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Sample records for bomb radiation cataract

  1. Radiation cataract.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, N J

    2012-01-01

    Until very recently, ocular exposure guidelines were based on the assumption that radiation cataract is a deterministic event requiring threshold doses generally greater than 2 Gy. This view was, in part, based on older studies which generally had short follow-up periods, failed to take into account increasing latency as dose decreased, had relatively few subjects with doses below a few Gy, and were not designed to detect early lens changes. Newer findings, including those in populations exposed to much lower radiation doses and in subjects as diverse as astronauts, medical workers, atomic bomb survivors, accidentally exposed individuals, and those undergoing diagnostic or radiotherapeutic procedures, strongly suggest dose-related lens opacification at significantly lower doses. These observations resulted in a recent re-evaluation of current lens occupational exposure guidelines, and a proposed lowering of the presumptive radiation cataract threshold to 0.5 Gy/year and the occupational lens exposure limit to 20 mSv/year, regardless of whether received as an acute, protracted, or chronic exposure. Experimental animal studies support these conclusions and suggest a role for genotoxicity in the development of radiation cataract. Recent findings of a low or even zero threshold for radiation-induced lens opacification are likely to influence current research efforts and directions concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Furthermore, new guidelines are likely to have significant implications for occupational and/or accidental exposure, and the need for occupational eye protection (e.g. in fields such as interventional medicine).

  2. [Cataract: based on A-bomb survivor studies].

    PubMed

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Until now, the radiation protection community had assumed that only high doses of 2 Gy or more cause cataracts. However, new data from the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors suggest that the dose threshold for both minor opacities and vision limiting cataracts may be below 1 Gy. Other studies have shown similar results in recent years. In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised their guidelines for permissible occupational and medical exposures to the eye.

  3. [Cataract: based on A-bomb survivor studies].

    PubMed

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Until now, the radiation protection community had assumed that only high doses of 2 Gy or more cause cataracts. However, new data from the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors suggest that the dose threshold for both minor opacities and vision limiting cataracts may be below 1 Gy. Other studies have shown similar results in recent years. In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised their guidelines for permissible occupational and medical exposures to the eye. PMID:22514923

  4. Cataract in atomic bomb survivors based on a threshold model and the occurrence of severe epilation

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Neriishi, K.; Schull, W.J.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Schull, W.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report re-examines the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of cataracts among 1742 a-bomb survivors seen in the years 1963-1964 for whom the degree of epilation and Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) doses are known. Of these, 67 had cataracts.

  5. Relationship between cataracts and epilation in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Otake, Masanori; Kodama, Kazunori

    1995-10-01

    Among 1713 atomic bomb survivors who underwent ophthalmological examinations from 1963-1964, the risk of cataract formation per unit dose of radiation was significantly greater for those who reported hair loss of 67% or more after exposure (the epilation group) than for those who reported less or no hair loss (the no-epilation group) (P,0.01). Such an epilation effect has also been associated with leukemia mortality and the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Although this might be interpreted as indicating differential sensitivity to radiation between the epilation group and the no-epilation group, it could also be explained by imprecision in dose estimates. We have calculated that a 48% random error in DS86 dose estimates could be in accordance with the dose-response relationship for the prevalence of cataracts in the epilation group or the no-epilation group. Possible mechanisms for variations in radiosensitivity are discussed. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  7. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  8. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Jones, J.; Iszard, G.; Murrey, J.; Djojonegro, B.; Wear, M.

    2001-01-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

  9. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

    2001-11-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

  10. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  11. Ultraviolet radiation cataract: dose dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Per G.; Loefgren, Stefan

    1994-07-01

    Current safety limits for cataract development after acute exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are based on experiments analyzing experimental data with a quantal, effect-no effect, dose-response model. The present study showed that intensity of forward light scattering is better described with a continuous dose-response model. It was found that 3, 30 and 300 kJ/m2UVR300nm induces increased light scattering within 6 h. For all three doses the intensity of forward light scattering was constant after 6 h. The intensity of forward light scattering was proportional to the log dose of UVR300nm. There was a slight increase of the intensity of forward light scattering on the contralateral side in animals that received 300 kJ/m2. Altogether 72 Sprague-Dawley male rats were included. Half of the rats were exposed in vivo on one side to UVR300nm. The other half was kept as a control group, receiving the same treatment as exposed rats but without delivery of UVR300nm to the eye. Subgroups of the rats received either of the three doses. Rats were sacrificed at varying intervals after the exposure. The lenses were extracted and the forward light scattering was estimated. It is concluded that intensity of forward light scattering in the lens after exposure to UVR300nm should be described with a continuous dose-reponse model.

  12. Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, R.M.; Tripathi, B.J.; Tripathi, R.C.

    1988-11-01

    Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. The mechanism of cataractogenesis includes deformation of heat-labile enzymes, such as glutathione peroxide, that ordinarily protect lens cell proteins and membrane lipids from oxidative damage. Oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups and the formation of high-molecular-weight aggregates cause local variations in the orderly structure of the lens cells. An alternative mechanism is thermoelastic expansion through which pressure waves in the aqueous humor cause direct physical damage to the lens cells. Cataracts induced by ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays and gamma rays) usually are observed in the posterior region of the lens, often in the form of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation causes increasing opacification of the lens, which appears after a decreasing latency period. Like cataract formation by microwaves, cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the lens cell membrane. Another possible mechanism is damage to lens cell DNA, with decreases in the production of protective enzymes and in sulfur-sulfur bond formation, and with altered protein concentrations. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanisms of microwaves and ionizing radiation induced cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts. 74 references.

  13. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

    2001-11-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts. PMID:11604058

  14. Radiation standards and A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.

    1984-10-01

    For more than 33 years, the US government has supported the Life Span Study of Japanese survivors as a follow-up of the 1945 nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since 1975, the study has been funded jointly by the United States and Japan under the auspices of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. In the May issue of this bulletin radiation epidemiologists Dr. Alice Stewart and George Kneale raise perhaps the most fundamental question of all: Does the Japanese A-bomb survivor study have any value in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation. On the basis of data published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1978, Stewart and Kneale suggest that Foundation analysts have confused long-term effects of tissue-destructive high doses with single-cell low-dose effects. If they are correct, the method of linear extrapolation from high-dose studies for low-level radiation risk estimates is invalid. The author feels the A-bomb survivors study should be opened up to an independent peer review process.

  15. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... has become cloudy, this is called a cataract. Vision problems with cataracts If your vision has become ... regularly for any changes. Cataract surgery for clearer vision When a cataract causes bothersome vision problems that ...

  16. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988.

  17. Cataracts in retired actinide-exposed radiation workers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Baruch S

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced cataracts are predominantly of the posterior sub-capsular (PSC) type, whereas about 90% of age-related cataracts are of other types. Retired workers, likely to have transuranic body burdens, from three DOE-supported installations were questioned regarding their eye-care history and asked for permission to contact their eye-care providers regarding any cataracts. In 97 cases with lifetime exposure records 20 cases (20.6%) were reported to have PSC cataracts. However, of 24 individuals with recorded lifetime doses of 200-600 mSv, nine (37.5%) had PSC cataracts, compared with 15.1% of 73 cases with doses of less than 200 mSv. This difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.

  18. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiman, Norman Jay

    2013-11-30

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9

  19. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Cataracts KidsHealth > ... she takes time to help him with his homework. Lately, though, Jake's noticed that Grandma Fran has ...

  20. Cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colors that seem faded Glare - headlights, lamps or sunlight may seem too bright. You may also see ... a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataracts. NIH: National Eye ...

  1. Occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and cataract development: a systematic literature review and perspectives on future studies.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël P; Scheidemann-Wesp, Ulrike; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Wicke, Henryk; Neriishi, Kazuo; Blettner, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well-known but little understood risk factor for lens opacities. Until recently, cataract development was considered to be a deterministic effect occurring at lens doses exceeding a threshold of 5-8 Gy. Substantial uncertainty about the level and the existence of a threshold subsists. The International Commission on Radiation Protection recently revised it to 0.5 Gy. Based on a systematic literature review of epidemiological studies on exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and the occurrence of lens opacities, a list of criteria for new epidemiological studies was compiled, and a list of potential study populations was reviewed. Among 24 publications finally identified, six report analyses of acute exposures in atomic bomb survivors and Chernobyl liquidators, and the others report analyses of protracted exposures in occupationally, medically or accidentally exposed populations. Three studies investigated a dose threshold: in atomic bomb survivors, the best estimates were 1 Sv (95 % CI <0-0.8 Sv) regarding lensectomies; in survivors exposed as children, 0.6 Sv (90 % CI <0.0-1.2 Sv) for cortical cataract prevalence and 0.7 Sv (90 % CI 0.0-2.8 Sv) for posterior subcapsular cataract; and in Chernobyl liquidators, 0.34 Sv (95 % CI 0.19-0.68 Sv) for stage 1 cataract. Current studies are heterogeneous and inconclusive regarding the dose-response relationship. Protracted exposures and high lens doses occur in several occupational groups, for instance, in physicians performing fluoroscopy-guided interventional procedures, and in accidentally exposed populations. New studies with a good retrospective exposure assessment are feasible and should be initiated.

  2. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Antoku, S; Russell, W J; Fujita, S; Pinkston, J A; Hayabuchi, N; Hoshi, M; Kodama, K

    1998-06-01

    As a follow-up to the two previous surveys of radiation therapy among the atomic bomb survivors, a large-scale survey was performed to document (1) the number of radiation therapy treatments received by the atomic bomb survivors and (2) the types of radiation treatments conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The previous two surveys covered the radiation treatments among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study (AHS) population, which is composed of 20,000 persons. In the present survey, the population was expanded to include the Life Span Study (LSS), including 93,611 atomic bomb survivors and 26,517 Hiroshima and Nagasaki citizens who were not in the cities at the times of the bombings. The LSS population includes the AHS population. The survey was conducted from 1981 to 1984. The survey teams reviewed all the medical records for radiation treatments of 24,266 patients at 11 large hospitals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Among them, the medical records for radiation treatments of 1556 LSS members were reviewed in detail. By analyzing the data obtained in the present and previous surveys, the number of patients receiving radiation therapy was estimated to be 4501 (3.7%) in the LSS population and 1026 (5.1%) in the AHS population between 1945-1980. During 1945-1965, 98% of radiation treatments used medium-voltage X rays, and 66% of the treatments were for benign diseases. During 1966-1980, 94% of the radiation treatments were for malignant neoplasms. During this period, 60Co gamma-ray exposure apparatus and high-energy electron accelerators were the prevalent mode of treatment in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki, respectively. The mean frequency of radiation therapy among the LSS population was estimated to have been 158 courses/year during 1945-1965 and 110 courses/year during 1966-1980. The present survey revealed that 377 AHS members received radiation therapy. The number was approximately twice the total number of cases found in the previous two surveys

  3. Space Radiation and Cataracts (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor

    2003-07-16

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Eleanor Blakely, radiation biologist of the Life Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has been a scientist at Berkeley Lab since 1975. She is studying the effect of radiation on cataracts which concerns not only cancer patients, but also astronauts. As astronauts spend increasingly longer time in space, the effects of cosmic radiation exposure will become an increasingly important health issue- yet there is little human data on these effects. Blakely reviews this emerging field and the contributions made at Berkeley Lab

  4. Space Radiation and Cataracts (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Blakely, Eleanor

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Eleanor Blakely, radiation biologist of the Life Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has been a scientist at Berkeley Lab since 1975. She is studying the effect of radiation on cataracts which concerns not only cancer patients, but also astronauts. As astronauts spend increasingly longer time in space, the effects of cosmic radiation exposure will become an increasingly important health issue- yet there is little human data on these effects. Blakely reviews this emerging field and the contributions made at Berkeley Lab

  5. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  6. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes. PMID:27223827

  7. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  8. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  9. Dosimetry of Atomic Bomb Radiation in Hiroshima by Thermoluminescence of Roof Tiles.

    PubMed

    Higashimura, T; Ichikawa, Y; Sidei, T

    1963-03-29

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry is a powerful tool for obtaining the distribution of gamma dose, heretofore unknown, from the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Roof tiles irradiated by the bombs show intense thermoluminescence, and the radiation dose for samples irradiated below 100 r by the bomb can be measured by this method.

  10. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  11. New A-bomb studies alter radiation estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1981-05-22

    Some of the most important data on the effects of nuclear radiation on humans may be wrong, according to new research being done at the Lawrence Livermore Weapons Laboratory in California and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new findings are far from welcome, as one consultant in this work says, for all the revisions are moving in the wrong direction - a direction that will worry the advocates of nuclear power. Government physicists have recalculated the data on the radiation fields created by the atomic blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and produced some unexpected results. Their statistics show that most of the cancer caused by those bombs came from low LET gamma rays, suggesting that this common type of radiation is more hazardous than had been assumed before.

  12. Historical Study of Radiation Exposures and the Incidence of Cataracts in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Iszard, G.; Feiveson, A.; Peterson, L. E.; Hardy, D.; Marak, L.; Tung, W.; Wear, M.; Chylack, L. T., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    For over 35 years, astronauts in low Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons. We reviewed the radiation exposures received by astronauts in space and on Earth, and presented results from the first epidemiological study of cataract incidence in the astronauts. Our data suggested an increased risk for cataracts from space radiation exposures. Using parametric survival analysis and the maximum likelihood method, we estimated the dose-response and age distribution for cataract incidence in astronauts by space radiation. Considering the high-LET dose contributions on specific space missions as well as data from animal studies with neutrons and heavy ions, suggested a linear response with no dose-threshold for cataracts. However, there are unanswered questions related to the importance and the definition of clinically significant cataracts commonly used in radiation protection, especially in light of epidemiological data suggesting that the probability that sub-clinical cataracts will progress is highly dependent on the age at which cataracts appear. We briefly describe a new study that will address the measurement of cataract progression-rates in astronauts and a ground-based comparison group.

  13. Historical Study of Radiation Exposures and the Incidence of Cataracts in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Iszard, G.; Feiveson, A.; Peterson, L. E.; Hardy, D.; Marak, L.; Tung, W.; Wear, M.; Chylack, L. T., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    For over 35 years, astronauts in low Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons. We reviewed the radiation exposures received by astronauts in space and on Earth, and presented results from the first epidemiological study of cataract incidence in the astronauts. Our data suggested an increased risk for cataracts from space radiation exposures*. Using parametric survival analysis and the maximum likelihood method, we estimated the dose-response and age distribution for cataract incidence in astronauts by space radiation. Considering the high-LET dose contributions on specific space missions as well as data from animal studies with neutrons and heavy ions, suggested a linear response with no dose-threshold for cataracts. However, there are unanswered questions related to the importance and the definition of "clinically significant" cataracts commonly used in radiation protection, especially in light of epidemiological data suggesting that the probability that "sub-clinical" cataracts will progress is highly dependent on the age at which cataracts appear. We briefly describe a new study that will address the measurement of cataract progression-rates in astronauts and a ground-based comparison group.

  14. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-01-01

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glareolus collected from natural populations in areas with varying levels of background radiation in Chernobyl. We found high frequencies of cataracts in voles collected from different areas in Chernobyl. The frequency of cataracts was positively correlated with age, and in females also with the accumulated radiation dose. Furthermore, the number of offspring in female voles was negatively correlated with cataract severity. The results suggest that cataracts primarily develop as a function of ionizing background radiation, most likely as a plastic response to high levels of oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that the elevated levels of background radiation in Chernobyl affect the ecology and fitness of local mammals both directly through, for instance, reduced fertility and indirectly, through increased cataractogenesis. PMID:26814168

  15. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-01-27

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glareolus collected from natural populations in areas with varying levels of background radiation in Chernobyl. We found high frequencies of cataracts in voles collected from different areas in Chernobyl. The frequency of cataracts was positively correlated with age, and in females also with the accumulated radiation dose. Furthermore, the number of offspring in female voles was negatively correlated with cataract severity. The results suggest that cataracts primarily develop as a function of ionizing background radiation, most likely as a plastic response to high levels of oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that the elevated levels of background radiation in Chernobyl affect the ecology and fitness of local mammals both directly through, for instance, reduced fertility and indirectly, through increased cataractogenesis.

  16. Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan

    2010-06-01

    Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 1958-1998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n = 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n = 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter [excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv = 1.65; 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78]. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv = 0.27; 90% CI = -0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages <55 years (ERR/Sv = 2.82; 90% CI = 0.45, 8.89) than at older attained ages (ERR/Sv = -0.11; 90% CI = nd, 0.53), the association between radiation and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter varied minimally across these categories of attained age. A test of heterogeneity of type-specific risks provides modest support for the conclusion that risks vary by kidney cancer site (LRT = 2.34, 1 d.f., P = 0.13). Since some studies of radiation-exposed populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal

  17. Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan

    2010-06-01

    Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 1958-1998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n = 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n = 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter [excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv = 1.65; 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78]. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv = 0.27; 90% CI = -0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages <55 years (ERR/Sv = 2.82; 90% CI = 0.45, 8.89) than at older attained ages (ERR/Sv = -0.11; 90% CI = nd, 0.53), the association between radiation and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter varied minimally across these categories of attained age. A test of heterogeneity of type-specific risks provides modest support for the conclusion that risks vary by kidney cancer site (LRT = 2.34, 1 d.f., P = 0.13). Since some studies of radiation-exposed populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal

  18. Risk Factors for Cataract After Palladium-103 Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, Paul T.; Chin, Kimberly J.; Yu Guopei; Patel, Neil S.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To examine how tumor characteristics and dose affect cataract development after plaque radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and eighty-four patients were diagnosed with uveal melanoma and treated with palladium-103 ({sup 103}Pd) plaque radiation therapy. Of these, 282 (74%) inclusion met exclusion criteria for follow-up time, tumor location, and phakic status. Then patient-, ophthalmic-, and radiation-specific factors (patient age, diabetes, hypertension, tumor location, tumor dimensions, and lens dose) were examined (by a Cox proportional regression model) as predictors for the development of radiation-related cataract. Results: Radiation cataract developed in 76 (24%) of patients at a mean follow-up of 39.8 months (range, 1-192). Patients with anteriorly located tumors were noted to have a higher incidence of cataract at 43.0% (43 of 100 patients) vs. 18.1% (33 cataracts per 182 patients) for posteriorly located tumors (p <0.0001). However, multivariate Cox proportional modeling showed that increasing patient age at time of treatment (p for trend = 0.0003) and higher lens dose (p for trend = 0.001) were the best predictors (biomarkers) for radiation cataract. Conclusions: Although anterior tumor location, greater tumor height, and increased patient age (at treatment) were associated with significantly greater risk for radiation cataract, dose to lens was the most significant factor.

  19. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation. PMID:20521423

  20. Ionizing Radiation-Induced Cataract in Interventional Cardiology Staff

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan Rajabi, Ahmad; Noohi, Feridoun; Hashemi, Hassan; Haghjoo, Majid; Miraftab, Mohammad; Yaghoobi, Nahid; Rastgou, Fereydon; Malek, Hadi; Faghihi, Hoshang; Firouzabadi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila; Rezvan, Farhad; Khosravi, Hamidreza; Soroush, Sara; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of ionizing radiation has led to advances in medical diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of radiation cataractogenesis in the interventionists and staff performing various procedures in different interventional laboratories. Patients and Methods: This cohort study included 81 interventional cardiology staff. According to the working site, they were classified into 5 groups. The control group comprised 14 professional nurses who did not work in the interventional sites. Participants were assigned for lens assessment by two independent trained ophthalmologists blinded to the study. Results: The electrophysiology laboratory staff received higher doses of ionizing radiation (17.2 ± 11.9 mSv; P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the years of working experience and effective dose in the lens (P < 0.001). In general, our findings showed that the incidence of lens opacity was 79% (95% CI, 69.9-88.1) in participants with exposure (the case group) and our findings showed that the incidence of lenses opacity was 7.1% (95% CI:2.3-22.6) with the relative risk (RR) of 11.06 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We believe that the risk of radiation-induced cataract in cardiology interventionists and staff depends on their work site. As the radiation dose increases, the prevalence of posterior eye changes increases. PMID:25789258

  1. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts.

  2. Influence of Corticosteroids and Vitamin E Deficiency on Onset and Cytopathology of Radiation-Induced Cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. V.

    Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of 72 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on regular chow. In each nutritional group 18 rats additionally received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of 6 months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After 6 month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks versus 11 wks in controls (p<0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated (p<0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes (p<0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was inhibited in the group that

  3. Influence of corticosteroids and vitamin E deficiency on onset of radiation-induced cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. W.

    Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with, and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of seventy-two 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on standard chow. Fifty per cent of the animals in each nutritional group received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of six months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After six month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks vs. 11 wks in controls ( p < 0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated ( p < 0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes ( p < 0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was

  4. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (≥2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer.

  5. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (≥2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. PMID:23859763

  6. Use of non-subjective analysis of lens transparency in experimental radiation cataract research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, B. V.; Medvedovsky, C.; Wu, B.

    1995-01-01

    Historically the major impediment to radiation cataract follow-up has been the necessarily subjective nature of assessing the degree of lens transparency. This has spurred the development of instruments which produce video images amenable to digital analysis. One such system, the Zeiss Scheimpflug slit lamp measuring system (SLC), was incorporated into our ongoing studies of radiation cataractogenesis. It was found that the Zeiss SLC measuring system has high resolution and permits the acquisition of reproducible images of the anterior segment of the eye. Our results, based on about 650 images of lenses followed over a period of 91 weeks of radiation cataract development, showed that the changes in the light scatter of the lens correlated well with conventional assessment of radiation cataracts with the added advantages of objectivity, permanent and transportable records and linearity as cataracts become more severe. This continuous data acquisition, commencing with cataract onset, can proceed through more advanced stages. The SLC exhibits much greater sensitivity reflected in a continuously progressive severity thereby avoiding the artifactual plateaus in staging which occur using conventional scoring methods.

  7. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Kawano, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypocentres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypocentres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing.

  8. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Kawano, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypocentres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypocentres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing. PMID:21914640

  9. Non-subjective cataract analysis and its application in space radiation risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Medvedovsky, C; Worgul, B V

    1994-01-01

    Experimental animal studies and human observations suggest that the question is not whether or not prolonged space missions will cause cataracts to appear prematurely in the astronauts, but when and to what degree. Historically the major impediment to radiation cataract follow-up has been the necessarily subjective nature of assessing the degree of lens transparency. This has spurred the development of instruments which produce video images amenable to digital analysis. One such system, the Zeiss Scheimpflug slit lamp measuring system (SLC), was incorporated into our ongoing studies of radiation cataractogenesis. It was found that the Zeiss SLC measuring system has high resolution and permits the acquisition of reproducible images of the anterior segment of the eye. Our results, based on about 650 images of the rats lens, and followed over a period of 91 weeks of radiation cataract development, showed that the integrated optical density (IOD) of the lens correlated well with conventional assessment with the added advantages of objectivity, permanent and transportable records and linearity as cataracts become more severe. This continuous data acquisition, commencing with cataract onset, can proceed through more advanced stages. The SLC exhibits much greater sensitivity reflected in a continuously progressive severity despite the artifactual plateaus in staging which occur using conventional scoring methods. Systems such as the Zeiss SLC should be used to monitor astronauts frequent visits to low earth orbit to obtain a longitudinal data-base on the influence of this activity on the lens. PMID:11538030

  10. Non-subjective cataract analysis and its application in space radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, B.; Medvedovsky, C.; Worgul, B. V.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental animal studies and human observations suggest that the question is not whether or not prolonged space missions will cause cataracts to appear prematurely in the astronauts, but when and to what degree. Historically the major impediment to radiation cataract follow-up has been the necessarily subjective nature of assessing the degree of lens transparency. This has spurred the development of instruments which produce video images amenable to digital analysis. One such system, the Zeiss Scheimpflug slit lamp measuring system (SLC), was incorporated into our ongoing studies of radiation cataractogenesis. It was found that the Zeiss SLC measuring system has high resolution and permits the acquisition of reproducible images of the anterior segment of the eye. Our results, based on about 650 images of the rats lens, and followed over a period of 91 weeks of radiation cataract development, showed that the Integrated Optical Density (IOD) of the lens correlated well with conventional assessment with the added advantages of objectivity, permanent and transportable records and linearity as cataracts become more severe. This continuous data acquisition, commencing with cataract onset, can proceed through more advanced stages. The SLC exhibits much greater sensitivity reflected in a continuously progressive severity despite the artifactual plateaus in staging which occur using conventional scoring methods. Systems such as the Zeiss SLC should be used to monitor astronauts frequent visits to low earth orbit to obtain a longitudinal data-base on the influence of this activity on the lens.

  11. Nonlinear Radiation-Induced Cataract Using the Radiosensitive Ptch1(+/-) Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Ilaria; Giardullo, Paola; Tanno, Barbara; Leonardi, Simona; Pasquali, Emanuela; Babini, Gabriele; Saran, Anna; Mancuso, Mariateresa

    2016-09-01

    While most of the evidence for radiation-induced late health effects relates to cancer, there has been increasing interest recently in the development of non-cancer diseases, including lens opacity, observed in populations exposed to low-dose radiation. In a recent study, we reported that mice heterozygous for the Patched1 (Ptch1) gene represented a novel and powerful animal model for this disorder, and a useful tool for investigating the mechanisms of radiogenic cataract development. Given the ongoing and considerable uncertainty in allowable lens dose levels and the existence of a threshold for the development of cataracts, we tested the effects of a decreasing range of radiation doses (2 Gy, 1 Gy and 0.5 Gy X rays) by irradiating groups of Ptch1(+/-) mice at 2 days of age. Our findings showed that at this dose range, acute exposure of this highly susceptible mouse model did not induce macroscopically detectable cataracts, and only the 2 Gy irradiated mice showed microscopic alterations of the lens. Molecular analyses performed to evaluate the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent fibrotic alterations in mouse lens cells also indicated the existence of a dose threshold for such effects in the mouse model used. The mechanisms of cataractogenesis remain unclear, and further experimental studies are essential to elucidate those mechanisms specific for cataract initiation and development after irradiation, as well as the underlying genetic factors controlling cataract susceptibility. PMID:27541824

  12. Radiation-induced cancer and its modifying factor among A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have conducted a long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 120,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and non-exposed controls since 1950. The most recent findings regarding cancer mortality and incidence in this cohort can be briefly summarized as follows: 1) An increase in leukemia mortality among A-bomb survivors peaked 5-6 years after the bombing and has decreased with time thereafter. In addition to leukemia, the incidence of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, thyroid, ovary, urinary tract, and multiple myeloma increases with dose. At present, there is no indication of an increase in cancer of the rectum or uterus among A-bomb survivors. In general, radiation-induced solid cancers begin to appear after the age at which they are normally prone to develop, and have continued to increase with time in proportion to the natural increase in mortality of the control group. 2) There are factors which modify the effects of radiation, such as age at the time of bombing (ATB) and sex. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young ATB in general, than for those who were older ATB. 3) There was no increase in childhood cancer among those exposed while in utero, but there is a recent indication of an increase in cancer incidence among these persons as they age. 4) There seems to be no interaction in a multiplicative way between radiation and smoking and lung cancer induction.

  13. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  14. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  15. Applications in Bioastronautics and Bioinformatics: Early Radiation Cataracts Detected by Noninvasive, Quantitative, and Remote Means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars is a key goal in NASA's exploration planning in the next 20 years. Maintaining crew health and good vision is certainly an important aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts because radiation exposure in space travel has the potential of accelerating the aging process (ref. 1). A patented compact device (ref. 2) based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) was designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An Internet web-based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. The new technology detects cataracts very early (at the molecular level). Cataract studies onboard the International Space Station will be helpful in quantifying any adverse effect of radiation to ocular health. The normal lens in a human eye, situated behind the cornea, is a transparent tissue. It contains 35 wt % protein and 65 wt % water. Aging, disease (e.g., diabetes), smoking, dehydration, malnutrition, and exposure to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation can cause agglomeration of the lens proteins. Protein aggregation can take place anywhere in the lens, causing lens opacity. The aggregation and opacification could produce nuclear (central portion of the lens) or cortical (peripheral) cataracts. Nuclear and posterior subcapsular (the membrane's capsule surrounds the whole lens) cataracts, being on the visual optical axis of the eye, cause visual impairment that can finally lead to blindness. The lens proteins, in their native state, are small in size. As a cataract develops, this size grows from a few nanometers

  16. [Cohort studies of the atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been evaluating the risk of atomic bomb radiation for various diseases since the beginning of its former organization, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Cohorts of atomic-bomb survivors, in-utero survivors, and survivors' offspring have been followed up. The risk of all solid cancers at 1 Gy was estimated as ERR = 0.47 and EAR = 52/10,000 person-years for people who were exposed at 30 years of age and had reached 70 years of age, based on the cancer incidence during 1958-1998. The risk seemed to be increased in the in-utero survivors, but was rather lower than the risk for the survivors exposed at a young age. Effects on the offspring of survivors have not been shown to be significant. Continuing the research is important in order to more accurately estimate and understand radiation-induced health effects.

  17. [Cohort studies of the atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been evaluating the risk of atomic bomb radiation for various diseases since the beginning of its former organization, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Cohorts of atomic-bomb survivors, in-utero survivors, and survivors' offspring have been followed up. The risk of all solid cancers at 1 Gy was estimated as ERR = 0.47 and EAR = 52/10,000 person-years for people who were exposed at 30 years of age and had reached 70 years of age, based on the cancer incidence during 1958-1998. The risk seemed to be increased in the in-utero survivors, but was rather lower than the risk for the survivors exposed at a young age. Effects on the offspring of survivors have not been shown to be significant. Continuing the research is important in order to more accurately estimate and understand radiation-induced health effects. PMID:22514915

  18. Risk of Cataract Incidence in a Cohort of Mayak PA Workers following Chronic Occupational Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Azizova, Tamara V.; Bragin, Evgeny V.; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Bannikova, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study of cataract incidence in a cohort of Mayak Production Association workers first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948–1982 and followed up till the end of 2008 (22,377 workers). Principal advantages of the study are the large size of the cohort, long-term follow-up and sufficient statistical power, available results of annual eye examinations over the entire follow-up period and detailed information on non-radiation confounders. Individual measured doses from external γ-rays and neutrons used in the analyses were provided by the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008). Relative risk (RR) and excess relative risk (ERR) per unit dose (Gy) were calculated based on maximum likelihood using the AMFIT module of the EPICURE software. The RR of cataract incidence was found to be the highest in workers exposed at doses above 2.0 Gy. A significant linear association of cataract incidence with cumulative dose from external γ-rays was found with ERR/Gy equal to 0.28 (95% confidence intervals: 0.20, 0.37). The results obtained varied slightly with inclusion of additional adjustments for non-radiation factors (smoking index, hypertension, glaucoma and body mass index). Adjusting for the dose from neutrons gave a considerable increase in ERR/Gy for cataract incidence. PMID:27723789

  19. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  20. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal.

  1. Late effect of atomic bomb radiation on myeloid disorders: leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Hideki; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2012-03-01

    Leukemia was the first malignancy linked to radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors. Clear evidence of the dose-dependent excess risk of three major types of leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia [AML], and chronic myeloid leukemia) was found, especially in people exposed at young ages. Such leukemia risks were at their highest in the late 1950s, and declined gradually thereafter over the past 50 years. Findings from recent risk analyses, however, suggest the persistence of AML risk even after 1990, and evidence of increased risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) due to atomic bomb radiation has recently been shown. High-risk MDS and forms involving complex chromosomal aberrations were found to be much more frequent in people exposed to higher radiation doses. These lines of epidemiological evidence suggest that the risk of radiation-induced hematological malignancies has persisted for six decades since the initial exposure.

  2. Late effect of atomic bomb radiation on myeloid disorders: leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Hideki; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2012-03-01

    Leukemia was the first malignancy linked to radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors. Clear evidence of the dose-dependent excess risk of three major types of leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia [AML], and chronic myeloid leukemia) was found, especially in people exposed at young ages. Such leukemia risks were at their highest in the late 1950s, and declined gradually thereafter over the past 50 years. Findings from recent risk analyses, however, suggest the persistence of AML risk even after 1990, and evidence of increased risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) due to atomic bomb radiation has recently been shown. High-risk MDS and forms involving complex chromosomal aberrations were found to be much more frequent in people exposed to higher radiation doses. These lines of epidemiological evidence suggest that the risk of radiation-induced hematological malignancies has persisted for six decades since the initial exposure. PMID:22370711

  3. Effects of ELL-associated factor 2 on ultraviolet radiation-induced cataract formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanhua; Fu, Rongrong; Zhao, Jiangyue; Wu, Di; Qiao, Guang; Li, Ruoxi; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-11-01

    ELL-associated factor 2 (Eaf2) has an important role in crystalline lens development and maturation; however, its role in ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced cataract formation has remained elusive. The present study compared UV-induced cell apoptosis, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and changes in protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), bcl-2-associated X protein (bax) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in wild-type and Eaf2-knockout mice. The results showed that Eaf2 knockout can reduce UV-induced apoptosis in crystalline lenses and mitigate the formation of cataracts. Further functional studies indicated that Eaf2 can induce the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase the protein expression of the pro-apoptotic protein bax and inhibit the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2; thereby, Eaf2 promotes cell apoptosis and is implicated in the formation and development of cataracts. The present study laid a theoretical foundation for the development of drugs for cataract treatment.

  4. The Patched 1 tumor-suppressor gene protects the mouse lens from spontaneous and radiation-induced cataract.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Ilaria; Tanno, Barbara; Giardullo, Paola; Leonardi, Simona; Pasquali, Emanuela; Antonelli, Francesca; Tanori, Mirella; Casciati, Arianna; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna; Mancuso, Mariateresa

    2015-01-01

    Age-related cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment. Moreover, traumatic cataracts form after injury to the eye, including radiation damage. We report herein that sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a key role in cataract development and in normal lens response to radiation injury. Mice heterozygous for Patched 1 (Ptch1), the Shh receptor and negative regulator of the pathway, develop spontaneous cataract and are highly susceptible to cataract induction by exposure to ionizing radiation in early postnatal age, when lens epithelial cells undergo rapid expansion in the lens epithelium. Neonatally irradiated and control Ptch1(+/-) mice were compared for markers of progenitors, Shh pathway activation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Molecular analyses showed increased expression of the EMT-related transforming growth factor β/Smad signaling pathway in the neonatally irradiated lens, and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers Zeb1 and Vim. We further show a link between proliferation and the stemness property of lens epithelial cells, controlled by Shh. Our results suggest that Shh and transforming growth factor β signaling cooperate to promote Ptch1-associated cataract development by activating EMT, and that the Nanog marker of pluripotent cells may act as the primary transcription factor on which both signaling pathways converge after damage. These findings highlight a novel function of Shh signaling unrelated to cancer and provide a new animal model to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of cataract formation. PMID:25452120

  5. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency.

  7. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. PMID:26956675

  8. Evidence supporting radiation hormesis in atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-12-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for a large systematic bias in the measured baseline cancer mortality rate, which can have a major effect on the ERR values. Cancer rates are highly variable from year to year and between adjacent regions and so the likelihood of such a bias is high. Calculations show that a correction for such a bias can lower the ERRs in the atomic bomb survivor data to negative values for intermediate doses. This is consistent with the phenomenon of radiation hormesis, providing a rational explanation for the decreased risk of cancer observed at intermediate doses for which there is no explanation based on the LNT model. The recent atomic bomb survivor data provides additional evidence for radiation hormesis in humans.

  9. Risks of radiation cataracts from interplanetary space missions.

    PubMed

    Lett, J T; Lee, A C; Cox, A B

    1994-11-01

    Recognition of the human risks from radiation exposure during manned missions in deep space has been fostered by international co-operation; interagency collaboration is facilitating their evaluation. Further co-operation can lead, perhaps by the end of this decade, to an evaluation of one of the three major risks, namely radiation cataractogenesis, sufficient for use in the planning of the manned mission to Mars. PMID:11538452

  10. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered. PMID:19327783

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma among atomic bomb survivors: significant interaction of radiation with hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gerald B; Mizuno, Terumi; Cologne, John B; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Saeko; Tokuoka, Shoji; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2003-02-10

    We conducted a nested case-control study within the cohort of Japanese survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings to study the joint effects of HBV and HCV with radiation on the risk of HCC. Among subjects who received autopsies during 1954-1988, we analyzed archival tissue samples for 238 pathologically confirmed HCC cases and 894 controls who died from diseases other than liver cancer. Using logistic regression and adjusting for potential confounders and other factors, we found a statistically significant, supermultiplicative interaction between A bomb radiation and HCV in the etiology of HCC. Compared to subjects who were negative for HCV and radiation, ORs of HCC for HCV-positive subjects showed a statistically significant, greater than multiplicative increase for liver irradiation exposures in the second (>0.018-0.186 Sv, p = 0.04) and third (>0.186 Sv, p = 0.05) tertiles of non-zero radiation exposure but not for first tertile exposure (>0-0.018 Sv, p = 0.86). Limiting analysis to subjects without cirrhosis, HCV-infected subjects were at 58.0-fold (95% CI 1.99- infinity ) increased risk of HCC per Sv of radiation exposure (p = 0.017), a supermultiplicative interaction between radiation and HCV that was not found among subjects with cirrhosis (p = 0.67). We found no evidence of interaction between HBV infection and radiation exposure in the etiology of HCC, regardless of cirrhosis status (p = 0.58). We conclude that among survivors of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, subjects who were both HCV-positive and radiation-exposed were at a significantly, supermultiplicatively increased risk of HCC without concurrent cirrhosis.

  13. Radiation dose to the lens and cataract formation

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, J.M.; Whitelocke, R.A.F.; Warrington, A.P.; Bessell, E.M. )

    1993-04-02

    The purpose of this work was to determine the radiation tolerance of the lens of the eye and the incidence of radiation-induced lens changes in patients treated by fractionated supervoltage radiation therapy for orbital tumors. Forty patients treated for orbital lymphoma and pseudotumor with tumor doses of 20--40 Gy were studied. The lens was partly shielded using lead cylinders in most cases. The dose to the germinative zone of the lens was estimated by measurements in a tissue equivalent phantom using both film densitometry and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Opthalmological examination was performed at 6 monthly intervals after treatment. The lead shield was found to reduce the dose to the germinative zone of the lens to between 36--50% of the tumor dose for Cobalt beam therapy, and to between 11--18% for 5 MeV x-rays. Consequently, the lens doses were in the range 4.5--30 Gy in 10--20 fractions. Lens opacities first appeared from between 3 and 9 years after irradiation. Impairment of visual acuity ensued in 74% of the patients who developed lens opacities. The incidence of lens changes was strongly dose-related. None was seen after doses of 5 Gy or lower, whereas doses of 16.5 Gy or higher were all followed by lens opacities which impaired visual acuity. The largest number of patients received a maximum lens dose of 15 Gy; in this group the actuarial incidence of lens opacities at 8 years was 57% with visual impairment in 38%. The adult lens can tolerate a total dose of 5 Gy during a fractionated course of supervoltage radiation therapy without showing any changes. Doses of 16.5 Gy or higher will almost invariably lead to visual impairment. The dose which causes a 50% probability of visual impairment is approximately 15 Gy. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1986-12-01

    Four decades after the actual events, quantitative characterization of the radiation fields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki continues to be sought, with high accuracy a goal justified by the unique contribution to radiation protection standards that is represented by the medical records of exposed survivors. The most recent effort is distinguished by its reliance on computer modeling and concomitant detail, and by its decentralized direction, both internationally and internally to the US and Japan, with resultant ongoing peer review and wide scope of inquiry. A new system for individual dose estimation has been agreed upon, and its scientific basis has been elaborated in the literature as well as in a comprehensive treatise to be published in the Spring of 1987. In perspective, this new system appears to be an unusually successful achievement that offers the expectation of reliable estimates with the desired accuracy. Some aspects leading to this expectation, along with a caveat, are discussed here. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A long-term cohort study of the atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Mabuchi, K; Shigematsu, I

    1996-08-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), the predecessor of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), was established in 1947 to conduct long-term, comprehensive epidemiological and genetic studies of the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Today this study still depends upon the voluntary cooperation of several tens of thousands of survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An in-depth follow-up study of mortality in the study population of 120,000 persons, including A-bomb survivors and controls, has continued since 1950. The study of tumor incidence was initiated through record linkage with a tumor registry system in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1958. In the same year, biennial medical examinations of 20,000 individuals began. Follow-up studies also have been conducted on in-utero-exposed persons and first-generation offspring of the survivors. On the basis of these studies spanning nearly half a century, we know that the occurrence of leukemia and cancers associated with A-bomb radiation is higher than among the non-exposed. Among the A-bomb survivors, radiation cataracts, hyperparathyroidism, delayed growth and development, and chromosomal aberrations also occur more often. However, to date no evidence exists of genetic effects in the children of A-bomb survivors. It should be kept in mind that such study results could never be obtained without the cooperation of A-bomb survivors.

  16. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer.

  17. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1988-08-18

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings.

  18. The neoplastic transformation potential of mammography X rays and atomic bomb spectrum radiation.

    PubMed

    Heyes, G J; Mill, A J

    2004-08-01

    Considerable controversy currently exists regarding the biological effectiveness of 29 kVp X rays which are used for mammography screening. This issue must be resolved to enable proper evaluation of radiation risks from breast screening. Here a definitive assessment of the biological effectiveness of 29 kVp X rays compared to the quality of radiation to which the atomic bomb survivors were exposed is presented for the first time. The standard radiation sources used were (a) an atomic bomb simulation spectrum and (b) 2.2 MeV electrons from a strontium-90/yttrium-90 (90Sr/90Y) radioactive source. The biological end point used was neoplastic transformation in vitro in CGL1 (HeLa x human fibroblast hybrid) cells. No significant difference was observed for the biological effectiveness of the two high-energy sources for neoplastic transformation. A limiting relative biological effectiveness (RBE(M)) of 4.42 +/- 2.02 was observed for neoplastic transformation by 29 kVp X rays compared to these two sources. This compares with values of 4.67 +/- 3.93 calculated from previously published data and 3.58 +/- 1.77 when the reference radiation was 200 and 220 kVp X rays. This suggests that the risks associated with mammography screening may be approximately five times higher than previously assumed and that the risk-benefit relationship of mammography exposures may need to be re-examined. PMID:15387138

  19. Ultraviolet radiation as a risk factor for cataract and macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Joan E

    2011-07-01

    The human eye is constantly exposed to sunlight and artificial lighting. Light transmission through the eye is fundamental to its unique biological functions of directing vision and circadian rhythm, and therefore, light absorbed by the eye must be benign. However, exposure to the intense ambient radiation can pose a hazard particularly if the recipient is over 40 years of age. This radiation exposure can lead to impaired vision and transient or permanent blindness.Both ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and UV-B induce cataract formation and are not necessary for sight. Ultraviolet radiation is also a risk factor for damage to the retinas of children. The removal of these wavelengths from ocular exposure will greatly reduce the risk of early cataract and retinal damage. One way this may be easily done is by wearing sunglasses that block wavelengths below 400 nm (marked 400 on the glasses). However, because of the geometry of the eye, these glasses must be wraparound sunglasses to prevent reflective UV radiation from reaching the eye. Additional protection may be offered by contact lenses that absorb significant amounts of UV radiation.In addition to UV radiation, short blue visible light (400-440 nm) is a risk factor for the adult human retina. This wavelength of light is not essential for sight and not necessary for a circadian rhythm response. For those over 50 years old, it would be of value to remove these wavelengths of light with specially designed sunglasses or contact lenses to reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Cataract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A cataract is a cloudy or opaque area in the lens of the eye. Cataracts usually develop as a person gets older and ... substances can also accelerate the development of a cataract. Cataracts can cause visual problems such as difficulty ...

  1. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  2. [The present state of atomic bomb survivors, with special reference to biological late-effects of radiation].

    PubMed

    Kamada, Nanao

    2004-03-01

    Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. Within a few months, the bomb blast, heat and radiation emitted by the atomic explosions led to approximately 114,000 fatalities in Hiroshima and about 70,000 in Nagasaki. The radiation in particular continued to exert effects on the human body over a long period of time, resulting in the development of tumors and functional abnormalities in various organs. This paper briefly outlines the diseases caused by radiation as well as the biological late-effects on the survivors without any specific diseases, and stresses the necessity of our enthusiastic opposition to the use of any kind of nuclear weapons.

  3. Effect of radiation dose on the height of atomic bomb survivors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Eiji; Fujiwara, Saeko; Funamoto, Sachiyo

    2002-09-01

    We conducted a longitudinal analysis of height after age 20 for atomic bomb survivors in the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort. The measurements we used were made from July 1958 to June 1998 (AHS examination cycles 1-20). We analyzed only the subjects with known atomic bomb radiation doses, excluding those who were not in the city at the time of bombing (ATB) and those exposed in utero. We also excluded from the analysis measurements made after the occurrence of vertebral fracture. The total number of subjects was 11,862, and the total number of measurements was 109,770; the mean number of measurements per subject was 9.25. Assuming that stature after age 20 is approximately constant, a simple mixed-effects model was fitted to stature after age 20, and linear dose effects for young ATB subjects were modeled for both sexes. The estimated mean heights for subjects born in 1945 in Hiroshima were 166.0 cm for men and 155.4 cm for women. The sex difference in height was 10.6 cm, with men significantly taller than women (P < 0.001). The difference between the cities was not significant (P = 0.162). The birth cohort effects per decade were -1.7 cm for men (P < 0.001) and -2.1 cm for women (P < 0.001). A reduction of stature due to radiation exposure was observed for individuals of both sexes who were below 19 years of age ATB (95% confidence interval, 17-21 years), and the dose effect was larger for women than for men (P = 0.028). The estimated effects per gray for those who were age 0 ATB were -1.2 cm for men and -2.0 cm for women and for those who were age 10 ATB were-0.57 cm for men and -0.96 cm for women.

  4. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people.

  5. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure.

  6. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure. PMID:21988524

  7. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23772925

  8. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.

  9. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors. PMID:22872680

  10. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses.

  11. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  12. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  13. Estimation of radiation doses for atomic-bomb survivors in the Hiroshima University Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, M.; Matsuura, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Kamada, N.; Ito, C.

    1996-05-01

    The present study presents the Hiroshima University Registry of atomic bomb survivors, of which the total number is about 270,000, and application of absorbed doses. From this registry, we picked up 49,102 survivors and applied organ doses based on the dosimetry system 1986 (DS86), which is named the Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). The applied dose data are based on the tables listed in the DS86 final report such as the free-in-air kermas, the house shielding factors, and organ dose factors for the active bone marrow and the breast. Calculations for the 13 other organs provided in DS86 are possible. To obtained the organ doses for each survivor, it is necessary to obtain information concerning (1) place exposed, (2) whether they were shielded or not, and (3) age. ABS93D body transmission factors for active bone marrow for neutrons and gamma rays agreed with DS 86 to within a few percent. Of the survivors studied, 35, 123 of them were used for the relative risk estimation of leukemia mortality, adopting the same method as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) for comparison. For the observation period from 1968 to 1989, the analyzed relative risks for leukemia mortality at 1 Gy by shielded kerm and by active bone marrow dose are 2.01 and 2.37, respectively, which are consistent with the RERF results. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. PMID:24366315

  15. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking.

  16. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence among atomic-bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Lönn, Stefan; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Egawa, Hiromi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    While radiation increases the risk of lung cancer among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors, there are still important questions about the nature of its interaction with smoking, the predominant cause of lung cancer. Among 105,404 LSS subjects, 1,803 primary lung cancer incident cases were identified for the period 1958–1999. Individual smoking history information and the latest radiation dose estimates were utilized to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking on lung cancer rates using Poisson grouped survival regression methods. Relative to never-smokers lung cancer risks increased with the amount and duration of smoking, and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Models assuming generalized interactions of smoking and radiation fit markedly better than simple additive or multiplicative interaction models. The joint effect appeared to be super-multiplicative for light/moderate-smokers, with a rapid increase in excess risk with smoking intensity up to about 10 cigarettes per day, but additive or sub-additive for heavy-smokers smoking a pack or more per day, with little indication of any radiation-associated excess risk. The gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy of lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at 30) was estimated as 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.31–1.00) for non-smokers with a female:male ratio of 3.1. About one-third of the lung cancer cases in this cohort were estimated to be attributable to smoking while about 7% were associated with radiation. The joint effect of smoking and radiation on lung cancer in the LSS is dependent on smoking intensity, and best described by the generalized interaction model rather than a simple additive or multiplicative model. PMID:20681801

  17. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.—Hayashi, T., Morishita, Y., Khattree, R., Misumi, M., Sasaki, K., Hayashi, I., Yoshida, K., Kajimura, J., Kyoizumi, S., Imai, K., Kusunoki, Y., Nakachi, K. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects. PMID:22872680

  18. Delayed effects of low-dose radiation on cellular immunity in atomic bomb survivors residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bloom, E T; Akiyama, M; Kusunoki, Y; Makinodan, T

    1987-05-01

    Several parameters of cellular immune function were assessed among persons who survived the 1945 atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki but who now reside in the United States. The subjects in this study were exposed to various low doses (T65D) of radiation at the time of the bomb. More than half received an estimated 0 Gy (S0 group). Of those exposed to more radiation (S+ group), nearly 90% received less than 0.50 Gy (50 rad). Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of these individuals and were assessed for the following parameters of cellular immunity: mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin, mitogenic response to allogeneic lymphocytes, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC), and interferon production. In every case, the response of the S+ group was greater than that of the S0 group, although only the difference for NCMC was statistically significant. Results of studies presently being performed on A-bomb survivors residing in Hiroshima do not confirm this difference. Therefore, it is difficult to say whether the increase in natural cytotoxicity observed among the American and not the Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to very low doses of radiation is a hormetic effect which was modulated by post-radiation environmental conditions or a result of selective migration.

  19. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  20. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  1. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to 239Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation–environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. PMID:24366315

  2. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  3. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  4. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required.

  5. Allowing for random errors in radiation dose estimates for the atomic bomb survivor data.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D A; Stram, D O; Vaeth, M

    1990-09-01

    The presence of random errors in the individual radiation dose estimates for the A-bomb survivors causes underestimation of radiation effects in dose-response analyses, and also distorts the shape of dose-response curves. Statistical methods are presented which will adjust for these biases, provided that a valid statistical model for the dose estimation errors is used. Emphasis is on clarifying some rather subtle statistical issues. For most of this development the distinction between radiation dose and exposure is not critical. The proposed methods involve downward adjustment of dose estimates, but this does not imply that the dosimetry system is faulty. Rather, this is a part of the dose-response analysis required to remove biases in the risk estimates. The primary focus of this report is on linear dose-response models, but methods for linear-quadratic models are also considered briefly. Some plausible models for the dose estimation errors are considered, which have typical errors in a range of 30-40% of the true values, and sensitivity analysis of the resulting bias corrections is provided. It is found that for these error models the resulting estimates of excess cancer risk based on linear models are about 6-17% greater than estimates that make no allowance for dose estimation errors. This increase in risk estimates is reduced to about 4-11% if, as has often been done recently, survivors with dose estimates above 4 Gy are eliminated from the analysis.

  6. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  7. Risk of cancer among children exposed to atomic bomb radiation in utero: a review.

    PubMed

    Kato, H; Yoshimoto, Y; Schull, W J

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the risk for cancer (incidence) over a period of 40 years, 1945-1984, among 1829 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report which was confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did these latter cancers occur earlier in persons exposed to greater than 0.30 Gy than in unexposed (0 Gy) but the incidence continues to increase, and the crude cumulative incidence rate 40 years after the bombing is 3.9-fold greater in persons exposed to greater than 0.30 Gy. In the observation period 1950-1984, the relative risk for cancer at 1 Gy, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus as estimated by the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For all persons exposed to greater than 0.01 Gy, the average excess risk per 10(4) person-year-Gy is 6.57 (0.07-14.49), and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9-90.2%). These results, when viewed in the perspective of fetal doses, suggest that susceptibility to radiation-induced cancers is higher in survivors exposed prenatally than in those exposed postnatally (at least, those exposed as adults). However, definitive conclusions must await further follow-up studies.

  8. Late effects of radiation on the human immune system: an overview of immune response among the atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M

    1995-11-01

    The studies of the late effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation on the immune system were started about 20 years after the bombings in 1945. The most remarkable late effects of radiation are the functional and quantitative abnormalities of T and B cells in survivors exposed to high doses (> or = 1.0 Gy). Abnormalities of T-cell immunity include (1) a decreased proportion of CD3+ T cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes, particularly the proportion of CD4+ CD45RA+ naive T cells (study period 1987-91); (2) an increased frequency of CD4- and CD8- (double negative) alpha beta + T cells (1987-91); and (3) functional defects in T-cell responses to mitogens and alloantigens (1974-85). B-cell abnormalities include: (1) a significant increase in the proportion of B cells among peripheral lymphocytes (1987-91); (2) an increase in serum immunoglobulin A levels in females and immunoglobulin M and the incidence of rheumatoid factor in both sexes (1987-89); and (3) an increased level of anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (1987-90). In contrast, suggestive (0.05 < p < 0.1) or not significant (p > 0.1) dose effects were observed for the number and function of natural killer cells (1983-91), and benign monoclonal gammopathy (1979-87). In addition, studies initiated sooner after the bombing such as the incidence of autoimmune diseases (1958-87), systemic bacterial infections (1954-67), and granulocyte functions (1947-79) also show little dose-effects. Thus, A-bomb radiation induced the alteration of the balance/interaction between the T- and B-cell subsets--specifically, a decrease in the T-cell population and an increase in the B-cell population in the periphery.

  9. Congenital cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... both eyes. Moderate to severe cataracts that affect vision, or a cataract that is in only 1 eye, will need to be treated with cataract removal surgery. In most (noncongenital) cataract surgeries, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted into the eye. ...

  10. Reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The presentations at this workshop are the first of a series of joint efforts, among knowledgeable scientists in Japan and the United States under RERF auspices, directed toward reassessing the dose of ionizing radiation received by survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The last previous dose estimate revisions occurred in 1965 and since that time new technology and understanding have become available for this purpose. It is the hope of RERF that the collaboration represented by this workshop and the following day of free discussion among the participating scientists will establish a procedure which will ensure that the resulting dose estimates are as accurate as possible. Acceptance of the resulting estimates by the scientific communities of both nations is our ultimate goal. This first workshop has concentrated on presenting current evidence concerning the yield of the two weapons, the spectra of the radiations from them, their transport through air, and various in situ measurements of the resulting excitation of materials on the ground (insulators, roof tiles, iron rods, etc.) which can be used to check the theoretical calculations.

  11. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  12. RET/PTC rearrangements preferentially occurred in papillary thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors exposed to high radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Ito, Reiko; Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Taga, Masataka; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John; Soda, Midori; Arihiro, Koji; Fujihara, Megumu; Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2008-09-01

    A major early event in papillary thyroid carcinogenesis is constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway caused by alterations of a single gene, typically rearrangements of the RET and NTRK1 genes or point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes. In childhood papillary thyroid cancer, regardless of history of radiation exposure, RET/PTC rearrangements are a major event. Conversely, in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer among the general population, the most common molecular event is BRAF(V600E) point mutation, not RET/PTC rearrangements. To clarify which gene alteration, chromosome aberration, or point mutation preferentially occurs in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer, we have performed molecular analyses on RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation in 71 papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors (including 21 cases not exposed to atomic bomb radiation), in relation to radiation dose as well as time elapsed since atomic bomb radiation exposure. RET/PTC rearrangements showed significantly increased frequency with increased radiation dose (P(trend) = 0.002). In contrast, BRAF(V600E) mutation was less frequent in cases exposed to higher radiation dose (P(trend) < 0.001). Papillary thyroid cancer subjects harboring RET/PTC rearrangements developed this cancer earlier than did cases with BRAF(V600E) mutation (P = 0.03). These findings were confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. These results suggest that RET/PTC rearrangements play an important role in radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis.

  13. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors. PMID:24590022

  14. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

  15. Risk of Cataract after Exposure to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: A 20-Year Prospective Cohort Study among US Radiologic Technologists

    PubMed Central

    Bekiroglu, Nural; Hauptmann, Michael; Alexander, Bruce H.; Freedman, D. Michal; Doody, Michele Morin; Cheung, Li C.; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Bouville, André; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2008-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the risk of cataract among radiologic technologists with respect to occupational and nonoccupational exposures to ionizing radiation and to personal characteristics. A prospective cohort of 35,705 cataract-free US radiologic technologists aged 24–44 years was followed for nearly 20 years (1983–2004) by using two follow-up questionnaires. During the study period, 2,382 cataracts and 647 cataract extractions were reported. Cigarette smoking for ≥5 pack-years; body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2; and history of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or arthritis at baseline were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with increased risk of cataract. In multivariate models, self-report of ≥3 x-rays to the face/neck was associated with a hazard ratio of cataract of 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.47). For workers in the highest category (mean, 60 mGy) versus lowest category (mean, 5 mGy) of occupational dose to the lens of the eye, the adjusted hazard ratio of cataract was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.40). Findings challenge the National Council on Radiation Protection and International Commission on Radiological Protection assumptions that the lowest cumulative ionizing radiation dose to the lens of the eye that can produce a progressive cataract is approximately 2 Gy, and they support the hypothesis that the lowest cataractogenic dose in humans is substantially less than previously thought. PMID:18664497

  16. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  17. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan. PMID:27158765

  18. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    PubMed

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously.

  19. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    PubMed

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously. PMID:19580503

  20. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  1. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report. PMID:23799498

  2. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  3. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J

    1993-02-01

    Of 1566 individuals prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1473 had the circumference of their head measured at least once between ages 9 and 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads--the circumference of the heads was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific-age-at measurement mean. Of 26 cases with severe mental retardation, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first trimester (about < 12 weeks postovulation) or second trimester (about 12-24 weeks postovulation)--55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester (about > or = 25 weeks postovulation) or among individuals exposed at 16 weeks or more postovulation. The mean IQ values of mentally retarded cases with and without small heads were 63.8 and 68.9, respectively. No significant difference exists between these two IQ means, but both were significantly smaller than 96.4, the IQ value for individuals with small heads without severe mental retardation and 107.8, the value for the overall sample.

  4. Somatic cell mutations at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes of atomic bomb survivors: Implications for radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Tanabe, Kazumi; Hirai, Yuko; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Umeki, Shigeko

    1996-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between somatic cell mutations and radiation exposure, the frequency of hemizygous mutant erythrocytes at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus was measured by flow cytometry for 1,226 heterozygous atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in HIroshima and Nagasaki. For statistical analysis, both GPA mutant frequency and radiation dose were log-transformed to normalize skewed distributions of these variables. The GPA mutant frequency increased slightly but significantly with age at testing and with the number of cigarettes smoked. Also, mutant frequency was significantly higher in males than in females even with adjustment for smoking and was higher to Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. These characteristics of background GPA mutant frequency are qualitatively similar to those of background solid cancer incidence or mortality obtained from previous epidemiological studies of survivors. An analysis of the mutant frequency dose response using a descriptive model showed that the doubling dose is about 1.20 Sv [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.56], whereas the minimum dose for detecting a significant increase in mutant frequency is about 0.24 Sv (95% CI: 0.041-0.51). No significant effects of sex, city or age at the time of exposure on the dose response were detected. Interestingly, the doubling dose of the GPA mutant frequency was similar to that of solid cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors. This observation is in line with the hypothesis that radiation-induced somatic cell mutations are the major cause of excess cancer risk after radiation. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  6. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lindee, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

  7. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  8. A review of ground-based heavy ion radiobiology relevant to space radiation risk assessment: Cataracts and CNS effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    Analysis of the numerous potential risks of travel into deep space is critical to future manned missions. Despite the availability of significant new information on heavy-ion radiobiology at high doses and high dose-rates, radiation effects on human physiology during space travel, and later in the career of the space traveler, remain high on the list of what still needs to be known under space radiation scenarios. Cancer risks have long been considered the most serious late effect from chronic daily relatively low-dose exposures to the complex space radiation environment. However, other late radiation effects from space radiation scenarios are under study in ground-based accelerator facilities and have revealed some unique particle radiation effects not observed with conventional radiations. A comprehensive review of pertinent literature that considers functional degradation of specific body organs and systems at risk has recently been published (NCRP Report #153, 2006). This paper highlights the review of two noncancer concerns from this report: cataracts and effects on the central nervous system.

  9. Metabolic Profile as a Potential Modifier of Long-Term Radiation Effects on Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomonori; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-09-01

    Immune system impairments reflected by the composition and function of circulating lymphocytes are still observed in atomic bomb survivors, and metabolic abnormalities including altered blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been detected in such survivors. Based on closely related features of immune and metabolic profiles of individuals, we investigated the hypothesis that long-term effects of radiation exposure on lymphocyte subsets might be modified by metabolic profiles in 3,113 atomic bomb survivors who participated in health examinations at the Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in 2000-2002. The lymphocyte subsets analyzed involved T-, B- and NK-cell subsets, and their percentages in the lymphocyte fraction were assessed using flow cytometry. Health examinations included metabolic indicators, body mass index, serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin A1c, as well as diabetes and fatty liver diagnoses. Standard regression analyses indicated that several metabolic indicators of obesity/related disease, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, were positively associated with type-1 helper T- and B-cell percentages but were inversely associated with naïve CD4 T and NK cells. A regression analysis adjusted for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol revealed a radiation dose relationship with increasing NK-cell percentage. Additionally, an interaction effect was suggested between radiation dose and C-reactive protein on B-cell percentage with a negative coefficient of the interaction term. Collectively, these findings suggest that radiation exposure and subsequent metabolic profile changes, potentially in relationship to obesity-related inflammation, lead to such long-term alterations in lymphocyte subset composition. Because this study is based on cross-sectional and exploratory analyses, the implications regarding radiation exposure, metabolic

  10. Metabolic Profile as a Potential Modifier of Long-Term Radiation Effects on Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomonori; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-09-01

    Immune system impairments reflected by the composition and function of circulating lymphocytes are still observed in atomic bomb survivors, and metabolic abnormalities including altered blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been detected in such survivors. Based on closely related features of immune and metabolic profiles of individuals, we investigated the hypothesis that long-term effects of radiation exposure on lymphocyte subsets might be modified by metabolic profiles in 3,113 atomic bomb survivors who participated in health examinations at the Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in 2000-2002. The lymphocyte subsets analyzed involved T-, B- and NK-cell subsets, and their percentages in the lymphocyte fraction were assessed using flow cytometry. Health examinations included metabolic indicators, body mass index, serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin A1c, as well as diabetes and fatty liver diagnoses. Standard regression analyses indicated that several metabolic indicators of obesity/related disease, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, were positively associated with type-1 helper T- and B-cell percentages but were inversely associated with naïve CD4 T and NK cells. A regression analysis adjusted for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol revealed a radiation dose relationship with increasing NK-cell percentage. Additionally, an interaction effect was suggested between radiation dose and C-reactive protein on B-cell percentage with a negative coefficient of the interaction term. Collectively, these findings suggest that radiation exposure and subsequent metabolic profile changes, potentially in relationship to obesity-related inflammation, lead to such long-term alterations in lymphocyte subset composition. Because this study is based on cross-sectional and exploratory analyses, the implications regarding radiation exposure, metabolic

  11. Characterization of Cat-2t, a radiation-induced dominant cataract mutation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Graw, J.; Bors, W.; Gopinath, P.M.; Merkle, S.; Michel, C.; Reitmeir, P.; Schaeffer, E.S.; Summer, K.H.; Wulff, A. )

    1990-07-01

    A dominant cataract mutation was detected recently among the offspring of x-ray-irradiated male mice. The mutation, which causes total lens opacity, has provisionally been designated by the gene symbol Cat-2t. In the lenses of heterozygous and homozygous Cat-2t mutants, the epithelial and fiber cells were swollen and the lens capsule was ruptured. The histologic analysis demonstrated a complete destruction of the cellular organization of the lens, which might be caused by its altered developmental processes. The data derived from biochemical investigations indicate that biochemistry of the cataractous Cat-2t lenses is affected: the osmotic state as indicated by the increased water content and increased Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity; the energy state as indicated by the decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration; and the redox state as indicated by the enhanced content of oxidized glutathione. Additionally, the lenticular protein composition is altered because of the presence of vimentin in the water-soluble fraction. This cannot be explained by the enhanced crosslinking activity of transglutaminase. The changes of the osmotic, energy, and redox states are considered to be secondary in relation to the altered lenticular development. In contrast, the variations concerning vimentin and transglutaminase might be a biochemical indication of the changed development. Possible similarities to other dominantly expressed murine cataract mutants are discussed.

  12. Radiation cataracts: mechanisms involved in their long delayed occurrence but then rapid progression

    PubMed Central

    Pendergrass, William; Singh, Narendra; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was directed to assess the DNA damage and DNA repair response to X-ray inflicted lens oxidative damage and to investigate the subsequent changes in lens epithelial cell (LEC) behavior in vivo that led to long delayed but then rapidly developing cataracts. Methods Two-month-old C57Bl/6 female mice received 11 Grays (Gy) of soft x-irradiation to the head only. The animals’ eyes were examined for cataract status in 30 day intervals by slit lamp over an 11 month period post-irradiation. LEC migration, DNA fragment, free DNA retention, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) presence were established in the living lenses with fluorescent dyes using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The extent and removal of initial LEC DNA damage were determined by comet assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the presence of oxidized DNA and the response of a DNA repair protein in the lenses. Results This treatment resulted in advanced cortical cataracts that developed 5–11 months post-irradiation but then appeared suddenly within a 30 day period. The initially incurred DNA strand breaks were repaired within 30 min, but DNA damage remained as shown 72 h post-irradiation by the presence of the DNA adduct, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), and a DNA repair protein, XRCC1. This was followed months later by abnormal behavior by LEC descendant cells with abnormal differentiation and migration patterns as seen with LSCM and fluorescent dyes. Conclusions The sudden development of cortical cataracts several months post-irradiation coupled with the above findings suggests an accumulation of damaged descendants from the initially x-irradiated LECs. As these cells migrate abnormally and leave acellular lens surface sites, eventually a crisis point may arrive for lens entry of environmental O2 with resultant ROS formation that overwhelms protection by resident antioxidant enzymes and results in the coagulation of lens proteins. The events seen in this study indicate

  13. Non-Invasive, Quantitative, and Remote Detection of Early Radiation Cataracts for Applications in Bio-Astronautics and Bio-Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Giblin, Frank J.; King, James F.; Singh, B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars may be a possibility in the next twenty years. Maintaining good vision is an essential aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts. A compact device based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) is designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. Preliminary data on the simulated effects of ionizing radiation exposure to the ocular tissues of nonhuman animals and results on the sensitivity of DLS over established clinical procedures in investigating cataracts are presented. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An internet web based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. Cataract studies on-board the International Space Station (ISS) will be helpful in designing better protective radiation shields for future space vehicles and space suits.

  14. Cataract and latitude.

    PubMed

    Javitt, J C; Taylor, H R

    For many years, it has been suggested that exposure to sunlight, particularly its ultraviolet component, may be associated with an increased risk of senile cataract. This paper addresses 1) the physical and geographic variables that affect the entry of ultraviolet light in the eye; 2) the epidemiologic evidence that associates cataract with ultraviolet light exposure; and 3) the effectiveness of personal barrier protection (i.e. sunglasses and hats) in reducing ocular exposure to ultraviolet light. The epidemiologic evidence is drawn from studies in Australia, China, Tibet, and the United States. The U.S. evidence consists of data from the Maryland Watermen study and analyses of cataract surgery under the Medicare program which provides health insurance for nearly all Americans age 65 and over (30 million) and pays for 85% of the 1.3 million cataract extractions performed annually in the U.S. Analysis of the Medicard data shown that, after controlling for age, sex, and race, and income of the population and also controlling for supply of ophthalmologists, optometrists, price of surgery and local practice costs, the strongest predictor of cataract surgery likelihood in a Medicare beneficiary is the person's latitude of residence. Latitude correlates directly with the UV-B content of sunlight, because the incident angle of the sun determines the atmospheric penetration of ultraviolet radiation. Data suggest that the probability of cataract surgery in the U.S. increases by 3% for each 1 degree decrease (i.e. more Southerly) in latitude. PMID:7634999

  15. Senile cataracts and myopia

    SciTech Connect

    Belkin, M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Jackson, S.M.; Zwick, H.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 32 persons with myopia and 38 persons with emmetropia who had been operated on at two US Army hospitals on the California coast showed that the persons with myopia who had worn eyeglasses for at least 20 years underwent cataract extraction at a significantly (P less than .00005) older age than the persons with emmetropia (median age at the time of the operation was 70 years, compared with 64 years). These results support the theory that some protection against solar ultraviolet radiation is offered the eyes by eye wear worn continuously and that solar ultraviolet radiation may be a contributing factor in the formation of human senile cataracts.

  16. Bomb calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, D.H.; Bell, F.H.

    1981-02-03

    A bomb calorimeter is presented in which a cartridge type specimen holder is provided in a fitted bomb casing so that a separate pressure seal is no longer required and the ease of making repeated tests is enhanced. The overall efficiency is also improved because of the central location of the specimen holder.

  17. Temperature-controlled in vivo ocular exposure to 1090-nm radiation suggests that near-infrared radiation cataract is thermally induced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    The damage mechanism for near-infrared radiation (IRR) induced cataract is unclear. Both a photochemical and a thermal mechanism were suggested. The current paper aims to elucidate a photochemical effect based on investigation of irradiance-exposure time reciprocity. Groups of 20 rats were unilaterally exposed to 96-W/cm2 IRR at 1090 nm within the dilated pupil accumulating 57, 103, 198, and 344 kJ/cm2, respectively. Temperature was recorded at the limbus of the exposed eye. Seven days after exposure, the lenses were macroscopically imaged and light scattering was quantitatively measured. The average maximum temperature increases for exposure times of 10, 18, 33, and 60 min were expressed as 7.0±1.1, 6.8±1.1, 7.6±1.3, and 7.4±1.1°C [CI (0.95)] at the limbus of the exposed eye. The difference of light scattering in the lenses between exposed and contralateral not-exposed eyes was 0.00±0.02, 0.01±0.03, -0.01±0.02, and -0.01±0.03 transformed equivalent diazepam concentration (tEDC), respectively, and no apparent morphological changes in the lens were observed. An exposure to 96-W/cm2 1090-nm IRR projected on the cornea within the dilated pupil accumulating radiant exposures up to 344 kJ/cm2 does not induce cataract if the temperature rise at the limbus is <8°C. This is consistent with a thermal damage mechanism for IRR-induced cataract.

  18. Temperature-controlled in vivo ocular exposure to 1090-nm radiation suggests that near-infrared radiation cataract is thermally induced.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    The damage mechanism for near-infrared radiation (IRR) induced cataract is unclear. Both a photochemical and a thermal mechanism were suggested. The current paper aims to elucidate a photochemical effect based on investigation of irradiance-exposure time reciprocity. Groups of 20 rats were unilaterally exposed to 96-W/cm(2) IRR at 1090 nm within the dilated pupil accumulating 57, 103, 198, and 344 kJ/cm(2), respectively. Temperature was recorded at the limbus of the exposed eye. Seven days after exposure, the lenses were macroscopically imaged and light scattering was quantitatively measured. The average maximum temperature increases for exposure times of 10, 18, 33, and 60 min were expressed as 7.0 ± 1.1, 6.8 ± 1.1, 7.6 ± 1.3, and 7.4 ± 1.1 °C [CI (0.95)] at the limbus of the exposed eye. The difference of light scattering in the lenses between exposed and contralateral not-exposed eyes was 0.00 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.03, -0.01 ± 0.02, and -0.01 ± 0.03 transformed equivalent diazepam concentration (tEDC), respectively, and no apparent morphological changes in the lens were observed. An exposure to 96-W/cm(2) 1090-nm IRR projected on the cornea within the dilated pupil accumulating radiant exposures up to 344 kJ/cm(2) does not induce cataract if the temperature rise at the limbus is <8 °C. This is consistent with a thermal damage mechanism for IRR-induced cataract.

  19. The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: Estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Awa, A.A.; Satoh, C.; Kato, H.; Otake, M.; Yoshimoto, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice.

  20. The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans.

    PubMed

    Neel, J V; Schull, W J; Awa, A A; Satoh, C; Kato, H; Otake, M; Yoshimoto, Y

    1990-06-01

    The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice.

  1. Liver cancer in atomic-bomb survivors: histological characteristics and relationships to radiation and hepatitis B and C viruses.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, T; Sharp, G B; Mizuno, T; Itakura, H; Yamamoto, M; Tokunaga, M; Tokuoka, S; Cologne, J B; Fujita, Y; Soda, M; Mabuchi, K

    2001-06-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A panel of pathologists classified tumor histological types and defined accompanying cirrhotic changes of the liver. Archival tissue samples were assessed for HBV using pathology stains and PCR. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to determine HCV status. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare 302 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases to 53 cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cases, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, sex and viral status. Cirrhotic changes occurred significantly more often among HCC than CC cases (76% in HCC and 6% in CC). Compared to CC cases, HCC cases were 10.9 times more likely to be HBV-positive (95% confidence interval: 2.1-83.2) and 4.3 times more likely to be HCV-positive (95% confidence interval: 1.1-20.5). No significant differences were found between HCC and CC cases in radiation exposures. The predominance of HCC in the atomic-bomb survivors follows the background liver cancer pattern in Japan. Our findings suggest that HBV and HCV are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC with or without cirrhosis and are significantly less important in that of CC.

  2. Cataract - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Lens opacity; Age-related cataract ... of the eye. Until a person is around age 45, the shape of the lens is able ... is close or far away. As a person ages, proteins in the lens begin to break down. ...

  3. Characterization of molecular mechanisms of in vivo UVR induced cataract.

    PubMed

    Galichanin, Konstantin; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Söderberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world (1). The World Health Organization defines cataract as a clouding of the lens of the eye which impedes the transfer of light. Cataract is a multi-factorial disease associated with diabetes, smoking, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), alcohol, ionizing radiation, steroids and hypertension. There is strong experimental (2-4) and epidemiological evidence (5,6) that UVR causes cataract. We developed an animal model for UVR B induced cataract in both anesthetized (7) and non-anesthetized animals (8). The only cure for cataract is surgery but this treatment is not accessible to all. It has been estimated that a delay of onset of cataract for 10 years could reduce the need for cataract surgery by 50% (9). To delay the incidence of cataract, it is needed to understand the mechanisms of cataract formation and find effective prevention strategies. Among the mechanisms for cataract development, apoptosis plays a crucial role in initiation of cataract in humans and animals (10). Our focus has recently been apoptosis in the lens as the mechanism for cataract development (8,11,12). It is anticipated that a better understanding of the effect of UVR on the apoptosis pathway will provide possibilities for discovery of new pharmaceuticals to prevent cataract. In this article, we describe how cataract can be experimentally induced by in vivo exposure to UVR-B. Further RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry are presented as tools to study molecular mechanisms of UVR-B induced cataract. PMID:23222480

  4. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE PAGES

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  5. The relative biological effectiveness of densely ionizing heavy-ion radiation for inducing ocular cataracts in wild type versus mice heterozygous for the ATM gene.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric J; Worgul, Basil V; Smilenov, Lubomir; Elliston, Carl D; Brenner, David J

    2006-07-01

    The accelerated appearance of ocular cataracts at younger ages has been recorded in both astronauts and airline pilots, and is usually attributed to high-energy heavy ions in galactic cosmic ray radiation. We have previously shown that high-LET 1-GeV/nucleon (56)Fe ions are significantly more effective than X-rays in producing cataracts in mice. We have also shown that mice haploinsufficient for ATM develop cataracts earlier than wild-type animals, when exposed to either low-LET X-rays or high-LET (56)Fe ions. In this paper we derive quantitative estimates for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high energy (56)Fe ions compared with X-rays, both for wild type and for mice haploinsufficient for ATM. There is a clear trend toward higher RBE's in haploinsufficient animals, both for low- and high-grade cataracts. Haploinsufficiency for ATM results in an enhanced sensitivity to X-rays compared with the wild type, and this enhancement appears even larger after exposure to high-LET heavy ions. PMID:16799786

  6. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Hosoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    The effects of radiation on the long-term trends of the total serum cholesterol levels of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were examined using data collected in the Adult Health Study over a 28-year period (1958-1986). The growth-curve method was used to model the longitudinal age-dependent changes in cholesterol levels. For each sex, temporal trends of cholesterol levels were characterized with respect to age, body mass index, city and birth year. We then examined whether the temporal trends differed by radiation dose. We showed that the mean growth curve of cholesterol levels for the irradiated subjects were significantly higher than that for the unirradiated subjects, and that the increase was greater for women than for men. No difference in dose response was detected between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An increased mean level of cholesterol was evident for irradiated women in general, but a notable increase was apparent in males only for the youngest birth cohort of 1935-1945. The difference in the mean cholesterol levels between the irradiated and unirradiated subjects diminished past 70 years of age. It is not known whether this is due to natural progression or is an artifact of nonrandom variation in the rate of participation in the examinations. The maximum predicted increase at 1 Gy for women occurred at age 52 years for the 1930 cohort: 2.5 mg/dl (95% CI 1.6-3.3 mg/dl) for Hiroshima and 2.3 mg/dl (95% CI 1.5-3.1 mg/dl) for Nagasaki. The corresponding increase for men occurred at age 29 years for the 1940 cohort: 1.6 mg/dl (95% CI 0.4-2.8) for Hiroshima and 1.4 mg/dl (95% CI 0.3-2.6) for Nagasaki. Controlling for cigarette smoking did not alter the dose-response relationship. Although the difference in the mean growth curves of the irradiated and unirradiated groups was statistically significant, there was a considerable overlap in the individual growth curves of the two groups. The significant sex difference and the greater magnitude of

  7. The NASA-Sponsored Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA). Relationship of Exposure to Radiation in Space and the Risk of Cataract Incidence and Progression. Report 1: Recruitment and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chylack, Leo T.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wear, Mary; Manuel, F. Keith

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a five-year, multi-centered, investigation of lens opacification in populations of U.S. astronauts, military pilots, and ground-based (nonaviator) comparison participants. For astronauts, the explanatory variable of most interest is radiation exposure during space flight, however to properly evaluate its effect, the secondary effects of age, nutrition, general health, solar ocular exposure, and other confounding variables encountered in non-space flight must also be considered. NASCA contains an initial baseline, cross-sectional objective assessment of the severity of cortical (C), nuclear (N), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacification, and annual follow-on assessments of severity and progression of these opacities in the population of astronauts and in participants sampled from populations of military pilots and ground-based exposure controls. From these data, NASCA will estimate the degree to which space radiation affects lens opacification for astronauts and how the overall risks of each cataract type for astronauts compared with those of the other exposure control groups after adjusting for differences in age and other explanatory variables.

  8. Effective dose of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as assessed by chromosomal effectiveness of spectrum energy photons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Endo, S; Ejima, Y; Saito, I; Okamura, K; Oka, Y; Hoshi, M

    2006-07-01

    The effective dose of combined spectrum energy neutrons and high energy spectrum gamma-rays in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has long been a matter of discussion. The reason is largely due to the paucity of biological data for high energy photons, particularly for those with an energy of tens of MeV. To circumvent this problem, a mathematical formalism was developed for the photon energy dependency of chromosomal effectiveness by reviewing a large number of data sets published in the literature on dicentric chromosome formation in human lymphocytes. The chromosomal effectiveness was expressed by a simple multiparametric function of photon energy, which made it possible to estimate the effective dose of spectrum energy photons and differential evaluation in the field of mixed neutron and gamma-ray exposure with an internal reference radiation. The effective dose of reactor-produced spectrum energy neutrons was insensitive to the fine structure of the energy distribution and was accessible by a generalized formula applicable to the A-bomb neutrons. Energy spectra of all sources of A-bomb gamma-rays at different tissue depths were simulated by a Monte Carlo calculation applied on an ICRU sphere. Using kerma-weighted chromosomal effectiveness of A-bomb spectrum energy photons, the effective dose of A-bomb neutrons was determined, where the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was expressed by a dose-dependent variable RBE, RBE(gamma, D (n)), against A-bomb gamma-rays as an internal reference radiation. When the newly estimated variable RBE(gamma, D (n)) was applied to the chromosome data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the city difference was completely eliminated. The revised effective dose was about 35% larger in Hiroshima, 19% larger in Nagasaki and 26% larger for the combined cohort compared with that based on a constant RBE of 10. Since the differences are significantly large, the proposed effective dose might have an

  9. Terrorist bombing

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Ami; Kluger, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that differ from those of conventional trauma. The clinical implications of terror bombing, in treatment dilemmas in the multidimensional injury, ancillary evaluation and handling of terror bombing mass casualty event are highlighted. All this leads to the conclusion that thorough medical preparedness to cope with this new epidemic is required, and that understanding of detonation and blast dynamics and how they correlate with the injury patterns is pivotal for revision of current mass casualty protocols. PMID:17101058

  10. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji )

    1994-04-01

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Is Beta Radiation Better than 5 Flurouracil as an Adjunct for Trabeculectomy Surgery When Combined with Cataract Surgery? A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dhalla, Kazim; Cousens, Simon; Bowman, Richard; Wood, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In an African setting surgery is generally accepted as the treatment of first choice for glaucoma. A problem with trabeculectomy surgery for the glaucomas is the frequent co-existence and exacerbation of cataract. We report a randomized controlled trial to compare the use of beta radiation with 5FU in combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Participants and Methods Consenting adults aged >40 years with glaucoma, an IOP>21mmHG and cataract were enrolled and randomised to receive either 1000cG β radiation application or sub-conjunctival 5fluorouracil (5FU) at the time of combined trabeculectomy and phaco-emulsification with lens implant surgery. Results 385 individuals were eligible for inclusion of whom 301 consented to inclusion in the study (one eye per patient). 150 were randomised to the 5FU arm and 151 received β radiation. In the 12 months following surgery there were 40 failures (IOP>21mmHg) in the 5FU arm and 34 failures in the beta arm. The hazard ratio for the beta radiation arm compared to the 5FU arm, adjusted for IOP at baseline, was 0.83 (95% c.i. 0.54 to 1.28; P = 0.40). The improvement from mean presenting visual acuities of 0.91 and 0.86 logMAR to 0.62 and 0.54 in the 5FU and beta arms respectively was comparable between groups (P = 0.4 adjusting for baseline VA). Incidence of complications did not differ between the two groups. Discussion This study highlights several important issues in the quest for a therapeutic strategy for the glaucomas in an African context. Firstly, there is no evidence of an important difference between the use of 5FU and beta radiation as an anti-metabolite in phacotrabeculectomy. Secondly phacotrabeculectomy is a successful operation that improves visual acuity as well as controlling IOP in a majority of patients. Although the success of trabeculectomy in lowering IOP is reduced when combined with phacoemulsification compared with trabeculectomy alone, this finding has to be set against the possible need

  12. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2014-01-01

    Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract. PMID:24618482

  13. Analysis of chromosome aberrations in atomic bomb survivors for dose assessment: studies at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1968 to 1993.

    PubMed

    Awa, A

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes damage to living cells, especially to DNA in the cell nucleus. The degree of this cellular damage depends on the amount of radiation administered. This review discusses current findings concerning radiation-induced chromosome aberrations that were produced in 1945 and that can still be observed in the somatic cells of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The scoring methods of G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization are compared. In addition, some findings concerning chromosomal aberrations in citizens of the former Soviet Union affected by the Chernobyl accident are presented.

  14. Lens epithelium and radiation cataract. III. The influence of age on the nuclear fragmentation of the meridional row cells following x irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Worgul, B.V.; Low, S.; Merriam, G.R. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    Studies were conducted on the effect of age on the production of fragmented nuclei in meridional row (MR) cells following ocular exposure to x radiation. It was found that vulnerability to such damage is maximal approximately 4 weeks postpartum in rats, and that increasingly larger doses of x rays were required to produce equal responses in older animals. Studies on other animals (mice, rabbits, frogs) thought to be resistant to this injury indicate that the failure to see this pathological change in those species is related to age. Although its role in cataractogenesis is unclear, direct damage to the nuclei of MR cells may be ubiquitous among animals susceptible to radiation cataract development.

  15. Pediatric cataracts.

    PubMed

    Wright, K W

    1997-02-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lenses are a well-accepted treatment of aphakia in children 2 years of age and older, with many now considering them as the treatment of choice. Infants, however, are usually treated with contact lens, rather than intraocular lens implantation, as the infant eye undergoes significant axial elongation. The use of intraocular lenses in children with cataracts associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis remains controversial, but a recent article [9] describes good results in these patients, who historically have a poor prognosis. The management of amblyopia associated with unilateral congenital cataracts is evolving. In the 1970s and 1980s, full-time occlusion of the sound eye was advocated for infants with unilateral congenital cataracts. It was also taught that binocular fusion was impossible to obtain, and children with unilateral cataracts inevitably develop strabismus. Recent studies have shown that part-time occlusion may in fact yield better results, allowing the development of binocular vision and stereopsis and reducing the incidence of strabismus. PMID:10168274

  16. Cataract removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocks light from entering your eye. Without enough light, you cannot see as clearly. Cataracts are painless. They are most ... bathing or showering for the first few days. Light activities are best ... If you need new glasses or contact lenses, you can usually ...

  17. Lung cancer susceptibility among atomic bomb survivors in relation to CA repeat number polymorphism of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakachi, Kei; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John B; Niwa, Yasuharu; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prevention could be improved by identifying susceptible individuals as well as improving understanding of interactions between genes and etiological environmental agents, including radiation exposure. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signaling pathway, regulating cellular radiation sensitivity, is an oncogenic cascade involved in lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The cytosine adenine (CA) repeat number polymorphism in the first intron of EGFR has been shown to be inversely correlated with EGFR production. It is hypothesized that CA repeat number may modulate individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-cohort study within the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor cohort to evaluate a possible association of CA repeat polymorphism with lung cancer risk in radiation-exposed or negligibly exposed (<5 mGy) A-bomb survivors. First, by dividing study subjects into Short and Long genotypes, defined as the summed CA repeat number of two alleles < or = 37 and > or = 38, respectively, we found that the Short genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, among negligibly exposed subjects. Next, we found that prior radiation exposure significantly enhanced lung cancer risk of survivors with the Long genotype, whereas the risk for the Short genotype did not show any significant increase with radiation dose, resulting in indistinguishable risks between these genotypes at a high radiation dose. Our findings imply that the EGFR pathway plays a crucial role in assessing individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma in relation to radiation exposure.

  18. Lung cancer susceptibility among atomic bomb survivors in relation to CA repeat number polymorphism of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakachi, Kei; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John B; Niwa, Yasuharu; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prevention could be improved by identifying susceptible individuals as well as improving understanding of interactions between genes and etiological environmental agents, including radiation exposure. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signaling pathway, regulating cellular radiation sensitivity, is an oncogenic cascade involved in lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The cytosine adenine (CA) repeat number polymorphism in the first intron of EGFR has been shown to be inversely correlated with EGFR production. It is hypothesized that CA repeat number may modulate individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-cohort study within the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor cohort to evaluate a possible association of CA repeat polymorphism with lung cancer risk in radiation-exposed or negligibly exposed (<5 mGy) A-bomb survivors. First, by dividing study subjects into Short and Long genotypes, defined as the summed CA repeat number of two alleles < or = 37 and > or = 38, respectively, we found that the Short genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, among negligibly exposed subjects. Next, we found that prior radiation exposure significantly enhanced lung cancer risk of survivors with the Long genotype, whereas the risk for the Short genotype did not show any significant increase with radiation dose, resulting in indistinguishable risks between these genotypes at a high radiation dose. Our findings imply that the EGFR pathway plays a crucial role in assessing individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma in relation to radiation exposure. PMID:19843645

  19. Lack of effects of atomic bomb radiation on genetic instability of tandem-repetitive elements in human germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kodaira, Mieko; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hiyama, Keiko |

    1995-12-01

    In a pilot study to detect the potential effects of atomic bomb radiation on germ-line instability, we screened 64 children from 50 exposed families and 60 from 50 control families for mutations at six minisatellite loci by using Southern blot analysis with Pc-1, {lambda}TM-18, ChdTC-15, p{lambda}g3, {lambda}MS-1, and CEB-1 probes. In the exposed families, one or both parents received a radiation dose >0.01 Sv. Among the 64 children, only one child had parents who were both exposed. Thus, of a total of 128 gametes that produced the 64 children, 65 gametes were derived from exposed parents and 63 were from unexposed parents, the latter being included in a group of 183 unexposed gametes used for calculating mutation rates. The average parental gonadal dose for the 65 gametes was 1.9 Sv. We detected a total of 28 mutations at the p{lambda}g3, {lambda}MS-1, and CEB-1 loci, but no mutations at the Pc-1, {lambda}TM-18, and ChdTC-15 loci. We detected 6 mutations in 390 alleles of the 65 exposed gametes and 22 mutations in 1098 alleles of the 183 gametes from the unexposed parents. The mean mutation rate per locus per gamete in these six minisatellite loci was 1.5% in the exposed parents and 2.0% in the unexposed parents. We observed no significant difference in mutation rates in the children of the exposed and the unexposed parents (P = .37, Fisher`s exact probability test). 38 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Britain's bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2012-10-01

    On the 60th anniversary of Britain's first nuclear test, Richard Corfield explores how Operation Hurricane - the British effort to develop the atomic bomb in the 1940s and 1950s - compares with states such as Iran that today wish to have such devices.

  1. Radiation-associated lung cancer: a comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Land, C E; Shimosato, Y; Saccomanno, G; Tokuoka, S; Auerbach, O; Tateishi, R; Greenberg, S D; Nambu, S; Carter, D; Akiba, S

    1993-05-01

    A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous-cell cancer, small-cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous-cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small-cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was accounted for adequately by differences in radiation dose or, more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published data. Radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas, in both populations. The data appeared to require no additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs external radiation source, or other population difference. PMID:8387679

  2. Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

  3. After the bomb drops: A new look at radiation-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jacqueline P.; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There is increasing concern that, since the Cold War era, there has been little progress regarding the availability of medical countermeasures in the event of either a radiological or nuclear incident. Fortunately, since much is known about the acute consequences that are likely to be experienced by an exposed population, the probability of survival from the immediate hematological crises after total body irradiation (TBI) has improved in recent years. Therefore focus has begun to shift towards later down-stream effects, seen in such organs as the gastrointestinal tract (GI), skin, and lung. However, the mechanisms underlying therapy-related normal tissue late effects, resulting from localised irradiation, have remained somewhat elusive and even less is known about the development of the delayed syndrome seen in the context of whole body exposures, when it is likely that systemic perturbations may alter tissue microenvironments and homeostasis. Conclusions The sequence of organ failures observed after near-lethal TBI doses are similar in many ways to that of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), leading to multiple organ failure (MOF). In this review, we compare the mechanistic pathways that underlie both MODS and delayed normal tissue effects since these may impact on strategies to identify radiation countermeasures. PMID:21417595

  4. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  5. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  6. Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

    2011-03-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study.

  7. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  8. Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

    2011-03-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  9. Understanding Cataract Risk in Aerospace Flight Crew And Review of Mechanisms of Cataract Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; McCarten, M.; Manuel, K.; Djojonegoro, B.; Murray, J.; Cucinotta, F.; Feiversen, A.; Wear, M.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of cataracts by occupational exposure in flight crew has been an important topic of interest in aerospace medicine in the past five years, in association with numerous reports of flight-associated disease incidences. Due to numerous confounding variables, it has been difficult to determine if there is increased cataract risk directly caused by interaction with the flight environment, specifically associated with added radiation exposure during flight. Military aviator records from the United States Air Force (USAF) and Navy (USN) and US astronauts at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) were evaluated for the presence, location and age of diagnosis of cataracts. Military aviators were found to have a statistically significant younger average age of onset of their cataracts compared with astronauts, however the incidence density of cataracts was found to be statistically higher in astronauts than in military aviators. USAF and USN aviator s cataracts were most commonly located in the posterior subcapsular region of the lens while astronauts cataracts were most likely to originate generally in the cortical zone. A prospective clinical trial which controls for confounding variables in examination technique, cataract classification, diet, exposure, and pharmacological intervention is needed to determine what percentage of the risk for cataracts are due to radiation, and how to best develop countermeasures to protect flight crews from radiation bioeffects in the future.

  10. Surgical considerations in the management of combined radiation blast injury casualties caused by a radiological dirty bomb.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to respond appropriately to the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb will be determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type unique terrorist event. This paper will focus on the surgical aspects of this scenario with particular emphasis on the management of combined trauma-radiological injury. The paper also describes some of the more serious explosion-contamination incidents from nuclear industrial sources, summarises learning points and parallels taken from these scenarios in relation to subject of a radiological dirty bomb and describes the likely radioactive substances involved. PMID:20149372

  11. Surgical considerations in the management of combined radiation blast injury casualties caused by a radiological dirty bomb.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to respond appropriately to the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb will be determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type unique terrorist event. This paper will focus on the surgical aspects of this scenario with particular emphasis on the management of combined trauma-radiological injury. The paper also describes some of the more serious explosion-contamination incidents from nuclear industrial sources, summarises learning points and parallels taken from these scenarios in relation to subject of a radiological dirty bomb and describes the likely radioactive substances involved.

  12. A clinical study of radiation cataract formation in adult life following γ irradiation of the lens in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, G.; Sjostrand, J.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To analyse long term effects on the lens of radium irradiation during infancy.
METHODS—An infant cohort (n = 20, median age 6 months) treated for skin haemangioma with one or two radium-226 needles located at or within the orbital rim was examined 30 to 45 years after γ radiation. Detailed information about the treatment procedure was available for all cases. Subcapsular opacities were graded semiquantitatively according to a scale based on extent and density of the opacities.
RESULTS—A high prevalence of light to moderate posterior, subcapsular, and cortical cataract formation was found in the lenses on the treated side irradiated with a mean dose ranging from approximately 1 to 8 Gy. The cataract formation increased as a function of dose. The presence of subcapsular punctate opacities and vacuoles in the lenses on the untreated side receiving irradiation of an estimated dose varying around 0.1 Gy indicates a higher sensitivity than expected.
CONCLUSION—The growing lens during infancy is sensitive to radium irradiation at doses lower than those previously stated. The eye lens seems suitable for studies of effects of low dose radiation since damaged cells are retained in the lens for a lifetime.

 PMID:9215051

  13. Elevated Frequency of Cataracts in Birds from Chernobyl

    PubMed Central

    Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Møller, Anders Pape

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804), which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:23935827

  14. Thermal cataract formation in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kramar, P.; Harris, C.; Guy, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Intraocularly circulating hot water was used to produce cataracts in nine eyes of seven rabbits by maintaining their retrolental temperatures between 43 degrees C and 45 degrees C. A rapid rate of heating (1.3 degrees C/min) plus a sharp temperature gradient across the eye may have been contributing factors in the consistent production of cataracts at these temperatures. Biomicroscopy and light microscopy showed lens changes similar to those associated with acute exposure to microwave radiation. These findings support the assumption that microwave cataractogenesis is due to the local production of elevated temperatures.

  15. Cataract formation mechanisms and risk in aviation and space crews.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey A; McCarten, Michael; Manuel, Keith; Djojonegoro, Baby; Murray, Jocelyn; Feiversen, Al; Wear, Mary

    2007-04-01

    Induction of cataracts by occupational exposure in flight crew has been an important topic of interest in aerospace medicine over the past 5 yr, in association with numerous reports of flight-associated disease incidences. Due to numerous confounding variables, it has been difficult to determine whether there is increased cataract risk directly caused by interaction with the flight environment, specifically associated with added radiation exposure during flight. Military aviator records from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and U.S. Navy (USN) and U.S. astronauts at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center were evaluated for the presence, location, and age of diagnosis of cataracts. Military aviators with cataracts were found to have a younger average age at onset of their cataracts compared with astronauts with cataracts, however the prevalence of cataracts was found to be higher in astronauts than in military aviators. U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy aviators' cataracts were most commonly located in the posterior subcapsular region of the lens while astronauts' cataracts were most likely to originate in the cortical zone. A prospective clinical trial which controls for confounding variables in examination technique, cataract classification, diet, exposure, and pharmacological intervention is needed to determine what percentage of the risk for cataracts is due to radiation, and how to best develop countermeasures to protect flight crews from radiation bioeffects in the future.

  16. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  17. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Fujikoshi, Y; Funamoto, S; Schull, W J

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed.

  19. Overview of the current attempts toward the medical treatment of cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Kador, P.F.

    1983-04-01

    A variety of agents are currently available that claim to either prevent, delay, or reverse cataracts associated with aging (senile cataracts), radiation, or diabetes and galactosemia (sugar cataracts). Senile cataract therapy includes formulation containing inorganic salts, nutritional supplements, natural product extracts, sulfhydryl, and sulfonic acid containing compounds and miscellaneous redox and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Agents associated with the treatment of radiation cataracts include antioxidants and free radial scavengers. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been effective in the prevention of sugar cataracts. A summary of these agents and their potential ocular effects are presented.

  20. Nutritional modulation of cataract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cataract, or lens opacification, remains a major cause of blindness worldwide. Cataracts reduce vision in over eighty million people, causing blindness in eighteen million people. The number afflicted by cataract will increase dramatically as the proportion of the elderly global population increase...

  1. Electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel does not indicate exposures to large radiation doses in a large proportion of distally-exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Cullings, Harry M; Miyazawa, Chuzo; Nakamura, Nori

    2011-01-01

    The atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to two different types of radiation exposure; one was direct and brief and the other was indirect and persistent. The latter (so-called exposure to residual radiation) resulted from the presence of neutron activation products in the soil, or from fission products present in the fallout. Compared with the doses from direct exposures, estimations of individual doses from residual radiation have been much more complicated, and estimates vary widely among researchers. The present report bases its conclusions on radiation doses recorded in tooth enamel from survivors in Hiroshima. Those survivors were present at distances of about 3 km or greater from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion, and have DS02 estimated doses (direct exposure doses) of less than 5 mGy (and are regarded as control subjects). Individual doses were estimated by measuring CO(2)(-) radicals in tooth enamel with the electron spin resonance (ESR; or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR) method. The results from 56 molars donated by 49 survivors provided estimated doses which vary from -200 mGy to 500 mGy, and the median dose was 17 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles are -54 mGy and 137 mGy, respectively) for the buccal parts and 13 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles: -49 mGy and 87 mGy, respectively) for the lingual parts of the molars. Three molars had ESR-estimated doses of 300 to 400 mGy for both the buccal and lingual parts, which indicates possible exposures to excess doses of penetrating radiation, although the origin of such radiation remains to be determined. The results did not support claims that a large fraction of distally-exposed survivors received large doses (e.g. 1 Gy) of external penetrating radiation resulting from residual radiation.

  2. Electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel does not indicate exposures to large radiation doses in a large proportion of distally-exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Cullings, Harry M; Miyazawa, Chuzo; Nakamura, Nori

    2011-01-01

    The atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to two different types of radiation exposure; one was direct and brief and the other was indirect and persistent. The latter (so-called exposure to residual radiation) resulted from the presence of neutron activation products in the soil, or from fission products present in the fallout. Compared with the doses from direct exposures, estimations of individual doses from residual radiation have been much more complicated, and estimates vary widely among researchers. The present report bases its conclusions on radiation doses recorded in tooth enamel from survivors in Hiroshima. Those survivors were present at distances of about 3 km or greater from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion, and have DS02 estimated doses (direct exposure doses) of less than 5 mGy (and are regarded as control subjects). Individual doses were estimated by measuring CO(2)(-) radicals in tooth enamel with the electron spin resonance (ESR; or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR) method. The results from 56 molars donated by 49 survivors provided estimated doses which vary from -200 mGy to 500 mGy, and the median dose was 17 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles are -54 mGy and 137 mGy, respectively) for the buccal parts and 13 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles: -49 mGy and 87 mGy, respectively) for the lingual parts of the molars. Three molars had ESR-estimated doses of 300 to 400 mGy for both the buccal and lingual parts, which indicates possible exposures to excess doses of penetrating radiation, although the origin of such radiation remains to be determined. The results did not support claims that a large fraction of distally-exposed survivors received large doses (e.g. 1 Gy) of external penetrating radiation resulting from residual radiation. PMID:21768749

  3. Associations of Ionizing Radiation and Breast Cancer-Related Serum Hormone and Growth Factor Levels in Cancer-Free Female A-Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Eric J.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Cologne, John; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Hayashi, Tomonori; Geyer, Susan; Izumi, Shizue; Nishi, Nobuo; Land, Charles; Stevens, Richard G.; Sharp, Gerald B.; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Levels of exposure to ionizing radiation are increasing for women worldwide due to the widespread use of CT and other radiologic diagnostic modalities. Exposure to ionizing radiation as well as increased levels of estradiol and other sex hormones are acknowledged breast cancer risk factors, but the effects of whole-body radiation on serum hormone levels in cancer-free women are unknown. This study examined whether ionizing radiation exposure is associated with levels of serum hormones and other markers that may mediate radiation-associated breast cancer risk. Serum samples were measured from cancer-free women who attended biennial health examinations with a wide range of past radiation exposure levels (N = 412, ages 26–79). The women were selected as controls for separate case-control studies from a cohort of A-bomb survivors. Outcome measures included serum levels of total estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and ferritin. Relationships were assessed using repeated-measures regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations. Geometric mean serum levels of total estradiol and bioavailable estradiol increased with 1 Gy of radiation dose among samples collected from postmenopausal women (17%1Gy, 95% CI: 1%–36% and 21%1Gy, 95% CI: 4%–40%, respectively), while they decreased in samples collected from premenopausal women (−11%1Gy, 95% CI: −20%–1% and −12%1Gy, 95% CI: −20%– −2%, respectively). Interactions by menopausal status were significant (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively). Testosterone levels increased with radiation dose in postmenopausal samples (30.0%1Gy, 95% CI: 13%–49%) while they marginally decreased in premenopausal samples (−10%1Gy, 95% CI: −19%–0%) and the interaction by menopausal status was significant (P < 0.001). Serum levels of IGF1 increased linearly with radiation dose (11%1Gy

  4. A Constant Pressure Bomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1924-01-01

    This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.

  5. Delayed effects of A-bomb radiation: a review of recent mortality rates and risk estimates for five-year survivors.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A M

    1982-06-01

    A review of published data relating to A-bomb survivors has led to the conclusion that since they were based on the mortality experiences of five year survivors estimates of radiation effects should have been controlled for two opposing forces-namely, selective survival of exceptionally fit individuals during the period of heavy acute mortality and residual disabilities. Both effects were dose-related and beyond question, and the disabilities probably included the effects of incomplete repair of bone marrow damage. Therefore, in addition to differences between high and low dose being largely obliterated, there was probably distortion of cancer effects. The two opposing forces are clearly the reason why the change from the high mortality rates of 1945-6 to the low rates of the 1950s was not accompanied by a change from a position to a negative association with dose, and imperviousness to the residual disabilities is probably the reason why sudden deaths of previously healthy individuals (exemplified by suicides) were an exception to this rule. Finally, impairment of bone marrow function probably accounts for the early epidemic of myeloid leukaemia; the apparent absence of other cancers at this time, and the relatively high dose-related death rates for blood diseases other than leukaemia.

  6. Effects of atomic bomb radiation on differentiation of B lymphocytes and on the function of concanavalin A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Neriishi, S.; Ishimaru, T.; Shimba, N.; Hamilton, H.B.; Ohgushi, Y.; Koyanagi, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1985-02-01

    The differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-producing cells (Ig-PC) by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and the function of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor T lymphocytes were examined to elucidate the late effects of atomic bomb radiation. A total of 140 individuals, 70 with an exposure dose of 100 rad or more and an equal number with an exposure dose of 0 rad matched by sex and age, were selected from the Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) sample. Both the differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into Ig-PC by PWM and the function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to be more depressed in the exposed group than in the control group, but a statistically significant difference could not be observed between the two groups. The function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to decrease with age, but a statistical significance was detected only for percentage suppression against IgM-PC.

  7. Genetics of Congenital Cataract.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Lembo, Andrea; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that presents at birth or during early childhood, and it is one of the most easily treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1-6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause, and such cases are quite heterogeneous. Although congenital nuclear cataract can be caused by multiple factors, genetic mutation remains the most common cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent. The transparency and high refractive index of the lens are achieved by the precise architecture of fiber cells and homeostasis of the lens proteins in terms of their concentrations, stabilities, and supramolecular organization. Research on hereditary congenital cataract has led to the identification of several classes of candidate genes that encode proteins such crystallins, lens-specific connexins, aquaporin, cytoskeletal structural proteins, and developmental regulators. In this review, we highlight the identified genetic mutations that account for congenital nuclear cataract.

  8. Cataract Surgery in Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Murthy, Somashiela; Ganesh, Sudha K.; Phaik, Chee Soon; Sangwan, Virender; Biswas, Jyotimai

    2012-01-01

    Cataract surgery in uveitic eyes is often challenging and can result in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Most uveitic patients enjoy good vision despite potentially sight-threatening complications, including cataract development. In those patients who develop cataracts, successful surgery stems from educated patient selection, careful surgical technique, and aggressive preoperative and postoperative control of inflammation. With improved understanding of the disease processes, pre- and perioperative control of inflammation, modern surgical techniques, availability of biocompatible intraocular lens material and design, surgical experience in performing complicated cataract surgeries, and efficient management of postoperative complications have led to much better outcome. Preoperative factors include proper patient selection and counseling and preoperative control of inflammation. Meticulous and careful cataract surgery in uveitic cataract is essential in optimizing the postoperative outcome. Management of postoperative complications, especially inflammation and glaucoma, earlier rather than later, has also contributed to improved outcomes. This manuscript is review of the existing literature and highlights the management pearls in tackling complicated cataract based on medline search of literature and experience of the authors. PMID:22518338

  9. Lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with lung cancer mortality in the atomic bomb survivors study

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    Current lung cancer risk estimates after exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation such as X rays are based on studies of people exposed to such radiation at high dose rates, for example the atomic bomb survivors. Radiobiology and animal experiments suggest that risks from exposure at low to moderate dose rates, for example medical diagnostic procedures, may be overestimated by such risk models, but data for humans to examine this issue are limited. In this paper we report on lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 in a cohort of 64,172 Canadian tuberculosis patients, of whom 39% were exposed to highly fractionated multiple chest fluoroscopies leading to a mean lung radiation dose of 1.02 Sv received at moderate dose rates. These data have been used to estimate the excess relative risk per sievert of lung cancer mortality, and this is compared directly to estimates derived from 75,991 atomic bomb survivors. Based on 1,178 lung cancer deaths in the fluoroscopy study, there was no evidence of any positive association between risk and dose, with the relative risk at 1 Sv being 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.94, 1.07), which contrasts with that based on the atomic bomb survivors, 1.60 (1.27, 1.99). The difference in effect between the two studies almost certainly did not arise by chance (P = 0.0001). This study provides strong support from data for humans for a substantial fractionation/dose-rate effect for low-linear energy transfer radiation and lung cancer risk. This implies that lung cancer risk from exposures to such radiation at present-day dose rates is likely to be lower than would be predicted by current radiation risk models based on studies of high-dose-rate exposures. 25 refs., 8 tabs.

  10. Solar Chromosphere: Ellerman Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In 1917, Ellerman discovered short-lived, intense brightenings at tiny (<1 arcsec) points in the lower solar CHROMOSPHERE. A typical Ellerman bomb lasts less than 10 min. Its spectrum is characterized by very broad emission wings on the hydrogen Balmer lines. On a photographic negative, the pattern of a bomb's emission resembles a mustache or whisker. Reinforcing the allusion to mustaches is the ...

  11. Cataract Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Latino-Americans Apr 26, 2016 Vitamin See: Foods Rich in Vitamin C Help Curb Cataracts Mar 28, 2016 Los Alimentos Ricos en ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  12. Cataract Surgery Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA-McGannon cataract surgery tool is a tiny cutter-pump which liquefies and pumps the cataract lens material from the eye. Inserted through a small incision in the cornea, the tool can be used on the hardest cataract lens. The cutter is driven by a turbine which operates at about 200,000 revolutions per minute. Incorporated in the mechanism are two passages for saline solutions, one to maintain constant pressure within the eye, the other for removal of the fragmented lens material and fluids. Three years of effort have produced a design, now being clinically evaluated, with excellent potential for improved cataract surgery. The use of this tool is expected to reduce the patient's hospital stay and recovery period significantly.

  13. Age-related cataract.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Penny A; Dualan, Ivo; Mindel, Joel; Brocks, Dan; Ahmad, Mehdi; Epstein, Seth

    Cataract, opacification of the lens, is one of the commonest causes of loss of useful vision, with an estimated 16 million people worldwide affected. Several risk factors have been identified in addition to increasing age--genetic composition, exposure to ultraviolet light, and diabetes. However, no method to halt the formation of a cataractous lens has been shown to be effective. Nevertheless, advances in surgical removal of cataracts, including small-incision surgery, use of viscoelastics, and the development of intraocular lenses, have made treatment very effective and visual recovery rapid in most cases. Despite these advances, cataract continues to be a leading public-health issue that will grow in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. PMID:15708105

  14. Cataracts - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about cataracts; Lens implants - what to ask your doctor ... What is a cataract? How will cataract surgery help my vision? If I have cataracts in both eyes, can I have surgery on ...

  15. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  16. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  17. Cataract and Cataract Surgery: Nationwide Prevalence and Clinical Determinants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67–43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97–42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91–45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30–8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80–6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41–9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants. PMID:27247507

  18. Crosslinkage theory of senile cataracts.

    PubMed

    Bellows, J G; Bellows, R T

    1976-02-01

    The theory of crosslinkage as a cause of aging of all living organic tissues has withstood the test of time. Nearly all the past theories of senile cataract formation contain elements involving a potent crosslinking agent. Therefore crosslinkage may now be recognized as the common denominator in past theories of senile cataracts. This paper proposes that crosslinkage is the mechanism for senile cataract formation.

  19. Are IRIS Bombs Connected to Ellerman Bombs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas (˜2-8 × 104 K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified 10 IBs. We find that 3 are unambiguously and 3 others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended {{{H}}}α wings without leaving an obvious signature in the {{{H}}}α core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) the O iv 1401.156 Å and 1399.774 Å lines are absent or very weak; (2) the Mn i 2795.640 Å line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg ii k line wing; (3) the Mg ii k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni ii 1393.330 Å and 1335.203 Å are very strong; and (5) the 1700 Å images obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal intense and compact brightenings. These properties support the formation of these bombs in the photosphere, demonstrating that EBs can be heated much more efficiently than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the Mg ii k and h lines can be used to investigate EBs similarly to {{{H}}}α , which opens a promising new window for EB studies. The remaining four IBs obviously have no connection to EBs and they do not have the properties mentioned above, suggesting a higher formation layer, possibly in the chromosphere.

  20. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  1. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei.

  2. UV Spectra, Bombs, and the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.

    2015-08-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reports plasma “bombs” with temperatures near 8 × 104 K within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, first because most bomb plasma pressures p (the largest reported case exceeds 103 dyn cm-2) fall well below photospheric pressures (\\gt 7× {10}3), and second, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the IRIS data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between ≤ 80 and 800 dyne cm-2 before explosion, i.e., between ≥ 850 and 550 km above {τ }500=1. This places the phenomenon’s origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfvénic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  3. Independent analysis of the radiation risk for leukaemia in children and adults with mortality data (1950-2003) of Japanese A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    A recent analysis of leukaemia mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors has applied descriptive models, collected together from previous studies, to derive a joint excess relative risk estimate (ERR) by multi-model inference (MMI) (Walsh and Kaiser in Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011). The models use a linear-quadratic dose response with differing dose effect modifiers. In the present study, a set of more than 40 models has been submitted to a rigorous statistical selection procedure which fosters the parsimonious deployment of model parameters based on pairwise likelihood ratio tests. Nested models were consequently excluded from risk assessment. The set comprises models of the excess absolute risk (EAR) and two types of non-standard ERR models with sigmoidal responses or two line spline functions with a changing slope at a break point. Due to clearly higher values of the Akaike Information Criterion, none of the EAR models has been selected, but two non-standard ERR models qualified for MMI. The preferred ERR model applies a purely quadratic dose response which is slightly damped by an exponential factor at high doses and modified by a power function for attained age. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study reports similar point estimates and confidence intervals (CI) of the ERR from MMI for doses between 0.5 and 2.5 Sv. However, at lower doses, the point estimates are markedly reduced by factors between two and five, although the reduction was not statistically significant. The 2.5 % percentiles of the ERR from the preferred quadratic-exponential model did not fall below zero risk in exposure scenarios for children, adolescents and adults at very low doses down to 10 mSv. Yet, MMI produced risk estimates with a positive 2.5 % percentile only above doses of some 300 mSv. Compared to CI from a single model of choice, CI from MMI are broadened in cohort strata with low statistical power by a combination of risk extrapolations from several

  4. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  5. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  6. Comparison of optical coherence tomography imaging of cataracts with histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Roach, William P.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Cox, Ann B.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) captured cataract images to subsequent histopathological examination of the lenticular opacities. OCT imaging was performed on anesthetized Rhesus monkeys, known as the delayed effects colony (DEC), with documented cataracts. These monkeys were exposed to several types of radiation during the mid and late 1960s. The radiation and age related cataracts in these animals were closely monitored using a unique grading system developed specifically for the DEC. In addition to this system, a modified version of a common cataract grading scheme for use in humans was applied. Of the original 18 monkeys imaged, lenses were collected at necropsy from seven of these animals, processed, and compared to OCT images. Results showed a direct correlation between the vertical OCT images and the cataractous lesions seen on corresponding histopathological sections of the lenses. Based on the images obtained and their corresponding documented comparison to histopathology, OCT showed tremendous potential to aid identification and characterization of cataracts. There can be artifactual problems with the images related to movement and shadows produced by opacities. However, with the advent of increased speed in imaging and multiplanar imaging, these disadvantages may easily be overcome.

  7. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public.

  8. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. PMID:22440534

  9. Atomic bomb survivors and the sigmoidal response model

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiological data on health effects of low-level radiation based on 40-yr followup studies of 75000 atomic bomb survivors and 35000 control people show that there were no measurable risks from low-level radiation in regard to noncancer diseases, genetic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. However, seemingly sigmoidal responses of bomb radiation-induced cancers, which must have been caused by tumorigenic mutations contradict experimental results that mutations linearly increase with increase in radiation dose. An explanation is proposed for this superficial contradiction.

  10. The Freezing Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  11. Dealing with "The Bomb"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Every superintendent eventually has to deal with "The Bomb." This refers to a loaded question from a board member dropped at an inopportune moment in a public meeting when the superintendent has been given no time to prepare an informed response. The superintendent's typical reactions include the "deer in the headlights" look, a big gulp or even a…

  12. Pathology of atomic bomb casualties.

    PubMed

    Iijima, S

    1982-01-01

    Thirty seven years ago, 6 August 1945 marks the date of the first atomic bombing never experienced in human history. It was dropped on Hiroshima and this was followed by a second bombing three days later on Nagasaki. The total deaths following exposure to the bomb by the end of 1945 totalled 140,000 (+/- 10,000) in Hiroshima and 70,000 (+/- 10,000) in Nagasaki. The present article described and outline of the physical effects of the atomic bomb and injury to the human body by exposure to the bomb.

  13. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  14. Cataract blindness--challenges for the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Brian, G.; Taylor, H.

    2001-01-01

    Cataract prevalence increases with age. As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The challenges are to prevent or delay cataract formation, and treat that which does occur. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to cataract formation. However, reducing ocular exposure to UV-B radiation and stopping smoking are the only interventions that can reduce factors that affect the risk of cataract. The cure for cataract is surgery, but this is not equally available to all, and the surgery which is available does not produce equal outcomes. Readily available surgical services capable of delivering good vision rehabilitation must be acceptable and accessible to all in need, no matter what their circumstances. To establish and sustain these services requires comprehensive strategies that go beyond a narrow focus on surgical technique. There must be changes in government priorities, population education, and an integrated approach to surgical and management training. This approach must include supply of start-up capital equipment, establishment of surgical audit, resupply of consumables, and cost-recovery mechanisms. Considerable innovation is required. Nowhere is this more evident than in the pursuit of secure funding for ongoing services. PMID:11285671

  15. BOMB STABILIZING STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, J.L.; Runyan, C.E.

    1963-12-10

    A stabilizinig structure capable of minimizing deviations of a falling body such as a bomb from desired trajectory is described. The structure comprises a fin or shroud arrangement of double-wedge configuration, the feeding portion being of narrow wedge shape and the after portion being of a wider wedge shape. The structure provides a force component for keeping the body on essentially desired trajectory throughout its fall. (AEC)

  16. Sharing the atom bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Chace, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaken by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and fearful that the American atomic monopoly would spark an arms race, Dean Acheson led a push in 1946 to place the bomb-indeed, all atomic energy-under international control. But as the memories of wartime collaboration faded, relations between the superpowers grew increasingly tense, and the confrontational atmosphere undid his proposal. Had Acheson succeeded, the Cold War might not have been. 2 figs.

  17. New bomb, no mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, G.

    1997-05-01

    The cold war may be over, but the nuclear arms race has not quite ended. The United States is fielding a new nuclear weapon-a bomb that was used to threaten Libya, a non-nuclear nation, even before it was deployed. The B61 {open_quotes}mod-11{close_quotes} gravity bomb is the first nuclear capability added to the US arsenal since 1989. It was developed and deployed secretly, without public or congressional debate, and in apparent contradiction to official domestic and international assurances that no new nuclear weapons were being developed in the United States. The B61-11`s unique earth-penetrating characteristic and wide range of yields allow it to threaten otherwide indestructible targets from the air-or, in Pentagonese, to hold such targets {open_quotes}at risk.{close_quotes} That makes the B61-11 a uniquely useful warfighting tool. The 1,200-pound B61-11 replaces the B53, a 8,900-pound, nine-megaton bomb that was developed as a {open_quotes}city buster{close_quotes} and was later designated as a substitute for an earth-penetrating weapon. The B53 was deliverable only by vulnerable B-52s; in contrast, the smaller and lighter B61-11 can be delivered the the stealthier B-2A bomber, or even by F16 fighters.

  18. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Jose, U.; Yang, V. V.; Barker, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles are evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density. The relative biological effectiveness in relation to linear energy transfer for various particles is considered. Results indicated that low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of Fe 56 or Ar 40 particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; onset and density of the opacification are dose related and cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial linear energy transfer dependence. The severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of Co 60 gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of C12 doses over 24 weeks.

  19. Atomic bomb and accident dosimetry with ESR: natural rocks and human tooth in-vivo spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ikeya, M; Ishii, H

    1989-01-01

    ESR dosimetry of some construction materials at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to determine the A-bomb radiation dose. Some minerals exposed to low-level natural radiation over a given geological time period can be also used to determine the intense A-bomb radiation dose. Finally, an ESR cavity and a special NdBFe (Neomax) magnet system for in-vivo measurement of radiation dose of a human tooth without extraction is designed and manufactured.

  20. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Carter, R.L.; Yamakido, Michio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE) were measured among 2,061 individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki whose estimated doses ranged from 0 to 5.6 Gy. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor were found to be increased in the individuals exposed to higher radiation doses. The IgA level in females and the IgM level in both sexes increased as radiation dose increased, although the effects of radiation exposure were not large. No effect of radiation was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody or on the levels of IgG and IgE. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Diplopia as the Complication of Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gawęcki, Maciej; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The authors present systematic review of aetiology and treatment of diplopia related to cataract surgery. The problem is set in the modern perspective of changing cataract surgery. Actual incidence is discussed as well as various modalities of therapeutic options. The authors provide the guidance for the contemporary cataract surgeon, when to expect potential problem in ocular motility after cataract surgery. PMID:26998351

  2. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.

  3. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  4. Astigmatism following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Reading, V M

    1984-02-01

    The changes in corneal curvature were determined at regular intervals over a one-year period following intracapsular cataract extraction by microsurgical techniques. During the first postoperative month photokeratometric measurements showed rapid changes in astigmatism associated with large changes in the direction of the axis. Thereafter astigmatism against-the-rule predominated. Data from the small group of patients who underwent surgery in which the technique of phacoemulsification was used show that the smaller changes in corneal curvature are attributable to the smaller incision size and reduced number of sutures. With patients who underwent intracapsular extraction a comparison has been made between the effects of large and small section sizes, and a procedure is outlined whereby surgically induced astigmatism may be minimised.

  5. Effect of radioprotective agents on X-ray cataracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.N.; Ikebe, H.; Giblin, F.J.; Clark, J.I.; Livesey, J.C. )

    1989-01-01

    The effect of some protective agents on cataract development is briefly reviewed and new evidence is presented on the efficacy of a phosphorothioate compound (Amifostine) in inhibiting the development of X-ray-induced cataract. Morphological studies showed that at the end of 4 months, lenses from X-irradiated rats which had not received any drugs showed liquefaction in the equatorial region and at the posterior pole, as well as a marked swelling of the fibers in the anterior cortex. Animals which received 1.16g/kg of WR77913 showed considerable protection against the development of radiation induced cataracts with morphological changes in the lens being less severe than in animals receiving no drugs. When animals were treated with 0.5g/kg of Amifostine (WR2721) the lenses showed much greater protection against cataract development than with WR77913. Amifostine appears to be more effective than WR77913 in inhibiting X-ray-induced cataract development. 20 refs.

  6. Astigmatism in cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Luntz, M. H.; Livingston, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    We report on our investigation into astigmatism in 40 eyes following a corneal cataract incision closed with a continuous 10/0 nylon monofilament suture (Ethilon). Immediately after surgery there was astigmatism caused by the nylon suture (suture-induced astigmatism), its severity depending on the tightness of the suture. It ranged from 1 to 10-5 dioptres, the mean value 4-09 dioptres with a standard deviation of +/-2-5. Removing the nylon suture eliminated this astigmatism and within a few weeks the corneal astigmatism correction in 48% of eyes returned to the preoperative level. In 80% of eyes the difference between the final postoperative corneal astigmatism (4 months after removing the continuous suture) and the preoperative astigmatism was 0-75 dioptres or less and the maximum change was 1-5 dioptres. In 40% of eyes the axis of the cylinder changed from a horizontal to an oblique axis but did not change from a with- to against-the-rule axis. The degree of astigmatism remained constant while the suture was in place and in 50% of eyes was equal to or less than 3 dioptres. The mean of the spherical equivalents was 11-31 dioptres with a standard deviation of +/-1-25. A spectacle correction 14 days after operation prescribed either as the mean spherical equivalent (11-50 dioptres) or according to the patient's refraction will give satisfactory vision until the suture is removed 4 months after operation. The degree of astigmatism following a corneal section and continuous nylon suture compares very favourably with astigmatism following other suturing techniques for cataract. Images PMID:326304

  7. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources.

  8. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, E.H.; Jose, J.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron (/sup 56/Fe) or argon (/sup 40/Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of /sup 12/C doses over 24 weeks.

  9. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  10. Cataract surgery in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sangal, Neha; Chen, Teresa C

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is characterized by the deposition of distinctive fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye. It is an age-related process that is associated with open and narrow angle glaucomas and the formation of cataracts. Not only is PXF associated with the formation of dense nuclear cataracts, it is also well known that those presenting with PXF are at a higher risk of developing complications during, and even after, cataract surgery. Complications associated with cataract surgery in PXF can occur from poor pupillary dilation, zonular weakness leading to intraoperative or postoperative lens dislocation and vitreous loss, postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes potentiating glaucomatous damage, capsular phimosis, prolonged inflammation, and postoperative corneal decompensation. The surgeon should be prepared to encounter the various potential intraoperative and postoperative complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome during cataract surgery. In this way, the surgeon can plan his/her surgical technique to help avoid surprises during cataract surgery and be prepared to manage the potential postoperative complications that can occur in pseudoexfoliation eyes. PMID:25325866

  11. Suicide bombing: a geopolitical perspective.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Haider Ali; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Huma, Shafqat

    2011-01-01

    Suicide bombing is a very complex phenomenon. It has been a focus of research in recent times. However inherent biases of researchers muddle the picture: researchers from western countries focus the issue around political liberty and notion of democracy, while those from Islamic countries tend to take the afterlife-reward notion as an incentive for suicide bombing. However in order to understand this complex phenomenon it is important to consider the contextual factors. In this review we have attempted to highlight various geopolitical factors which contribute to increased incidence of suicide bombing in South East Asia. PMID:22368909

  12. MK 82 bomb characterization donor study

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, R.A.; Hantel, L.W.

    1989-04-01

    Optical, radiographic, and electronic pin techniques were used to evaluate the fragmentation of tail- and side-initiated MK 82 MOD 1 general-purpose bombs. The bombs were found to contain large voids in the Tritonal explosive fill, which were randomly located from bomb to bomb. The void-side fragments had slightly greater average velocity in the far field. The nonvoid-side wall expansion rate was greater than for the void side for the first few centimeters of motion and then was overtaken by the void-side expansion in the 60- to 100-mm expansion region. The nonvoid-side behavior was quite uniform from bomb to bomb; the void-side expansion was not reproducible from bomb to bomb or from location to location on the same bomb. The data collected will be useful in evaluating suppression systems designed for use with MK 82 bombs. 21 tabs., 52 figs., 11 refs.

  13. Pulfrich's phenomenon in unilateral cataract

    PubMed Central

    Scotcher, S.; Laidlaw, D; Canning, C.; Weal, M.; Harrad, R.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether unilateral cataract causes a pathological Pulfrich's phenomenon.
METHODS—29 subjects with unilateral cataract and contralateral pseudophakia were assessed on their ability to perceive the Pulfrich phenomenon. Using a computer generated pendulum image, and graded neutral density filters, a series of forced choice trials were performed in which the subject was required to describe the direction of any apparent pendulum rotation. A pathological Pulfrich effect was said to occur when apparent rotation was perceived in the presence of a zero strength neutral density filter. The size of any pathological Pulfrich effect which was present was quantified by neutralising the perceived pendulum rotation with neutral density filters of varying strength placed before the better seeing eye.
RESULTS—20 out of 29 subjects were able to perceive apparent pendulum rotation when uniocular filtering was performed. In the group (n=12) which was tested both before and after cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation, a statistically significant pathological Pulfrich effect was demonstrated preoperatively, compared with a group of normal control subjects. This effect was abolished after cataract extraction (p=0.009). The median size of the effect was equivalent to a 0.25 log unit neutral density filter over the non-cataractous eye. The subjects who were unable to perceive the Pulfrich phenomenon at all had a significantly greater difference in the visual acuity of each eye (p=0.045) and significantly worse stereoacuity than those who were able to perceive the effect (p=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS—Unilateral cataract can cause a pathological Pulfrich phenomenon. This finding may explain why some patients with unilateral cataract complain of visual symptoms that are not easily accounted for in terms of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, or stereoacuity.

 PMID:9497463

  14. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  15. Congenital Cataract Screening

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  16. Congenital Cataract Screening

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  17. Congenital Cataract Screening.

    PubMed

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  18. Cataract Surgery in the Glaucoma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Jennifer S.; Choi, Daniel Y.; Cheema, Anjum S.; Singh, Kuldev

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the role of cataract surgery in the glaucoma patient, in terms of the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for those with both conditions. Recent evidence suggests that cataract extraction may produce a significant and sustained IOP reduction in individuals with open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and angle-closure glaucoma. Cataract removal may improve the practitioner's ability to interpret perimetric testing, and re-establishing perimetric and optic nerve imaging baselines is recommended after cataract surgery. The sequence of cataract surgery relative to glaucoma surgery impacts the likelihood of complications and surgical success. There are multiple benefits to perform cataract surgery prior to glaucoma surgery while cataract surgery after trabeculectomy increases the risk of subsequent filtration failure. As “minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries” continue to improve in terms of efficacy, there is an evolving role for combined cataract and glaucoma surgery in patients with early to moderate stages of glaucoma. PMID:25624668

  19. A novel RET rearrangement (ACBD5/RET) by pericentric inversion, inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2), in papillary thyroid cancer from an atomic bomb survivor exposed to high-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Koyama, Kazuaki; Mukai, Mayumi; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-11-01

    During analysis of RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) among atomic bomb survivors, a cDNA fragment of a novel type of RET rearrangement was identified in a PTC patient exposed to a high radiation dose using the improved 5' RACE method. This gene resulted from the fusion of the 3' portion of RET containing tyrosine kinase domain to the 5' portion of the acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 5 (ACBD5) gene, by pericentric inversion inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2); expression of the fusion gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. ACBD5 gene is ubiquitously expressed in various human normal tissues including thyroid. Full-length cDNA of the ACBD5-RET gene was constructed and then examined for tumorigenicity. Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK proteins in the MAPK pathway was observed in NIH3T3 cells transfected with expression vector encoding the full-length ACBD5/RET cDNA, while this was not observed in the cells transfected with empty expression vector. Stable NIH3T3 transfectants with ACBD5-RET cDNA induced tumor formation after their injection into nude mice. These findings suggest that the ACBD5-RET rearrangement is causatively involved in the development of PTC.

  20. A novel RET rearrangement (ACBD5/RET) by pericentric inversion, inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2), in papillary thyroid cancer from an atomic bomb survivor exposed to high-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Koyama, Kazuaki; Mukai, Mayumi; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-11-01

    During analysis of RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) among atomic bomb survivors, a cDNA fragment of a novel type of RET rearrangement was identified in a PTC patient exposed to a high radiation dose using the improved 5' RACE method. This gene resulted from the fusion of the 3' portion of RET containing tyrosine kinase domain to the 5' portion of the acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 5 (ACBD5) gene, by pericentric inversion inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2); expression of the fusion gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. ACBD5 gene is ubiquitously expressed in various human normal tissues including thyroid. Full-length cDNA of the ACBD5-RET gene was constructed and then examined for tumorigenicity. Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK proteins in the MAPK pathway was observed in NIH3T3 cells transfected with expression vector encoding the full-length ACBD5/RET cDNA, while this was not observed in the cells transfected with empty expression vector. Stable NIH3T3 transfectants with ACBD5-RET cDNA induced tumor formation after their injection into nude mice. These findings suggest that the ACBD5-RET rearrangement is causatively involved in the development of PTC. PMID:25175022

  1. [Keratoplasty combined with cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Muraine, M; Gueudry, J; Retout, A; Genevois, O

    2012-09-01

    Corneal pathologies leading to keratoplasty are often associated with cataract and combined surgery is therefore mandatory. Triple procedure with penetrating keratoplasty and concurrent cataract extraction followed by intra ocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually the preferential choice because visual rehabilitation is theoretically more rapid. Surgeons have to be aware of surgical conditions during open-sky surgery because vitreous pressure is not counterbalanced by anterior chamber pressure. Today, many surgeons prefer non-simultaneous procedures with cataract surgery performed months after grafting because of the improvement in spherical refractive error. More recently, new triple procedures, Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty and concurrent cataract surgery have gained popularity, especially in patients with Fuchs dystrophy associated with cataract. Surgery starts with phacoemulsification, followed by endothelium exchange through a 3 to 5 mm incision. Advantages against classic triple procedure are quick visual rehabilitation, fewer induced refractive errors, minimal postoperative discomfort and corneal integrity. Surgeons have to consider an eventual postoperative hyperopic shift secondary to corneal lenticule shape when choosing adequate intraocular lens. PMID:22921023

  2. [Keratoplasty combined with cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Muraine, M; Gueudry, J; Retout, A; Genevois, O

    2012-09-01

    Corneal pathologies leading to keratoplasty are often associated with cataract and combined surgery is therefore mandatory. Triple procedure with penetrating keratoplasty and concurrent cataract extraction followed by intra ocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually the preferential choice because visual rehabilitation is theoretically more rapid. Surgeons have to be aware of surgical conditions during open-sky surgery because vitreous pressure is not counterbalanced by anterior chamber pressure. Today, many surgeons prefer non-simultaneous procedures with cataract surgery performed months after grafting because of the improvement in spherical refractive error. More recently, new triple procedures, Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty and concurrent cataract surgery have gained popularity, especially in patients with Fuchs dystrophy associated with cataract. Surgery starts with phacoemulsification, followed by endothelium exchange through a 3 to 5 mm incision. Advantages against classic triple procedure are quick visual rehabilitation, fewer induced refractive errors, minimal postoperative discomfort and corneal integrity. Surgeons have to consider an eventual postoperative hyperopic shift secondary to corneal lenticule shape when choosing adequate intraocular lens.

  3. Emerging Technology in Refractive Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, João; Neatrour, Kristin; Waring IV, George O.

    2016-01-01

    Technology in cataract surgery is constantly evolving to meet the goals of both surgeons and patients. Recent major advances in refractive cataract surgery include innovations in preoperative and intraoperative diagnostics, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), and a new generation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). This paper presents the latest technologies in each of these major categories and discusses how these contributions serve to improve cataract surgery outcomes in a safe, effective, and predictable manner. PMID:27433353

  4. Emerging Technology in Refractive Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, João; Neatrour, Kristin; Waring Iv, George O

    2016-01-01

    Technology in cataract surgery is constantly evolving to meet the goals of both surgeons and patients. Recent major advances in refractive cataract surgery include innovations in preoperative and intraoperative diagnostics, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), and a new generation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). This paper presents the latest technologies in each of these major categories and discusses how these contributions serve to improve cataract surgery outcomes in a safe, effective, and predictable manner. PMID:27433353

  5. Complex Cases in Pediatric Cataract.

    PubMed

    Patil-Chhablani, Preeti; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Nischal, Kanwall Ken

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the techniques and pitfalls that the reader may come across when dealing with complex pediatric cataract cases. Each eye in these circumstances is unique, and the examples and general advice shared are intended to help the reader develop a plan for surgery and a road map to avoid potential problems. As in all types of surgery, careful planning is essential. The old saying 'Fail to prepare, then you prepare to fail' is no more true than when dealing with children who have complex cataract. In this chapter, the following circumstances where pediatric cataract may be seen are discussed: retinoblastoma, retinopathy of prematurity, lenticonus, congenital rubella syndrome, trauma, microcornea, pediatric uveitis, Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Stickler syndrome, Lowe syndrome, subluxated lens, and after previous intraocular surgery (glaucoma, keratoplasty).

  6. Bomb pulse biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 μg of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  7. Experimental simulation of A-bomb gamma ray spectra: revisited.

    PubMed

    Pattison, John E; Payne, Lester C; Hugtenburg, Richard P; Beddoe, Alun H; Charles, Monty W

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the A-bomb gamma ray spectra received by the colon of the average Japanese survivor of Hiroshima and Nagasaki may be experimentally simulated using a hospital-based Philips SL15 linear accelerator. The simulated A-bomb gamma radiation may be used in radiobiology experiments to determine, amongst other things, the biological effectiveness of the A-bomb gamma radiation. However, in that study, the electron beams from the linear accelerator were poorly defined and photon contamination was ignored. In the study reported here, a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator has been used for the same purpose but with photon contamination included in better defined output electron beams. It is found that the A-bomb gamma radiation can still be matched to an acceptable degree (<10%). The cause of the slightly poorer fit was due mainly to the different ranges of energies available from the linear accelerators used. The absorbed dose received by model breasts was also estimated in this study for the same situations as in the previous study. The ratio of the breast to colon doses was found to be only (3.9 +/- 4.0)% low compared with the expected values of 1.17 and 1.16 for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. These results provide further confirmation of the acceptability of the simple cylindrically symmetrical body models employed in these studies to represent the average Japanese survivor.

  8. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect.

    PubMed

    Putnam, F W

    1998-05-12

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947-1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken.

  9. Fallout from atmospheric bomb tests and releases from nuclear installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkle, H.; Murith, C.; Surbeck, H.

    This work presents the radioactivity monitoring programme in Switzerland. Environmental radioactivity measurements for atomic bomb test fallout are discussed together with the radiation doses to the public caused by fallout. In the second part the monitoring programme around nuclear power stations is presented. The radioactivity releases to the environment, the results of the monitoring programme and the radiation doses to the public in the vicinity of the plants are discussed.

  10. Neutron bomb and European defense

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  11. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-29

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  12. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  13. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard E.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  14. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  15. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  16. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter. PMID:26724069

  17. Cataracts in systemic diseases and syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bariciak, M D; Nichols, B D

    1995-02-01

    A comprehensive review of the ophthalmic literature on cataracts during the past year is presented. Topics covered include new epidemiologic associations, diabetic cataracts, and syndromes involving cataracts. Data from the Beaver Dam Eye Study suggest the presence of a recessive gene for nuclear sclerosis. Estrogen exposure may decrease the risk of nuclear sclerosis. The effects of amiodarone, propranolol, and lovastatin on the lens are discussed. Electron microscopy studies have furthered our understanding of diabetic cataracts and the rare Christmas tree cataract. Two new studies support the adverse effect of extracapsular cataract extraction on diabetic retinopathy. New associations between neurofibromatosis 2 and the lens will aid in the diagnosis of this condition. Other ocular and systemic syndromes are discussed.

  18. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. Cataract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. - Cataract Falls Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek, bypassed section of CR 279 (Cataract Falls Unit of Leiber State Recreation Area), Cataract, Owen County, IN

  19. [Anophthalmia and congenital cataract: case report].

    PubMed

    Santana, Alessandro; Koller, Karine; Waiswol, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The authors report a case of anophthalmia, congenital cataract and systemic malformations. Male patient, 6 months old, left anophthalmia and congenital posterior polar cataract in the right eye. The patient was treated with manual aspiration of the crystalline lens, with no intraocular lens implantation with primary posterior capsulorhexis and anterior vitrectomy through a small incision. The association of anophthalmia and congenital cataract is rare. The early diagnosis and management in these cases is very important for the best visual rehabilitation.

  20. Vitrectomy as a Risk Factor for Complicated Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fenberg, Moss J; Hainsworth, Kenneth J; Rieger, Frank G; Hainsworth, Dean P

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective review of 98 cases of complicated cataract surgery and/or delayed intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation examined the relationship between vitrectomy and cataract surgery complications. Nine (9.2%) of the 98 patients had a history of vitrectomy, before or after cataract surgery, and each had complicated cataract surgery. Six patients who underwent vitrectomy before cataract surgery experienced intraoperative complications. Three patients in whom vitrectomy was performed after uneventful cataract surgery subsequently had delayed IOL dislocation.

  1. Patient satisfaction with cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wasfi, Ehab I; Pai, P; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Measuring the patient satisfaction is a very important issue that will help very much in improving the service provided to patients and improve the level of satisfaction. Aim To evaluate patient satisfaction with the cataract surgery service and identify any areas for improvement, determination of patient satisfaction with referral, out-patient consultation, pre-assessment clinic, surgery and post-operative care, also to report patients' comments relating to improvement in service provision. Methodology A retrospective study was undertaken for 150 patients underwent cataract surgery at Barrow General Hospital, UK, the survey sample was by postal questionnaires. We collected our data from the theatre lists for a period of 4 month. Results This study included 150 patients; the response rate was (72%) 108 patients, Most patients were referred from their general practitioner 86.1%, 93 (86.1%) patients were happy with the time interval from seeing their GP to eye clinic. In the eye out patient department many factors significantly affected the level of patient satisfaction, in general the more information provided for the patient the more the satisfaction. Conclusion Patient satisfaction is on important health outcome old understanding both the domains of satisfaction as well as their relative importance to patients is necessary to improve the overall quality of patient care. Meeting the doctor, presenting all relevant information and giving printed information are very important factors in improving the patient's satisfaction with cataract surgery. PMID:18950523

  2. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors predicted from laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Bruce A.; Grahn, Douglas; Hoel, David

    2003-01-01

    Exposure, pathology and mortality data for mice, dogs and humans were examined to determine whether accurate interspecies predictions of radiation-induced mortality could be achieved. The analyses revealed that (1) days of life lost per unit dose can be estimated for a species even without information on radiation effects in that species, and (2) accurate predictions of age-specific radiation-induced mortality in beagles and the atomic bomb survivors can be obtained from a dose-response model for comparably exposed mice. These findings illustrate the value of comparative mortality analyses and the relevance of animal data to the study of human health effects.

  3. Lack of strategic insight: the "dirty bomb" effort.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Multiple countries including the United States and France are investing heavily in countermeasures to the threat of a "dirty bomb." All of the machinery simply involves a variation on a Geiger counter that picks up excess photon irradiation. Classically, a "dirty bomb" is defined as a dangerous radioactive material mixed in a variety of ways with high explosive, so when detonated, radioactive material is dispersed. Solid radioactive material such as Cesium or Cobalt sends off very penetrating ('hard') photons from which one cannot simply be protected by sheet lead or a heavy door. For official occasions with dignitaries of State, such a bomb could prove a modest distraction, but simple radiation physics suggests such a bomb would be limited in the damage it could cause, would largely be a mess to be cleaned up by an appropriately trained crew, would involve a very confined area, and thoroughly fails to comprehend the mentality of al-Queda 'central' that wishes to follow 9/11 with an equal or greater show of terrorist force. The author would argue this sort of mind-think occurs when you have too few people in the hard sciences in your intelligence sections. PMID:19739461

  4. HLA haplotype is associated with diabetes among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Fujiwara, Saeko; Morishita, Yukari; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakashima, Eiji; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Suzuki, Gen; Nakachi, Kei; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2003-09-01

    We examined radiation effects on the relationship between diabetes development and genetic background in atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Our main aim in this study was to shed light on the role of genetic background in diabetes onset among A-bomb survivors by studying possible relationships between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and the diabetes in patients and controls. We examined the effects of different HLA haplotypes on type 2 diabetes development by determining the DQA1 and DRB1 alleles of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors (111 diabetic patients and 774 controls) using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) method. We noted an increased risk of diabetes in the higher dose group among these patients (trend p = 0.001). The risk of the most heavily exposed group was significantly higher than that of the unexposed group or the low-dose group especially in survivors with the DQA1*03-DRB1*09 or DQA1*0401-DRB1*08 haplotypes (trend p = 0.002 or p = 0.05, respectively). By contrast, in people with other haplotypes, the risk did not increase significantly with increasing dose. These results suggest that individuals with specific HLA haplotypes may have an increased risk of diabetes with increased-dose categories.

  5. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, R.L.; Thompson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality.

  6. Leukaemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors from 1945 through 1959.

    PubMed

    TOMONAGA, M

    1962-01-01

    This review of the Nagasaki leukaemia experience during a period of 14 years after the detonation of the atomic bomb, together with comparisons with data from Hiroshima and from other series of post-radiation leukaemia cases, again demonstrates beyond reasonable doubt the leukaemogenic effect on man of ionizing radiation. An increased risk of leukaemia following doses probably as low as 100 rads (air-entry dose) of whole-body radiation is demonstrated on the basis of the available estimates of atomic bomb radiation doses. At doses above this level the increase in leukaemia incidence may be linearly related to the radiation dose. The data are too limited to allow of an evaluation of the risk represented by doses at the lower levels of radiation; but it seems clear that, if a threshold dose for leukaemia induction exists, it is lower than the threshold dose for the clinical expression of acute radiation syndrome.The sex and age distribution of radiation-induced leukaemia and the types of leukaemia observed are also discussed.

  7. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Cataracts.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    A clinically significant cataract is defined as an opacification of the eye lens causing a significant decrease in visual acuity or a functional visual impairment. Age-related cataracts are the leading cause of blindness in the world and one of the most common etiologies of visual impairment in the United States. Consequences can include loss of driving privileges, inability to read or watch television, inability to participate in social activities, and an increased risk of falls. In the United States, cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure among older patients. There are three main types of cataracts: nuclear, cortical, and subcapsular. Age is the strongest predictor of cataract development. Other major risk factors include a family history of cataracts, diabetes, smoking, obesity, poor nutrition, lower socioeconomic status, and alcohol use. Surgery is the definitive treatment. Phacoemulsification and implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens is the most common method used for managing cataracts in the United States. Glasses or contact lenses then are prescribed to correct any residual refractive errors. Cataract surgery is a low-risk procedure and routine preoperative testing typically is not needed. PMID:27348528

  8. [A rare from of congenital cataract].

    PubMed

    Doden, W; Schnaudigel, O E

    1983-01-01

    In 1943 a 3 year-old-girl with hard star-like nuclear cataracts in both eyes underwent surgery. The white star-like nuclear remnants remained unchanged in the anterior chamber for more than 20 years. The son of this patient had the same rare cataract; surgery was performed on both eyes with practically the same results.

  9. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  10. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  11. Multiwavelength spectropolarimetric observations of an Ellerman bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, R.; Beck, C.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are enhanced emission in the wings of the Hα line in the solar spectrum. Aims: We study the structure of an EB in the photosphere and chromosphere. Methods: We analyze simultaneous observations of four chromospheric lines (Hα, Ca ii H, Ca ii IR 854 nm, and He i 1083 nm) as well as two photospheric lines (Fe i 630 and Si i 1082.7 nm) along with high-cadence 160 and 170 nm ultraviolet (UV) continuum filtergrams. Full Stokes data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) are used to trace the temporal evolution of the magnetic structure. Results: We identify the EB by excess emission in the wings of the Hα line, a brightening in the UV continuum, and large emission peaks in the core of the two Ca ii lines. The EB shows a blueshift in all chromospheric lines, while no shifts are observed in the photospheric lines. The blueshift in the chromospheric layer causes very asymmetric emission peaks in the Ca ii H line. The photospheric Si i spectral line shows a shallower line depth at the location of the EB. The UV continuum maps show that the EB was substantially brighter than its surroundings for about 30 min. The continuum contrast of the EB from 170 nm to 1080 nm shows a power-law dependency on the wavelength. The temperature enhancement amounts to 130 K in the low photosphere and 400 K at the temperature minimum level. This temperature excess is also seen in an LTE inversion of the Ca ii spectra. The total thermal and radiative energy content of the EB is about 1020 J and 1018 J in the photosphere and chromosphere, respectively. The HMI data hints at a photospheric magnetic flux cancellation as the driver of the EB. Conclusions: Ellerman bombs release the energy in a height range of several pressure scale heights around the temperature minimum such that they affect both the photosphere and the lower chromosphere.

  12. Modelling vapour transport in Surtseyan bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, Mark J.; Greenbank, Emma; Schipper, C. Ian

    2016-05-01

    We address questions that arise if a slurry containing liquid water is enclosed in a ball of hot viscous vesicular magma ejected as a bomb in the context of a Surtseyan eruption. We derive a mathematical model for transient changes in temperature and pressure due to flashing of liquid water to vapour inside the bomb. The magnitude of the transient pressure changes that are typically generated are calculated together with their dependence on material properties. A single criterion to determine whether the bomb will fragment as a result of the pressure changes is derived. Timescales for ejection of water vapour from a bomb that remains intact are also revealed.

  13. Prevalence of skin neoplasma amont the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Michiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    1996-08-01

    About 7,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki who participate in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study (AHS) were examined to define the relationship between skin neoplasms and exposure to ionizing radiation. Careful clinical inspection of the skin was undertaken to detect not only skin cancer but precancerous lesions such as senile keratosis. Five cases of basal cell carcinoma, five cases of senile keratosis and one case of Bowen`s disease were confirmed histologically among 5955 A-bomb survivors for whom Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) dose estimates are available. The relationship between the combined prevalence of skin cancer and precancerous lesions and DS86 dose was examined together with other factors that might affect skin neoplasms including occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, age, sex and city. The prevalence of basal cell carcinoma and senile keratosis increased as the DS86 dose increased. The prevalent of skin cancer and senile keratosis among persons engaged in work involving frequent exposure to UV rays was higher than among those who were not engaged in such work. Sex and city were not significantly related to those skin diseases. Odds ratios of skin neoplasm for a 1-Gy dose, occupational exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination (in 10-year increments) are 1.7, 5.9 and 1.9, respectively. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Disarming the mustard oil bomb.

    PubMed

    Ratzka, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Kroymann, Juergen

    2002-08-20

    Plants are attacked by a broad array of herbivores and pathogens. In response, plants deploy an arsenal of defensive traits. In Brassicaceae, the glucosinolate-myrosinase complex is a sophisticated two-component system to ward off opponents. However, this so-called "mustard oil bomb" is disarmed by a glucosinolate sulfatase of a crucifer specialist insect, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Sulfatase activity of this enzyme largely prevents the formation of toxic hydrolysis products arising from this plant defense system. Importantly, the enzyme acts on all major classes of glucosinolates, thus enabling diamondback moths to use a broad range of cruciferous host plants. PMID:12161563

  15. Why the dirty bomb is still ticking.

    PubMed

    Blair, James D

    2014-01-01

    Many Cesium 137 machines used by hospitals for blood irradiation are still susceptible to theft by terrorists who can convert them to so-called dirty bombs, according to the author, who describes the harm the explosion of one such bomb can do and urges concerned citizens, media, and security professionals to take action before a disaster occurs.

  16. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  17. A man, a plan, a bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki justified? Was it necessary? Were there other - better - options available, either to the scientists who built the bombs or the generals who ordered them dropped? Nearly 70 years later, there are still no settled answers to these questions, and Tom Morton-Smith's new play Oppenheimer wisely avoids dwelling on the "what ifs" of atomic history.

  18. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  19. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  20. Lanosterol synthase mutations cause cholesterol deficiency-associated cataracts in the Shumiya cataract rat.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masayuki; Li, Guixin; Abe, Ikuro; Nakayama, Jun; Guo, Zhanjun; Sawashita, Jinko; Ugawa, Tohru; Nishizono, Shoko; Serikawa, Tadao; Higuchi, Keiichi; Shumiya, Seigo

    2006-02-01

    The Shumiya cataract rat (SCR) is a hereditary cataractous strain. It is thought that the continuous occurrence of poorly differentiated epithelial cells at the bow area of the lens forms the pathophysiological basis for cataract formation in SCRs. In this study, we attempted to identify the genes associated with cataract formation in SCRs by positional cloning. Genetic linkage analysis revealed the presence of a major cataract locus on chromosome 20 as well as a locus on chromosome 15 that partially suppressed cataract onset. Hypomorphic mutations were identified in genes for lanosterol synthase (Lss) on chromosome 20 and farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1 (Fdft1) on chromosome 15, both of which function in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. A null mutation for Lss was also identified. Cataract onset was associated with the specific combination of Lss and Fdft1 mutant alleles that decreased cholesterol levels in cataractous lenses to about 57% of normal. Thus, cholesterol insufficiency may underlie the deficient proliferation of lens epithelial cells in SCRs, which results in the loss of homeostatic epithelial cell control of the underlying fiber cells and eventually leads to cataractogenesis. These findings may have some relevance to other types of cataracts, inborn defects of cholesterol synthesis, and the effects of cholesterol-lowering medication. PMID:16440058

  1. Wound infection after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Valenton, M

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen patients were treated for bacterial and fungal infection of the sclerocorneal incision following cataract extraction during a 19-year period. The infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphylococcus epidermis (2), Streptococcus pneumoniae (3), Streptococcus viridans (1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1), Mycobacterium fortuitum (3), Aspergillus flavus (6), and Candida tropicalis (1). The predisposing factors involved were an obstructed nasolacrimal duct (S. pneumoniae, S. viridans), airborne contamination of the wound by fungal spores (A. flavus), and defective sterilization of instruments (M. fortuitum). Ten of the 19 infections resulted in complete loss of the eye from endophthalmitis. Early recognition of wound infection by frequent meticulous examination of the sclerocorneal incision for infectious infiltration is of utmost importance so that specific therapy can be instituted immediately to prevent the development of endophthalmitis. PMID:8988437

  2. Cataract Surgery in Anterior Megalophthalmos: A Review

    PubMed Central

    GALVIS, Virgilio; TELLO, Alejandro; M. RANGEL, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos is characterized by megalocornea associated with a very broad anterior chamber and ciliary ring elongation. It is also called X-linked megalocornea. It is accompanied by early development of cataracts, zonular anomalies, and, rarely, vitreoretinal disorders. Subluxation of a cataract can occur in cataract surgery because of zonular weakness. In addition, in most patients, standard intraocular lens (IOL) decentration is a risk because of the enlarged sulcus and capsular bag. These unique circumstances make cataract surgery challenging. To date, several approaches have been developed. Implantation of a retropupillary iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens may be a good option because it is easier than suturing the IOL and can have better and more stable anatomic and visual outcomes, compared to other techniques. PMID:27350950

  3. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  4. CT appearance of a traumatic cataract.

    PubMed

    Segev, Y; Goldstein, M; Lazar, M; Reider-Groswasser, I

    1995-05-01

    We describe a case of a traumatic cataract that presented on CT as a hypodense lens with a hyderdense rim. The finding reflects the pathogenesis of this entity: a capsular tear and consequent entry of fluid into the lens.

  5. [Effect of cataract surgery on contrast sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Skorkovská, S; Masková, Z; Synek, S

    2001-03-01

    The authors examined in a group of patients with cataract the visual acuity on Snellen's optotypes and contrast sensitivity using Pelli-Robson's test before cataract surgery and after cataract extraction and implantation of an intraocular lens. A VF-7 questionnaire was used for subjective evaluation of the result of surgery. The values of contrast sensitivity of the pseudophakic eyes were compared with the contrast sensitivity of eyes of a age-matched control group with a natural lens. After cataract surgery and lens implantation highly significant improvement of visual acuity of the operated eye was recorded. There was also significant improvement of binocular contrast sensitivity in the study group. The authors did not detect a significant difference of the contrast sensitivity of eyes with a PMMA lens and eyes with a silicone lens. There was no significant difference in the contrast sensitivity of pseudophakic eyes and phakic eyes of the control group. The CF-7 questionnaire revealed that cataract surgery led to significant improvement of the investigated visual activities, as apparent from the subjective evaluation by the patients. However, no significant correlation was found between objective (contrast sensitivity) and subjective (VF-7 questionnaire) evaluation of cataract surgery. Only one question in the questionnaire correlated significantly with contrast sensitivity. The authors found a significant reduction of contrast sensitivity caused by an altered transparency of the lens. The decline of contrast sensitivity in eyes with cataract and relatively good vision on Snellen's optotypes is the cause of some subjective complaints of the patients and may be an important factor in indication of cataract surgery of eyes with a relatively good visual acuity.

  6. Radioprotection against cataract formation by WR-77913 in gamma-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Menard, T W; Osgood, T B; Clark, J I; Spence, A M; Steele, J E; Krohn, K A; Livesey, J C

    1986-08-01

    Protection by WR-77913 against radiation-induced cataract formation in rats was observed following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of drug (1160 mg/kg) 15-30 min before exposure to 15.3 Gy of Cs-137 whole head irradiation. Control groups included irradiated, non-protected animals, and sham-irradiated aging controls. Protection was documented photographically and by analysis of eye lens constituents. All non-protected irradiated animals developed dense cataracts throughout the lens between 90-120 days post-irradiation, while WR-77913 protected animals developed minimal lens opacification through 200 days post-irradiation. No opacification in aging controls was seen. Lens protein analysis by Lowry assay and size exclusion HPLC showed radioprotected and aging control animals were similar in protein content, distribution of total and soluble protein, and degree of lens hydration. This contrasted significantly with cataractous lenses of non-protected animals. In cataractous lenses, the soluble protein concentration in the 25-43 K dalton range was approximately 10% of that found in radioprotected or aging control lenses. Hydration was substantially higher in cataractous lens. These results indicate that WR-77913 protects against lens opacification, protein insolubilization, and hydration in lenses of irradiated animals. Biodistribution studies with [S-35]-WR-77913 showed ocular uptake of drug within 15 minutes after i.p. injection, which remained relatively constant through 60 min. The relative order of drug concentration for individual eye components was: globe greater than total eye approximately equal to humor greater than lens. Although the mechanism of radioprotection observed remains to be elucidated, WR-77913 clearly prevents radiation-induced cataracts in rats. The potentially significant clinical use for this radioprotective compound is being investigated further. PMID:3019964

  7. Children of the atomic bomb survivors: A genetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This volume represents the results of over 40 years of study of the latent health effects on the survivors of the atomic bomb blasts. Planning for this research began in 1946 and data collection has been ongoing since 1948. The work represents the efforts of both US and Japanese agencies and presents 13 papers which the editors believe represent the best scientific information related to the genetic effects of radiation exposure. In general, the results presented here indicate that radiation exposure effects on reproductive cells are less than previously thought. The paper contained here examine that question in light of effects on pregnancy outcome, sex ratio, congenital defects, and early mortality of children. The papers also present helpful comparison of these results with the results seen in experimental radiation studies with animals. For anyone interested in the risks associated with radiation studies, this book represents a vital collection of information.

  8. Management of cataracts in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon K; Riddle, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The management of the glaucoma patient who has visually significant cataracts is a practical but complex topic. As glaucoma is a chronic, potentially progressive disease that can lead to irreversible blindness, ophthalmologists should develop a treatment approach with emphasis based on the severity of glaucoma rather than on cataract alone. Trabeculectomy remains an effective surgical choice, especially in glaucoma patients with advanced disease who require a low and steady IOP. In planning for cataract surgery, surgeons should be mindful of the alterations of astigmatism in terms of power and axis, axial length fluctuation as a result of trabeculectomy, and the relative position of the IOL after surgery. As glaucoma is a potentially progressive disease, surgeons who treat patients with coexistent glaucoma and cataracts must consider that future glaucoma surgery may be necessary when planning for the cataract surgery. A complete discussion of alternatives would go beyond the limited scope of this study. Regardless of the procedures used, the surgeon should consider the secondary effects of both glaucoma surgery and cataract surgery and their impact on each other when developing an individualized treatment plan. PMID:21633234

  9. [Surgical indications in coexisting cataracts and glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Collignon-Brach, J D; Ravet, O; Robe-Collignon, N

    2000-01-01

    Cataract surgery in glaucoma patients remains a controversial subjects. Indication of surgery depends on a lot of clinical parameters: diagnosis, state, evolution of glaucoma as well as compliance with medical treatment--surgical procedures of cataract and glaucoma--sites of the surgery--use of antifibrosis agents and surgeon's experience. As cataract extraction alone decreases the intraocular pressure in open angle glaucoma and mainly in uncomplicated closed angle glaucoma and trabeculectomy alone reduces the intraocular pressure more than combined surgery with less complications we recommended the following surgical options: Cataract extraction alone in patients with controlled open angle glaucoma and in patients with closed angle glaucoma. A two step procedure: filtering surgery followed by cataract extraction in patients with poorly controlled open angle glaucoma or mixed closed angle glaucoma. Ambulatory surgery and topical anesthesia permit a two stages surgery with less inconveniences. A combined procedure in patients with a chronic closed angle glaucoma where filtering procedure alone is associated with important complications. Actually, the best surgical cataract procedure is phacoemulsification with a small supero-corneal incision and implantation of a foldable intraocular lens. The best filtering procedure remains trabeculectomy, or the new non penetrating trabecular surgery for experimented surgeons, in the superior quadrant. In the future new surgical procedures and new safe and non toxic pharmacologic drugs which modulate wound healing could be found in order to increase the efficacity and indications of combined surgery. PMID:11262885

  10. T-cell immunosenescence and inflammatory response in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Mika; Kubo, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Douple, Evan B; Nakachi, Kei

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we summarize the long-term effects of A-bomb radiation on the T-cell system and discuss the possible involvement of attenuated T-cell immunity in the disease development observed in A-bomb survivors. Our previous observations on such effects include impaired mitogen-dependent proliferation and IL-2 production, decreases in naive T-cell populations, and increased proportions of anergic and functionally weak memory CD4 T-cell subsets. In addition, we recently found a radiation dose-dependent increase in the percentages of CD25(+)/CD127(-) regulatory T cells in the CD4 T-cell population of the survivors. All these effects of radiation on T-cell immunity resemble effects of aging on the immune system, suggesting that ionizing radiation might direct the T-cell system toward a compromised phenotype and thereby might contribute to an enhanced immunosenescence. Furthermore, there are inverse, significant associations between plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and the relative number of naïve CD4 T cells, also suggesting that the elevated levels of inflammatory markers found in A-bomb survivors can be ascribed in part to T-cell immunosenescence. We suggest that radiation-induced T-cell immunosenescence may result in activation of inflammatory responses and may be partly involved in the development of aging-associated and inflammation-related diseases frequently observed in A-bomb survivors.

  11. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors.

  12. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors. PMID:23148507

  13. Dirty Bombs: A Discouraging Second Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Cheryl A.

    2004-05-01

    Dirty bombs, terrorist devices to spread intensely radioactive material with the intent to kill, sicken, or inflict economic damage, have been overestimated by some in the government and underestimated by many physicists. It is unlikely that a radiological dispersion device (RDD) will contaminate an area to such a level that brief exposures are lethal or even incapacitating. However, careful examination of the consequences of the accident in Goiânia, Brazil shows that it is highly likely that people in the contaminated region will inhale or ingest dusty or liquid radioactive material in sufficient quantities to cause acute radiation sickness, and in some cases enough to kill. Some forms of radiological attack could kill tens or hundreds of people and sicken hundreds or thousands. This paper provides a general overview of the nature and use of RDDs and examines readily available sources of large quantities of radioactive material, material which requires significantly greater protection than it is afforded today. Under many circumstances an RDD containing only a few curies of cesium-137, strontium-90, cobalt-60 or other industrial isotopes could force the razing of more buildings and inflict greater economic losses than did the September 11, 2002 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The National Defense University study proposes new policies for the federal government which would decrease the chances of an attack and reduce the cost in lives and money to the United States should one, nevertheless, occur.

  14. Distribution of bomb tritium in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.; Ostlund, G.

    1986-12-15

    A global picture of the water column inventories of bomb-produced tritium is constructed from the GEOSECS data set. This picture is compared with that obtained by combining the bomb tritium input function of Weiss and Roether (1980) with the bomb radiocarbon calibrate lateral redistribution model of Broecker et al. (1985). While differences between the calculated and observed distribution exist, they are surprisingly small. Tritium distributions calculated using the lateral redistribution model provide predictions of the changes to be expected in the next few decades. Such predictions are essential to the design of sound strategies for continued monitoring of the tritium transient.

  15. The carbon footprint of cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. Aim To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. Methods This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). Results The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. Conclusions This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care. PMID:23429413

  16. Time Variation of the Distance Separating Bomb and Dive Bomber Subsequent to Bomb Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.

    1952-01-01

    A study has been made of the variation of the distance separating bomb and aircraft with time after release as applied to dive-bombing operations, Separation distances determined from this study are presented in terms of two variables only, dive angle and maximum airplane accelerometer reading; the values of separation distance include the effects of delay in initiation of the pull-out and lag in attainment of the maximum normal acceleration.Contains analysis and calculations of the separation distances between bomb and dive bomber following bomb release, Separation distances as determined by the dive angle and the maximum airplane accelerometer reading are presented in a single chart.

  17. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  18. Cancer in Hiroshima: 35 years after the bomb.

    PubMed

    Miller, D G

    1984-01-01

    After the 1945 atomic bomb explosions, attention was initially drawn to the leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation. Mortality studies over the years have shown that the leukemogenic effect has been gradually declining, and the incidence of solid tumors has been increasing. There was shorter latent period for the appearance of excess leukemia mortality than for solid tumors. It appears that the risk for developing solid tumors becomes greatest when the population enters the age group at which that particular form of cancer most commonly occurs. The leukemogenic and carcinogenic risks are also greater in those exposed to radiation in the younger age groups. There are implications in these studies for cancer control with regard to radiation safety in diagnostic radiology and the peaceful uses of atomic energy; in addition, they emphasize the moral obligation involved in limiting the proliferation of atomic weapons. These observations may also be parallel to the experience of oncologists with second primary cancers after the administration of chemotherapy.

  19. Cancer in Hiroshima: 35 years after the bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    After the 1945 atomic bomb explosions, attention was initially drawn to the leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation. Mortality studies over the years have shown that the leukemogenic effect has been gradually declining, and the incidence of solid tumors has been increasing. There was shorter latent period for the appearance of excess leukemia mortality than for solid tumors. It appears that the risk for developing solid tumors becomes greatest when the population enters the age group at which that particular form of cancer most commonly occurs. The leukemogenic and carcinogenic risks are also greater in those exposed to radiation in the younger age groups. There are implications in these studies for cancer control with regard to radiation safety in diagnostic radiology and the peaceful uses of atomic energy; in addition, they emphasize the moral obligation involved in limiting the proliferation of atomic weapons. These observations may also be parallel to the experience of oncologists with second primary cancers after the administration of chemotherapy.

  20. Congenital cataracts following total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Heerasing, N; Dowling, D

    2014-08-01

    We describe a case of congenital cataracts in a newborn whose mother received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) throughout her pregnancy. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which TPN may have been causally linked to cataract formation.

  1. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  2. Changes in cytoskeletal proteins in childhood cataract lenses

    PubMed

    Matsushima; Mukai; Obara

    2000-03-01

    Purpose: Approximately 50% of congenital and childhood cataracts seen in the clinic is of undetermined origin. Biochemical analysis of the cataracts is rare. This study analyzes lens proteins to determine the mechanism of congenital and childhood cataracts. Method: We analyzed the lens proteins from 10 young patients after cataract operations, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), densitometry analysis, and Western immunoblotting.Results: Densitometry of separated proteins showed a decrease in the high molecular protein bands of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Specifically, spectrin (235 kDa), filensin (100 kDa), and vimentin (57 kDa) were absent from the SDS-PAGE of PSC. Increases in filensin and vimentin were observed in a Christmas tree cataract and lamellar cataracts. Western immunoblots confirmed the densitometry of SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: These results suggest that changes in cytoskeletal proteins may contribute to congenital and childhood cataracts.

  3. Remembrances of the war and the bomb.

    PubMed

    Takemi, T

    1983-08-01

    Takemi, former president of the Japan Medical Association and a student of nuclear physics in 1945, briefly recounts his role in the events subsequent to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. He now believes that the atomic bomb saved Japan from the military's plan to sacrifice the entire nation rather than surrender. Takemi concludes by urging Japanese and American physicians to join together to prevent the use of nuclear weapons.

  4. Progression of sugar cataract in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Takahashi, Y; Wyman, M; Kador, P F

    1991-05-01

    Young beagle dogs were fed a 30% galactose diet, with or without the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. Cataract formation was monitored by indirect ophthalmoscope and hand-held slit-lamp microscopy and documented by retroillumination photography. In these dogs, the first sign of cataract development was an accentuation of the anterior and posterior lens sutures (1 month after feeding), then the appearance of cortical vacuoles (3 months after feeding), and finally, the formation of predominantly equatorial cortical opacities toward the posterior cortices (4-6 months after feeding). After long-term galactose feeding, a progressive, irregular, clear zone formed at the cortical equatorial regions. Light microscopic examination of these lenses shows that the cataracts are osmotic, many of the lens fibers appear to be swollen or ruptured, and vacuoles are seen near the bow region. Moreover, these histologic changes were reduced in a dose-dependent manner in galactose-fed dogs concomitantly treated with the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. The osmotic nature of these cataracts and the observation that their formation can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner by aldose reductase inhibitors are consistent with the concept that the aldose-reductase catalyzed formation of polar sugar alcohols (polyols) initiates sugar cataract formation in the dog.

  5. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  6. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Blot, W J; Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Miller, R W

    1975-08-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth.

  7. Bombs, flyin' high. In-flight dynamics of volcanic bombs from Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Alatorre, Miguel; Cruz Vázquez, Omar; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Ricci, Tullio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Palladino, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    Bomb-sized (larger than 64 mm) pyroclasts are a common product of explosive eruptions and a considerable source of hazard, both from directly impacting on people and properties and from wildfires associated with their landing in vegetated areas. The dispersal of bombs is mostly modeled as purely ballistic trajectories controlled by gravity and drag forces associated with still air, and only recently other effects, such as the influence of eruption dynamics, the gas expansion, and in-flight collisions, are starting to be quantified both numerically and observationally. By using high-speed imaging of explosive volcanic eruptions here we attempt to calculate the drag coefficient of free-flying volcanic bombs during an eruption and at the same time we document a wide range of in-flight processes affecting bomb trajectories and introducing deviations from purely ballistic emplacement. High-speed (500 frames per second) videos of explosions at Stromboli and Etna (Italy), Fuego (Gatemala), Sakurajima (Japan), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Batu Tara (Indonesia) volcanoes provide a large assortment of free-flying bombs spanning Strombolian to Vulcanian source eruptions, basaltic to andesitic composition, centimeters to meters in size, and 10 to 300 m/s in fly velocity. By tracking the bombs during their flying trajectories we were able to: 1) measure their size, shape, and vertical component of velocity and related changes over time; and 2) measure the different interactions with the atmosphere and with other bombs. Quantitatively, these data allow us to provide the first direct measurement of the aerodynamic behavior and drag coefficient of volcanic bombs while settling, also including the effect of bomb rotation and changes in bomb shape and frontal section. We also show how our observations have the potential to parameterize a number of previously hypothesized and /or described but yet unquantified processes, including in-flight rotation, deformation, fragmentation, agglutination

  8. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease among subjects with cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chen, Ming-Fong; Chang, Kuan-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Association between cataract and the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) development is not completely clear. Purpose: The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the association between cataract and the risk of incident IHD. The secondary aim was to investigate the subsequent IHD risk of patients with cataracts undergoing cataract surgery. Methods: Retrospective data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) was analyzed. Study participants were composed of patients with cataracts (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 366) (n = 32,456), and a comparison cohort without the cataracts (n = 32,456) from 2000 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to address the hazard ratio (HR) of IHD associated with cataract. Results: Within 12 years of follow up, the overall incidence rates of IHD were 24.2 per 1000 person-years in the cataract cohort and 18.2 per 1000 person-years in the noncataract cohort with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.35 (95% CI = 1.29–1.41; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the cataract patients undergoing cataract surgery were associated with a higher risk of IHD compared with those cataract patients without surgery (aHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01–1.14; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our finding suggested that patients with cataracts are at an increased risk of subsequent IHD development. PMID:27428198

  9. Triangular congenital cataract morphology associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael E; Schloff, Susan; Bothun, Erick D

    2009-08-01

    Bilateral congenital cataracts are often characterized by morphology, etiology, and related conditions. We report a case of unique congenital cataracts with triangular morphology and associated prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Although this association is likely coincidental, the cataract's morphology in light of the specific timing of prenatal drug use deserves reporting.

  10. The gene of an early onset progressive cataract (cerulean cataract) maps to 17q24

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, M.M.; Ferrell, R.E.; Kivlin, J.D.

    1994-09-01

    Cerulean cataract is an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant, early onset, progressive cataract characterized by blue or white opacifications in the nucleus and cortex of the lens. A five generation family with 44 available affected members in three generations allowed exclusion of linkage of the cerulean cataract phenotype to lens structural protein genes and to all of the chromosomal regions to which autosomal dominant cataract phenotypes have previously been mapped. Exclusion of the plausible candidate instigated a genome-wide search utilizing short tandem repeat polymorphims. The genome search localized the cerulean cataract disease gene to chromosomal region 17q24. The three markers closest to the disease gene are D17S802 [Z({theta})=9.20 at ({theta})=0.086], D17S836 [Z({theta})=4.22 at ({theta})=0.061], and AFMa238yb5 [Z({theta})=7.11 at ({theta})=0.032]. Multipoint analysis yielded a maximum lod score of Z({theta})=11.4 between D17S802 and D17S836 at recombination rates of 0.048 and 0.013 respectively. Three genes that map near the 17q24 chromosomal region and are known to contain highly polymorphic microsatellites were tested for linkage. The genes, DHP-sensitive calcium channel gamma subunit (CACNLG), human somatastatin receptor (SSTR2), and the skeletal muscle sodium channel alpha subunit (SCN4A), were all excluded [Z({theta})=-{infinity} at ({theta})=0] as the gene causing cerulean cataract. The galactokinase (GK1) gene has not been cloned, but its map location is 17q23-q25. Galactokinase deficiency is characterized by a recessive, progressive, early onset cataract. Because of the map location of galactokinase, the age-at-onset, and progressive nature of cataracts associated with galactokinase deficiency, galactokinase is being investigated as a candidate gene for the cerulean cataract phenotype.

  11. Clear Corneal Incision in Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.; Behrens, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of sutureless clear corneal cataract incisions, the procedure has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured scleral tunnels and limbal incisions. Some of these benefits include lack of conjunctival trauma, less discomfort and bleeding, absence of suture-induced astigmatism, and faster visual rehabilitation. However, an increasing incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery has been reported. Different authors have shown a significant increase up to 15-fold in the incidence of endophthalmitis following clear corneal incision compared to scleral tunnels. The aim of this report is to review the advantages and disadvantages of clear corneal incisions in cataract surgery, emphasizing on wound construction recommendations based on published literature. PMID:24669142

  12. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)-associated cataract and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao-Kung; Kuang, Tung-Mei; Chou, Joe Ching-Kuang

    2006-12-01

    Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) is the drug of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an association of Ritalin with glaucoma has been reported. We report a case of Ritalin-associated cataract and glaucoma. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with ADHD and had received methylphenidate hydrochloride, 60 mg/day for 2 years. He presented with blurred vision. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Ocular examinations revealed intraocular pressure (IOP) of 30 mmHg under medication, dense posterior subcapsular opacity of lens, pale disc with advanced cupping, and marked constriction of visual field. Despite maximal anti-glaucomatous medication, IOP still could not be controlled. The patient then received combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Visual acuity improved and IOP was within normal limits in both eyes postoperatively. Large dose of methylphenidate may cause cataract and glaucoma. The mechanism remains unclear. Doctors should be aware of the possible ocular side effects of methylphenidate.

  13. Photometric analysis of Ellerman bombs .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlicki, A.; Heinzel, P.; Avrett, E. H.

    Observations of Ellerman bombs (EBs) show them as short-lived, compact, and spatially localized emissions that are well observable in the wings of the Halpha hydrogen line. The Halpha line profiles of EBs are characterized by deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the wings with maximum around ± 1 Å from the line center, fading beyond ± 5 Å. EBs may also be observed in the chromospheric Ca II lines and in the UV as bright points often located within active regions. Previous work suggests that EBs may be considered as micro-flares and may contribute significantly to the heating of the lower chromosphere in newly emerging magnetic flux regions. However, it is still not clear at what height in the solar atmosphere the emission of EBs originates. In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the Halpha line with the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and in the UV range with the TRACE 1600 Å channel. These one-hour long simultaneous sequences obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution were used to analyze the relation between the emission in the Halpha line and at 1600 Å. The observations show fast variations of EB emission in both channels. Comparison between the observed emission in Halpha and at 1600 Å and theoretical calculations allowed us to draw conclusions about the vertical structure of EBs.

  14. Tracking the errant cell after the atomic bombings: what went wrong?

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Keisuke S

    2003-07-01

    Epidemiological data collected after the atomic-bomb blasts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have established a link between radiation exposure and human cancer development and are the major source of information for current radiation-induced cancer risk assessment. To determine the mechanistic basis for radiation carcinogenesis, retrospective molecular analyses of archival hepatocellular carcinoma tissues from the atomic-bomb survivors were conducted. The tumor suppressor genes p53 and M6P/IGF2r were examined. HCC cases had either p53 mutations or M6P/IGF2r mutations, but rarely both. Moreover, the frequency of cases with M6P/ IGF2r mutations actually decreased with dose, while those for p53 increased. This implies two independent selection processes leading to liver cancer and that in radiation-induced HCC tumors the spectrum of molecular changes is different from that in "background" tumors.

  15. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-11-01

    Within months of Roentgen`s discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F{sub 1} mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Sklar, Charles A; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Veiga, Lene H S; Robison, Leslie L; Inskip, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0-66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65-1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0.5 Gy. Our

  17. Computer modeling program for fragment trajectories within a bomb stack

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.A.; Clark, D.P. . Utah Operations)

    1989-05-25

    The large aerial bombs used by the Air Force are arranged in stack arrays within storage magazines. The effects of the inadvertent detonation of one bomb on other bombs in the stack or within the magazine are of critical importance and a means to prevent sympathetic detonation from occurring must be found if the integrity of the stored bombs is to be maintained. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been funded to explore the phenomena involved in the bomb stack and to evaluate systems to prevent the mutual detonation of adjacent bombs in the event of the detonation of a single bomb. A problem in addressing this project is the acceleration and deceleration of high velocity fragments emerging from the detonating bomb and the trajectories of these fragments through the bomb stack. Tests were conducted by the Air Force using a 3-row by 5-column bomb stack array. The array was fitted with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) mitigation system consisting of blocks both between all adjacent bombs as well as in the center of each four-bomb rectangular array. The outside-upper corner bomb (1-1) was detonated (the donor). While bombs adjacent to the donor were protected from the effects of the blast by the PMMA mitigators, bombs sympathetically detonated were two rows and three columns away (3-4) and two rows and four columns away (3-5) from the donor. The purpose of this program was to perform numerical modeling of the physical processes involved in the flow of fragments within the bomb stack. The desired result was to predict the paths of the fragments and their impact velocities on any other bomb in the stack. In the modeling work covered by this report, the fragments are allowed to collide with stack elements, rebound from them, or travel unimpeded through the array. Elements of the bomb stack are acted on by gravity and drag forces as well as blast winds generated from the detonating explosive.

  18. Hyaluronidase and sodium hyaluronate in cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, I. G.; Smith, V. H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of sodium hyaluronate in cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation is often followed by a postoperative rise of intraocular pressure. A trial is described in which 10 patients underwent bilateral cataract extraction and Binkhorst intraocular lens implantation with the use of sodium hyaluronate. The enzyme hyaluronidase was instilled into the anterior chamber of the right eye only, to aid removal of sodium hyaluronate, and resulted in a statistically significant lowering of postoperative intraocular pressure in right eyes compared with left. Other uses of the enzyme are discussed. PMID:3718904

  19. Cataract - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... إعتام عدسة العين - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Cataract English 白内障 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ... 白内障 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Cataract English 白內障 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - ...

  20. [Ten most progression of cataract research in China].

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Ten researches that may represent the most advanced cataract related studies in China were reviewed, which were recommended and voted by specialists from Chinese Cataract and Intraocular Lens Society. These researches focused on the following fields: the clinical study of the refractive cataract surgery, the clinical study on the premium intraocular lens, location and function study of the disease-associated genes of congenital cataract, the mechanism and prevention of age-related cataract, the mechanism and prevention of oxidative damage of crystalline lens and so on. These studies represented the level of crystalline lens related disease field in China.

  1. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Edward F.; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kamada, Naoko; Nakashima, Eiji; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Seed, Thomas; Kusonoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions. Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and on approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity. PMID:21637355

  2. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    DOE PAGES

    Miles, Edward F.; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kamada, Naoko; Nakashima, Eiji; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Seed, Thomas; Kusonoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Saeko; et al

    2011-01-01

    Purpose . There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods . We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions . Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and onmore » approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity.« less

  3. [Objective evaluation the application of femtosecond laser in cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Z

    2016-02-01

    Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) is a novel technology and the biggest revolution in the field of cataract in the latest several years. However, increasing large-scale population randomized controlled trials (RCT) have demonstrated that FLACS does not provide significant advantages over conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery (CPCS) for common cataract patients. Furthermore, the cost and space requirement of the femtosecond equipment are another two limitations for the universal application of FSL in cataract surgery. However, FLACS may be beneficial for complex cataract situations, such as lens dislocation, zonular laxity, traumatic cataract, low preoperative endothelial cell values, and significant corneal astigmatism. With the progress of science and technology, FLACS can be expected to achieve integration with phacoemulsification systems, and equipment costs can be reduced, making it more widely used in clinical practice in the future. PMID:26906700

  4. Cat-Map: putting cataract on the map

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Thomas M.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2010-01-01

    Lens opacities, or cataract(s), may be inherited as a classic Mendelian disorder usually with early-onset or, more commonly, acquired with age as a multi-factorial or complex trait. Many genetic forms of cataract have been described in mice and other animal models. Considerable progress has been made in mapping and identifying the genes and mutations responsible for inherited forms of cataract, and genetic determinants of age-related cataract are beginning to be discovered. To provide a convenient and accurate summary of current information focused on the increasing genetic complexity of Mendelian and age-related cataract we have created an online chromosome map and reference database for cataract in humans and mice (Cat-Map). PMID:21042563

  5. Accelerated heavy particles and the lens. III. Cataract enhancement by dose fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Worgul, B.V.; Merriam, G.R. Jr.; Medvedovsky, C.; Brenner, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    For a number of biological end points it has been shown that, in contrast to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, dose fractionation of high-LET radiation does not result in a reduction in overall effectiveness. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of fractionating the exposures to heavy ion doses on the development of cataracts. Rat eyes were exposed to single doses of 1, 5, and 25 cGy of 570 MeV/amu40Ar ions and to 2, 4, and 10 Gy of 250 kVp X rays. These were compared to unirradiated controls and eyes which were exposed to the same total dose delivered in four fractions over 12 h. While in all cases fractionation of the exposure to X rays produced significant reduction in cataractogenic potential, fractionating doses of 40Ar ions caused a dose- and stage-dependent enhancement in the development of cataracts.

  6. Visual outcome following extracapsular cataract extraction in mature cataracts with pseudoexfoliation syndrome: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To report the best corrected visual acuity, at the end of one year, in 33 patients (35 eyes), who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC-IOL) for mature and hypermature cataracts, with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, single-institutional (Sultan Qaboos University Hospital) study. Participants: Thirty-three patients with mature and hypermature cataracts, with PEX operated upon between January 2007 and December 2008, by one surgeon (AM). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of thirty-three patients (35 eyes) with mature and hypermature cataracts, with ocular PEX, evaluating the visual outcome at the end of 12 months following ECCE with PC-IOL. Results: Thirty eyes (85.71%) showed improvement in the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 Snellen lines. Four eyes (11.43%) had unchanged BCVA from the baseline. There were no intraoperative complications in any patient. One eye (2.86%) that did not improve developed retinal detachment at three months follow-up, and was referred to the Vireoretinal Unit and follow-up has been lost. Conclusion: Extracapsular cataract extraction is a safe and effective technique in eyes with mature and hypermature cataracts with PEX. PMID:23772121

  7. Orally Active Multi-Functional Antioxidants Delay Cataract Formation in Streptozotocin (Type 1) Diabetic and Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, James; Zhang, Peng; Makita, Jun; Blessing, Karen; Kador, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is a worldwide health care problem whose progression has been linked to oxidative stress and the accumulation of redox-active metals. Since there is no specific animal model for human age-related cataract, multiple animal models must be used to evaluate potential therapies that may delay and/or prevent cataract formation. Methods/Principal Findings Proof of concept studies were conducted to evaluate 4-(5-hydroxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 4) and 4-(5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 8), multi-functional antioxidants that can independently chelate redox metals and quench free radicals, on their ability to delay the progression of diabetic “sugar” cataracts and gamma radiation-induced cataracts. Prior to 15 Gy of whole head irradiation, select groups of Long Evans rats received either diet containing compound 4 or 8, or a single i.p. injection of panthethine, a radioprotective agent. Compared to untreated, irradiated rats, treatment with pantethine, 4 and 8 delayed initial lens changes by 4, 47, and 38 days, respectively, and the average formation of posterior subcapsular opacities by 23, 53 and 58 days, respectively. In the second study, select groups of diabetic Sprague Dawley rats were administered chow containing compounds 4, 8 or the aldose reductase inhibitor AL1576. As anticipated, treatment with AL1576 prevented cataract by inhibiting sorbitol formation in the lens. However, compared to untreated rats, compounds 4 and 8 delayed vacuole formation by 20 days and 12 days, respectively, and cortical cataract formation by 8 and 3 days, respectively, without reducing lenticular sorbitol. Using in vitro lens culture in 30 mM xylose to model diabetic “sugar” cataract formation, western blots confirmed that multi-functional antioxidants reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Conclusions/Significance Multi

  8. Posterior subcapsular cataract and inhaled corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Abuekteish, F.; Kirkpatrick, J. N.; Russell, G.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although posterior subcapsular cataract complicates both systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy, the literature on the effects of inhaled corticosteroids is conflicting. METHODS--One hundred and forty children and young adults on inhaled corticosteroids were examined by slit lamp ophthalmoscopy after pupillary dilatation; 103 had received one or more short courses (< or = 7 days) of oral corticosteroids in the management of acute asthmatic attacks and four had also received one or more prolonged courses (> or = 4 weeks) of alternate day oral corticosteroid therapy. RESULTS--Bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract was identified in one girl who had received several prolonged courses of oral corticosteroids, but was not identified in any other patient. CONCLUSIONS--There is no evidence to support the contention that inhaled corticosteroid therapy on its own, or in association with short courses of oral corticosteroid therapy, might cause cataracts. Although children receiving long term systemic corticosteroid therapy should be screened for cataracts, this is unnecessary in children on inhaled corticosteroids alone. PMID:7638813

  9. Sunlight and Cataracts: Are Athletes at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a recent study of Chesapeake Bay watermen, which indicates a possible association between long-term exposure of the eyes to ultraviolet B rays and risk of cataract development. Authorities recommend protective lenses for outdoor athletes, especially those involved in winter sports. (SM)

  10. Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal.

    PubMed

    Smallman, H S; MacLeod, D I; Doyle, P

    2001-08-01

    Through unique observations of an adult case of bilateral congenital cataract removal, we have found evidence that retinal photoreceptors will swiftly realign towards the brightest regions in the pupils of the eye. Cones may be phototropic, actively orientating themselves towards light like sunflowers in a field.

  11. 24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 26. BOMBS IN CRATE IN BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BOMBS IN CRATE IN BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. mBAND analysis for high- and low-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations: a review.

    PubMed

    Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2011-06-01

    During long-term space travel or cancer therapy, humans are exposed to high linear energy transfer (LET) energetic heavy ions. High-LET radiation is much more effective than low-LET radiation in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, and cytogenetic damage can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Epidemiological data, mainly from survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan, have enabled risk estimation from low-LET radiation exposures. The identification of a cytogenetic signature that distinguishes high- from low-LET exposure remains a long-term goal in radiobiology. Recently developed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-painting methodologies have revealed unique endpoints related to radiation quality. Heavy-ions induce a high fraction of complex-type exchanges, and possibly unique chromosome rearrangements. This review will concentrate on recent data obtained with multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) methods in mammalian cells exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. Chromosome analysis with mBAND technique allows detection of both inter- and intrachromosomal exchanges, and also distribution of the breakpoints of aberrations.

  14. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide a

  15. Ultrasonic Device Would Open Pipe Bombs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, Michael S.; Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, energized by frequency generator and power supply, vibrates shell of pipe bomb while hardly disturbing explosive inner material. Frequency-control circuitry senses resonance in shell and holds generator at that frequency to induce fatigue cracking in threads of end cap. In addition to disarming bombs, ultrasonically induced fatigue may have other applications. In manufacturing, replaces some machining and cutting operations. In repair of equipment, cleanly and quickly disassembles corroded parts. In demolition of buildings used to dismember steel framework safely and controllably.

  16. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  17. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  18. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  19. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  2. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  3. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  4. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  5. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  6. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  7. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, M P

    2009-06-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  8. Cataract induction by protons and HZE particles is suppressed by dietary supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Ann; Davis, James

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the ability of dietary supplements to reduce the formation and severity of cataracts in mice irradiated with protons or iron ions, which are important components of the radiation encountered by astronauts during spaceflight. The mice were exposed to proton or iron ion radiation and fed with control diet or diets supplemented with an antioxidant formulation or with Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC) both before and after the radiation exposure. The antioxidant formulation contained L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine, ascorbic acid, co-enzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E succinate. This mixture is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro. BBIC is a soybean extract with high levels of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor, an 8-KD soybean-derived protease inhibitor with anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and radioprotection properties. At approximately two years after the radiation exposure, the animals were killed and lenses were harvested post-mortem and characterized using an established classifi- cation system that assigns discrete scores based on the severity of the lens opacifications. The results showed that exposure to 1-GeV/n proton (300 cGy) or iron ion (50 cGy) radiation significantly increased the cataract prevalence and severity in CBA/J mice to levels above the baseline levels of age-induced cataract formation in this mouse strain. Treatment with BBIC or the antioxidant formulation significantly reduced the prevalence and severity of the lens opaci- fications in the mice exposed to iron ion radiation. Treatment with BBIC or the antioxidant formulation also decreased the severity of the lens opacifications in the mice exposed to proton radiation; however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. These results indicate that BBIC and the antioxidant

  9. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J.; Cassidy, D.

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  11. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  12. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS.

  13. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

  14. Future population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

    2013-01-01

    The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011.

  15. MK-82 bomb characterization for the sympathetic detonation study

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, R.A.; Hantel, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radiographic, and electronic pin techniques were used to evaluate the fragmentation of tail- and side-initiated MK-82 MOD 1 general purpose bombs. They were found to contain large voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the Tritonal explosive fill. Characteristics of the void-side performance of the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Kodama, K.; Akiba, S. |

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Cataract influence on iris recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Czajka, Adam; Maciejewicz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental study revealing weaker performance of the automatic iris recognition methods for cataract-affected eyes when compared to healthy eyes. There is little research on the topic, mostly incorporating scarce databases that are often deficient in images representing more than one illness. We built our own database, acquiring 1288 eye images of 37 patients of the Medical University of Warsaw. Those images represent several common ocular diseases, such as cataract, along with less ordinary conditions, such as iris pattern alterations derived from illness or eye trauma. Images were captured in near-infrared light (used in biometrics) and for selected cases also in visible light (used in ophthalmological diagnosis). Since cataract is a disorder that is most populated by samples in the database, in this paper we focus solely on this illness. To assess the extent of the performance deterioration we use three iris recognition methodologies (commercial and academic solutions) to calculate genuine match scores for healthy eyes and those influenced by cataract. Results show a significant degradation in iris recognition reliability manifesting by worsening the genuine scores in all three matchers used in this study (12% of genuine score increase for an academic matcher, up to 175% of genuine score increase obtained for an example commercial matcher). This increase in genuine scores affected the final false non-match rate in two matchers. To our best knowledge this is the only study of such kind that employs more than one iris matcher, and analyzes the iris image segmentation as a potential source of decreased reliability

  18. The Zeiss surgical keratometer in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornic, J C

    1987-01-01

    The Zeiss keratometer is easy to use with simple and fast reading. The preoperative keratometry principle is satisfactory by allowing theorically a better control of surgical factors of postoperative astigmatism after cataract surgery. Its major interest appears in surgical training, when one wants to compensate a preoperative astigmatism or when one wishes to avoid secondary suture removal. However, its interest is very variable according to surgical experience.

  19. Combined surgery versus cataract surgery alone for eyes with cataract and glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingjuan Lisa; Hirunyachote, Phenpan; Jampel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Background Cataract and glaucoma are leading causes of blindness worldwide, and their co-existence is common in elderly people. Glaucoma surgery can accelerate cataract progression, and performing both surgeries may increase the rate of postoperative complications and compromise the success of either surgery. However, cataract surgery may independently lower intraocular pressure (IOP), which may allow for greater IOP control among patients with co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The decision between undergoing combined glaucoma and cataract surgery versus cataract surgery alone is complex. Therefore, it is important to compare the effectiveness of these two interventions to aid clinicians and patients in choosing the better treatment approach. Objectives To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of combined surgery versus cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) alone for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The secondary objectives include cost analyses for different surgical techniques for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2014), PubMed (January 1948 to October 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 3 October 2014. We checked the reference lists of the included trials to identify further relevant trials. We used the Science

  20. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed.

  1. Cancer incidence among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Preston, D.L.; Ron, E.

    1997-03-01

    The long-term follow-up of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors is a major source of epidemiological data for risk assessment used in radiological protection. Previous analyses of cancer risk have primarily focused on mortality data for this cohort. Recently, it has also become possible to use cancer incidence data from the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for a subset of the LSS cohort, and a series of reports from the first comprehensive analyses of the LSS cancer incidence data have been published. The availability of cancer incidence data has also prompted a series of in-depth studies of specific cancers. This paper describes how the incidence and mortality data differ and discusses how the incidence data will add a new dimension to the radiation risk assessment.

  2. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed. PMID:25240475

  3. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  4. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community.

  5. Assessing the elasticity change of cataract lens with OCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Cataract is one of the most common degenerative diseases that causes blindness. Careful quantification of lens biomechanical properties can greatly assist in early detection of the disease as well as personalization of treatment procedures. In this study, we utilize a phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to assess the effects of the cold cataract on the biomechanical properties of porcine crystalline lens in vitro. Relaxation rates of air puff induced elastic waves were measured on the same crystalline lens with and without cold cataract. Results demonstrate that the relaxation rate and, thus, associated elasticity of the porcine lens, increased due to the presence of cold cataract.

  6. Measuring aniseikonia using scattering filters to simulate cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms

  7. Cataracts. Lifting the clouds on an age-old problem.

    PubMed

    Trudo, E W; Stark, W J

    1998-05-01

    Cataracts are the most common treatable form of reduced vision in older adults. Although the incidence of cataracts is high after age 65, careful history taking and clinical examination are essential to establish the diagnosis. Cataract surgery is medically indicated when the view to the retina is obscured or lens-induced disorders place the eye at risk for further damage. However, even when patients have no specific associated medical problem, other than decreased visual acuity, cataract extraction offers an important means for maintaining independence and improving quality of life.

  8. Global Challenges in the Management of Congenital Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Phoebe D.; Courtright, Paul; Wilson, M. Edward; Taylor, David Samuel; Lewallen, Susan; Ventura, Marcelo C.; Bowman, Richard; Woodward, Lee; Ditta, Lauren C.; Kruger, Stacey; Haddad, Danny; El Shakankiri, Nihal; Rai, Salma KC; Bailey, Tehara; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Childhood cataracts have become a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness in many areas of the world. Here we summarize regional focus group discussions from the 4th Annual International Congenital Cataract Symposium on the current situation, challenges, and recommendations for the management of congenital cataracts in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Central America, South America, and developed nations. Strategies for managing congenital cataracts must be adapted and developed according to regional conditions. A basic framework for acceptable outcomes must focus on developing systems to address the critical components of education, access, quality care, and good follow-up. PMID:25892047

  9. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the retroperitoneum in an atomic bomb survivor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukio; Yumiba, Takeyoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshio; Momiyama, Takuya; Ito, Akira; Akamaru, Yusuke; Kasugai, Tsutomu

    2008-09-30

    A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to Kosei-Nenkin Hospital (Osaka, Japan) in November 2006; his chief complaint was a 10-kg loss in body weight over 3 months prior to admission. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed three masses in the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently underwent surgery. The final histopathological diagnosis of tumors 1 and 2 was malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the retroperitoneum, and tumor 3 was a well-differentiated liposarcoma. By the presence of the liposarcoma, tumor 1 and 2 were thought to be the dedifferentiated areas of liposarcomas. At the age of 16, the patient had been exposed to radiation from the atomic bomb at Hiroshima towards the end of the Second World War. We postulate that in this case, radiation from the atomic bomb may have played an important role in the development of the sarcomas.

  10. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  11. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  12. 9;22 translocation and bcr rearrangements in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Takechi, M; Hong, J; Shigeta, C; Oguma, N; Kamada, N; Takimoto, Y; Kuramoto, A; Dohy, H; Kyo, T

    1989-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of leukemia induced by radiation, we studied both chromosome abnormalities and bcr rearrangements of seven CML patients with a history of atomic bomb exposure and 14 CML patients without the exposure. All patients, irrespective of radiation exposure, had 9;22 translocation and rearrangement of the bcr gene in the leukemic cells. Further analysis of breakpoints within the bcr gene demonstrated no distinct difference between the exposed and the non-exposed groups. The present study suggests that formation of the chimeric bcr-abl gene and its genetic products may play an important role in the development of leukemia in either radiation-induced or de novo CML.

  13. Fast neutrons measured in copper from the Hiroshima atomic bomb dome.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, A A; McAninch, J E; Rugel, G; Rühm, W; Korschinek, G; Martinelli, R E; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Egbert, S D; Wallner, A; Wallner, C; Tanaka, K; Endo, S; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Fujita, S; Hasai, H; Imanaka, T; Straume, T

    2009-01-01

    The first measurements of (63)Ni produced by A-bomb fast neutrons (above approximately 1 MeV) in copper samples from Hiroshima encompassed distances from approximately 380 to 5062 m from the hypocenter (the point on the ground directly under the bomb). They included the region of interest to survivor studies (approximately 900 to 1500 m) and provided the first direct validation of fast neutrons in that range. However, a significant measurement gap remained between the hypocenter and 380 m. Measurements close to the hypocenter are important as a high-value anchor for the slope of the curve for neutron activation as a function of distance. Here we report measurements of (63)Ni in copper samples from the historic Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Dome, which is located approximately 150 m from the hypocenter. These measurements extend the range of our previously published data for (63)Ni providing a more comprehensive and consistent A-bomb activation curve. The results are also in good agreement with calculations based on the current dosimetry system (DS02) and give further experimental support to the accuracy of this system that forms the basis for radiation risk estimates worldwide.

  14. Fast neutrons measured in copper from the Hiroshima atomic bomb dome.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, A A; McAninch, J E; Rugel, G; Rühm, W; Korschinek, G; Martinelli, R E; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Egbert, S D; Wallner, A; Wallner, C; Tanaka, K; Endo, S; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Fujita, S; Hasai, H; Imanaka, T; Straume, T

    2009-01-01

    The first measurements of (63)Ni produced by A-bomb fast neutrons (above approximately 1 MeV) in copper samples from Hiroshima encompassed distances from approximately 380 to 5062 m from the hypocenter (the point on the ground directly under the bomb). They included the region of interest to survivor studies (approximately 900 to 1500 m) and provided the first direct validation of fast neutrons in that range. However, a significant measurement gap remained between the hypocenter and 380 m. Measurements close to the hypocenter are important as a high-value anchor for the slope of the curve for neutron activation as a function of distance. Here we report measurements of (63)Ni in copper samples from the historic Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Dome, which is located approximately 150 m from the hypocenter. These measurements extend the range of our previously published data for (63)Ni providing a more comprehensive and consistent A-bomb activation curve. The results are also in good agreement with calculations based on the current dosimetry system (DS02) and give further experimental support to the accuracy of this system that forms the basis for radiation risk estimates worldwide. PMID:19138052

  15. Hypertension and Risk of Cataract: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoning; Lyu, Danni; Dong, Xinran; He, Jiliang; Yao, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Background Cataract is the major cause of blindness across the world. Many epidemiologic studies indicated that hypertension might play an important role in the development of cataract, while others not. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to determine the relationship between risk of cataract and hypertension. Methods Retrieved studies on the association of hypertension with cataract risk were collected from PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library during June 2014 and were included into the final analysis according to the definite inclusion criteria. Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) were pooled with 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the relationship between hypertension and cataract risk. Subgroup analyses were carried out on the basis of cataract type, race and whether studies were adjusted for main components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Results The final meta-analysis included 25 studies (9 cohort, 5 case-control and 11 cross-sectional) from 23 articles. The pooled results showed that cataract risk in populations with hypertension significantly increased among cohort studies (RR 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05–1.12) and case-control or cross-sectional studies (OR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.12–1.45). This association was proved to be true among both Mongolians and Caucasians, and the significance was not altered by the adjustment of main components of MS. Subgroup analysis on cataract types indicated that an increased incidence of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) resulted among cohort studies (RR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03–1.46) and cross-sectional/case-control studies (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09–1.39). No association of hypertension with risk of nuclear cataract was found. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that hypertension increases the risk of cataract, especially PSC. Further efforts should be made to explore the potential biological mechanisms. PMID:25474403

  16. Effects of Cataract Surgery on Endothelium in Transplanted Corneal Grafts: Comparison of Extracapsular Cataract Extraction and Phacoemulsification for Complicated Cataract after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Wei; Xie, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The endothelium should be carefully evaluated when choosing a surgical technique for cataract removal. Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of different cataract surgery techniques on endothelial cell loss in transplanted corneal grafts. Methods: A total of 54 patients who received complicated cataract surgery in post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes at the Shandong Eye Institute between February 2001 and June 2014 were included, and clinical records were reviewed. Baseline demographic details, clinical characteristics, endothelial cell density (ECD), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to test the equality of medians. A regression model was constructed to compare the reduced rate of ECD. Results: Of the 54 eyes included in this study, extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was performed in 34 eyes of 33 patients (ECCE group) whereas phacoemulsification was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients (phacoemulsification group). There was no significant difference in the median age (P = 0.081) or preoperative ECD (P = 0.585) between the two groups. At 6 months after cataract surgery, ECD in ECCE group was significantly higher than that in phacoemulsification group (P = 0.043). In addition, the endothelial cell loss rate in ECCE group was significantly lower than that in phacoemulsification group at 2 months (P = 0.018), 4 months (P < 0.001), and 6 months (P < 0.001) after cataract surgery. Endothelial cell loss rate after cataract surgery increased over the 6-month study duration in both ECCE group (P < 0.001) and phacoemulsification group (P < 0.001), but phacoemulsification resulted in a greater reduction in ECD than that of ECCE in transplanted corneal grafts (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in postoperative BCVA between the two groups (P = 0.065). Conclusion: ECCE is more suitable than phacoemulsification in cataract surgery in complicated cataract

  17. The 1986 terrorist bombing experience in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Rignault, D P; Deligny, M C

    1989-01-01

    Between December 7, 1985 and September 17, 1986, eleven terrorist bomb explosions took place in Paris. Thirteen people died immediately, 255 others were injured. Forty were treated on-site and were not hospitalized, 205 were subjected to triage and stabilization and were then hospitalized. These latter 205 patients are analyzed in this study. None of them died during transportation, and seven eventually died in hospitals. Forty-seven per cent of all victims suffered from multiple injuries. All deaths except one occurred in the polytraumatized group. The policy of subjecting victims of terrorist bomb explosions to triage and stabilization before hospitalization is compared to the so-called "scoop and run" technique, more generally applied in mass casualty situations. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:2647053

  18. Bombing Target Identification from Limited Transect Data

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Barry L.; Hathaway, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; McKenna, Sean A.

    2006-08-07

    A series of sensor data combined with geostatistical techniques were used to determine likely target areas for a historic military aerial bombing range. Primary data consisted of magnetic anomaly information from limited magnetometer transects across the site. Secondary data included airborne LIDAR, orthophotography, and other general site characterization information. Identification of likely target areas relied primarily upon kriging estimates of magnetic anomaly densities across the site. Secondary information, such as impact crater locations, was used to refine the boundary delineations.

  19. [A-bomb experience and Hibakushas' lives].

    PubMed

    Akiba, Tadatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The A-bomb experience of Hiroshima may shed light on the reconstruction plan of the Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and on implementing middle to long range care plans for the victims of the catastrophe. An important element in the success of Hiroshima's reconstruction was the understanding of the realities of everyday life of citizens and hibakusha by local and national government, and incorporation of those points of view into the reconstruction plan. Sharing of accurate and fair information about the disaster, restoration, and reconstruction with citizens was and still is a prerequisite for success. To convey learned lessons from the Hiroshima experience, three books are helpful: "A-bomb Mayor" by Shinzo Hamai, "The Meaning of Survival" compiled by the Chugoku Shimbun and "The Children of the A-bomb" compiled by Arata Osada. They help understand the history of hibakusha psychology from the point of view of their everyday lives and may help those affected by the Earthquake and Tsunami. To summarize the history of psychological changes among the hibakusha, three key transitional pairs of statements used widely by them over the span of 66 years help show the change in their attitude and emotional outlook. Each pair consists of an expression from the period immediately following the bombing and a second more recent expression: (1) Transition from "I would rather die." to "I am glad I am alive." (2) Transition from "I would rather forget." to "We should not forget." (3) Transition from "You will understand if you are a victim." to "No one else should ever suffer as we did".

  20. Bomb detection using backscattered x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, Grant J.; Shope, Steve L.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Selph, Michael M.; Jacobs, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Currently the most common method to determine the contents of a package suspected of containing an explosive device is to use transmission radiography. This technique requires that an x-ray source and film be placed on opposite sites of the package. This poses a problem if the package is placed so that only one side is accessible, such as against a wall. There is also a threat to personnel and property since explosive devices may be 'booby trapped.' We have developed a method to x-ray a package using backscattered x-rays. This procedure eliminates the use of film behind the target. All of the detection is done from the same side as the source. When an object is subjected to x-rays, some of them are scattered back toward the source. The backscattering of x-rays is proportional to the atomic number (Z) of the material raised to the 4.1 power. This Z4.1 dependence allows us to easily distinguish between explosives, wires, timer, batteries, and other bomb components. Backscatter experiments at Sandia National Laboratories have been conducted on mock bombs in packages. We are able to readily identify the bomb components. The images that are obtained in this procedure are done in real time and the image is displayed on a computer screen.

  1. Exploiting ensemble learning for automatic cataract detection and grading.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Jiang; Li, Jianqiang; Shen, Ruifang; Zeng, Yang; He, Jian; Bi, Jing; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qinyan; Peng, Lihui; Wang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cataract is defined as a lenticular opacity presenting usually with poor visual acuity. It is one of the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. Early diagnosis demands the expertise of trained healthcare professionals, which may present a barrier to early intervention due to underlying costs. To date, studies reported in the literature utilize a single learning model for retinal image classification in grading cataract severity. We present an ensemble learning based approach as a means to improving diagnostic accuracy. Three independent feature sets, i.e., wavelet-, sketch-, and texture-based features, are extracted from each fundus image. For each feature set, two base learning models, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation Neural Network, are built. Then, the ensemble methods, majority voting and stacking, are investigated to combine the multiple base learning models for final fundus image classification. Empirical experiments are conducted for cataract detection (two-class task, i.e., cataract or non-cataractous) and cataract grading (four-class task, i.e., non-cataractous, mild, moderate or severe) tasks. The best performance of the ensemble classifier is 93.2% and 84.5% in terms of the correct classification rates for cataract detection and grading tasks, respectively. The results demonstrate that the ensemble classifier outperforms the single learning model significantly, which also illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Barriers to Cataract Surgery in Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aboobaker, Shaheer; Courtright, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms “barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB).” The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa. PMID:26957856

  3. Application of femtotechnologies and terahertz spectroscopy methods in cataract diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnov, S. N.; Leksutkina, E. V.; Smolyanskaya, O. A.; Usov, A. V.; Parakhuda, S. E.; Grachev, Ya. V.; Kozlov, S. A.

    2011-08-01

    We study the destructive action of femtosecond pulses (200 fs) on the human cataractous crystalline lens and the transmission of the cataractous lens in the terahertz spectral range of electromagnetic oscillations (0.2-1 THz) in relation to the density of the nucleus of the lens.

  4. Male breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ron, Elaine; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Preston, Dale L; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2005-04-20

    To learn more about the role of ionizing radiation in the development of male breast cancer, we evaluated male breast cancer incidence among 45 880 male members of the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Male breast cancers, diagnosed between January 1, 1958, and December 31, 1998, were identified through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tumor Registries. Nine male breast cancers were diagnosed among exposed Life Span Study members (crude rate = 1.8 per 100,000 person-years), and three were diagnosed among nonexposed cohort members (crude rate = 0.5 per 100,000 person-years). A statistically significant dose-response relation was observed (excess relative risk per sievert = 8, 95% confidence interval = 0.8 to 48; P = .01). Our finding of a statistically significant association between ionizing radiation and male breast cancer incidence adds to the very limited information that shows an association between radiation exposure and an increased risk of male breast cancer.

  5. Cataract extraction after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, G.E.; Jost, B.F.; Snyder, W.I.; Fuller, D.G.; Birch, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Thirteen eyes of 55 consecutive patients treated with brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid developed postirradiation cataracts. Cataract development was more common in older patients and in patients with larger and more anterior tumors. Eleven eyes had extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Initial visual improvement occurred in 91% of eyes, with an average improvement of 5.5 lines. Visual acuity was maintained at 20/60 or better in 55% of the eyes over an average period of follow-up of 24 months (range, 6 to 40 months). These data suggest that, visually, cataract extraction can be helpful in selected patients who develop a cataract after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid.

  6. [Developments in modern cataract surgery – a critical overview].

    PubMed

    Menapace, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Cataract surgery has tremendously evolved in recent years. Innovations include micro-incision cataract surgery through incisions smaller than 2mm, high-fluidics phacoaspiration and laser phacoemulsification to minimize or replace the use of ultrasound, the advent of femtolasers for high-precision incisions in the cornea, the lens capsule and the cataractous lens, aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) to enhance the quality and contrast of the image, multifocal and enhanced-depth-of-focus IOLs to correct presbyopia, advancements in biometry and IOL power calculation, prevention of secondary capsule opacification by improvements in the design and material of the IOLs and surgical techniques like capsule polishing and posterior capsulorhexis, and pharmacological prophylaxis and possible future treatment of the cataract itself. Finally, cost-effectiveness and future potential of same-session bilateral cataract surgery are discussed.

  7. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  8. A method to detect low-level 63Ni activity for estimating fast neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Shibata, T; Imamura, M; Shibata, S; Nogawa, N; Uwamino, Y; Shizuma, K

    1999-06-01

    The Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs resulted in the worst reported exposure of radiation to the human body. The data of survivors have provided the basis for the risk estimation for ionizing radiation, and thus are widely used as the basis of radiation safety. In this report we have studied a new method to detect the low-level 63Ni activity in copper samples in order to estimate the fast neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Only 0.8 x 10(-3) Bq g(-1) of 63Ni is expected to be produced by the atomic bomb in a copper sample with the 63Cu(n, p)63Ni reaction at a distance of 500 m from the hypocenter. Our method has the required level of sensitivity for determination of the fast neutron fluence out to distances of at least 500 m, and perhaps as far as 1,000 m. We have already investigated and collected some bomb-irradiated copper samples for further study.

  9. Experimental derivation of relative biological effectiveness of A-bomb neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Nomura, T; Ejima, Y; Utsumi, H; Endo, S; Saito, I; Itoh, T; Hoshi, M

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological data on the health effects of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide the framework for setting limits for radiation risk and radiological protection. However, uncertainty remains in the equivalent dose, because it is generally believed that direct derivation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons from the epidemiological data on the survivors is difficult. To solve this problem, an alternative approach has been taken. The RBE of polyenergetic neutrons was determined for chromosome aberration formation in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro, compared with published data for tumor induction in experimental animals, and validated using epidemiological data from A-bomb survivors. The RBE of fission neutrons was dependent on dose but was independent of the energy spectrum. The same RBE regimen was observed for lymphocyte chromosome aberrations and tumors in mice and rats. Used as a weighting factor for A-bomb survivors, this RBE system was superior in eliminating the city difference in chromosome aberration frequencies and cancer mortality. The revision of the equivalent dose of A-bomb radiation using DS02 weighted by this RBE system reduces the cancer risk by a factor of 0.7 compared with the current estimates using DS86, with neutrons weighted by a constant RBE of 10.

  10. Sticky bomb detection with other implications for vehicle security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Vetrone, J.; Warner, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    A 'sticky bomb' is a type of improvised explosive device (IED) placed on a motor vehicle by (for example) a terrorist. The bomb is typically attached with adhesive ('duct') tape, or with magnets. This paper reports some preliminary results for a very rudimentary demonstration of two techniques for detecting the placement of a sticky bomb on a motor vehicle. The two techniques are tire pressure and magnetic measurements. There are other possible security applications for these techniques as well.

  11. Sunflower cataract: do not forget Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Tomasz; Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology for 6 years was admitted to our department to confirm the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. He consulted an ophthalmologist who suspected the presence of a sunflower cataract and Kayser-Fleischer ring. At admission, his liver function tests were modestly impaired (Child-Pugh C, 10 pts). Neurological examination was normal, but cognitive functions were mildly impaired. Based on the copper metabolism abnormalities and clinical manifestation, we diagnosed Wilson's disease (Ferenci score, 6 pts) and started treatment with d-penicillamine. Presenting the case we would like to emphasise the significance of the ophthalmological examination in Wilson's disease diagnosis.

  12. Single flash electroretinograms of mature cataractous and fellow eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Mochizuki, Jun-ichi; Hirakata, Akito; Uda, Shigekazu

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally stated that opacities of the ocular media, including senile cataract, have little effect on the electrical responses of the retina. However, lower amplitudes and longer implicit times are sometimes observed in electroretinograms (ERGs) of patients with mature cataract. Methods Single flash ERGs of mature cataractous eyes with decimal visual acuity less than 0.1 were compared with those of the fellow eyes with decimal visual acuity better than 0.5, in 105 senile cataract patients. Results The mean amplitudes and implicit times of ERG a-waves were, respectively, 323.6±95.8 μV and 14.7±3.5 ms in the cataractous eyes and 352.3±96.6 μV and 12.0±1.5 ms in the fellow eyes. The mean amplitudes and implicit times of ERG b-waves were, respectively, 390.1±108.7 μV and 63.4±27.9 ms in the cataractous eyes and 415.3±119.1 μV and 59.0±9.3 ms in the fellow eyes. The mean amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were significantly lower and the mean implicit times of the a- and b-wave were significantly longer in the cataractous eyes as compared to those of the fellow eyes. Postoperative visual acuity was similar in cataractous and fellow eyes. Conclusion Even though single flash ERG was influenced due to mature cataract, eyes revealed good postoperative visual acuity. Single flash ERG does not always reflect the foveal function and the visual pathway; nevertheless, it remains a reliable guide to evaluate visual prognosis before cataract surgery. PMID:27799729

  13. Radiation impacts on human health: certain, fuzzy, and unknown.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2014-02-01

    The atomic bomb and other studies have established with certainty that moderate-to-high doses of radiation cause many types of solid cancer and leukemia. Moving down the dose range to the vicinity of 100-200 mSv, the risks become fuzzy and then unknown at low doses on the order of 10-20 mSv. Nor have low-dose experimental studies provided definitive answers: some have suggested there may be adverse biological effects in the range of 5-50 mSv, while others support a "no risk" interpretation. Epidemiologic data contain intrinsic "noise" (variation by known and unknown factors related to genetics, lifestyle, other environmental exposures, sociodemographics, diagnostic accuracy, etc.) so are generally too insensitive to provide compelling answers in the low-dose range. However, there have been recent provocative reports regarding risk from relatively low-dose occupational and medical radiation exposures that warrant careful consideration. Summaries of the largest studies with low-dose or low dose-rate radiation exposure provide suggestive evidence of risk for solid cancer and stronger evidence for leukemia risk. Recently, interest in health endpoints other than cancer also has risen sharply, in particular the degree of cardiovascular and cataract risk following doses under 1 Sv. Data regarding cardiovascular disease are limited and fuzzy, with suggestions of inconsistencies, and the risk at low doses is essentially unknown. The evidence of cataract risk after low dose-rate exposures among those conducting interventional medical radiological procedures is becoming strong. The magnitude of radiation impacts on human health requires fuller documentation, especially for low-dose or low dose-rate exposures. From the epidemiologic vantage point, this will require longer observation of existing irradiated cohorts and development of new informative cohorts, improved accuracy in dose assessments, more attention to confounding variables, and more biosamples from irradiated

  14. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  15. Anti-Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I antibodies in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Nakashima, E; Carter, R L; Neriishi, K; Mabuchi, K; Akiyama, M; Shimaoka, K; Kinoshita, K; Tomonaga, M; Ichimaru, M

    1995-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), induced by human T- lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I), is endemic in Nagasaki, Japan. To investigate the effects of atomic-bomb radiation on development of this specific type of leukemia, 6182 individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study sample in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were examined for positive rate of HTLV-I antibody. Several lymphocyte parameters were also studied for 70 antibody- positive subjects in Nagasaki. The HTLV-I antibody-positive rate was higher in Nagasaki (6.36%) than in Hiroshima (0.79%) and significantly increased with increasing age, but no association was observed with radiation dose. Whether relationship existed between antibody titer levels and radiation dose among antibody-positive subjects was not The frequency of abnormal lymphocytes tended to be higher in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects, and higher in females than in males regardless of radiation dose. The lymphocyte count was lower in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects and lower in female than in male subjects. No evidence was found to suggest that atomic-bomb radiation plays an important role in HTLV-I infection.

  16. Dose estimation for atomic bomb survivor studies: its evolution and present status.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Grant, Eric J; Kerr, George D; Preston, Dale L

    2006-07-01

    In the decade after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, several large cohorts of survivors were organized for studies of radiation health effects. The U.S. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its U.S./Japan successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have performed continuous studies since then, with extensive efforts to collect data on survivor locations and shielding and to create systems to estimate individual doses from the bombs' neutrons and gamma rays. Several successive systems have been developed by extramural working groups and collaboratively implemented by ABCC and RERF investigators. We describe the cohorts and the history and evolution of dose estimation from early efforts through the newest system, DS02, emphasizing the technical development and use of DS02. We describe procedures and data developed at RERF to implement successive systems, including revised rosters of survivors, development of methods to calculate doses for some classes of persons not fitting criteria of the basic systems, and methods to correct for bias arising from errors in calculated doses. We summarize calculated doses and illustrate their change and elaboration through the various systems for a hypothetical example case in each city. We conclude with a description of current efforts and plans for further improvements.

  17. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses.

  18. Multiple primary cancers: with reference to atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, H; Nishiki, M; Kuroda, Y; Ezaki, H

    1983-09-01

    We treated 44 patients with multiple primary cancers, at the Second Department of Surgery, Hiroshima University, during the 14 year period from 1968-1981. The total number of malignant tumors was 1,934 during this period, thus the incidence of multiple primary cancers was 2.3 per cent. Nine of the 44 were atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and were characterized by the frequent incidence of the second tumor about 30 years after exposure to the atomic bomb. In addition, the second tumor tended to develop later in patients prescribed radiotherapy for the first tumor. As for the site of tumor, there was no tendency of more frequent development of tumors in organs highly sensitive to radiation other than the thyroid.

  19. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses. PMID:22128360

  20. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure.

  1. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  2. A report from the 2013 international symposium: the evaluation of the effects of low-dose radiation exposure in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors and other similar studies.

    PubMed

    Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Ban, N; de González, A Berrington; Cologne, J; Cullings, H M; Doi, K; Furukawa, K; Imaoka, T; Kodama, K; Nakamura, N; Niwa, O; Preston, D L; Rajaraman, P; Sadakane, A; Saigusa, S; Sakata, R; Sobue, T; Sugiyama, H; Ullrich, R; Wakeford, R; Yasumura, S; Milder, C M; Shore, R E

    2015-05-01

    The RERF International Low-Dose Symposium was held on 5-6 December 2013 at the RERF campus in Hiroshima, Japan, to discuss the issues facing the Life Span Study (LSS) and other low-dose studies. Topics included the current status of low-dose risk detection, strategies for low-dose epidemiological and statistical research, methods to improve communication between epidemiologists and biologists, and the current status of radiological studies and tools. Key points made by the participants included the necessity of pooling materials over multiple studies to gain greater insight where data from single studies are insufficient; generating models that reflect epidemiological, statistical, and biological principles simultaneously; understanding confounders and effect modifiers in the current data; and taking into consideration less studied factors such as the impact of dose rate. It is the hope of all participants that this symposium be used as a trigger for further studies, especially those using pooled data, in order to reach a greater understanding of the health effects of low-dose radiation.

  3. A report from the 2013 international symposium: the evaluation of the effects of low-dose radiation exposure in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors and other similar studies.

    PubMed

    Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Ban, N; de González, A Berrington; Cologne, J; Cullings, H M; Doi, K; Furukawa, K; Imaoka, T; Kodama, K; Nakamura, N; Niwa, O; Preston, D L; Rajaraman, P; Sadakane, A; Saigusa, S; Sakata, R; Sobue, T; Sugiyama, H; Ullrich, R; Wakeford, R; Yasumura, S; Milder, C M; Shore, R E

    2015-05-01

    The RERF International Low-Dose Symposium was held on 5-6 December 2013 at the RERF campus in Hiroshima, Japan, to discuss the issues facing the Life Span Study (LSS) and other low-dose studies. Topics included the current status of low-dose risk detection, strategies for low-dose epidemiological and statistical research, methods to improve communication between epidemiologists and biologists, and the current status of radiological studies and tools. Key points made by the participants included the necessity of pooling materials over multiple studies to gain greater insight where data from single studies are insufficient; generating models that reflect epidemiological, statistical, and biological principles simultaneously; understanding confounders and effect modifiers in the current data; and taking into consideration less studied factors such as the impact of dose rate. It is the hope of all participants that this symposium be used as a trigger for further studies, especially those using pooled data, in order to reach a greater understanding of the health effects of low-dose radiation. PMID:25811153

  4. [Research progress in relative crystallin genes of congenital cataract].

    PubMed

    Wang, D D; Yang, H J; Yi, J L

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cataract is the common cause of visual disability in children. Nearly one third of congenital cataract cases may have a related genetic mutation. With the development of molecular genetics, especially gentechnik, more and more genes, such as crystallin genes, membrane protein genes, eytoskeletal protein genes and regulatory protein genes have been confirmed to participate in the process of congenital cataract. Furthermore, crystallin genes account for most of these genes and the crystallin has the highest amount of the whole protein in lens.It has been found that nearly one hundred mutations in crystallin genes are associated with the onset of congenital cataract. Researchers are exploring how these mutations further affect the function of cellular biology and eventually lead to cataract. Although more and more research results gradually reveal the pathogenesis of congenital cataract from the level of gene and protein, the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. The recent progression about inherited congenital cataract related with crysallin genes is summarized in this review.

  5. Automatic Cataract Hardness Classification Ex Vivo by Ultrasound Techniques.

    PubMed

    Caixinha, Miguel; Santos, Mário; Santos, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a new methodology for cataract hardness characterization and automatic classification using ultrasound techniques, different cataract degrees were induced in 210 porcine lenses. A 25-MHz ultrasound transducer was used to obtain acoustical parameters (velocity and attenuation) and backscattering signals. B-Scan and parametric Nakagami images were constructed. Ninety-seven parameters were extracted and subjected to a Principal Component Analysis. Bayes, K-Nearest-Neighbours, Fisher Linear Discriminant and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers were used to automatically classify the different cataract severities. Statistically significant increases with cataract formation were found for velocity, attenuation, mean brightness intensity of the B-Scan images and mean Nakagami m parameter (p < 0.01). The four classifiers showed a good performance for healthy versus cataractous lenses (F-measure ≥ 92.68%), while for initial versus severe cataracts the SVM classifier showed the higher performance (90.62%). The results showed that ultrasound techniques can be used for non-invasive cataract hardness characterization and automatic classification.

  6. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M; Neel, J V

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  7. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  8. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  9. Global prevalence of childhood cataract: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheeladevi, S; Lawrenson, J G; Fielder, A R; Suttle, C M

    2016-09-01

    Childhood cataract is an avoidable cause of visual disability worldwide and is a priority for VISION 2020: The Right to Sight. There is a paucity of information about the burden of cataract in children and the aim of this review is to assess the global prevalence of childhood cataract. The methodology for the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We performed a literature search for studies reporting estimates of prevalence or incidence of cataract among children (aged<18 years) at any global location using the Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase up to January 2015. No restrictions were imposed based on language or year of publication. Study quality was assessed using a critical appraisal tool designed for systematic reviews of prevalence. Twenty prevalence and four incidence studies of childhood cataract from five different geographical regions were included. The overall prevalence of childhood cataract and congenital cataract was in the range from 0.32 to 22.9/10000 children (median=1.03) and 0.63 to 9.74/10000 (median=1.71), respectively. The incidence ranged from 1.8 to 3.6/10000 per year. The prevalence of childhood cataract in low-income economies was found to be 0.42 to 2.05 compared with 0.63 to 13.6/10000 in high-income economies. There was no difference in the prevalence based on laterality or gender. This review highlights substantial gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of childhood cataract worldwide, particularly from low and lower middle-income economies. More studies are needed using standard definitions and case ascertainment methods with large enough sample sizes. PMID:27518543

  10. Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: Population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gollogly, Heidrun E.; Hodge, David O.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Erie, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of cataract surgery in a defined population and to determine longitudinal cataract surgery patterns. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) databases were used to identify all incident cataract surgeries in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States white population. Data were merged with previous REP data (1980 to 2004) to assess temporal trends in cataract surgery. Change in the incidence over time was assessed by fitting generalized linear models assuming a Poisson error structure. The probability of second-eye cataract surgery was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS Included were 8012 cataract surgeries from 2005 through 2011. During this time, incident cataract surgery significantly increased (P < .001), peaking in 2011 with a rate of 1100 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1050–1160). The probability of second-eye surgery 3, 12, and 24 months after first-eye surgery was 60%, 76%, and 86%, respectively, a significant increase compared with the same intervals in the previous 7 years (1998 to 2004) (P < .001). When merged with 1980 to 2004 REP data, incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 3 decades (P < .001). CONCLUSION Incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 32 years and has not leveled off, as reported in Swedish population-based series. Second-eye surgery was performed sooner and more frequently, with 60% of residents having second-eye surgery within 3-months of first-eye surgery. PMID:23820302

  11. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  12. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  13. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study.

    PubMed

    Jablon, S

    1985-05-01

    More is known about ionizing radiation as a cause of human cancer than about any other carcinogen. Most of this knowledge is derived from the studies conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and Radiation Effects Research Foundation on about 100,000 Japanese survivors of the atomic bombing in 1945. The importance of these studies is based on the large size of the exposed population and the fact that individual estimates of radiation dose were possible. These factors and the combined excellence of the centralized vital statistics reporting and population registration systems in Japan have made feasible the continuing longitudinal studies of cancer mortality by site in relation to radiation dose over a span of more than 30 years. Excellent voluntary cooperation by the survivors has enabled the continuation of a biennial physical examination program which has made possible the acquisition of blood for studies of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the level of specific genes. Similarly, with the cooperation of local universities, hospitals, and physicians, tumor and tissue registries necessary for the study of cancer incidence have been developed. An autopsy pathology program has enabled study of the accuracy of cause of death certification.

  14. Late biological effects of heavy charged particles: Cataracts, vascular injury and life shortening in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Jose, J. G.; Barker, M. E.; Alpen, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Risks associated with extended habitation in a space environment, particularly hazards to space workers that might result from exposure to high energy heavy ion particles (HZE), were studied. Biological effects of HZE were investigated in mice to assess their potential adverse health hazards. The potential effects of HZE particles on the crystalline lens of the eye and the carcinogenic effects and blood vessel (vascular) damage from radiation were evaluated by a risk assessment. Animal experiments to evaluate dose response relationships for tumor induction/promotion and for vascular injury were introduced. Cataract productions and preliminary results on cacinogenic and vascular effects are presented for perspective.

  15. Ocular safety limits for 1030nm femtosecond laser cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jenny; Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Lavinsky, Daniel; Schuele, Georg; Anderson, Dan; Dewey, David; Palanker, Daniel V.

    2013-03-01

    Application of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has added unprecedented precision and reproducibility but ocular safety limits for the procedure are not well-quantified. We present an analysis of safety during laser cataract surgery considering scanned patterns, reduced blood perfusion, and light scattering on residual bubbles formed during laser cutting. Experimental results for continuous-wave 1030 nm irradiation of the retina in rabbits are used to calibrate damage threshold temperatures and perfusion rate for our computational model of ocular heating. Using conservative estimates for each safety factor, we compute the limits of the laser settings for cataract surgery that optimize procedure speed within the limits of retinal safety.

  16. Effect of coffee (caffeine) against human cataract blindness

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Shambhu D

    2016-01-01

    Previous biochemical and morphological studies with animal experiments have demonstrated that caffeine given topically or orally to certain experimental animal models has significant inhibitory effect on cataract formation. The present studies were undertaken to examine if there is a correlation between coffee drinking and incidence of cataract blindness in human beings. That has been found to be the case. Incidence of cataract blindness was found to be significantly lower in groups consuming higher amounts of coffee in comparison to the groups with lower coffee intake. Mechanistically, the caffeine effect could be multifactorial, involving its antioxidant as well as its bioenergetic effects on the lens. PMID:26869755

  17. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery: technology and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin Ck; Jacobs, Mark; Ng, David; Bali, Shveta J; Hodge, Chris; Sutton, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    The recent introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has generated much interest among ophthalmologists around the world. Laser cataract surgery integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging systems with a femtosecond laser, allowing key steps of the procedure, including the primary and side-port corneal incisions, the anterior capsulotomy and fragmentation of the lens nucleus, to be performed with computer-guided laser precision. There is emerging evidence of reduced phacoemulsification time, better wound architecture and a more stable refractive result with femtosecond cataract surgery, as well as reports documenting an initial learning curve. This article will review the current state of technology and discuss our clinical experience.

  18. Radiation field associated with Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accuracy of dosimetric estimates can determine the value of the atomic bomb survivor experience in establishing radiation risks. The status of a major revision of this dosimetry, initiated in 1980, is assessed. 3 references, 6 figures.

  19. 25. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMB CRATES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMB CRATES AND SCALE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING 343 AT LEFT AND BUILDING 328 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Overhead Bomb Transport Rack, 1580 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 860 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. Dark sun, the making of the hydrogen bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, R.

    1995-10-01

    This book traces the history of the making of the hydrogen bomb, starting with the history of the Soviet atomic bomb from its beginning and the American project after the end of World War II, the stories of the atomic spies, and history of the cold war. Details are extensive and presented in a comprehensive and logical fashion.

  2. Where Do We Stand On the A-Bomb?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most history textbooks support the traditional view that dropping the atom bomb on Hiroshima (Japan) was necessary to end World War II and save U.S. lives. Briefly articulates the revisionist view that the bombing's main purpose was to intimidate the Soviet Union. Reviews six textbooks. (MJP)

  3. Calculation of Per Parcel Probability for Dud Bombs in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli Sabour, S. M.; Agarius, J.; Sadidi, J.

    2014-10-01

    Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth's surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  4. Radiographic study for sympathetic detonation of 500-lb bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flash radiography have determined the size and velocity vectors in the near field of fragments from tail- and side-initiated MK 82 MOD 1, general-purpose bombs. Excellent radiographs have been acquired from nine separate tests. Unlike arena tests, the radiographs were taken 75 to 125 cm from the case and show that the fragments peel off the case in long strips. A major concern in the design and execution of the experiments was the protection of the 450-kV x-ray heads and the film cassettes from fragments and blast produced by the 500-lb bombs. The velocity and size data, along with optical and electronic pin data, were used to characterize the fragments of the donor bomb in a donor-acceptor sympathetic detonation system study. The bombs were found to contain large shrink voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the explosive Tritonal fill. Characteristics of the fragments from the void side if the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the fragments characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. Such mitigation systems may be required for mass storage methods to meet the evolving insensitive munition requirements. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  6. Quality improvement program for the B83 bomb hand truck

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, M.B.; Buck, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the problems, issues, and history of the H1347 bomb hand truck for the B83 bomb after the bomb was put into stockpile in the mid-1980s. Major issues that were reported in Unsatisfactory Reports (URs) were cracking problems on stacking fixture welds, cracked welds on the caster bracket receptacles on the cradle, cracked caster mounting brackets, casters unlocking from the swivel lock position, and caster tires rubbing and binding on the stacking frame. Resolution of these and other problems is described. The introduction of the H695B storage-only bomb hand truck to alleviate a shortage of bomb hand trucks in the mid-1990s is described. The development and qualification of the H1347A bomb hand truck as a replacement for the H695 B is covered. The results from load test evaluations on the stacking fixture, cradle, and casters for the H1347 are described along with towing results on one and two-high stack configurations of B83 bombs in bomb hand trucks. New towing and truck/trailer transport procedures are described. Development, evaluation, and production recommendations for a stronger caster mounting bracket are described.

  7. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-03-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension {le}1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, S.C.; Nakashima, E.; Kato, H.

    1985-07-01

    Radiation-induced cancer mortality rates among atomic bomb survivors with doses of at least 100 rad and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy have been compared for the first time. The estimated average mean bone marrow dose for the spondylitics is more than twice that for atomic bomb survivors, and yet spondylitics experienced only half the risk of radiation-induced leukemia of atomic bomb survivors. For sites that were heavily irradiated in the spondylitics, provisional estimates indicate comparable doses in the two studies, and similar levels of cancer risk were observed. For these sites, when information from the studies was combined, there were statistically significant excesses for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, lung, and ovaries, multiple myeloma, other lymphomas, and tumors of the spinal cord and nerves. Very high relative risks (RR's) for tumors of the spinal cord and nerves were observed in both studies. For sites that were lightly irradiated in the spondylitics, in addition to previously documented sites, there was a statistically significant excess of cancers of the liver and gallbladder among atomic bomb survivors. A previous subdivision of cancer sites into radiosensitive and other tissues was not supported by the atomic bomb survivor data. Changes in the rates of radiation-induced cancers with age at exposure and time since exposure were studied and compared with the use of generalized linear modeling of the RR's and also by examination of the excess mortality rates. The level of agreement between the two studies was high; provided it is accepted that the reduced level of leukemia risk in the spondylitics is due to cell sterilization, no inconsistencies were found.

  9. The Capsular Complications of Cataract Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Goulden, Charles

    1948-01-01

    The author considered the following important points: (1) Anterior capsular synechia to a corneal incision (made by a keratome) after the evacuation of a traumatic cataract. This might be detached early by the use of a blunt-ended knife following a perforation of the cornea with a sharp-pointed knife, much like a tenotome. (2) The involuntary prolapse of capsule with a cataract incision. (a) The danger of this was demonstrated as the cause of glaucoma, especially if it be found necessary to divide opaque capsular membrane after the extraction. (b) The danger of sympathetic ophthalmia. Prolapse might be prevented: (a) By intracapsular extraction. (b) By extracting the lens through an intact pupil, after the use of capsule forceps, followed either by a partial or total iridectomy. (3) The treatment of opaque after-cataract. Various types of opaque capsule membrane were described. (a) Opaque lens fibres imprisoned between anterior and posterior remains of capsule. (b) Grey membrane made of new lens fibres from proliferating subcapsular cells. (c) Elschnig's cells. (d) Much thickened capsular membrane following an extensive hæmorrhage into the anterior chamber occurring about the fifth day after extraction. (e) A thick membrane formed of fibrous tissue following the invasion of the coloboma of the iris after infection at the time of operation. The fibrous tissue comes from the undersurface of the conjunctival flap and causes an updrawn coloboma which is also made narrower by its contraction. When performing a capsulotomy thickened bands should be avoided and an incision made in thin capsule, parallel to thick bands. If the membrane is very thick and shows signs of being torn from its peripheral attachment when a single needle is used, then (1) Two needles may be used after the method of Bowman; (2) A Wheeler operation may be performed (Wheeler, 1939, Collected Papers, New York, 197); (3) Thick capsule may be divided by means of a Ziegler knife, as described by the

  10. Sequential intrastromal corneal ring implantation and cataract surgery in a severe keratoconus patient with cataract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae; Kwon, Hyun Suk; Koh, Il Hwan

    2012-06-01

    A 49-year-old man with an uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20 / 1000, a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) of 20 / 400, keratometric readings of K1 = 59.88 × 82° / K2 = 45.88 × 172°, and an inferior steepening that was consistent with keratoconus in his left eye was treated with clear-cornea phacoemulsification and an intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after insertion of keraring intrastromal corneal ring segments for severe keratoconus and cataract. An asymmetrical pair of kerarings was implanted with the assistance of a femtosecond laser in September 2008; the one segment was 250 µm and the other was 150 µm and both were placed at 70°. Three months after the kerarings were implanted, clear-cornea phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were performed on the left eye. After surgery, both the UCVA and the BSCVA of the left eye improved by eight lines. Postoperative central keratometry showed a decrease of 7.35 diopters in the left eye. Both the postoperative refraction (-0.75 -0.75 × 60°) and the keratometric reading (K1 = 50.05 × 93° / K2 = 48.83 × 3°) remained stable one month following the procedures. Thus, the sequential order of intrastromal corneal rings implantation and cataract surgery can be considered as a treatment option in patients with severe keratoconus and cataract.

  11. Hα features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca ii and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na i D and Mg i b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for Hα, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10 000-20 000 K and hydrogen densities around 1015 cm-3. Similar arguments likely hold for Hα visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  12. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-03-15

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  13. Terrorist homicide bombings: a primer for preparation.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, James

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary planning for disaster response to terrorist events usually assumes the use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Historically, most victims of terrorist attacks are injured by the use of conventional explosives rather than weapons of mass destruction. Such attacks will likely produce victims who have suffered burn injuries along with conventional trauma. Alternately, the large number of patients sustaining conventional soft-tissue or crush injuries will benefit from burn center expertise. This study summarizes the current state of knowledge related to the management of terrorism mass casualty incidents caused by the use of conventional explosives. A review of pertinent medical, technical, and popular literature relating to terrorism and explosives, along with instruction received at Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel on the management of mass casualty terrorism events was undertaken, and the pertinent medical and scientific literature relating to bomb delivery methods, blast mechanics, blast pathophysiology, and medical response to a terrorist bombing is presented here. Although terrorist use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons is possible, historical analysis consistently demonstrates that the most likely terrorist weapon causing a mass casualty event is a standard explosive device detonated in a crowded area. The medical basis for management of such casualties is herein described. PMID:16998388

  14. Long-term effects of the rain exposure shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Furukawa, Kyoji; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E

    2014-12-01

    The "black rain" that fell after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been generally believed to contain radioactive materials. During 1949-1961 the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission conducted surveys that included a query about exposure to the rain that fell a short time after the bombings. This article presents the first report of those data in relation to possible adverse health outcomes. This study looked at Life Span Study subjects who were in either city at the time of bombing and had an estimated direct radiation dose from the bombs (n = 86,609). The mortality data from 1950-2005 and cancer incidence data from 1958-2005 were used. Excess relative risks (ERRs) of subjects who were exposed to rain compared to those who reported no rain exposure were calculated using a Poisson regression model. In Hiroshima 11,661 subjects (20%) reported that they were exposed to rain, while in Nagasaki only 733 subjects (2.6%) reported rain exposure. To avoid outcome dependent biases (i.e., recall of exposure after a health outcome has already occurred), the primary analyses were based on events that occurred during 1962-2005. No significant risks due to rain exposure were observed for death due to all causes, all solid cancer or leukemia in Hiroshima. In Nagasaki there was no significantly elevated rain exposure-associated risks for 1962-2005, however, for 1950-2005 there was a weak association for all-cause mortality (ERR = 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.00006, 0.17; P = 0.05). For incidence of solid cancer and leukemia, no significantly elevated rain exposure risks were observed in either city. These results failed to show deleterious health effects from rain exposure. While these data represent the most extensive set of systematically collected data on rain exposure of the atomic bomb survivors, they are limited by substantial uncertainties regarding exposures and missing individual data, so cautious interpretation is advised.

  15. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels.

  16. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin− ) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34+Lin− cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34+Lin− cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34+Lin− cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  17. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  18. Corneal toxic changes after cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Zabel, R W; Mintsioulis, G; MacDonald, I M; Valberg, J; Tuft, S J

    1989-12-01

    Over an 18-month period 10 patients (12 eyes) presented with severe corneal toxic changes after cataract extraction. Defined stages in the keratopathy included punctate epithelial keratopathy, pseudodendrite, central epithelial ulcer and central stromal ulcer. Periods of up to 13 months were required for resolution of the defects. Axial scarring and nonhealing epithelial defects resulted in a final visual acuity of counting fingers and hand movement in two patients. We believe that exposure during the postoperative period to benzalkonium chloride contained in ophthalmic medications represents the most likely cause of the toxic changes and that no single ophthalmic medication can be held responsible. The past ocular histories of the patients included chronic open-angle glaucoma, dry eye syndrome and anterior membrane dystrophy. Prior exposure to benzalkonium-containing antiglaucoma medications, tear film deficiencies or abnormalities of epithelial adhesion may have predisposed the corneas in these patients to the development of benzalkonium-related toxic changes.

  19. Comparative evaluation of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and conventional phacoemulsification in white cataract

    PubMed Central

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Archita; Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Namrata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy with conventional manual capsulorhexis in cases of white cataract. Patients and methods The prospective comparative study enrolled 80 eyes (80 patients) with white cataract that underwent either femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (Group I, n=40) or conventional manual phacoemulsification (Group II, n=40) at a tertiary care ophthalmic institution. The groups were divided based on the patient’s choice and affordability of the procedure. Capsulotomy/capsulorhexis was evaluated in terms of size, circularity index (4Π [area/perimeter2]), intraocular lens coverage, and continuity. Each group was further subdivided based on the release of white milky fluid on initiation of the capsulotomy/capsulorhexis, and the “fluid” cases were compared with the “no-fluid” cases. The primary outcome measure was capsulotomy/capsulorhexis characteristics in the two groups. The secondary outcome measures were intraoperative phacoemulsification parameters, intraoperative complications, and postoperative visual acuity. Results The size of the capsulotomy/capsulorhexis was 4.9±0.1 mm in Group I and 5.3±0.4 mm in Group II (P<0.001). Mean circularity index was 0.996±0.003 and 0.909±0.047 in Groups I and II, respectively (P<0.001). In Group I, free-floating circular capsulotomies were obtained in 52.5% (21/40) eyes; 37.5% (15/40) eyes had microadhesions; and 10% (4/40) eyes had incomplete capsulotomy in 1–2 clock hours. The incidence of residual adhesions was more in cases with release of white milky fluid (P=0.003). In Group II, a multistep capsulorhexis was performed in 70% (28/40) of the eyes. There was no difference in terms of visual outcomes and intraoperative complications. Conclusion Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery has the advantage of creating a circular and optimally sized capsulotomy in cases of white cataract. The release of white milky fluid during femtosecond laser delivery is the most

  20. 3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, OHIO. Date unknown. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Intracameral cefuroxime: prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-02-01

    Results of the landmark European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons trial and additional prospective and retrospective studies support the use of intracameral cefuroxime in the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Prophylaxis with intracameral cefuroxime at the recommended dose appears to be well tolerated in patients undergoing cataract surgery. However, off-label use of intracameral cefuroxime usually requires a two-step dilution process with the potential for dilution errors, and there are also concerns regarding the risk of contamination. Aprokam® (intracameral cefuroxime) has been approved in the EU for the prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. After reconstitution of Aprokam®, no further dilution is required and each vial is only indicated for single-patient use; this has the potential to reduce the risk of both dilution errors and contamination.

  2. IOL Implants: Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery (Intraocular Lenses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elizabeth Yeu MD Mar. 01, 2016 Before intraocular lenses (IOLs) were developed, ... Foods Rich in Vitamin C Help Curb Cataracts Mar 28, 2016 Los Alimentos Ricos en Vitamina C ...

  3. Detection of TORCH pathogens in children with congenital cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yabo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between infection rates with TORCH pathogens including toxoplasma, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) I and II and congenital cataracts. In total, the data from 69 children with congenital cataract treated at the Children's Hospital of the Zhejiang University School of Medicine between May 2006 and September 2013 were examined, including the complete serum test results for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM that target TORCH pathogenic antibodies. These results were compared with the antibody levels of 5,914 children in a control group. Using SPSS 19.0 software, variance equation Levene tests, mean equation t tests, and completely randomized design of four tables χ2 tests were applied. The HSV II IgG positivity rates significantly differed between the cataract and control groups. These results suggested that HSV may be one of the pathogenic viruses that leads to congenital cataracts. PMID:27446337

  4. Presumptive electric cataracts in a Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes suspected electrocution in a juvenile female Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus) with subsequent bilateral cataract formation. The bird flew into a high-voltage power line and was immediately rescued. Burn wounds of the head and ataxia with apparent blindness were noted. Initial ophthalmic examination 5 days after the incident revealed bilaterally symmetrical anterior subcapsular vacuolar cataracts with absence of intraocular inflammation and a predominantly clear view to the normal appearing fundus. The bird appeared to be nonvisual. No ophthalmic medications were prescribed at initial examination. Subsequent recheck examination at 8 weeks revealed moderate resolution of the cataracts and improved vision. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of suspected electric cataracts in an avian species. PMID:22432797

  5. Biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Su-Young; Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2008-12-01

    In 1945, many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. This study compared the biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea with those of a representative sample of Koreans obtained during a similar period. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and urinalysis of survivors (n=414) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=414) recruited from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005. Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels (p<0.01) in the survivors. Conversely, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and the proportion of positive urine occult blood (p<0.01) were lower in the survivors. Our findings suggest that biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors were adversely affected by radiation exposure.

  6. Biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Su-Young; Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2008-12-01

    In 1945, many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. This study compared the biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea with those of a representative sample of Koreans obtained during a similar period. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and urinalysis of survivors (n=414) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=414) recruited from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005. Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels (p<0.01) in the survivors. Conversely, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and the proportion of positive urine occult blood (p<0.01) were lower in the survivors. Our findings suggest that biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors were adversely affected by radiation exposure. PMID:19119455

  7. Cancer of the head and neck in atomic bomb survivors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1957-1976

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, J.A.; Wakabayashi, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Asano, M.; Harada, Y.; Kumagami, H.; Takeuchi, M.

    1981-11-15

    A search was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for all cases of cancer of the lip, nose and nasal cavity, accessory sinuses, larynx, and the oral cavity and pharynx with their subdivisions occurring during the period 1957-1976 among a large, fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors. A total of 232 cases were identified, of which 154 (66.4%) were histologically confirmed (definite cases). Among definite cases, cancer of the epiglottis and larynx predominated (31.2%), followed by accessory sinus (24.7%) and tongue (18.8%). Of the 154 definite cases, 141 (91.6%) were squamous-cell carcinomas. Only two sarcomas were identified, neither of which was attributable to radiation exposure. Analysis of both total and definite cases, by both total group and major anatomic site, failed to reveal definite evidence of a radiation relationship. Although a suggestive relationship to radiation dose was found for accessory sinus cancers (P . 0.06) among the definite cases, inconsistencies in the data do not permit the conclusion that the incidence of tumors in this group increased as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure. The medical literature concerning post-irradiation head and neck tumors is briefly reviewed.

  8. Reducing Older Driver Motor Vehicle Collisions via Earlier Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786

  9. Outcome of Capsular Tension Ring (CTR) Implant in Complicated Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, Anshu; Kumar, Pukhrambam Ratan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgery in the presence of zonular weakness or subluxated lens was a great surgical challenge and included intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber IOL implantation or pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy with a sutured (IOL). Modern surgical approache involves placement of endocapsular flexible PMMA ring that prevents iatrogenic loss of zonular support, minimizing vitreous loss and enables placement of in the bag IOL. Aim To evaluate frequency and indications of capsular tension ring (CTR) implant and analyse the visual and anatomical outcome in various complicated cataract surgeries. Materials and Methods Retrospective screening of database of 6000 consecutive cataract surgeries was done. BCVA, complete ocular examination with SLEx, intraocular pressure, direct ophthalmoscope, fundus examination with +78/+90D were noted. CTR was implanted in cases where Zonular dialysis of > 3 clock hours was present or capsular bag instability was detected during capsulorhexis or subsequent intraoperative maneuvers. In cases with capsulorrhexis extension, CTR was not implanted. Records were analysed for indication of CTR implant and clinical outcome on Day 1, 1 month and 6 month follow up. Results In this series CTR implant was done in 45 cases. The indications were hypermature senile cataract in 9 cases, hypermature senile cataract with lens induced glaucoma in 9 cases, pseudoexfoliation syndrome in 9 cases, post blunt injury traumatic cataract in 6 cases, iridochoroidal coloboma in 6 cases, hypermature cataract with pseudoexfoliation and marfan syndrome in 3 cases respectively. Decision of CTR implant was intraoperative in 42 patients. At 6 month follow up, 39 patients had best corrected visual acuity ≥6/12. IOL decentration was detected in only 3 cases, but without any subjective visual complaints. Conclusion As per the results CTR was used very infrequently (0.75%) but remains useful in cataract surgeries with difficult pre and intraoperative

  10. Cataract surgery without anaesthesia: two descriptions by Arthur Jacob.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P

    2009-07-01

    Dr Arthur Jacob (1790-1874), of Dublin, Ireland, was one of the leading ophthalmologists of his time. He was the first to describe the membrane that contains the rods and cones in the eye (membrana Jacobi) and basal cell carcinoma (Jacob's ulcer). He made a curved needle for cataract surgery from a sewing needle (Jacob's needle). Two descriptions of cataract surgery without anaesthesia are presented. PMID:19705632

  11. Rate of intraoperative complications during cataract surgery following intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Hahn, P; Jiramongkolchai, K; Stinnett, S; Daluvoy, M; Kim, T

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the effect of prior intravitreal injections on intraoperative and postoperative complication rates associated with cataract surgery.MethodsA retrospective cohort analysis reviewed 10 105 cataract surgery procedures performed by experienced surgeons at the Duke Eye Center from 1 January 2005 to 10 December 2012. A group of 197 eyes with prior intravitreal injections was compared with an equal number of matched control eyes without prior injection using the Fisher's exact test of difference in proportions and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test of difference in means. Outcomes analyzed included baseline demographic information, preoperative clinical characteristics, prevalence of intraoperative complications, and postoperative intraocular pressure, glaucoma surgery, and glaucoma medication requirement through 1 year following cataract surgery.ResultsAn increased rate of intraoperative complications was identified during cataract surgery in eyes with prior intravitreal injections compared with control eyes (3 vs 0%, P=0.030). Injection eyes required more glaucoma medications at 1 year, but no difference was identified if steroid injections were excluded. No difference in postoperative IOP or glaucoma surgery was identified. No cases of endophthalmitis were reported.ConclusionsA history of intravitreal injections may be a risk factor for cataract surgery-related intraoperative complications. We hypothesize this may be due to unidentified iatrogenic lens trauma during intravitreal injections. Particular attention to the posterior capsule during preoperative assessment and intraoperatively is recommended in eyes undergoing cataract surgery with a prior history of intravitreal injections.

  12. Radiation cataractogenesis: a review of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Ainsbury, E A; Bouffler, S D; Dörr, W; Graw, J; Muirhead, C R; Edwards, A A; Cooper, J

    2009-07-01

    The lens of the eye is recognized as one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, and it is known that cataracts can be induced by acute doses of less than 2 Gy of low-LET ionizing radiation and less than 5 Gy of protracted radiation. Although much work has been carried out in this area, the exact mechanisms of radiation cataractogenesis are still not fully understood. In particular, the question of the threshold dose for cataract development is not resolved. Cataracts have been classified as a deterministic effect of radiation exposure with a threshold of approximately 2 Gy. Here we review the combined results of recent mechanistic and human studies regarding induction of cataracts by ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the threshold for cataract development is certainly less than was previously estimated, of the order of 0.5 Gy, or that radiation cataractogenesis may in fact be more accurately described by a linear, no-threshold model. PMID:19580502

  13. The children of atomic bomb survivors: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Schull, William J

    2003-12-01

    When the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki occurred in the summer of 1945, most members of the public presumed that many of the children conceived by the survivors would be grossly deformed or seriously damaged in other ways as a consequence of radiation-induced mutations. Although the experimental data then available, largely limited to studies of Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, did not support this perception, the limitations of the data and the depth of public concern warranted a careful follow-up of the children born to the survivors. To this end a surveillance was begun in 1947 of all pregnancy outcomes after 20 weeks of gestation in these two cities. Over the half century subsequent to the initiation of this surveillance, some 80-odd thousand pregnancy outcomes have been studied and a variety of potential indicators of mutational damage measured. This report summarises the findings of these studies and offers an estimate of the genetic risk based on these findings.

  14. Diagnostics of Ellerman bombs with high-resolution spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Fang, Cheng; Guo, Yang; Chen, Peng-Fei; Xu, Zhi; Cao, Wen-Da

    2015-09-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the Hα and Ca II 8542Å lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3‧ - 0.8‧ and their durations are only 3-5 min. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700-3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5 × 1025 - 3.0 × 1026 erg despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs just appeared in a parasitic region with mixed polarities and were accompanied by mass motions. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation reveals that the three EBs are connected with a series of magnetic field lines associated with bald patches, which strongly implies that these EBs should be produced by magnetic reconnection in the solar lower atmosphere. According to the lightcurves and the estimated magnetic reconnection rate, we propose that there is a three phase process in EBs: pre-heating, flaring and cooling phases.

  15. Preleukemic states in atomic bomb survivors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamada, N; Uchino, H

    1976-01-01

    Cytologic and cytogenetic studies were performed on the bone marrow cells in atomic bomb-exposed patients who had prolonged periods of blood disorders with termination of acute leukemia (group I, 6 cases) and without the termination (group II, 6 cases), and survivors who were in apparent good health (group III, 85 cases). All but one patient in group I, who were examined at the preleukemic state, had abnormal clones. In 4 out of 6 of group I patients, morphologic abnormalities of bone marrow cells taken 3-10 years before leukemic development were found, such as giant neutrophils or basophils, binucleated granulocytes or megakaryocytes, and bridge formation of chromatid in metaphases. All patients in group II had stable types of chromosome aberrations. The types of cytologic abnormalities were similar to those in group I, but the frequencies were a little less than those in group I. In group III, 14 persons were found to have stable types of chromosome aberrations, of which 11 persons had apparent but transient clone formations. Cytologic and clinical abnormalities were not observed in the group. The persistent and high percentages of cytologic and cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with prolonged periods of blood disorders, regardless of history of radiation exposure, would suggest a preleukemic state, and also give some clue to the problems of leukemogenesis.

  16. Jets and Bombs: Characterizing IRIS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Donald; Innes, Davina

    2014-06-01

    For almost two decades, SUMER has provided an unique perspective on explosive events in the lower solar atmosphere. One of the hallmark observations during this tenure is the identification of quiet sun bi-directional jets in the lower transition region. We investigate these events through two distinct avenues of study: a MHD model for reconnection and the new datasets of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Based on forward modeling optically thin spectral profiles, we find the spectral signatures of reconnection can vary dramatically based on viewing angle and altitude. We look to the IRIS data to provide a more complete context of the chromospheric and coronal environment during these dynamic events. During a joint IRIS-SUMER observing campaign, we observed spectra of multiple jets, a small C flare, and an Ellerman bomb event. We discuss the questions that arise from the inspection of these new data.

  17. Radioactivity in atomic-bomb samples from exposure to environmental neutrons.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Shizuma, K; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Rühm, W; Egbert, S D; Hoshi, M

    2007-12-01

    For about one decade, activation measurements performed on environmental samples from a distance larger than 1 km from the hypocenter of the atomic-bomb explosion over Hiroshima suggested much higher thermal neutron fluences to the survivors than predicted. This caused concern among the radiation protection community and prompted a complete re-evaluation of all aspects of survivor dosimetry. While it was shown recently that secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation and other sources have probably been the reason for the high measured concentrations of the long-lived radioisotope 36Cl in these samples, the source for high measured concentrations of the short-lived radionuclides 152Eu and 60Co has not yet been investigated in detail. In order to quantify the production of 152Eu and 60Co in environmental samples by secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, thermal neutron fluxes were measured by means of a He gas proportional counter in various buildings where these samples had been and still are being stored. Because a 252Cf neutron source has been operated occasionally close to one of the sample storage rooms, additional neutron flux measurements were carried out when the neutron source was in operation. The thermal neutron fluxes measured ranged from 0.00017 to 0.00093 n cm(-2) s(-1) and depended on the floor number of the investigated building. Based on the measured neutron fluxes, the specific activities from the reactions 151Eu(n,gamma)152Eu and 59Co(n,gamma)60Co in the atomic-bomb samples were estimated to be 7.9 mBq g(-1) Eu and 0.27 mBq g(-1) Co, respectively, in saturation. These activities are much lower than those recently measured in samples that had been exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons. It is therefore concluded that environmental and moderated 252Cf neutrons are not the source for the high activities that had been measured in these samples.

  18. Ensuring the safety of surgical teams when managing casualties of a radiological dirty bomb.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team.

  19. Risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Grant, Eric J; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    Late health effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation have been evaluated in survivors. A cohort of 120 321 people has been followed since 1950 for mortality, including the cause of death using the Japanese population registry system (Life Span Study), and for cancer incidence using population-based cancer registries. Findings have included a markedly increased risk of leukaemia several years after the exposure, increased risk of various malignant tumours several decades after the exposure and, more recently, findings of increased rates of non-cancer diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21502293

  20. No evidence of increased mutation rates at microsatellite loci in offspring of A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, M; Ryo, H; Kamada, N; Furukawa, K; Takahashi, N; Nakajima, H; Nomura, T; Nakamura, N

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the genetic effects of A-bomb radiation, we examined mutations at 40 microsatellite loci in exposed families (father-mother-offspring, mostly uni-parental exposures), which consisted of 66 offspring having a mean paternal dose of 1.87 Gy and a mean maternal dose of 1.27 Gy. The control families consisted of 63 offspring whose parents either were exposed to low doses of radiation (< 0.01 Gy) or were not in the cities of Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombs. We found seven mutations in the exposed alleles (7/2,789; mutation rate 0.25 x 10(-2)/locus/generation) and 26 in the unexposed alleles (26/7,465; 0.35 x 10(-2)/locus/generation), which does not indicate an effect from parental exposure to radiation. Although we could not assign the parental origins of four mutations, the conclusion may hold since even if we assume that these four mutations had occurred in the exposed alleles, the estimated mean mutation rate would be 0.39 x 10(-2) in the exposed group [(7 + 4)/2,789)], which is slightly higher than 0.35 x 10(-2) in the control group, but the difference is not statistically significant.

  1. Biomass Stoves and Lens Opacity and Cataract in Nepalese Women

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Amod K.; Bates, Michael N.; Shrestha, Sachet P.; Bailey, Ian L.; DiMartino, Robert B.; Smith, Kirk R.; Joshi, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cataract is the most prevalent cause of blindness in Nepal. Several epidemiologic studies have associated cataracts with use of biomass cookstoves. These studies, however, have had limitations, including potential control selection bias and limited adjustment for possible confounding. This study, in Pokhara city, in an area of Nepal where biomass cookstoves are widely used without direct venting of the smoke to the outdoors, focuses on pre-clinical measures of opacity, while avoiding selection bias and taking into account comprehensive data on potential confounding factors Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, severity of lenticular damage, judged on the LOCS III scales, was investigated in females (n=143), aged 20-65 years, without previously diagnosed cataract. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships with stove type and length of use. Clinically significant cataract, used in the logistic regression models, was defined as a LOCS III score > 2. Results Using gas cookstoves as the reference group, logistic regression analysis for nuclear cataract showed the evidence of relationships with stove type: for biomass stoves, the odds ratio (OR) was 2.58 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-5.46) and, for kerosene stoves, the OR was 5.18 (95% CI: 0.88-30.38). Similar results were found for nuclear color (LOCS III score > 2), but no association was found with cortical cataracts. Supporting a relationship between biomass stoves and nuclear cataract was a trend with years of exposure to biomass cookstoves (p=0.01). Linear regression analyses did not show clear evidence of an association between lenticular damage and stove types. Biomass fuel used for heating was not associated with any form of opacity. Conclusions This study provides support for associations of biomass and kerosene cookstoves with nuclear opacity and change in nuclear color. The novel associations with kerosene cookstove use deserve further investigation

  2. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Design and implementation of a diesel combustion bomb facility

    SciTech Connect

    Oren, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A combustion bomb capable of simulating diesel combustion without the need to heat the bomb to high temperatures is described. A lean precharge composed of acetylene, nitrogen, and oxygen is inducted into the bomb through a shrouded valve and burned to simulate conditions produced by the compression stroke in an actual diesel engine. By controlling the partial pressures of the precharge constituents it is possible for the burned gases to have an oxygen concentration, temperatures, and pressured similar to that of air in an engine at the time of fuel injection. Diesel fuel injected into these gases autoignites and burns in a manner typical of combustion in diesel engines. The shrouded valve can be oriented to create swirl and turbulence, which are thought to be important in diesel combustion. The combustion process can be observed through thick quartz windows which allow optical access to the entire bomb volume. Additional ports are provided for mounting a variety of probes.

  4. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  5. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 106 INTERIOR. BOMB TAILS ON LEFT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING PROPELLER TEST STAND AND BOMB BAYS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING PROPELLER TEST STAND AND BOMB BAYS. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 20A, Propeller Test Complex, Seventh Street, from E to G Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  7. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING PROPELLER TEST STAND AND BOMB BAYS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING PROPELLER TEST STAND AND BOMB BAYS. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 20A, Propeller Test Complex, Seventh Street, from E to G Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  8. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  9. Angiosarcoma arising from skeletal haemangiomatosis in an atomic bomb survivor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Iwasaki, Y; Kurosaka, M; Minami, R

    2001-09-01

    The authors report a unique case in which an angiosarcoma arose from skeletal haemangiomatosis in a 72 year old man. This patient had a history of atomic bomb irradiation more than 50 years ago. Radiographically, the patient had multiple sclerotic foci of benign haemangiomas in the pelvis, the sacrum, and the left femur. The patient developed a high grade angiosarcoma in the left pubic bone. It is thought that atomic bomb irradiation played an important role in the development of the malignant lesion.

  10. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950 – 2001

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L.; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M.; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This paper presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry-based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with sex, attained age, exposure age, and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a non-linear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this non-linearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  11. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950-2001.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-03-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This article presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose-response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with gender, attained age, exposure age and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a nonlinear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this nonlinearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  12. Modeling Breadcrust Bombs to Better Understand Their Transportation Mechanisms and Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, M. C.; Dufek, J.; Degruyter, W.

    2012-12-01

    The thermal history of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can influence their runout distance and dynamics and provides information about the concentration field and air entrainment in these flows. We have been investigating breadcrust bombs contained in PDCs as useful thermal proxies that can also be contrasted with ballistically ejected breadcrust bombs. Breadcrust bombs can have dense, non-vesicular rinds and/or surface cracks and are usually basaltic to andesitic in composition. Their textures may contain clues to the way they were transported, the thermal history they underwent, and their initial water concentration. To better interpret these textures, we model the morphology of the bomb as it is being transported. The juvenile clasts are modeled as Lagrangian particles in a coupled multiphase numerical model (Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian [EEL]) that tracks the heat exchange between the current and the clasts. The volcanic clast morphology is modeled by coupling cooling, viscosity, and bubble growth models and the glass transition temperature. The cooling of the clast is calculated by convective and radiative heat transfer to the surrounding environment, as well as conductive cooling. The temperature profile of the clast is then used, along with composition of the clast, to calculate the distribution of viscosity. Viscosity can have a significant impact on restricting bubble growth within the clast. The Proussevitch et al., (1993) numerical bubble growth model is included to calculate post-eruption bubble evolution and the clast morphology, such as rind thickness and bubble size distributions. We examined the likely morphology of clasts that develop in PDCs and ballistic trajectories. We ran multiple models of ballistic and PDC eruptions with varying conditions such as initial current temperature, initial clast temperature, and initial water concentration. The results show that ballistic clasts rapidly cool and produce thicker rinds for higher temperature

  13. The first cataract surgeons in Anglo-America.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Braich, Puneet S

    2015-01-01

    We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract extraction. Jericho had practiced in the Leeward Islands by 1776 and then in cities from Charleston to Boston between 1783 and 1785. The French surgeon Lewis Leprilete was the first to advertise cataract extraction in the United States in 1782 and probably passed on the skill to his protégé, Nathaniel Miller of Massachusetts. Leprilete was also the first to publicize Benjamin Franklin's invention of bifocals. These pioneers exposed American doctors and the public to cataract surgery. Shortly after their arrival, evidence emerges of other surgeons performing these procedures in America.

  14. High contrast radiography of normal and cataractous canine lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Morelhão, S. L.

    2005-05-01

    Cataract is a disease that degrades the transparency of crystalline lenses. The crystalline lens is a cellular structure that has a unique shape and protein composition. Cataract is associated with changes in the structure and composition of the lenses. Analyser-based x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) is a non-destructive technique that presents images with more contrast and details than the images acquired with conventional synchrotron radiography. Here, an analyser-based x-ray PCI set-up was optimized in the XRD2 beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory for comparative studies on PCI and conventional synchrotron radiography, for non-cataractous (healthy tissue) and cataractous crystalline (diseased tissue) lenses. Refraction angle and apparent absorption contrast images (diffraction enhanced imaging—DEI) were also obtained. The present PCI and DEI images indicate that the healthy tissue shows enhanced shell structures, while in the diseased tissue these are almost absent. This is associated with the clinical case of total opacity of the cataractous crystalline lenses when it is exposed to visible light.

  15. The first cataract surgeons in Anglo-America.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Braich, Puneet S

    2015-01-01

    We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract extraction. Jericho had practiced in the Leeward Islands by 1776 and then in cities from Charleston to Boston between 1783 and 1785. The French surgeon Lewis Leprilete was the first to advertise cataract extraction in the United States in 1782 and probably passed on the skill to his protégé, Nathaniel Miller of Massachusetts. Leprilete was also the first to publicize Benjamin Franklin's invention of bifocals. These pioneers exposed American doctors and the public to cataract surgery. Shortly after their arrival, evidence emerges of other surgeons performing these procedures in America. PMID:25444521

  16. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan F.; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G.; Du, Shan S.; Yue, Zhen Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up.

  17. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Zhang, Yan F; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G; Du, Shan S; Yue, Zhen Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up. PMID:27595014

  18. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan F.; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G.; Du, Shan S.; Yue, Zhen Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up. PMID:27595014

  19. The First Cataract Surgeons in Anglo-America

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Braich, Puneet S.

    2014-01-01

    We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract extraction. Jericho had practiced in the Leeward Islands by 1776 and then in cities from Charleston to Boston between 1783 and 1785. The French surgeon Lewis Leprilete was the first to advertise cataract extraction in the United States in 1782 and probably passed on the skill to his protégé, Nathaniel Miller of Massachusetts. Leprilete was also the first to publicize Benjamin Franklin's invention of bifocals.. These pioneers exposed American doctors and the public to cataract surgery. Shortly after their arrival, evidence emerges of other surgeons performing these procedures in America. PMID:25444521

  20. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Thyroid cancer: reports up to date and a review.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, N; Ezaki, H; Dohi, K

    1991-03-01

    Evidence to date from a number of studies, indicates that there is an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among A-bomb survivors, and that the incidence rises with increase of dose and is especially predominant in females exposed at younger ages. Although 45 years have elapsed since A-bomb exposure, there are still some questions about the development of thyroid cancer: 1) Is the incidence now decreasing? 2) What factors, other than radiation exposure, are involved? 3) What is the incidence of multiple cancer, including thyroid cancer? With these questions in mind, it is apparent that studies in this field must continue for some time to come.

  1. Biological effectiveness of neutrons from Hiroshima bomb replica: results of a collaborative cytogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Dobson, R L; Straume, T; Carrano, A V; Minkler, J L; Deaven, L L; Littlefield, L G; Awa, A A

    1991-11-01

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a facsimile of the Hiroshima bomb was determined cytogenetically. The "Little-Boy" replica (LBR), assembled at Los Alamos as a controlled nuclear reactor for detailed physical dosimetry, was used. Of special interest, the neutron energy characteristics (including lineal energy) measured 0.74 m from the LBR were remarkably similar to those calculated for the 1945 Hiroshima bomb at 1 to 2 km from the hypocenter, as shown in a companion dosimetric paper (Straume, et al., Radiat. Res. 128, 133-142 (1991)). Thus we examine here the effectiveness of neutrons closely resembling those that the A-bomb survivors received at Hiroshima. Chromosome aberration frequencies were determined in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to graded doses of LBR radiation (97% neutrons, 3% gamma rays). Vials of blood suspended in air at distances up to 2.10 m from the center of the LBR uranium core received doses ranging from 0.02 to 2.92 Gy. The LBR neutrons (E approximately 0.2 MeV) produced 1.18 dicentrics and rings per cell per Gy. They were more effective than the higher-energy fission neutrons (E approximately 1 MeV) commonly used in radiobiology. The maximum RBE (RBEM) of LBR neutrons at low doses is estimated to be 60 to 80 compared to 60Co gamma rays and 22 to 30 compared to 250-kVp X rays. These results provide a quantitative measurement of the biological effectiveness of Hiroshima-like neutrons.

  2. Persistent chromosome aberrations in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Awa, A A

    1991-03-01

    Current status of knowledge on the radiation-induced chromosome aberrations persisting since their induction in 1945 to date in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is reviewed. Dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies observed with the use of the old A-bomb dosimetry system (T65D) is also demonstrable based on the new dosimetry system (DS86). Despite the fact that the remarkable decrease in the amount of neutron component relative to the total dose in Hiroshima, there still exist inter-city differences in aberration frequency per unit dose both for kerma and bone marrow dose; the dose-square term is smaller in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The differential contribution of neutron radiation may be responsible in some part for the observed difference between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although proof still remains to be obtained. There is a wide variability of the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations between survivors within a given dose range. Random errors in the dose estimates assigned to individual survivors seem responsible, to a large extent, for the observed overdispersions in aberration frequencies in both cities. New molecular biology-oriented techniques to differentially stain specific chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes seem extremely promising for future rapid, accurate and extensive screening of reciprocal translocations observed predominantly in A-bomb survivors. Such data may be utilized to establish a better biological dosimetry system, especially for those persons who are irradiated in vivo many years before cytogenetic examinations.

  3. (41)Ca in tooth enamel. Part I: a biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Rühm, W; Rugel, G; Nakamura, N; Arazi, A; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Maier, H J; Korschinek, G

    2010-08-01

    The detection of (41)Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, (41)Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable (40)Ca. Thus any (41)Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural (41)Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean (41)Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 +/- 0.05) x 10(-14) in the control samples and increased to 2 x 10(-14) for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The (41)Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that gamma-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors).

  4. (41)Ca in tooth enamel. Part I: a biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Rühm, W; Rugel, G; Nakamura, N; Arazi, A; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Maier, H J; Korschinek, G

    2010-08-01

    The detection of (41)Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, (41)Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable (40)Ca. Thus any (41)Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural (41)Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean (41)Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 +/- 0.05) x 10(-14) in the control samples and increased to 2 x 10(-14) for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The (41)Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that gamma-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors). PMID:20681780

  5. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  6. The use of vitamin supplements and the risk of cataract among US male physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, J M; Christen, W G; Manson, J E; LaMotte, F S; Glynn, R J; Buring, J E; Hennekens, C H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the association between reported use of vitamin supplements and risk of cataract and cataract extraction. METHODS. The study population consisted of 17,744 participants in the Physicians' Health Study, a randomized trial of aspirin therapy and beta-carotene among US male physicians 40 to 84 years of age in 1982 who did not report cataract at baseline and provided complete information about vitamin supplementation and other risk factors for cataract. Self-reports of cataract and cataract extraction were confirmed by medical record review. RESULTS. During 60 months of follow-up, there were 370 incident cataracts and 109 cataract extractions. In comparison with physicians who did not use any supplements, those who took only multivitamins had a relative risk of cataract of 0.73 after adjustment for other risk factors. For cataract extraction, the corresponding relative risk was 0.79. Use of vitamin C and/or E supplements alone was not associated with a reduced risk of cataract, but the size of this subgroup was small. CONCLUSIONS. These data suggest that men who took multivitamin supplements tended to experience a decreased risk of cataract and support the need for rigorous testing of this hypothesis in large-scale randomized trials in men and women. PMID:8179050

  7. Effects of histone acetylation on superoxide dismutase 1 gene expression in the pathogenesis of senile cataract

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xianfang; Qiu, Xiaodi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Li, Dan; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yinglei; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays key roles in gene expression, but its effects on superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expression in senile cataract remains unknown. To address this problem, the study was to investigate the influence of histone acetylation on SOD1 expression and its effects in the pathogenesis of senile cataract. Senile cataract was classified into three types—nuclear cataract (NC), cortical cataract (CC), and posterior subcapsular cataract (SC)—using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. In senile cataracts, SOD1 expression decreased significantly. Both H3 and H4 were deacetylated at −600 bp of the SOD1 promoter of cataract lenses, and hypoacetylated at −1500, −1200, and −900 bp. In hypoacetylated histones, the hypoacetylation pattern differed among the cataracts. In vitro, anacardic acid (AA) significantly reduced H3 and H4 acetylation at the SOD1 promoter, decreased protein expression, and induced cataract formation in rabbits. AA also inhibited HLEC viability and increased cell apoptosis. In contrast, trichostatin A (TSA) was able to efficaciously stop AA’s effects on both rabbit lenses and HLECs. Decreased histone acetylation at the SOD1 promoter is associated with declined SOD1 expression in senile cataracts. Histone acetylation plays an essential role in the regulation of SOD1 expression and in the pathogenesis of senile cataracts. PMID:27703255

  8. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  9. Two new cataract loci, Ccw and To3, and further mapping of the Npp and Opj cataracts in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, S.; Glenister, P.H.; Lyon, M.F.; Favor, J.

    1996-08-15

    Many types of inherited early onset cataract are known in both human and mouse. Here we describe the mapping of two novel dominant cataract loci in the mouse genome. Cataract and curly whiskers, Ccw, maps to Chromosome 4, 3.1 {+-} 1.1 cM distal to the b (brown) locus. Total opacity 3, To3, maps to Chromosome 7, 7.1 {+-} 1.8 cM proximal top (pink-eyed dilution). The map positions of two other dominant cataract mutants have now been refined by three-point crosses. Nuclear and posterior polar cataract, Npp, maps to the central part of Chromosome 5,1.4 {+-} 0.5 cM distal to W{sup e} (dominant spotting-extreme, an allele at the Kit locus), and Opaque secondary fiber cell junctions, Opj, maps to the proximal region of Chromosome 16, 9.1 {+-} 1.5 cM distal to the marker md (mahoganoid). While there are no obvious candidate genes in the vicinity of the Ccw, Npp, and Opj mutations, To3 lies remarkably close to the recently mapped Lim2 locus, which encodes lens intrinsic membrane protein 2. also called MP19. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. A novel MIP mutation in familial congenital nuclear cataracts.

    PubMed

    Qin, Litao; Guo, Liangjie; Wang, Hongdan; Li, Tao; Lou, Guiyu; Guo, Qiannan; Hou, Qiaofang; Liu, Hongyan; Liao, Shixiu; Liu, Zhe

    2016-09-01

    We screened 60 known genes which are involved in inherited cataract in a pregnant woman with a four-generation family history of autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract through next-generation sequencing (NGS) and identified a heterozygous mutation, c.508dupC (p.L170fs), in the major intrinsic protein (MIP) gene. This mutation results in a frame-shift in MIP and has not been previously reported. The correlation of the mutation with disease was validated by Sanger sequencing of DNA from the other affected or unaffected members of the family. Therefore, our data expand the mutation spectrum of MIP mutation, and suggest that NGS is an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method in the genetic diagnosis of congenital nuclear cataract.

  11. State of the Art in Pediatric Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nischal, Kanwal Ken

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric cataract surgery has evolved dramatically in the past 10 years. Our understanding of the child's eye both in terms of tissue mechanics, neurobiological plasticity and physiological growth has allowed better and better surgical outcomes. The fact remains that the younger the child - infants especially - the more difficult the surgery. It is also true to say that not only is a child's eye not a small adult eye, but also that the child him- or herself is not a small adult. The importance of this statement is evident when we discuss the effects of anesthesia and fluid input in infants during infant cataract surgery. This chapter discusses the factors that should help give a child the best possible outcome after cataract surgery including timing of surgery, type of operation, biometry, the size and type of intraocular lens material , postoperative refraction, operative considerations, wound size and type, capsule management, anterior vitrectomy technique, wound closure and viscoelastic removal and perioperative medications. PMID:27043389

  12. Congenital cataracts in an Ayrshire herd: a herd case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An Ayrshire dairy herd was investigated for occurrence of ocular abnormalities in new-born calves. Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all the animals in the herd and 26% of them were diagnosed with bilateral cataracts. Cataracts varied in extent and severity but the majority were restricted to the lens nucleus. Epidemiological analysis showed the prevalence was higher in male animals and lower in animals born to heifers. A family tree was designed but no genetic impact of dam lines was evident. Sire data was incomplete and could therefore not be included. Based on the information provided by the farmer there was no obvious environmental or nutritional cause of these cataracts. However, data records were incomplete and further investigation/monitoring of the herd would be needed to establish a cause and enable a better insight into the aetiology of this disease in cattle. PMID:24460638

  13. Predicting the Incidence of Human Cataract through Retinal Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Sun, Han-Ying; Liu, Hsiang-Jui; Lue, Jiann-Hwa; Yeh, Shang-Min

    2015-11-01

    With the progress of science, technology and medicine, the proportion of elderly people in society has gradually increased over the years. Thus, the medical care and health issues of this population have drawn increasing attention. In particular, among the common medical problems of the elderly, the occurrence of cataracts has been widely observed. In this study, we developed retinal imaging technology by establishing a human eye module with ray tracing. Periodic hole arrays with different degrees were constructed on the anterior surface of the lens to emulate the eyesight decline caused by cataracts. Then, we successfully predicted the incidence of cataracts among people with myopia ranging from -3.0 D to -9.0 D. Results show that periodic hole arrays cause severe eyesight decline when they are centralized in the visual center. However, the wide distribution of these arrays on the anterior surface of the lens would not significantly affect one's eyesight. PMID:26610533

  14. Magnetic Flux Cancellation in Ellerman Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E.; Nelson, C. J.; Henriques, V.; Ray, T.

    2016-06-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found to be co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use Hα imaging spectroscopy along with Fe i 6302.5 Å spectropolarimetry from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory, to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. Using NICOLE inversions of the spectropolarimetric data, we find that, on average, (3.43 ± 0.49) × 1024 erg of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during EB burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 1014-1015 Mx s-1 and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate the near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux, resulting in the formation of the EBs. We also show that these EBs can be fueled further by additional, faster moving, negative magnetic flux regions.

  15. ELLERMAN BOMBS WITH JETS: CAUSE AND EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Scullion, E.; Gallagher, P.; Doyle, J. G.; Shelyag, S.

    2015-05-20

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5–10 km s{sup −1}, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s{sup −1}. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  16. Death caused by a letter bomb.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, M A; Maxeiner, H

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man was killed by the explosion of a letter bomb after receiving severe injuries to his face and left hand. The autopsy ascertained that the right eye and orbit had been completely destroyed by a large piece of metal from a tin can that had entered the cranial cavity through the right eye and caused fatal brain damage. The victim had also sustained a severe injury to his left hand. Reconstruction of the metal and plastic fragments showed that the victim had received a padded envelope with a video cassette in which a simple explosive device was hidden in a flat tin. The explosive charge consisted of a mixture (ca. 60 g) of sodium chlorate, sodium chloride and sucrose. The charge was detonated by a nylon cord attached to the inside of the envelope which was stretched when the video cassette was pulled out of the envelope. This removed a piece of plastic from between two contacts, and the explosion was set off immediately by a battery which activated two flash bulbs placed within the charge.

  17. Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.; Lockwood, G.; Selph, M; Shope, S.; Wehlburg, J.

    1998-10-01

    Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-rays* Currently the most common method to determine the contents of a package suspected of containing an explosive device is to use transmission radiography. This technique requires that an x-ray source and film be placed on opposite sides of the package. This poses a problem if the pachge is placed so that only one side is accessible, such as against a wall. There is also a threat to persomel and property since exTlosive devices may be "booby trapped." We have developed a method to x-ray a paclage using backscattered x-rays. This procedure eliminates the use of film behind the target. All of the detection is done from the same side as the source. When an object is subjected to x-rays, some of them iare scattered back towards the source. The backscattenng of x-rays is propordoml to the atomic number (Z) of the material raised to the 4.1 power. This 24"' dependence allows us to easily distinguish between explosives, wires, timer, batteries, and other bomb components. Using transmission radiography-to image the contents of an unknown package poses some undesirable risks. The object must have an x-ray film placed on the side opposite the x-ray source; this cannot be done without moving the package if it has been placed firmly against a wall or pillar. Therefore it would be extremely usefid to be able to image the contents of a package from only one side, without ever having to disturb the package itself. where E is the energy of the incoming x-ray. The volume of x-rays absorbed is important because it is, of course, directly correlated to the intensity of x-mys that will be scattered. Most of the x-rays that scatter will do so in a genemlly forward direction; however, a small percentage do scatter in a backward direction. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the various fates of x-rays directed into an object. The package that was examined in this ex~enment was an attache case made of pressed fiberboardwith a vinyl covering. It was

  18. Ellerman Bombs with Jets: Cause and Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Scullion, E.; Doyle, J. G.; Shelyag, S.; Gallagher, P.

    2015-05-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5-10 km s-1, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s-1. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  19. Internal Fine Structure of Ellerman Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Satoru; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ishii, Takako T.; Hagino, Masaoki; Komori, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Takuma; Otsuji, Kenichi; Nakamura, Tahei; Kawate, Tomoko; Watanabe, Hiroko; Shibata, Kazunari

    2010-08-01

    We conducted coordinated observations of Ellerman bombs (EBs) between Hinode Satellite and Hida Observatory (HOP12). CaII H broad-band filter images of NOAA 10966 on 2007 August 9 and 10 were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode Satellite, and many bright points were observed. We identified a total of 4 bright points as EBs, and studied the temporal variation of their morphological fine structures and spectroscopic characteristics. With high-resolution CaII H images of SOT, we found that the EBs, thus far thought of as single bright features, are composed of a few of fine subcomponents. Also, by using Stokes I/V filtergrams with Hinode/SOT, and CaII H spectroheliograms with Hida/Domeless Solar Telescope (DST), our observation showed: (1) The mean duration, the mean width, the mean length, and the mean aspect ratio of the subcomponents were 390 s, 170 km, 450 km, and 2.7, respectively. (2) Subcomponents started to appear on the magnetic neutral lines, and extended their lengths from the original locations. (3) When the CaII H line of EBs showed the characteristic blue asymmetry, they are associated with the appearance or re-brightening of subcomponents. Summarizing our results, we obtained an observational view that elementary magnetic reconnections take place one by one successively and intermittently in EBs, and that their manifestation is the fine subcomponents of the EB phenomena.

  20. Lidar/DIAL detection of bomb factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorani, Luca; Puiu, Adriana; Rosa, Olga; Palucci, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    One of the aims of the project BONAS (BOmb factory detection by Networks of Advanced Sensors) is to develop a lidar/DIAL (differential absorption lidar) to detect precursors employed in the manufacturing of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). At first, a spectroscopic study has been carried out: the infrared (IR) gas phase spectrum of acetone, one of the more important IED precursors, has been procured from available databases and checked with cell measurements. Then, the feasibility of a lidar/DIAL for the detection of acetone vapors has been shown in laboratory, simulating the experimental conditions of a field campaign. Eventually, having in mind measurements in a real scenario, an interferent study has been performed, looking for all known compounds that share with acetone IR absorption in the spectral band selected for its detection. Possible interfering species were investigated, simulating both urban and industrial atmospheres and limits of acetone detection in both environments were identified. This study confirmed that a lidar/DIAL can detect low concentration of acetone at considerable distances.