralateral side may help maintaining the mandibular equilibrium, with indirect participation to the power stroke generated by the chewing-side masseter. The results provide kinematic and EMG adaptations to bolus hardness in healthy subjects and can be used as normative data in the development of methods for early diagnosis of impaired chewing function.

  10. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; (Peter Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K.

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo. It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s-1, as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo.

  11. Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways--influence of gravity and airway asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Darquenne, Chantal

    2012-08-01

    The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 μm-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ∼20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery.

  12. Ozone absorption into excised porcine and sheep tracheae by a bolus-response method

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Jebria, A.; Hu, S.C.; Kitzmiller, E.L.; Ultman, J.S. )

    1991-12-01

    The absorption of ozone (O3) into excised porcine and sheep tracheae was characterized by a bolus-response experiment in which a bolus with a peak O3 concentration of 1 ppm was rapidly injected into a steadily flowing airstream entering the trachea. Using a fast-responding chemiluminescent analyzer of the authors design, the O3 concentration curves at the proximal end (i.e., the bolus input) and at the distal end (i.e., the response) of the trachea were monitored. Each concentration curve was numerically integrated, and the fraction of O3 absorbed in the trachea was obtained by subtracting from unity the ratio of the response integral to the bolus input integral. Average values of ozone-absorbed fraction decreased from about 0.50 to 0.15 at increasing airflows from 50 to 200 ml/sec. A diffusion theory that includes the effects of bulk convection, axial dispersion, and first-order absorption was developed to relate the fractional absorption to an overall mass transfer coefficient (K). The results indicate that K is independent of airflow, suggesting that the diffusion resistance in mucus is much greater than that in the gas phase. The time-weighted integrals of the concentration curves were also computed, allowing the mean residence time of O3 in the trachea (delta tau) to be determined. As predicted by the diffusion theory, delta tau was inversely related to the rate of O3 absorption.

  13. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  14. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than continuous feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding by orogastric tube, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common for infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To determine the impact of different feeding modalities on muscle protein anabolism, neonatal pigs (5-7 day old) received a balanced enteral formula e...

  15. Intratracheal atomized surfactant provides similar outcomes as bolus surfactant in preterm lambs with respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Milesi, Ilaria; Tingay, David G; Zannin, Emanuela; Bianco, Federico; Tagliabue, Paolo; Mosca, Fabio; Lavizzari, Anna; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Zonneveld, C Elroy; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Black, Don; Sourial, Magdy; Dellacá, Raffaele L

    2016-07-01

    Aerosolization of exogenous surfactant remains a challenge. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy of atomized poractant alfa (Curosurf) administered with a novel atomizer in preterm lambs with respiratory distress syndrome. Twenty anaesthetized lambs, 127 ± 1 d gestational age, (mean ± SD) were instrumented before birth and randomized to receive either (i) positive pressure ventilation without surfactant (Control group), (ii) 200 mg/kg of bolus instilled surfactant (Bolus group) at 10 min of life or (iii) 200 mg/kg of atomized surfactant (Atomizer group) over 60 min from 10 min of life. All lambs were ventilated for 180 min with a standardized protocol. Lung mechanics, regional lung compliance (electrical impedance tomography), and carotid blood flow (CBF) were measured with arterial blood gas analysis. Dynamic compliance and oxygenation responses were similar in the Bolus and Atomizer groups, and both better than Control by 180 min (all P < 0.05; two-way ANOVA). Both surfactant groups demonstrated more homogeneous regional lung compliance throughout the study period. There were no differences in CBFConclusion:In a preterm lamb model, atomized surfactant resulted in similar gas exchange and mechanics as bolus administration. This study suggests evaluation of supraglottic atomization with this system when noninvasive support is warranted.

  16. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  17. Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways—influence of gravity and airway asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Baoshun

    2012-01-01

    The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 μm-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ∼20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery. PMID:22678957

  18. Effects of ketamine-xylazine intravenous bolus injection on cardiovascular function in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Christine; Bollerhey, Melanie; Ebner, Johanna; Laacke-Singer, Lién; Schuster, Tibor; Erhardt, Wolf

    2010-01-01

    The direct effects of ketamine-xylazine (KET-XYL) on vascular function have not been investigated in rabbits. The short-term cardiovascular effects of intravenous (IV) KET-XYL bolus injection, therefore, should be investigated using vascular ultrasonography. In this prospective experimental study, KET-XYL anesthesia was induced IV in 9 female New Zealand White rabbits before 3 defined test bolus injections of KET-XYL were given IV. Before and for 10 min after each KET-XYL injection vascular and hemodynamic variables were recorded at the left common carotid artery (ACC) after the 1st injection, and at the abdominal aorta (AA) after the 2nd injection. Echocardiography was performed after the 3rd injection to investigate changes in cardiac parameters. Ketamine-xylazine IV caused a significant increase in vessel diameter at the ACC and AA. Average volumetric flow significantly decreased at the ACC and pulsatility index significantly decreased at the AA. Fractional shortening (FS) and heart rate significantly decreased, while mean arterial blood pressure initially increased. Bolus injections of KET-XYL IV produced a transient vasodilatation at the ACC and AA. Despite central vasodilatation, bradycardia, and decrease of FS and average volumetric flow (VFave), mean arterial blood pressure did not significantly decrease indicating well-preserved cardiovascular compensatory mechanism after the ratio and doses of KET-XYL IV bolus injections used in this study. PMID:20885844

  19. Intermittent bolus feeding increases visceral tissue protein synthesis more than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is commonly used in infants unable to feed orally. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on visceral tissue protein synthesis, neonatal pigs (5–7 day old) received a balanced formula orally either by int...

  20. The effect of methylprednisolone and tenoxicam on the protection of damage of the nerve physiomorphology caused by prolene mesh.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Zeki; Kayaoglu, Huseyin Ayhan; Ozkan, Namık; Ozsoy, Seyma; Yaylak, Faik; Yenidogan, Erdinc

    2015-10-01

    Aim was to investigate the effect of methylprednisolone and tenoxicam on the protection of damage of the nerve physiomorphology caused by prolene mesh used in hernia repair. Fifty male Wistar-albino rats weighing 250-350 gr, were randomly divided into 5 groups. Sciatic nerve was dissected in all rats after performing EMG on basal neural transport. In group 1, only sciatic nerve manipulation was performed. Other groups received a monofilament polypropylene cuff around the sciatic nerve. No additional procedure was performed in group 2. In group 3, 2 mg/kg single dose methylprednisolone was injected around the nerve and mesh. In group 4 and 5, 0.5 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone and 1 mg/kg tenoxicam was injected around the nerve and mesh for 4 weeks, respectively. Neural transport was evaluated by electromyography 4 weeks later and compared with pre-procedural values. Then the rats were sacrificed and, sciatic nerves including 1 cm around the mesh were excised. Inflammation and fibrosis were scored histopathologically. While basal latency was similar, postoperative latency was significantly different among groups. Latency was significantly longer in group 2 than the group 1. It was significantly shorter in group 3 when compared to group 2 (p = 0.007). Preoperative and postoperative amplitudes were similar among groups. Denervation was significantly different among groups (p < 0.05). Denervation was higher in group 2 than group 1. It was similar to group 2 in study groups. Inflammation and fibrosis was significantly different among groups (p < 0.05). Inflammation and fibrosis scores were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. The highest inflammation and fibrosis scores were detected in repetitive drug administrated groups. Although it wasn't statistically significant, inflammation was lower in single dose steroid administrated group than group 2. Similarly, the highest fibrosis scores were detected in repetitive drug administrated groups. Single dose steroid

  1. Surface dose measurements from air gaps under a bolus by using a MOSFET dosimeter in clinical oblique photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, In-Ah; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2012-10-01

    This study is intended to investigate the effects of surface dose from air gaps under the bolus in clinically used oblique photon beams by using a Markus parallel-plate chamber and a metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter. To evaluate the performances of the two detectors, the percentage surface doses of the MOSFET dosimeters in without an air gap under the bolus material were measured and compared with those of the Markus parallel-plate chamber. MOSFET dosimeters at the surface provided results mostly in good agreement with the parallelplate chamber. The MOSFET dosimeters seemed suitable for surface dose measurements having excellent accuracy for clinical used photon beams. The relative surface doses were measured with air gaps (2, 5, 10 mm) and without an air gap under 3 different bolus setups: (1) unbolused (no bolus), (2) 5-mm bolus, and (3) 10-mm bolus. The reductions in the surface dose substantially increased with small field size, thick bolus, and large air gap. The absolute difference in the reductions of the surface dose between the MOSFET dosimeter and the Markus parallel-plate chamber was less than 1.1%. Results at oblique angles of incidence showed larger reductions in surface dose with increasing angle of incidence. The largest reduction in surface dose was recorded for a 6 × 6 cm2 field at a 60° angle of incidence with an 10-mm air gap under a 10-mm bolus. When a 10-mm bolus was used, a reduction in the surface dose with an air gap of up to 10.5% could be achieved by varying the field size and the incident angle. Therefore, air gaps under the bolus should be avoided in radiotherapy treatment, especially for photon beam with highly oblique angles of incidence.

  2. Effects of a bolus injection of 5-fluorouracil on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in rats receiving continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Hayashi, Asuka; Taniguchi, Mayu; Ito, Yukako; Tamura, Takao; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    The options for improving the chemotherapeutic regimen consisting of bolus plus infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) include omitting the 5-FU bolus injection. We examined the effects of a 5-FU bolus injection on the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), which is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of 5-FU catabolism, in rats. The rats were divided into three groups, and then continuous infusion (50 mg/m(2)/h) for 4 h was started with a bolus injection of saline, 20 mg/kg 5-FU, or 60 mg/kg 5-FU. Plasma 5-FU, uracil (Ura), dihydrouracil (UH2) levels, and hepatic DPD activity were determined after administration of 5-FU. The half-life after the end of the infusion (t 1/2, 4-8 h) of 5-FU in the rats given the bolus injection was significantly longer than in those that had been given saline, and it increased with increasing 5-FU bolus injection dosage (r = 0.801, p < 0.01). The plasma UH2/Ura ratio, an indirect biomarker of hepatic DPD activity, tended to be lower in the rats that had received a 5-FU bolus injection than in those that had not, and it remained low after infusion ended. The hepatic DPD activity in rats that had received a 5-FU bolus injection was significantly lower than in those that had not. Negative correlation was observed between DPD activity and bolus injection dosage (r = -0.691, p < 0.05). A bolus injection suppresses hepatic DPD activity and its effects are dependent on dosage, resulting in slower elimination of 5-FU from the blood and contributing to long-term systemic exposure to 5-FU.

  3. Methylprednisolone Administration Following Spinal Cord Injury Reduces Aquaporin 4 Expression and Exacerbates Edema

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cruz, Angelina; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro; Guizar-Sahagún, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an incapacitating condition that affects motor, sensory, and autonomic functions. Since 1990, the only treatment administered in the acute phase of SCI has been methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic corticosteroid that has anti-inflammatory effects; however, its efficacy remains controversial. Although MP has been thought to help in the resolution of edema, there are no scientific grounds to support this assertion. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the most abundant component of water channels in the CNS, participates in the formation and elimination of edema, but it is not clear whether the modulation of AQP4 expression by MP plays any role in the physiopathology of SCI. We studied the functional expression of AQP4 modulated by MP following SCI in an experimental model in rats along with the associated changes in the permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier. We analyzed these effects in male and female rats and found that SCI increased AQP4 expression in the spinal cord white matter and that MP diminished such increase to baseline levels. Moreover, MP increased the extravasation of plasma components after SCI and enhanced tissue swelling and edema. Our results lend scientific support to the increasing motion to avoid MP treatment after SCI. PMID:28572712

  4. Spinal and paraspinal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate injections - Michigan, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    2013-05-17

    As of May 6, 2013, Michigan had reported 167 (52%) of the 320 paraspinal or spinal infections without meningitis associated with the 2012-2013 fungal meningitis outbreak nationally. Although the index patient had a laboratory-confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus infection, the fungus most often identified, including in unopened vials of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), remains Exserohilum rostratum, a common black mold found on plants and in soil. Exposures have occurred through epidural, paraspinal, peripheral nerve, and intra-articular injection with MPA from contaminated lots compounded by the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Massachusetts. The Michigan Department of Community Health and CDC conducted case ascertainment to describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of Michigan patients and to determine factors that might have contributed to the high percentage of spinal and paraspinal infections reported from Michigan. A distinct epidemiologic or clinical difference was not observed between patients with paraspinal or spinal infection with and without meningitis. Lengthy periods (range: 12-121 days) were observed from date of last injection with contaminated MPA to date of first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding indicative of infection. Clinicians should continue to maintain a higher index of suspicion for patients who received injections with contaminated MPA but have not developed infection.

  5. Methylprednisolone versus triamcinolone in painful shoulder using ultrasound-guided injection.

    PubMed

    Chávez-López, Mario Alfredo; Navarro-Soltero, Luis Alberto; Rosas-Cabral, Alejandro; Gallaga, Adán; Huerta-Yáñez, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    There is little evidence about the comparative efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of painful shoulder. The main aim was to compare the efficacy of methylprednisolone (MTP) versus triamcinolone (TMC) in the treatment of painful shoulder using an ultrasound-guided injection. Patients with painful shoulder due to subacromial bursitis and partial or full-thickness rotator cuff tears demonstrated by musculoskeletal ultrasound received a guided-injection of MTP acetate 40 mg (12 patients) or TMC acetonide 40 mg (12 patients). Range of motion and pain visual analogue scale were registered at 10 and 30 min, 1 and 2 weeks postinjection. Two weeks postinjection, both groups reported a mean improvement in range of motion (33%) and relief of pain (61%). Relief of pain of 50% or more was observed in 92% of patients in MTP group and 50% of TMC group (p = 0.02). Two months postinjection, 50% of the patients in MTP group and 25% in TMC group reported total relief of pain (p = 0.3). Patients with painful shoulder receiving an ultrasound-guided injection of MTP or TMC have a rapid and sustained overall response. Relief of pain tends to be more rapid with MTP than TMC.

  6. Methylprednisolone fails to preserve retinal ganglion cells and visual function after ocular ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Cornelia; Bach, Michael; Lagrèze, Wolf A; Jehle, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Methylprednisolone (MP) is commonly used to treat traumatic optic neuropathy and optic neuritis, but its benefit in terms of neuronal survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MP on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and visual function after ischemia in rats. Ocular ischemia was induced by elevated intraocular pressure. Rats were treated with NaCl, 1 mg/kg/d, or 30 mg/kg/d intraperitoneal MP over 3 days. RGCs were labeled retrogradely 4 days after ischemia and were quantified 6 days later. Post-ischemic retinal function was assessed by scotopic and photopic electroretinography (ERG). Optic nerve function was investigated on days 4 and 10 after ischemia by visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Compared with nonischemic eyes, ischemia reduced RGCs with NaCl to 47% +/- 3% (mean +/- SEM) and to 46% +/- 3% and 43% +/- 6% with 1 mg/kg/d and 30 mg/kg/d MP. ERG did not differ significantly for any parameter among the three groups. Four days after ischemia, the VEPs of rats receiving any dose of MP were significantly higher than the control. VEPs in both steroid groups fell to control levels 10 days after ischemia. Treatment with MP did not improve RGC survival or retinal function. The VEP showed a short-term benefit because of steroids.

  7. Assessment of methylprednisolone purging efficacy on Daudi burkitt lymphoma cells from normal bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, N; Niewenhuis, L M

    1991-01-01

    Studies on normal bone marrow and Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells were performed to determine the efficacy of selective, in vitro chemopurging with methylprednisolone (MP). We found that MP reduces the number of lymphoma cells without significant damage to bone marrow cells. This information is important because we need to improve the existing in vitro purging regimens used to cleanse autologous marrows of metastatic disease before transplantation into cancer patients who have received high-dose chemotherapy. Normal human bone marrow (NBM) and Daudi lymphoma cells were treated in parallel with various purging regimens, NBM death was evaluated using soft-agar culture, while Daudi cell death was evaluated using one-week liquid culture. A protocol of 2.0 mg/mL of MP for four hours demonstrated optimal selectivity. When treatment was followed by cryopreservation, a 1.7 log purge of Daudi cells was increased to 2.3 logs while preserving 36% of committed NBM precursors. We repeated these experiments on a simulated contaminated marrow to model closely the mixture of normal and malignant cells found in advanced, metastatic disease. We evaluated this mixed system by flow cytometric immunoanalysis using the two-color CD10/CD20 markers to detect residual, viable Daudi cells. Our initial results were reproducible in this mixed-cell system, further supporting the evidence for effective in vitro purging of bone marrow using MP.

  8. Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Disposition of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates with Peptide Linkers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Suman; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Parang, Keykavous; Mehvar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The plasma and tissue disposition of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP-1) or five (DMP-5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. Single 5-mg/kg doses (MP equivalent) of each prodrug or MP were administered intravenously, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Prodrug and drug concentrations were quantitated using HPLC, and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Whereas conjugation of MP with dextran in both prodrugs substantially decreased the clearance of the drug by ~200 fold, the accumulations of the drug in the liver, spleen, and kidneys were significantly increased by conjugation. However, the extent of accumulation of DMP-1 in these tissues was substantially greater than that for DMP-5. Substantial amounts of MP were regenerated from both prodrugs in the liver and spleen, with the rate of release from DMP-5 being twice as fast as that from DMP-1. However, the AUCs of MP regenerated from DMP-1 in the liver and spleen were substantially higher than those after DMP-5. In contrast, in the kidneys, the AUC of MP regenerated from DMP-5 was higher than that after DMP-1 administration. These data suggest that DMP-1 may be more suitable than DMP-5 for targeting immunosuppression to the liver and spleen. PMID:19780131

  9. Methylprednisolone acetate-Eudragit® RS100 electrospuns: Preparation and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Jafari-Aghdam, Nazila; Adibkia, Khosro; Payab, Shahriar; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Parvizpur, Alireza; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Sabzevari, Araz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate methylprednisolone acetate -Eudragit(®) RS100 nanofibers and nanobeads by the electrospinning method. The physicochemical characteristics of the prepared electrospuns were assessed as well. The particle size and morphology were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of the drug in the nanofibers and nanobeads obtained was also studied by X-ray crystallography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to investigate any possible chemical interaction between the drug and carrier during the preparation process. The drug release kinetics were considered, to predict the release mechanism. Increasing the concentration of the injected solution resulted in the production of more nanofibers and less nanobeads, with the particle size ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The drug crystallinity was decreased during the electrospinning process; however, no interaction between drug and polymer was observed. The electrospuns showed faster drug release pattern compared to the pure drug. The release data were best fitted to the Weibull model, in which the corresponding shape factor values of the model were less than 0.75 indicating the diffusion mechanism of drug release. In conclusion, electrospinning could be considered as a simple and cost effective method for fabricating the drug: polymer nanofibers and nanobeads.

  10. Pharmacodynamics and tolerability of repository corticotropin injection in healthy human subjects: A comparison with intravenous methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Lal, Ritu; Bell, Stacie; Challenger, Rashida; Hammock, Vakessa; Nyberg, Mary; Decker, Dima; Becker, Patrice M; Young, David

    2016-02-01

    Repository corticotropin injection (porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] analog) and intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) are used to treat inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) exacerbations and rheumatoid arthritis. This multiple-dose, randomized, crossover, open-label study evaluated and compared pharmacodynamic outcomes in subjects who received ACTH analog (80 U subcutaneously) or IVMP (1 g) daily for 5 days. Specific outcome measures included IVMP and cortisol concentrations, total cortisol-equivalent exposure, immune cell population changes, and tolerability. IVMP and ACTH analog increased granulocyte numbers and decreased lymphocyte counts; effects on both were significantly less pronounced with ACTH analog. Based on total cortisol-equivalent exposure (assuming linearity), administration of 80 U of ACTH analog equates to 30 mg IVMP. Because IVMP doses significantly higher than 30 mg are usually required to treat MS exacerbations, the lower cortisol-equivalent exposure of 80 U ACTH analog supports the hypothesis that efficacy of ACTH analog results from both steroid-dependent and -independent properties. Adverse events were mild in severity; subject incidence for adverse-event reporting was similar following both regimens. The clinical relevance of these findings in autoimmune disease populations is unknown and requires further evaluation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Pharmacodynamics and tolerability of repository corticotropin injection in healthy human subjects: A comparison with intravenous methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Ritu; Bell, Stacie; Challenger, Rashida; Hammock, Vakessa; Nyberg, Mary; Decker, Dima; Young, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Repository corticotropin injection (porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] analog) and intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) are used to treat inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) exacerbations and rheumatoid arthritis. This multiple‐dose, randomized, crossover, open‐label study evaluated and compared pharmacodynamic outcomes in subjects who received ACTH analog (80 U subcutaneously) or IVMP (1 g) daily for 5 days. Specific outcome measures included IVMP and cortisol concentrations, total cortisol‐equivalent exposure, immune cell population changes, and tolerability. IVMP and ACTH analog increased granulocyte numbers and decreased lymphocyte counts; effects on both were significantly less pronounced with ACTH analog. Based on total cortisol‐equivalent exposure (assuming linearity), administration of 80 U of ACTH analog equates to 30 mg IVMP. Because IVMP doses significantly higher than 30 mg are usually required to treat MS exacerbations, the lower cortisol‐equivalent exposure of 80 U ACTH analog supports the hypothesis that efficacy of ACTH analog results from both steroid‐dependent and ‐independent properties. Adverse events were mild in severity; subject incidence for adverse‐event reporting was similar following both regimens. The clinical relevance of these findings in autoimmune disease populations is unknown and requires further evaluation. PMID:26120075

  12. Efficacy of acupuncture versus local methylprednisolone acetate injection in De Quervain's tenosynovitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Ashraf, Alireza; Fakheri, Maryamsadat; Nasiri, Aref

    2014-06-01

    There is no consensus on the management of De Quervain's tenosynovitis, but local corticosteroid injection is considered the mainstay of treatment. However, some patients are reluctant to take steroid injections. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture versus corticosteroid injection for the treatment of this disease. Thirty patients were consequently treated in two groups. The acupuncture group received five acupuncture sessions of 30 minutes duration on classic points of LI-5, LU-7, and LU-9 and on ahshi points. The injection group received one methylprednisolone acetate injection in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. The degree of disability and pain was evaluated by using the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Q-DASH) scale and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. The baseline means of the Q-DASH and the VAS scores were 62.8 and 6.9, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean Q-DASH scores were 9.8 versus 6.2 in the acupuncture and injection groups, respectively, and the mean VAS scores were 2 versus 1.2. We demonstrated short-term improvement of pain and function in both groups. Although the success rate was somewhat higher with corticosteroid injection, acupuncture can be considered as an alternative option for treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Esophageal Distension During Bolus Transport: Can it be Detected by Intraluminal Impedance Recordings?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Patel, Nirali; Ledgerwood, Melissa; Bhargava, Valmik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal multiple intraluminal impedance (MII) measurement has been in used to detect gastroesophageal reflux and bolus transport. It is not clear if MII can detect changes in luminal cross sectional area (CSA) during bolus transport. Aims Intraluminal ultrasound (US) images, MII and high resolution manometry (HRM) were recorded simultaneously to determine temporal relationship between CSA and impedance during esophageal bolus transport and to define the relationship between peak distension and nadir impedance. Methods Studies were conducted in five healthy subjects. MII, HRM and US images were recorded 6 cm above LES. Esophageal distensions were studied during swallows and injections of 0.5 N saline bolus into the esophagus. Results Temporal change in esophageal CSA correlates with changes in impedance (r value: mean ± SD = −0.80 ± 0.08, range: −0.94 to −0.66). Drop in impedance during distension occurs as a two step process; initial large drop associated with onset of CSA increase, followed by a small drop during which majority of the CSA increase occurs. Peak CSA and nadir impedance occur within 1 s of ea