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Sample records for bombay duck harpodon

  1. Feeding habits and ontogenetic diet shifts of Bombay duck, Harpadon nehereus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Jin, Xianshi

    2014-05-01

    Based on two bottom trawl surveys conducted in autumn 2000 and 2001, a total of 1106 stomach samples of Bombay duck Harpadon nehereus between 23-278 mm fork length were collected and analyzed. The results show that Bombay duck prey items consisted of 11 groups or 32 species, of which Apogon lineatus, Leptochela gracilis, Acetes chinensis, and Euphausia pacifi ca were the dominant prey species. Ontogenetic variations were found in feeding habits and feeding activity of Bombay duck. Feeding activity was highest in fish smaller than 50 mm, lowest in fish between 50 and 99 mm, and then increased with increasing size thereafter. As Bombay duck size increased, fish prey increased in importance, whereas euphausiids and decapods decreased in importance. Different trophic guilds were observed in feeding habits across the examined size range. Bombay duck smaller than 50 mm were zooplanktivores, mainly feeding on zooplankton and fish larva; those between 50 and 149 mm were generalist predators, mainly feeding on pelagic shrimps, demersal shrimps and fishes; and those larger than 150 mm were piscivores, mainly feeding on fishes.

  2. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. We Love Bombay!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Shital

    2006-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher, describes a lesson in which her elementary school students used acrylics to paint a cityscape of Bombay, India. After seeing huge canvas paintings at an art gallery, the students wanted to paint their own. They performed an exercise in which they closed their eyes, thought about the city, and listed all…

  4. Despotic Ducks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2008-01-01

    This field experiment is designed to test for despotic behavior in Mallards ("Anas platyrhynchos"), and to examine how ducks distribute themselves relative to their resources. Students present Mallards with food patches differing in profitability in order to examine whether ducks distribute themselves ideal freely or ideal despotically. Students…

  5. Ducks Overboard!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Ingrid; Sheffield, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The authors open this article with a description of an incident that happened in 1992, when 28,800 rubber bath toys (i.e., ducks, frogs, turtles, and beavers) fell off a cargo ship in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. In 2009, these rubber bath toys were still washing ashore on beaches all around the world. This science instruction can be used with…

  6. Grumman JF-1 Duck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Grumman JF-1 Duck: The Grumman JF-1 Duck was in service with the NACA at Langley during the summer of 1934. The JF-1 was notably different from the later J2F Duck in that the JF-1 had a shorter central float. The NACA used the JF-1 in part as a propeller testbed aircraft.

  7. Do black ducks and wood ducks habituate to aircraft disturbance?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomy, J.T.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have raised the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We hypothesized that habituation was a possible proximate factor influencing the low proportion of free-ranging ducks reacting to military aircraft activities in a training range in coastal North Carolina during winters 1991 and 1992. To test this hypothesis, we subjected captive, wild-strain American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to actual and simulated activities of jet aircraft. In the first experiment, we placed black ducks in an enclosure near the center of aircraft activities on Piney Island, a military aircraft target range in coastal North Carolina. The proportion of times black ducks reacted (e.g., alert posture, fleeing response) to visual and auditory aircraft activity decreased from 38 to 6% during the first 17 days of confinement. Response rates remained stable at 5.8% thereafter. In the second experiment, black ducks and wood ducks were exposed to 6 different recordings of jet noise. The proportion of times black ducks reacted to noise decreased (P 0.05) in time-activity budgets of black ducks between pre-exposure to noise and 24 hr after first exposure. Unlike black ducks, wood duck responses to jet noise did not decrease uniformly among experimental groups following initial exposure to noise (P = 0.01). We conclude that initial exposure to aircraft noise elicits behavioral responses from black ducks and wood ducks. With continued exposure of aircraft noise, black ducks may become habituated. However, wood ducks did not exhibit the same pattern of response, suggesting that the ability of waterfowl to habituate to aircraft noise may be species specific.

  8. The DUCK Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    the form (AND goal, goal, ... goal) For instance, if you type (AND (BIG ?X) (GREEN ?X) ( RUTABAGA ?X)) then Duck will try to find an assertion (BIG thing...GREEN THING9) ( RUTABAGA THINGg) then the program would set ?X to THIN~g, and this value would be printed. Duck has found a single object that...qualifies as a big green rutabaga . One obstacle to this tidy scenario is that the database might also contain these assertions: (BIG THING80) (GREEN THINGSO

  9. No Duck Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi; Thomas, Julie; Motley, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a group of fourth graders joined "Pintail Partners"--a year-long collaborative research effort of scientists, students, classroom teachers, preservice teachers, museum educators, and university professors. Students and teachers followed satellite tracking data (marking the pintail duck's spring migration) and interacted with scientists…

  10. The Lame Duck Superintendent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, William G.; Follo, Eric

    1995-01-01

    According to a survey of 46 recently departed Michigan school superintendents, departing superintendents can announce their intention to leave and still maintain a viable leadership role. Lame-duck superintendents should help the board think through the superintendent-selection process and review possible promotions, recognize staff achievements,…

  11. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  12. Wild Duck Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

  13. [Overview on duck virus hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Ren, Liqian; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Can; Zhang, Dabing; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the nomenclature, history and genetic evolution of duck hepatitis A virus, and updates the epidemiology, clinical symptom and surveillances of duck virus hepatitis A. It also summarizes the present status and progress of duck virus hepatitis A and illustrated the necessity and urgency of its research, which provides rationale for the control of duck hepatitis A virus disease in China.

  14. Capture methods for Musk Ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Hemmings, J.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Musk Ducks Biziura lobata are endemic to wetlands, river systems and coastal oceanic waters of temperate Australia. Individuals of this species are difficult to capture because of their excellent swimming and diving abilities and frequent use of deep-water habitats. Night-lighting, baited clover-leaf traps and walk-in-nest-traps were used to capture Musk Ducks at Murray Lagoon, Cape Gantheaume Conservation Park, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. These techniques should be useful for capturing Musk Ducks at other locations in Australia.

  15. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  16. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  17. Blood transfusion in the para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E

    1990-08-01

    The H-deficient phenotypes found in Chinese so far, have all been secretors of soluble blood group substances in saliva. The corresponding isoagglutinin activity (e.g. anti-B in OB(Hm) persons) has been found to be weak in all cases. To determine the clinical significance of these weak isoagglutinins 51Cr red cell survival tests were performed on three OB(Hm) individuals transfused with small volumes (4 ml) of groups B and O RBC. Rapid destruction of most of the RBC occurred whether or not the isoagglutinins of the OB(Hm) individuals were indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) reactive. When a larger volume (54 ml packed RBC) of group B cells (weakly incompatible by IAGT) was transfused to another OB(Hm) individual with IAGT active anti-HI, the survival of the transfused RBC was 93% at 24 h, with 30% of the RBC remaining in the circulation at 28 d in contrast to 76% as would be expected if the survival was normal. Therefore when whole units of blood of normal ABO blood groups, compatible by IAGT, are transfused, the survival is expected to be almost normal. These weak isoagglutinins may not be very clinically significant and we suggest that when para-Bombay blood is not available, the compatibility testing for OA(Hm) persons should be performed with group A and group O packed RBC; OB(Hm) with group B and group O packed RBC: OAB(Hm) with groups A, B, AB and O packed RBC. For cross matching, the indirect antiglobulin test by a prewarmed technique should be used.

  18. Beyond the Beaten Track: Resettlement Initiatives of Pavement Dwellers and Slum Dwellers in Bombay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sheela

    1988-01-01

    The Society for Promotion of Adult Resource Centres was created to alleviate the problem of railway settlement families and pavement dwellers in Bombay, India. The area resource center provides information, analysis of available resources, discussion of problems, and sharing of experiences. (JOW)

  19. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

  20. Postfledging survival of Laysan ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Citta, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Precise and unbiased estimates of demographic parameters are necessary for effective population monitoring and to parameterize population models (e.g., population viability analyses). This is especially important for endangered species, where recovery planning and managers' decisions can influence species persistence. In this study, we used mark–recapture methods to estimate survival of fledged juveniles (hatch-yr [HY]) and adult (after-hatch-yr [AHY]) Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis), an endangered anatid restricted to Laysan Island in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. To better understand population dynamics, we examined how survival varied as a function of Laysan duck density during 1998–2004. Using random effects models, we also quantified process variation in survival, thereby quantifying the appropriate source of variation for future population models. The dataset supported variation in survival that was time (yr), age (AHY vs. HY), and sex specific. Due to small sample sizes, we did not examine time specificity in the survival of HY ducks. Survival of HY ducks was 0.832 (SE = 0.087) for females (n = 21) and 0.999 (SE < 0.001) for males (n = 15) during 1998–2001. Trends in time and density lacked support as sources of variation in the survival of AHY ducks during 1998–2004. After-hatch-year survival ranged from 0.792 (SE = 0.033) to 0.999 (SE < 0.001). Where we modeled survival as a random effect, annual survival for AHY females was 0.881 (SE = 0.017) and process variation (σS) was 0.034. For AHY males, annual survival (μS) was 0.906 (SE = 0.019) and process variation (σS) was 0.040. This information will improve existing population viability analysis models for Laysan ducks. We believe that monitoring the source and translocation populations will be paramount for increasing our understanding of Laysan duck dynamics, recovery planning, and population management.

  1. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  2. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, T.M.; Burgess, E.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  3. The pathogenicity of novel duck reovirus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Youling; Yu, Kexiang; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-08-30

    The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) is an emerging, contagious infection. To better realize the pathogenic mechanism of NDRV in ducks, an infection experiment was conducted. The resulting data demonstrated that typical gross lesions were observed in the infected ducks. NDRV was able to replicate in various tissues, leading to these pathological lesions, especially on the liver and spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of most innate immune-related genes was up-regulated and the antiviral innate immune response could be established in both the liver and spleen. This study indicates that NDRV is a pantropic virus. To resist viral infection, several pathogen recognition receptors can cooperatively recognize NDRV and initiate innate immunity, but the responses are different between different tissues. As far as we know, this is the first systematic investigation of the pathogenicity of NDRV in Cherry Valley ducks based on the host's innate immunity, and these data will provide new insights into the further study of the disease.

  4. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  5. Duck shooting injuries in Southland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Watts, Martin; Densie, Ian

    2013-05-10

    Duck shooting is a common sport in New Zealand. The opening weekend is anticipated and celebrated, often with significant alcohol intake which is cause for concern, and potentially very dangerous. Hunters are annually warned about the dangers. There have been few duck shooting incidents which lead to injury or death. In the last decade two duck shooters in New Zealand have been killed, while 16 suffered non fatal gunshot injuries. We present a series of injuries identified during the 2012 duck shooting season in Southland Province.

  6. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  7. Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fuentes, V; Vilà, C; Green, A J; Negro, J J; Sorenson, M D

    2007-02-01

    The ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis, was introduced to Great Britain in the mid-20th century and has recently spread to other Western European countries. In Spain, ruddy ducks hybridize with the globally endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala. We assessed the effects of hybridization on the Spanish white-headed ducks, which constitute 25% of the global population of this species, using a panel of eight nuclear intron markers, 10 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA control region sequences. These data allowed parental individuals, F(1) hybrids, and the progeny of backcrossing to be reliably distinguished. We show that hybrids between the two species are fertile and produce viable offspring in backcrosses with both parental species. To date, however, we found no extensive introgression of ruddy duck genes into the Spanish white-headed duck population, probably due to the early implementation of an effective ruddy duck and hybrid control programme. We also show that genetic diversity in the expanding European ruddy duck population, which was founded by just seven individuals, exceeds that of the native Spanish white-headed duck population, which recently recovered from a severe bottleneck. Unless effective control of ruddy ducks is continued, genetic introgression will compromise the unique behavioural and ecological adaptations of white-headed ducks and consequently their survival as a genetically and evolutionary distinct species.

  8. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5-7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3-5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P < 0.05). More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  9. Effects of radio packages on wild ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Ball, I.J.; Cowardin, L.M.; Riechmann, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    A total of 211 wild, free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were equipped with breast-mounted radio packages during the breeding seasons of 1968-72. Known predation loss was 7.6 and 12.0 percent for mallards and wood ducks respectively, 60 percent occurred within 3 weeks of instrumentation. The highest predation rate for mallards was 0.0048 kills per tracking day and 0.0136 for wood ducks. A higher direct recovery rate for instrumented birds (19.5 percent) than noninstrumented birds (8.1 percent) was probably due to the novelty of the transmitter to hunters. Departure patterns and locations of direct recoveries were similar between radio-equipped and normal-banded birds. Among female wood ducks with radios, recovery rates were lower than expected. Hunters indicated that 84 percent of the instrumented ducks recovered were in good or excellent condition. Recaptures of ducks as long as 1 year after being equipped with radio packages indicated that feather wear and skin abrasion were not serious. A high rate for feeding on land by instrumented mallards was probably due to our ability to more easily locate and observe these birds in cover. Preening rates were higher for instrumented ducks. As the birds became adjusted to the package, preening decreased and feeding on water increased. Social and breeding behavior of instrumented ducks did not appear to be adversely affected by the radio package.

  10. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks.

    PubMed

    Glávits, Róbert; Ivanics, Eva; Thuma, Akos; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Samu, Péterné; Ursu, Krisztina; Dencso, László; Dán, Adám

    2011-02-01

    The aetiology of increased mortality observed in two breeder duck flocks (Flock A consisting of 3500 laying ducks and Flock B comprising 4300 laying ducks) during the first egg-laying season was studied. In Flocks A and B, 773 ducks and 715 ducks (18.4% and 16.6%) died within a 24-week and a 20-week period, respectively. Death was preceded by clinical signs including movement difficulties, lack of appetite and depression lasting for 1 to 2 days. Diarrhoea was not observed. On gross pathological examination, the ducks were found to have haemorrhagic to fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis, renal degeneration accompanied by fibrosis and mineralization, hepatic and splenic amyloidosis, and swelling of some of the metatarsal and phalangeal joints. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination consistently demonstrated spirochaetes in the mucous membrane of the affected large intestine. On the basis of their cultural and biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis, four out of seven spirochaete strains isolated from the ducks (Flock A) by culture on special media under anaerobic conditions were identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and five out of eight strains (Flock B) were identified as Brachyspira pilosicoli. This is the first report on the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli from laying ducks affected by fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis.

  11. D.U.C.K. Walking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steller, Jenifer J.

    This manual presents a schoolwide walking program that includes aerobic fitness information, curriculum integration, and walking tours. "Discover and Understand Carolina Kids by Walking" is D.U.C.K. Walking. An aerobic walking activity, D.U.C.K. Walking has two major goals: (1) to promote regular walking as a way to exercise at any age;…

  12. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  13. Survival and movements of molting male black ducks in Labrador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, T.D.; Longcore, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    We marked 26 flightless male American black ducks with transmitters during the post-nuptial molt in northern Labrabor to determine survival and movements. Twelve ducks remained in the watershed where marked and 11 ducks moved to different watersheds. The period survival rate (PSR) for these flightless males was 0.89 using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Only 2 ducks were killed by predators. Death of these 2 ducks might have been influenced by our disturbance, thus we considered the PSR minimal.

  14. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  15. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  16. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  17. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Russell, Robin E; Franson, J Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J; Allen, R Bradford; Nashold, Sean W; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  18. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. Even following a 15-year-long effort through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and U.S. and Canadian Endangered/Threatened Species programs to fund research focused on sea duck habitats there are still important gaps in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Importantly, many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered, largely as a result of anthropogenic effects. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups (e.g., eiders) within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, this chapter will examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Finally, we will evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for

  19. Assessment of potential shale gas resources of the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, India, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geologic assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a technically recoverable mean volume of 6.1 trillion cubic feet of potential shale gas in the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces of India.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mottled duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rorabaugh, James C.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1983-01-01

    The mottled duck is a mallard-like resident species of the Gulf of Mexico coast, from the marshes of Pearl River on the Lou i si ana-Ht ss t ss ipp i border to the Al varado Lagoon near Veracruz, Mexico (Bell rose 1976). The highest densities of nesting mottl ed ducks are found in brackish to fresh coastal marshes (H. Bateman, Louisiana Department of Wildl ife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge; pers , comm.). Mottled ducks also inhabit prairie land near prairie potholes in Texas and flooded rice fields in Texas (Engel ing 1950) and Louisiana (Linscombe 1972).

  1. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  2. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  3. Antileprosy measures in Bombay, India: an analysis of 10 years' work*

    PubMed Central

    Koticha, K. K.; Nair, P. R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Leprosy control measures adopted in Bombay consist of health education, case-detection, and treatment, and are carried out mainly by the Acworth Leprosy Hospital and its subsidiary, the Greater Bombay Leprosy Control Scheme. Although the data collected on different aspects of leprosy during the 10-year period 1963-72 are hospital-based and retrospective, their analysis provides a useful indicator of the possible situation in the field. Health education is provided by medical social workers, field staff, and physicians, and the significance of this activity in relation to early detection of leprosy is analysed. It is shown, however, that case-holding is a more urgent priority than case-detection. Trials have confirmed the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis with dapsone for contacts of infectious index cases in crowded households. Comparison of annual expenditure per outpatient in leprosy clinics with that for inpatients in a leprosy hospital demonstrates greater cost-effectiveness of outpatient treatment. Some practical recommendations are made for leprosy control. PMID:827341

  4. Urolithiasis in northeast Bombay: seasonal prevalence and chemical composition of stones.

    PubMed

    Hussain, F; Billimoria, F R; Singh, P P

    1990-01-01

    The seasonal prevalence of urinary calculus disease from the records of L.T. Municipal General Hospital, Sion, Bombay, which primarily caters services to poor people of Northeast Bombay, especially Dharavi slum area, is reported. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of stones collected from the patients of Dharavi slum area are also described. Interestingly, the prevalence of bladder stones (BSF) was lower than that of upper urinary tract stones (UUTSF) which suggests the possibility of involvement of environmental pollution. As regards total number of stone patients, a sharp fall in male BSF in March and increase in male UUTSF in November were evident. In females the number was maximum in April in both BSF and UUTSF. However, no recognizable pattern of seasonal variation was seen in operated stone patients indicating that metabolically active disease is unrelated to season. Prevalence of bladder stones in children was high and male/female ratio was about 5. All stones were of the mixed type. Infection was not a major contributor of stone growth. Calcium oxalate was the major constituent and ammonium acid urate was present in the majority of stones.

  5. Exploring multiple sources of climatic information within personal and medical diaries, Bombay 1799-1828

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, George

    2016-04-01

    Private diaries are being recognised as an important source of information on past climatic conditions, providing place-specific, often daily records of meteorological information. As many were not intended for publication, or indeed to be read by anyone other than the author, issues of observer bias are lower than some other types of documentary sources. This paper comprises an exploration of the variety of types of climatic information can be mined from a single document or set of documents. The focus of the analysis is three private and one medical diary kept by British colonists in Bombay, western India, during the first decades of the nineteenth century. The paper discusses the potential of the diaries for reconstruction of precipitation, temperature and extreme events. Ad-hoc temperature observations collected by the four observers prove to be particularly fruitful for reconstructing monthly extreme temperatures, with values comparable to more systematic observations collected during the period. This leads to a tentative conclusion that extreme temperatures in Bombay were around 5°C lower during the period than today, a difference likely predominantly attributable to the urban heat island effect.

  6. Floods on Duck and Little Duck Rivers and Grindstone Hollow, Hunt, Hickory Flat, and Wolf Creeks in the vicinity of Manchester, Tennessee. [Duck River; Little Duck River

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    This flood hazard report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Duck and Little Duck Rivers, and Grindstone Hollow, Hunt, Hickory Flat, and Wolf Creeks in the vicinity of Manchester, Tennessee. The report was prepared by TVA as a result of a request from the city of Manchester for TVA technical assistance in evaluating alternative solutions to local flood problems. 5 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.

  7. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  8. Black ducks and DDE: Review and status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Stendell, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Residues of DDE in wild black duck (Anas rubripes) wings or eggs are lower now than they were in the 1960s, and the mean shell thickness of eggs collected in 1978 has recovered to the pre-DDT use thickness. Mean DDE residues (ppm, wet wt) for eggs were: 1964, 2.93; 1971, 1.22; 1978, 0.65. Average DDE residues in wing pools were: 1965-66 and 1966-67 combined, 1.23; 1969-70, 1.42; 1972-73, 0.35 and 1976-77, 0.39. The threshold level of DDE in black duck foods for causing shell thinning is about 0.6 ppm, wet wt. Captive black ducks fed this dietary amount laid eggs with shells that were lighter in wt (-11.3%; P 0.05) for DDE-dosed birds, but this was caused by 1 unusually thin (0.283 mm) eggshell from a control hen. Our ad libitum diet, which equals the amount of DDE detected in some black duck foods, resulted in a mean DDE egg residue that was 4-6 ppm above the highest DDE residues detected in field-collected black duck eggs in 1964 (12.1 ppm) and 1971 (14.0). A comparison of documented effects of DDE in captive black ducks with DDE residues reported from wild black duck wing pools and eggs collected during 1964-78 suggests that reproductive success in wild black duck females was impaired in the 1960s and perhaps earlier.

  9. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-10-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic 'niche' as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages.

  11. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic ‘niche’ as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages. PMID:22164198

  12. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  13. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  14. Pathogenicity of duck plague and innate immune responses of the Cherry Valley ducks to duck plague virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Guo, Mengjiao; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-08-24

    Duck plague caused by duck plague virus (DPV) is an acute and contagious disease. To better understand the pathogenic mechanism of duck plague virus in ducklings, an infection experiment was performed. Our results showed that typical symptoms were observed in the infected ducklings. DPV could replicate quickly in many tissues, leading to pathological lesions, especially on the spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that expression of many innate immune-related genes was mostly up-regulated in the brain, and the antiviral innate immune response was established, but not sufficient to restrict viral replication. In contrast, although the expression of many major pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) increased in the spleen, the expression of most cytokines was declined. Our study indicates that DPV is a pantropic virus that can replicate rapidly in tissues, causing serious pathological lesions but the immune responses are different in the spleen and brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to systematically explore the expression profiles of the immune genes in the DPV-infected ducks. Our data provide a foundation for further study of the pathogenicity of duck plague.

  15. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R; Kamble, Amit P

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory.

  16. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  17. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  18. Occurrence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks and duck eggs in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Faiza, S; Saleha, A A; Jalila, A; Fauziah, N

    2013-03-01

    The importance of Campylobacter and Salmonella as foodborne pathogens is well recognised globally. A recent work in Penang found ducks in commercial farms were infected with these organisms. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks and Salmonella in duck eggs in farms in a small part of Selangor. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 75 ducks and 30 duck eggs from three farms. The isolation and identification of Campylobacter and Salmonella were done using conventional methods. Twelve percent of Campylobacter and 16.0% of Salmonella were isolated from the ducks sampled. Salmonella was absent on and in eggs. Campylobacter isolates consisted of 22% Campylobacter jejuni and the remaining was Campylobacter coli. Three Salmonella serovars identified were Salmonella Agona, S. Braenderup and S. Corvallis. The presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks may cause contamination of the meat during processing and handling which can constitute public health hazard. Moreover, the farm workers may be exposed to the organisms through contact with the infected animals.

  19. Prevalence of duck circovirus infection of subclinical pekin ducks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Song, Eu-Tteum; Kang, Min; Wei, Bai; Seo, Hye-Suk; Roh, Jae-Hee; Yoon, Ran-Hee; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-04-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence and infection pattern of duck circovirus (DuCV) in subclinical Pekin ducks on South Korean duck farms. A total of 147 samples collected from 92 duck farms in five provinces were examined from 2011 to 2012. The overall prevalence of DuCV PCR-positive pooled bursa of Fabricius and liver samples was 21.8% (32/147). The prevalence of DuCV PCR-positive samples increased significantly in 3-week-old ducks compared with that in 1-week-old ducks (P<0.05). DuCV in association with Riemerella and Salmonella infections (10.9%; 16/147) occurred at the same level as infection with DuCV alone (10.9%; 16/147). In comparison of the relationship between bacterial diseases (salmonellosis, Riemerella infection) and morbidity in farms with and without DuCV, morbidity was higher in circovirus-positive farms (50%; 16/32) than in circovirus-negative farms (26.1%; 30/115). Our findings provide baseline information on the degree of DuCV infection and distribution and pattern of DuCV in ducks, and it is evident that DuCV can be associated with subclinical diseases and that subclinical infection could be economically important.

  20. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S

    2012-11-01

    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock.

  1. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-10-31

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection.

  2. Complete genome sequence of duck Tembusu virus, isolated from Muscovy ducks in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Jidang; Wei, Chunya; Wang, Heng; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Minze; Tang, Fengfeng; Xie, Jiexiong; Liang, Huanbin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo

    2012-12-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) WJ-1 strain, isolated from Muscovy ducks. This is the first complete genome sequence of DTMUV reported in southern China. Compared with the other strains (TA, GH-2, YY5, and ZJ-407) that were previously found in eastern China, WJ-1 bears a few differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We found that there are 47 mutations of amino acids encoded by the whole open reading frame (ORF) among these five strains. The whole-genome sequence of DTMUV will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck Tembusu virus in southern China.

  3. Complete genome sequence analysis of a duck circovirus from Guangxi pockmark ducks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Zhao, Guangyuan; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing

    2012-12-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel duck circovirus (DuCV) strain, GX1104, isolated from Guangxi pockmark ducks in Guangxi, China. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology (97.2%) with the sequence of strain TC/2002 (GenBank accession number AY394721.1) and had a low homology (76.8% to 78.6%) with the sequences of other strains isolated from China, Germany, and the United States. This report will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of Guangxi pockmark duck circovirus in southern China.

  4. The sequential tissue distribution of duck Tembusu virus in adult ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Ding, Leilei; Lin, Yuan; Li, Qimeng; He, Xijun; Chen, Qiusheng; Chen, Hualan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a novel Tembusu virus (TMUV) that caused a severe decrease in the egg production of ducks was isolated in southeast China. Given the novelty of this duck pathogen, little information is available regarding its pathogenesis. Here, we systematically investigated the replication kinetics of TMUV PTD2010 in adult male and female ducks. We found that PTD2010 was detectable in most of the parenchymatous organs as well as the oviduct and intestinal tract from days 1 to 7 after inoculation. Viral titers were maintained at high levels for at least 9 days in the spleen, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, brain, and ovary. No virus was detected in any of these organs or tissues at 18 days after inoculation. PTD2010, thus, causes systemic infections in male and female ducks; its replication kinetics show similar patterns in most organs, with the exception of the ovaries and testes.

  5. Extraction and Analysis of Mega Cities’ Impervious Surface on Pixel-based and Object-oriented Support Vector Machine Classification Technology: A case of Bombay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S. S.; Sun, Z. C.; Sun, L.; Wu, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    The object of this paper is to study the impervious surface extraction method using remote sensing imagery and monitor the spatiotemporal changing patterns of mega cities. Megacity Bombay was selected as the interesting area. Firstly, the pixel-based and object-oriented support vector machine (SVM) classification methods were used to acquire the land use/land cover (LULC) products of Bombay in 2010. Consequently, the overall accuracy (OA) and overall Kappa (OK) of the pixel-based method were 94.97% and 0.96 with a running time of 78 minutes, the OA and OK of the object-oriented method were 93.72% and 0.94 with a running time of only 17s. Additionally, OA and OK of the object-oriented method after a post-classification were improved up to 95.8% and 0.94. Then, the dynamic impervious surfaces of Bombay in the period 1973-2015 were extracted and the urbanization pattern of Bombay was analysed. Results told that both the two SVM classification methods could accomplish the impervious surface extraction, but the object-oriented method should be a better choice. Urbanization of Bombay experienced a fast extending during the past 42 years, implying a dramatically urban sprawl of mega cities in the developing countries along the One Belt and One Road (OBOR).

  6. Evaluation and experimentation with duck management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    Our knowledge of the effects of hunting regulations on duck populations has been based largely on retrospective studies of historical data. We have reached the limits of what can be learned in this way. Future knowledge gains will likely come about only through experimentation and adaptive management.

  7. Factors limiting traditional household duck production in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Skerratt, L F; Rahman, M A; Beg, A B M Rabiul Alam; Debnath, N C

    2010-10-01

    A cross sectional survey of duck production was carried out in 2002 on 771 traditional, semiscavenging household duck farms on the coastal Island of Hatia. We determined the socioeconomic characteristics of duck farmers and their management systems, identified the factors associated with egg production, and measured the level of selected duck diseases and current preventive strategies. Household family size varied from 1 to 14 individuals and women were the main caretakers of ducks. Around 34% of keepers were illiterate. Most duck products (eggs and meat; 85%) were sold at the local market. Duck houses were poorly ventilated and a variety of bedding materials were used. Feed was available in nearby scavenging areas; however, additional feed was frequently supplied by farmers. Almost all farmers (96%) ranked the rainy season as the best time for rearing ducks due to greater feed availability. The annual egg production was 79 eggs per layer with a weight of 48 g and a hatchability rate of 87%. Egg production varied by zone (p < 0.05). The odds of suboptimal egg production was 0.5 times lower in educated farmers (p = 0.001). The odds of suboptimal egg production was 2.5 times more likely in ducks that attained sexual maturity at >22 weeks (p<0.001). Most farmers ranked duck plague as the most important disease, followed by duck cholera, botulism, and duck viral hepatitis. Preventive vaccination was sporadic and used by few farmers (28%). There are significant opportunities for improved duck production on the Island of Hatia and in Bangladesh generally.

  8. [Water provisions for Muscovy ducks--behaviour at duck showers and modified plasson drinkers].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Hänsch, Friederike; Hartung, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism are serious problems in keeping Moscovy ducks. Prevention of feather pecking by regularly applied beak and claw trimming are increasingly criticised by the public. The recommendation of the Council of Europe (COE) for the keeping of Muscovy ducks in farming systems calls for environmental enrichment including water for preening and bathing after December 31,2010. A total of 126 female Muscovy ducks (not beak nor claw trimmed) from commercial breeding lines were kept for 63 resp. 70 days in four compartments with 15-16 ducks each during two production cycles. Two pens where equipped either with duck showers or open water facility (modified Plasson drinker). Water provisions were made available for the ducks four hours daily at working days from their fifth week of life until slaughter. Behaviour at the water provision was registered and analysed for the number of ducks being engaged with water (944 hours recordings over 59 days from four pens analysed in five-minute-intervals (11,540 observations). Additionally 858 feather preening bouts (five a day for each compartment) were analysed for the duration of feather preening behaviour at the water provision. From the fifth to the tenth week of life the mean percentage of animals of a pen was significantly higher at the open trough (trough: 8,3% (+/-5,37); shower: 4.9% (+/-6.1), Mann-Whitney p <0,01) and feather preening took significantly longer (trough: 134.4 sec (+/-154.8); shower: 111.2 sec (+/-152.0), Mann-Whitney p <0.01) than at the showers. Bout duration and percentage of animals observed at both water provisions increased with age. Nonetheless only ten percent of the feather preening behaviour exceeded five minutes. Most animals made use of water in the first hour of the time period when water was provided. In the first weeks of water provision open water troughs were used more often and preening behaviour was longer. When given the choice, younger ducks preferred open drinkers to

  9. Different outcomes of infection of chickens and ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, C C; Diao, Y X; Sun, X Y; Hao, D M; Liu, X; Ge, P P

    2014-01-01

    As the major aquatic and terrestrial hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), ducks and chickens play a critical role in the evolution and spread of the H9N2 virus. However, the outcomes of infection of ducks and chickens with the H9N2 virus are not sufficiently documented. In this study, we compared the outcomes of infection of chickens and Peking ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 virus. The results showed that this virus caused more pronounced clinical signs and histological lesions in chickens. As for the virus shedding, chickens shed more virus in the trachea and less virus in the cloaca in levels of interferon (IFN) γ were found in the trachea of ducks compared with chickens, while comparison with ducks. As for cytokines, namely IFNs and interleukins (IL), higher higher levels of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 were observed in the ileum of chickens compared with ducks. Eventually, serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were higher in chickens than in ducks. Taken together, ducks and chickens use different strategies in response to the H9N2 virus infection in tissues representing main replication sites of low-pathogenic AIVs. Given the different outcomes of the H9N2 virus infection in ducks and chickens, different measures should be taken in vaccination and treatment.

  10. Source and distribution of metals in urban soil of Bombay, India, using multivariate statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratha, D. S.; Sahu, B. K.

    1993-11-01

    Simplification of a complex system of geochemical variables obtained from the soils of an industrialized area of Bombay is attempted by means of R-mode factor analysis. Prior to factor analysis, discriminant analysis was carried out taking rock and soil chemical data to establish the anthropogenic contribution of metals in soil. Trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are expressed in terms of three rotated factors. The factors mostly indicate anthropogenic sources of metals such as atmospheric fallout, emission from different industrial chimneys, crushing operations in quarries, and sewage sludges. Major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) are also expressed in terms of three rotated factors indicating natural processes such as chemical weathering, presence of clay minerals, and contribution from sewage sludges and municipal refuse. Summary statistics (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis) for the particle size distribution were interpreted as moderate dominance of fine particles. Mineralogical studies revealed the presence of montmorillonite, kaolinite, and illite types of clay minerals. Thus the present study provides information about the metal content entering into the soil and their level, sources, and distribution in the area.

  11. Liposomes containing recombinant E protein vaccine against duck Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Liu, Yongxia; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Yanhan; Fan, Wentao; Cheng, Ziqiang; Niu, Xudong; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-04-27

    To obtain an effective vaccine candidate against duck Tembusu viral (DTMUV) disease which causes egg-drop and great economical loss in the Chinese duck industry, liposome vaccines containing recombinant E protein were prepared and assessed in this study. The recombinant plasmid (PET28a-E) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E proteins. The recombinant E proteins were purified and entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. Eighty-four cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into seven groups and inoculated intramuscularly at one- or seven-day-old with liposomes-E protein or Freund's adjuvant-E protein vaccine. Blood samples were collected from the first week to the tenth week for serum antibody, plasma for viremia, as well as oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs for virus shedding analyses after being challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of duck Tembusu virus. Results showed that serum antibody level of the liposomes vaccine was higher than the Freund's adjuvant vaccine, and inoculating twice was superior to once; furthermore, the viremia and virus shedding tests also proved that the liposomes vaccine can provide complete protection against DTMUV challenge. These results demonstrated that the liposomes-E protein vaccine could be used as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  12. Pathogenicity and genetic characterization of a duck Tembusu virus associated with egg-dropping in Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Qin; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Zhan-Xin; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo; Chen, Feng

    2016-09-02

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has spread to the major duck-farming region in China, causing acute egg-production drop in Chinese duck population. In this study, we characterized a DTMUV strain (named GD2014) isolated from an egg-production drop duck farm in Guangdong province, South China. The virus was pathogenic to Muscovy duck embryos and caused severe egg production drop for laying Muscovy ducks. The genome sequence of GD2014 shared 97-99% homologies with other waterfowl-origin Tembusu viruses, and shared 89% identities with MM1775 strain isolated from mosquito. Phylogenetic analysis of entire open reading frame (ORF), E gene and NS5 gene indicated that GD2014 belonged to Ntaya group. These results have implications for understanding the orgin, emergence and pathogenicity of DTMUV as well as for the development of vaccines and diagnostics based on epidemiological data.

  13. Riemerella anatipestifer infection in domestic ducks in Japan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    CHIKUBA, Takumi; UEHARA, Haru; FUMIKURA, Shintaro; TAKAHASHI, Ken; SUZUKI, Yoshihisa; HOSHINOO, Kaori; YAMAMOTO, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infection has been confirmed in meat-type domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) for the first time in 27 years in Japan. In January 2014, increased mortality in a 14- to 21-day-old duck flock was reported to veterinary officials by the owner. The affected ducks exhibited reduced movement, ataxia and dorsal recumbency with leg paddling. Pathological findings were typical for an RA infection. Fibrinous and heterophilic pericarditis, airsacculitis, perihepatitis, ventriculitis and meningitis were observed. The bacterial isolate from duck organs was identified as RA by PCR-based 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. PMID:27373315

  14. Diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Nashold, S.W.; Docherty, D.E.; Brown, S.E.; Knudson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl tissues from past and current cases of waterfowl mortality and to identify duck plague virus in combined cloacal/oral-pharyngeal swab samples from healthy mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after a disease outbreak. The PCR was able to detect viral DNA from all the individual or pooled tissues assayed from 10 waterfowl, including liver and spleen samples from three Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) that did not yield virus isolates. The strong staining intensity of the PCR products from the waterfowl tissues indicated that large amounts of virus were present, even when virus was not isolated. Duck plague DNA was also detected in a cloacal swab sample from a wood duck (Aix sponsa) carcass submitted for diagnosis. The PCR assay identified duck plague DNA in 13 swab samples that produced virus isolates from carrier mallards sampled in 1981 after a duck plague die-off. The duck plague PCR clearly demonstrated the ability to quickly diagnose duck plague in suspect mortality cases and to detect virus shed by carrier waterfowl.

  15. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  16. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, {alpha}-globulin, and {gamma}-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  17. Indigenous Muscovy ducks in Congo-Brazzaville. 1. A survey of indigenous Muscovy duck management in households in Dolisie City.

    PubMed

    Banga-Mboko, H; Maes, D; Leroy, P L

    2007-02-01

    A cross-sectional study by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and multiple-choice questions was used to collect data on the profile of duck keepers, husbandry practices, and performances, opportunities and constraints of Muscovy duck breeding in households (n = 88) in Dolisie city (Congo-Brazzaville). The study confirmed the common observations on traditional poultry keeping such as scavenging during the day and housing overnight. The flock size (7.7 +/- 3 ducks per unit) showed no specialization of husbandry (100% of surveyed flocks were kept for simultaneous production of ducklings, meat and eggs) and a high drake-to-duck ratio (1:3). The hatchability was close to 80.5% +/- 13%, whereas the average number of eggs was 13.2 +/- 5 per clutch. In addition, a high mortality (80%) was observed in ducklings, which was due to poor feeding, lack of veterinary care and housing conditions. Eggs and live ducks were sold by duck farmers in response to the family needs rather than market price. The three most important findings were as follows: (1) duck keepers were mainly men (80% versus 20% of women); (2) there was no evidence of taboo; and (3) the duck as an exotic bird was not proscribed by cultural beliefs, and therefore development of the Muscovy duck in Congo Brazzaville should be unhindered.

  18. Injection of duck recombinant follistatin fusion protein into duck muscle tissues stimulates satellite cell proliferation and muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, He-he; Wang, Ji-wen; Yu, Hai-yue; Zhang, Rong-ping; Chen, Xi; Jin, Hai-bo; Dai, Fei; Li, Liang; Xu, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Follistatin (FST) can inhibit the expression of myostatin, which is a predominant inhibitor of muscle development. The potential application of myostatin-based technology has been prompted in different ways in agriculture. We previously constructed an expression vector of duck FST and isolated the FST fusion protein. After the protein was purified and refolded, it was added to the medium of duck myoblasts cultured in vitro. The results show that the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide value of the myoblasts in the duck FST treatment group is higher than that in the control group, which indicates that the duck FST fusion protein exhibits the biological activities that can accelerate myoblast proliferation. To further investigate the roles of duck FST on muscle development, we injected the protein into the duck muscle tissues in vivo. The results show that both the duck muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the satellite cell activation frequency are influenced more in the FST treatment group than they are in the control group. In addition to these phenomena, expression of MyoD and Myf5 were increased, and the expression of myostatin was decreased. Together, these results suggest the potential for using duck FST fusion protein to inhibit myostatin activity and subsequently to enhance muscle growth in vivo. The mechanism by which FST regulates muscle development in the duck is similar to that in mammals and fishes.

  19. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  20. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies.

  1. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV).

  2. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  3. Harvest and dynamics of duck populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of harvest in the dynamics of waterfowl populations continues to be debated among scientists and managers. Our perception is that interested members of the public and some managers believe that harvest influences North American duck populations based on calls for more conservative harvest regulations. A recent review of harvest and population dynamics of North American mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations (Pöysä et al. 2004) reached similar conclusions. Because of the importance of this issue, we reviewed the evidence for an impact of harvest on duck populations. Our understanding of the effects of harvest is limited because harvest effects are typically confounded with those of population density; regulations are typically most liberal when populations are greatest. This problem also exists in the current Adaptive Harvest Management Program (Conn and Kendall 2004). Consequently, even where harvest appears additive to other mortality, this may be an artifact of ignoring effects of population density. Overall, we found no compelling evidence for strong additive effects of harvest on survival in duck populations that could not be explained by other factors.

  4. Survival of postfledging female American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Frazer, C.

    1991-01-01

    We equipped 106 hatching-year (HY), female, black ducks (Anas rubripes) with transmitters during 1985-87 and monitored survival from late August to mid-December on a lightly hunted area on the Maine-New Brunswick border. The 1985-87 estimate of survival (hunting losses included) was 0.593, and when losses from hunting were censored it was 0.694. Survival in August-September was 0.987; by 31 October survival declined to 0.885, and by 30 November it was 0.718. Most nonhunting mortality was caused by predators (21/41, 53.2%); there were 14 deaths (34.1%) from mammals or unknown predators and 7 (17.1%) from raptors. Hunting caused 13 (31. 7%) deaths. Ducks with lowest mass had the lowest survival. The estimate of survival for postfledging female black ducks, when multiplied with interval survival rates for hunting, winter, and breeding periods, produced an annual survival estimate of 0.262, about 12% lower than that (0.38) based on analysis of banding data.

  5. H-deficient Bombay and para-Bombay red blood cells are most strongly agglutinated by the galactophilic lectins of Aplysia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that detect I and P1 antigens.

    PubMed

    Gilboa-Garber, N; Sudakevitz, D; Levene, C; Rahimi-Levene, N; Yahalom, V

    2006-01-01

    The galactophilic lectins Aplysia gonad lectin (AGL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IL), which detect human I and P1 RBC antigens, were examined for hemagglutination of H+ (group O and B) and H-deficient (Bombay and para-Bombay phenotype) RBCs. The results were compared with those obtained using two other galactophilic lectins, Maclura pomifera lectin (MPL) and Arachis hypogaea (peanut) agglutinin (PNA), which share T-antigen affinity, and two fucose-binding H-specific lectins, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IIL), as well as with those achieved with anti-I serum. The results revealed that, in contrast to UEA-I and PA-IIL, which preferentially agglutinated H+ RBCs, and to MPL and PNA, which similarly agglutinated all examined RBCs, AGL, PA-IL, and the anti-I serum agglutinated the H-deficient RBCs more strongly than did the H+ RBCs. These findings could be attributed to increased levels of I and P1 antigens on those RBCs resulting from the use of the free common H-type 2 precursor for their synthesis. Since both PA-IL and PA-IIL are regarded as potential pathogen adhesins, it would be interesting to statistically compare the sensitivities of individuals of H+ and H-deficient RBC populations to P. aeruginosa infections.

  6. Biotransformation and detoxification of inorganic arsenic in Bombay oyster Saccostrea cucullata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Liu, Huaxue; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exists as the toxic inorganic forms in marine water and sediment, while marine oysters usually accumulate high As contents mostly as the less toxic organic forms. It has not yet been clear that how As is biotransformed in marine oysters. This study therefore investigated the biotransformation and detoxification of two inorganic As forms (As(III) and As(V)) in Bombay oyster Saccostrea cucullata after waterborne exposures for 30 days. Seven treatments of dissolved As exposure (clean seawater, 1, 5, 20 mg/L As(III), and 1, 5, 20 mg/L As(V)) were performed. Body As concentration increased significantly after all As exposure treatments except 1mg/L As(V). Total As, As(III), and As(V) concentration were positive correlated with glutathione-S-transferases (GST) activities, suggesting GST might play an important role in the As biotransformation and detoxification process. Organic As species were predominant in control and the low As exposed oysters, whereas a large fraction of As was remained as the inorganic forms in the high As exposed oysters, suggesting As could be biotransformed efficiently in the oysters in clean or light contaminated environment. The results of As speciation demonstrated the As biotransformation in the oysters included As(V) reduction, methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to arsenobetaine (AsB). More As was distributed in the subcellular metallothionein-like proteins fraction (MTLP) functioning sequestration and detoxification in the inorganic As exposed oysters, suggesting it was also a strategy for oysters against As stress. In summary, this study elucidated that marine oysters had high ability to accumulate, biotransform, and detoxify inorganic As.

  7. Hypertension in the Parsi community of Bombay: a study on prevalence, awareness and compliance to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Nadir E; Kuruvilla, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Background Uncontrolled hypertension (HT) is an established risk factor for the development of vascular diseases. Prevalence varies in different communities and no such study has been conducted in the Parsi community living in Bombay, India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness, compliance to medication and control of HT in this community. Method We used a 1 in 4 random selection of subjects who were ≥ 20 years of age. A questionnaire was administered and the blood pressure (BP) was measured by a doctor. HT was defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg ± systolic pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) was defined as SBP ≥ 160 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg. Subsequently, we reanalysed the data using current definition of ISH as SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg. Results 2879 subjects ≥ 20 years of age were randomly selected of which 2415 (84%) participated in the study. The overall prevalence of HT in the community was 36.4%, of whom 48.5% were unaware of their hypertensive status. Of those aware of having HT, 36.4% were non-compliant with their anti-hypertensive drugs and only 13.6% had optimally controlled HT. Prevalence of ISH using the present criteria was 19.5% and 73% of hypertensives ≥ 60 years had ISH. Conclusion This study shows that prevalence of HT in the Parsi community is high and nearly half are unaware of their hypertensive status. ISH is the dominant form of HT in the elderly. Compliance to treatment is poor and optimal BP control is achieved in only a small minority. The study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programs to detect and optimally treat HT in the community. PMID:12513697

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, South Asia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna–Godavari Provinces, South Asia. The estimated mean volumes are as follows: (1) Assam Province, 273 million barrels of crude oil, 1,559 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 43 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (2) Bombay Province, 1,854 million barrels of crude oil, 15,417 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 498 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (3) Cauvery Province, 941 million barrels of crude oil, 25,208 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 654 million barrels of natural gas liquids; and (4) Krishna–Godavari Province, 466 million barrels of crude oil, 37,168 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 484 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The totals for the four provinces are 3,534 million barrels of crude oil, 79,352 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,679 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  9. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  10. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-01-01

    To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years. PMID:20678324

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  12. Duck plague epizootics in the United States, 1967-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, K.A.; Kidd, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1967, the first confirmed diagnosis of duck plague (DP) in the USA was made from pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) on commercial duck farms on Long Island, New York. Within 10 mo, DP was confirmed as the cause of death in migratory waterfowl on a Long Island bay. This paper reviews 120 DP epizootics reported from 1967 to 1995 that involved waterfowl species native to North America or were reported in areas with free-flying waterfowl at risk. Duck plague epizootics occurred in 21 states with the greatest number reported in Maryland (29), New York (18), California (16), and Pennsylvania (13). The greatest frequency of epizootics (86%) was detected during the months of March to June. At least 40 waterfowl species were affected with the highest frequency of epizootics reported in captive or captive-reared ducks including muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) (68%), mallard ducks (A. platyrhynchos) (18%) and black ducks (A. rubripes) (14%). The greatest number of waterfowl died in three epizootics that involved primarily migratory birds in 1967 and 1994 in New York (USA) and 1973 in South Dakota (USA). The greatest number of DP epizootics reported since 1967 appear to have involved flocks of non-migratory rather than migratory waterfowl; therefore, in our opinion it remains unknown if DP is enzootic in either non-migratory or migratory waterfowl.

  13. Vaccination of domestic ducks against H5N1 HPAI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, and therefore, successful control of HPAI in ducks is vital for the eradication of the disease in poultry. Vaccination can be used as a tool for supporting eradication by inc...

  14. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  15. Apoptosis induction in duck tissues during duck hepatitis A virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sheng, X D; Zhang, W P; Zhang, Q R; Gu, C Q; Hu, X Y; Cheng, G F

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the role of apoptosis in duck viral hepatitis pathogenesis, 4- and 21-d-old ducks were inoculated with duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 and killed at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postinfection. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling was used to detect apoptosis cells. Expression profiles of apoptosis-related genes including caspase-3, -8, -9, and Bcl-2 in spleen, bursa of Fabricius, liver, and the quantity of virus in blood were examined using real-time PCR. The TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis indicated there was a significant difference of apoptotic cells between treatments and controls. The same difference also appeared in virus amount variation in blood during infection. Gene expression analysis revealed that the apoptosis-related gene expression profile was different in the 2 groups, and also different between various organs. This study suggested that apoptosis may play an important role in duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 infection, and apoptosis suppression might facilitate virus multiplication, resulting in the highest virus concentration in the host.

  16. Epidemiology and molecular characterisation of duck hepatitis A virus from different duck breeds in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Erfan, Ahmed M; Selim, Abdullah A; Moursi, Mohamed K; Nasef, Soad A; Abdelwhab, E M

    2015-06-12

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is an acute highly contagious disease of ducklings caused by three distinct serotypes of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the RNA family Picornaviridae, where serotype 1 is the most widespread serotype worldwide. To date, little if any is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV outside Asia. The current study describes surveillance on DHV in 46 commercial duck farms in Egypt with a history of high mortality in young ducklings from 3 to 15 day-old from 2012 to 2014. Clinical samples were examined by generic RT-PCR assays followed by partial sequence analysis of the 5'UTR, VP1 and 3D genes of the vaccine strain and 15 field viruses. The overall positive rate was 37% (n=17/46). All duck breeds (Pekin, Muscovy, Mallard and Green Winged) were susceptible to the disease with mortality ranged from 15% to 96.7%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Egyptian strains cluster in the DHAV serotype 1 with Asian viruses and distinguishable from the vaccine strains. So far, this is the first report on the genetic characterisation of DHAV in Egypt. This study may be useful to better understand the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV.

  17. Expression and immunohistochemical distribution of duck plague virus glycoprotein gE in infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hua; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xiang, Jun; Xie, Wei; Shen, Fuxiao; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Luo, Qihui; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2011-03-01

    To determine the distribution of duck plague virus (DPV) gE protein in paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally DPV-infected ducks, an indirect immunoperoxidase assay was established to detect glycoprotein E (gE) protein for the first time. The rabbit anti-His-gE serum, raised against the recombinant His-gE fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), was prepared and purified. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that the anti-His-gE serum had a high level of reactivity and specificity and could be used as the first antibody for further experiments to study the distribution of DPV gE protein in DPV-infected tissues. A number of DPV gE proteins were distributed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, liver, esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and kidney of DPV-infected ducks and a few DPV gE were distributed in the Harders glands, myocardium, cerebrum, and lung, whereas the gE was not seen in the skin, muscle, and pancreas. Moreover, DPV gE was expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, reticulum cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, and hepatocytes. The present study may be useful not only for describing the characteristics of gE expression and distribution in infected ducks but also for understanding the pathogenesis of DPV.

  18. An investigation of duck circovirus and co-infection in Cherry Valley ducks in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingxiao; Jiang, Shijin; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Kong, Yibo; Li, Xiaoxia; Yao, Meiling; Chai, Tongjie

    2009-01-13

    The co-infection of duck circovirus (DuCV) with Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) or/and Escherichia coli (E. coli) or/and duck hepatitis virus I (DHV-I) in Cherry Valley ducks in China's Shandong Province was investigated by using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based methods. For this study, 742 ducks sampled at random from 70 duck farms during 2006-2007 were examined using PCR and dot-blot hybridisation (DBH) tests. Overall the DuCV infection rate was 33.29%. Compared with those at 2 weeks of age, the ducks at 3-4 weeks of age were more susceptible to DuCV infection. Compared with the DuCV-negative ones, the DuCV-positive ducks had a higher rate of infection by DHV-I (25.5% vs. 7.475%), RA (23.48% vs. 8.28%) and E. coli (16.19% vs. 4.85%). This investigation shows that DuCV infection is common in Cherry Valley ducks on some farms in Shandong Province.

  19. Evidence of possible vertical transmission of Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiuli; Chen, Hao; Ti, Jinfeng; Yang, Guoping; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yunjian; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-09-30

    In 2013, Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection was successively observed on several breeding duck farms in Shandong province, China. Affected ducks showed consistently acute anorexia, diarrhea and egg production drop. 125 hatching eggs produced by TMUV infected breeding ducks from four duck farms were collected. Among them, 35 hatching eggs were selected randomly from all before incubation for vitelline membrane samples collection. The rest of 90 hatching eggs were incubated routinely. As a result, 16 hatching eggs were found non-embryonated, 28 duck embryos died during incubation and 46 newly hatched ducklings were obtained. Vitelline membranes of non-embryonated hatching eggs, vitelline membrane, brain or liver samples of dead embryos and brain samples of newly hatched ducklings were collected for virus detection. Samples collected from one egg, embryo or duckling were treated as one. Consequently, 18 of 35 (51.43%) hatching eggs, 2 of 16 (12.50%) non-embryonated duck eggs, 17 of 28 (60.71%) dead duck embryos and 5 of 46 (10.87%) newly hatched ducklings were detected positive for TMUV using NS3-based RT-PCR. Overall, 42 of 125 (33.6%) eggs were positive for TMUV. A virus strain, designated as TMUV-SDDE, was isolated from one of these dead duck embryos which were detected TMUV positive. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that E gene of TMUV-SDDE virus was closely related to other TMUV strains isolated in China during 2010-2013. Pathogenicity studies showed that TMUV-SDDE strain was virulent to ducklings. This is the first report that TMUV is isolated from duck embryos. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of TMUV from breeding ducks to ducklings.

  20. Expression and distribution of the duck enteritis virus UL51 protein in experimentally infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chanjuan; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xu, Chao; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Dekang; Luo, Qihui; Cui, Hengmin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yin; Xu, Zhiwen; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2010-06-01

    To determine the expression and distribution of tegument proteins encoded by duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL51 gene in tissues of experimentally infected ducks, for the first time, an immunoperoxidase staining method to detect UL51 protein (UL51p) in paraffin-embedded tissues is reported. A rabbit anti-UL51 polyclonal serum, raised against a recombinant 6-His-UL51 fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli, was prepared, purified, and used as primary antibodies. Fifty-eight 30-day-old DEV-free ducks were intramuscularly inoculated with the pathogenic DEV CHv strain as infection group, and two ducks were selected as preinfection group. The tissues were collected at sequential time points between 2 and 480 hr postinoculation (PI) and prepared for immunoperoxidase staining. DEV UL51p was first found in the spleen and liver at 8 hr PI; in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus at 12 hr PI; in the Harders glands, esophagus, small intestine (including the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (including the caecum and rectum) at 24 hr PI; in the glandularis ventriculus at 48 hr PI; and in the pancreas, cerebrum, kidney, lung, and myocardium at 72 hr PI. Throughout the infection process, the UL51p was not seen in the muscle. Furthermore, the intensity of positive staining of DEV UL51p antigen in various tissues increased sharply from 8 to 96 hr PI, peaked during 120-144 hr PI, and then decreased steadily from 216 to 480 hr PI, suggesting that the expressional levels of DEV UL51p in systemic organs have a close correlation with the progression of duck virus enteritis (DVE) disease. A number of DEV UL51p was distributed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, liver, esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine of DEV-infected ducks, whereas less DEV UL51p was distributed in the Harders glands, glandularis ventriculus, cerebrum, kidney, lung, pancreas, and myocardium of DEV-infected ducks. Moreover, DEV UL51p can be expressed in the cytoplasm of various types

  1. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P < 0.05). Percentage hens varied among the 5 most common dabbling ducks found at dens. In eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota, where predation on ducks was greatest, an average of 64% of gadwall, 73% of northern pintail, 81% of blue-winged teal, 81% of mallard, and 90% of northern shoveler remains found at dens were hens. Percentage hens among duck remains found at dens increased as the duck nesting season progressed. Numbers of adult ducks found at individual dens ranged from 0 to 67. The average number of ducks found in and around den entrances was used as an index of fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P < 0.10) and duck population size (r = 0.930, P < 0.05), but all species were not affected in the same manner or to

  2. Complete genome sequence of a novel flavivirus, duck tembusu virus, isolated from ducks and geese in china.

    PubMed

    Yun, Tao; Zhang, Dabing; Ma, Xuejun; Cao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Liu; Ni, Zheng; Ye, Weicheng; Yu, Bin; Hua, Jionggang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cun

    2012-03-01

    Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.

  3. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrettson, Pamela R.; Raftovich, Robert V.; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers.

  4. Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanghua; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Qi, Baomin; Chen, Cuiteng; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Liu, Rongchang; Huang, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91.6%-91.9% nucleotide identities with early-genotype viruses (such as genotype III and IV) and shared 85.3%-85.9% nucleotide homologies with later genotype viruses (such as genotype VII). Pathogenicity tests showed that strain XBT14 could cause death in different duck breeds with a mortality rate of 44.4% in Muscovy duck, 25.9% in Sheldrake, and 11.1% in Cherry Valley duck, respectively. Similar mortality discrepancies were also observed in different ducks when infected with chicken-origin gIX virus strain F48E8. These results indicate that XBT14-like velogenic gIX APMV-1 (such as XBT14, F48E8, and GD09-2) could cause fatal infection in duck, and genotype IX is another genotype velogenic to duck as well as genotype VII. Accompanied by genetic differences in the vaccine strains or dominant strains prevailing in poultry, the virulent XBT14-like gIX viruses might become potentially endemic strains in poultry in the future.

  5. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  6. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  7. Efficiency of methionine retention in ducks.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Olayiwola

    2007-03-01

    The accretion of methionine and protein as a function of methionine intake was assessed in growing ducks between 22 and 42 d post-hatching. Four graded doses of dl-methionine at 0, 0 x 5, 1 x 0 or 1 x 5 g/kg diet were added to a methionine-limiting basal diet and fed to four replicate groups of four ducks each. The growth and efficiency of food use for growth increased linearly (P<0 x 05) as a function of methionine intake. The accretion of body protein increased (P<0 x 001) from 87 x 5 to 182 x 2 g, and that of methionine from 1616 to 3125 mg, over the 21 d period as dietary methionine increased. The accretion rate of methionine in the body (y, mg/d) as a function of methionine intake (x, mg/d) of ducks fed diets containing supplemental methionine at 0, 0 x 5, 1 x 0 or 1 x 5 g/kg diet from day 22 to day 42 post-hatching gave the regression equation: y=-148 x 86 (se 32 x 558)+0 x 312 (se 0 x 0384)X, r2=0 x 8253. For protein accretion rate in the body (y, mg/d) as a function of methionine intake (x, mg/d), the regression equation was: y= -9782 (se 2204)+19 x 505 (se 2 x 5994)x, r2=0 x 8009. There was a linear relationship between methionine (y, mg/d) and protein (x, mg/d) accretion in ducks that was described by the equation y=12 x 757 (se 7 x 4019)+0 x 01 525 (se 0 x 00 107)x, r2=0 x 9355. The results of these studies suggest a constant utilisation of methionine over the range 2 x 4-3 x 9 g digestible methionine/kg diet, with an efficiency of 31 %. Furthermore, the results suggest a quantitative relationship of 15 mg methionine for every gram of protein accretion.

  8. Ducks launch into flight at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A flock of ducks launch into the morning sky in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  9. Use of elevated nest baskets by ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.; Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Open-top nest baskets were mounted on upright metal poles in various wetlands to assess the value of baskets as a potential technique for increasing duck nest success. Observations were made from 1966-1968 in North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin and were continued through 1973 in North Dakota. Baskets were used most readily in the prairie pothole region; of the 1,038 basket nest sites provided during 1966-68, 392 contained clutches of eggs (38 percent), and 324 (83 percent) hatched. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) initiated 98 percent of these nests. Factors affecting nest success included human disturbance, nesting material, egg freezing, and avian predation.

  10. Genetic characterization of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Can; Yang, Limin; Ding, Chan; Liu, Wenjun

    2013-12-26

    In recent years, the spread of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses (DHAVs) has represented a serious threat and significant economic impact in duck industry of China. The sixteen reported DHAV isolates (15 DHAV-1 strains and one DHAV-3) were identified from infected ducks with clinical symptoms in China between 2009 and 2012. In the present study, the virulence of these viruses and complete sequences of the virion protein 1 (VP1) genes of the 16 DHAVs were characterized. The median embryonic lethal doses (ELD50) of the second generation duck embryo allantoic fluid of the 16 DHAV isolates were calculated on duck and chicken embryos. The results demonstrated that the various DHAV-1 strains have shown different pathogenic ability in embryos, and duck eggs were more susceptible to DHAV than chicken eggs. The histopathological examination revealed significant signs of virus infection, severe vacuolation, and hepatocyte necrosis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the 15 DHAV-1 viruses display significant correlation in their geographic distribution. The DHAV-1 strains isolated from Shandong Province were more evolutionarily divergent than the JX strains. There were two hypervariable regions in the VP1 protein, which may determine the virulence of DHAV-1 isolates in chicken eggs but not virulence in duck eggs. These results demonstrate the genetic and biological diversity of DHAVs in China and aid in understanding the epidemiology and evolution of DHAVs.

  11. Fall food habits of ducks near Santee Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGilvrey, F.B.

    1966-01-01

    During the 1961 waterfowl hunting season, 360 stomachs of 10 duck species were collected from hunters near the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Marion, South Carolina. Based on percentage of total volume, 20 of the most important foods are listed. The six most important duck species in the kill were: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wood duck (Aix sponsa), widgeon (Mareca americam), pintail (Anas acuta) , black duck ( Anas rubripes) , and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis). Six plant species made up 5 percent or more of the total volume of food items found in the stomachs of all ducks. Only seeds of oaks (Quercus sp.), corn, sweet gum (Liquidambar Styraciflua), and buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) were consumed. Some seed, but mostly the vegetative portions of hydrochloa (Hydrochloa carolinensis) and only the vegetative portions of southern rice cutgrass (Leersia hexandra) were taken. The more important game ducks concentrated on the refuge farmlands when water levels were below 72 feet mean sea level (msl). When levels reached 75 feet msl, natural foods became available, ducks dispersed from refuge areas, and hunting success increased greatly.

  12. Evidence of possible vertical transmission of duck circovirus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ruihua; Chen, Junhao; Xia, Linlin; Lin, Shaoli; Xie, Zhijing; Jiang, Shijin

    2014-11-07

    To test the hypothesis that duck circovirus (DuCV) may be vertically transmitted from infected breeder ducks to their ducklings, we investigated 120 newly hatched ducklings, 30 dead duck embryos and 80 non-embryonated duck eggs with the duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DuCV DNA was present in 15 newly hatched ducklings, 4 duck embryos and 3 non-embryonated eggs. Four ducklings from two flocks were co-infected by DuCV-1 and DuCV-2, three ducklings from three flocks were DuCV-1 single infection, and eight ducklings from six flocks were DuCV-2 single infection. One duck embryo and one non-embryonated egg were positive for both DuCV-1 and DuCV-2 DNAs, one embryo for DuCV-1 DNA, and two embryos and two non-embryonated eggs for DuCV-2 DNA. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of DuCV and simultaneous transmission of DuCV-1 and DuCV-2 from breeder ducks to ducklings.

  13. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American black duck (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James C.; Garrison, Russell L.

    1984-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The American black duck, commonly known as the black duck, is migratory and has a wide geographic range. American black ducks breed from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, west to the Mississippi River and north through the eastern Canadian boreal forest (Bellrose 1976). The winter range extends from the Rio Grande River on the Texas coast, northeast to Lake Michigan, east to Nova Scotia, south to Florida, and west to Texas (Wright 1954). American black ducks arrive on their wintering habitats between September and early December and remain there until February to April (Bellrose 1976). Their preferred habitat varies considerably through the wintering range. Habitat use appears related to food availability, freedom from disturbance, weather, and often upon the presence of large bodies of open water. These interrelated elements are essential for meeting the energy demands and other nutritional requirements of black ducks in response to the rigors of cold weather and migration. In the Atlantic Flyway, winter populations of American black ducks concentrate in marine and estuarine wetlands (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). They use salt marshes and small tidal bays for feeding and loafing areas. In wintering areas north of Chesapeake Bay, American black ducks frequently feed on tidal flats and rest in emergent wetlands or on ice-free bays, rivers, and coastal reservoirs. In the Chesapeake bay area, migrant and wintering American black ducks occupy a wide variety of habitats (Stewart 1962). They strongly favor brackish bays with extensive adjacent agricultural lands. Estuarine bays, coastal salt marshes, tidal fresh marshes, and adjacent impoundments receive high usage. American black ducks also concentrate in forested wetlands in and adjacent to estuaries in the South Atlantic Flyway, especially in Virginia and North Carolina.

  15. Genetic characterization of a novel astrovirus in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qinfeng; Liu, Ning; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Fumin; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-06-01

    Three divergent groups of duck astroviruses (DAstVs), namely DAstV-1, DAstV-2 (formerly duck hepatitis virus type 3) and DAstV-3 (isolate CPH), and other avastroviruses are known to infect domestic ducks. To provide more data regarding the molecular epidemiology of astroviruses in domestic ducks, we examined the prevalence of astroviruses in 136 domestic duck samples collected from four different provinces of China. Nineteen goose samples were also included. Using an astrovirus-specific reverse transcription-PCR assay, two groups of astroviruses were detected from our samples. A group of astroviruses detected from Pekin ducks, Shaoxing ducks and Landes geese were highly similar to the newly discovered DAstV-3. More interestingly, a novel group of avastroviruses, which we named DAstV-4, was detected in Pekin ducks. Following full-length sequencing and sequence analysis, the variation between DAstV-4 and other avastroviruses in terms of lengths of genome and internal component was highlighted. Sequence identity and phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of the three open reading frames (ORFs) clearly demonstrated that DAstV-4 was highly divergent from all other avastroviruses. Further analyses showed that DAstV-4 shared low levels of genome identities (50-58%) and high levels of mean amino acid genetic distances in the ORF2 sequences (0.520-0.801) with other avastroviruses, suggesting DAstV-4 may represent an additional avastrovirus species although the taxonomic relationship of DAstV-4 to DAstV-3 remains to be resolved. The present works contribute to the understanding of epidemiology, ecology and taxonomy of astroviruses in ducks.

  16. Long-term pair bonds in the Laysan Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Breeden, J.H.; Vekasy, M.S.; Ellis, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe long-term pair bonds in the endangered Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis), a dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. Individually marked birds were identified on Laysan Island between 1998 and 2006 (n = 613 marked adults). We recorded pair bonds while observing marked birds, and documented within and between year mate switches and multi-year pair bonds. Twenty pairs banded before 2001 had stable pair bonds lasting ???5 years with a maximum enduring pair bond of nine breeding seasons. Understanding reproductive strategy, including mate retention, would aid conservation planning and management efforts for the Laysan Duck. Further study is needed to characterize the social system of this endangered species.

  17. Factors influencing depredation of artificial duck nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Because artificial nests can facilitate controlled experiments of nest success, we used them to assess whether human visitation, nest density, vegetation structure, and proximity to habitat edge could affect depredation of duck nests on Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. More (P < 0.01) nests in a plot visited daily (100%) were depredated than those in plots visited at intervals of 7 (40%), 14 (35%), or 28 days (45%). More (P < 0.01) nests were depredated in a plot with 10 nests/ha (95%) than nests in a plot of a lower density (2/ha; 40%). Vegetation height, vegetation density, distance to a wetland, distance to forest edge, or distance to the nearest ecotone did not differ (P > 0.05) between depredated and undisturbed nests. We suggest that daily visitation of duck nests increases depredation, but longer intervals, typical of most nest studies, do not. High nesting densities, which could occur when flooding limits nesting habitat, may result in higher depredation rates.

  18. AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

    2007-06-01

    1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing.

  19. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  20. The prevalence of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 and 3 on Korean duck farms.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mahmoud; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Lee, Min-Hee; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Deok-Song; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Kwon, Joseph; Choi, Jong-Soon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Sung; Lee, Tae-Uk; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Kang, Mun-Il

    2015-02-01

    This study reports the prevalence of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) types 1 and 3 on Korean duck farms. By RT-nested PCR assays specific for DHAV-1 or DHAV-3, DHAV-1 was detected in 9 of 157 liver samples (5.7 %) from 2 of 30 farms (6.7 %), and DHAV-3 was positive in 104 of 157 liver samples (66.2 %) from 23 of 30 farms (76.7 %). Dual infections with DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 were detected in 23 of 157 samples (14.6 %) from 5 of 30 farms (16.7 %). The data indicate that DHAV-3 infections are prevalent and that DHAV-1 reemerged in Korea, resulting in dual infections on several farms. Our data will help to establish a vaccination policy against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in Korea.

  1. Genetic analysis of duck circovirus in Pekin ducks from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Cho, J-G; Jang, H-K

    2013-11-01

    The genetic organization of the 24 duck circovirus (DuCV) strains detected in commercial Pekin ducks from South Korea between 2011 and 2012 is described in this study. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed on the 24 viral genome sequences as well as on 45 genome sequences available from the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analyses based on the genomic and open reading frame 2/cap sequences demonstrated that all DuCV strains belonged to genotype 1 and were designated in a subcluster under genotype 1. Analysis of the capsid protein amino acid sequences of the 24 Korean DuCV strains showed 10 substitutions compared with that of other genotype 1 strains. Our analysis showed that genotype 1 is predominant and circulating in South Korea. These present results serve as incentive to add more data to the DuCV database and provide insight to conduct further intensive study on the geographic relationships among these virus strains.

  2. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  3. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  4. Do wintering Harlequin Ducks forage nocturnally at high latitudes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Esler, Daniel; Roby, D.D.; Jarvis, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attributes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence of nocturnal dive-feeding. Signals from eight radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks never exhibited signal loss due to diving during a total of 780 minutes of nocturnal monitoring. In contrast, the same eight birds exhibited signal loss during 62 ± 7% (SE) of 5-minute diurnal monitoring periods (total of 365 minutes of monitoring). Our results suggest that Harlequin Ducks in south-central Alaska face a stringent time constraint on daytime foraging during midwinter. Harlequin Ducks wintering at high latitudes, therefore, may be particularly sensitive to factors that increase foraging requirements or decrease foraging efficiency.

  5. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  6. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic association between free grazing duck census counts and current statistics on the spatial distribution of rice crops in Thailand, in particular the crop calendar of rice production. The analysis was carried out using both district level rice statistics and rice distribution data predicted with the aid of remote sensing, using a rice-detection algorithm. The results indicated a strong association between the number of free grazing ducks and the number of months during which second-crop rice harvest takes place, as well as with the rice crop intensity as predicted by remote sensing. These results confirmed that free grazing duck husbandry was strongly driven by agricultural land use and rice crop intensity, and that this later variable can be readily predicted using remote sensing. Analysis of rice cropping patterns may provide an indication of the location of populations of free grazing ducks in other countries with similar mixed duck and rice production systems and less detailed duck census data. Apart from free ranging ducks and rice cropping, the role of hydrology and seasonality of wetlands and water bodies in the HPAI risk analysis is also discussed in relation to the presumed dry season aggregation of wild waterfowl and aquatic poultry offering much scope for virus transmission.

  7. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic association between free grazing duck census counts and current statistics on the spatial distribution of rice crops in Thailand, in particular the crop calendar of rice production. The analysis was carried out using both district level rice statistics and rice distribution data predicted with the aid of remote sensing, using a rice-detection algorithm. The results indicated a strong association between the number of free grazing ducks and the number of months during which second-crop rice harvest takes place, as well as with the rice crop intensity as predicted by remote sensing. These results confirmed that free grazing duck husbandry was strongly driven by agricultural land use and rice crop intensity, and that this later variable can be readily predicted using remote sensing. Analysis of rice cropping patterns may provide an indication of the location of populations of free grazing ducks in other countries with similar mixed duck and rice production systems and less detailed duck census data. Apart from free ranging ducks and rice cropping, the role of hydrology and seasonality of wetlands and water bodies in the HPAI risk analysis is also discussed in relation to the presumed dry season aggregation of wild waterfowl and aquatic poultry offering much scope for virus transmission. PMID:18418464

  8. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Harvest history The book presents a comprehensive synthesis of sea duck ecology, documents factors that have caused population declines of some species, and provides managers with measures to enhance recovery of depressed populations of sea ducks in North America. Capturing the current state of knowledge of this unique tribe, it provides a benchmark for where we are in conservation efforts and suggests future directions for researchers, managers, students, conservationists, and avian enthusiasts.

  9. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes)

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Conor P.; Devers, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing) data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south). The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species. PMID:26989624

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the duck viperin gene.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zifu; Ji, Yanhong; Fu, Yuguang; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-10-01

    Viperin is well known as one of the interferon-stimulated genes involved in innate immunity. Recent studies showed that this gene is mainly responsible for antiviral response to a large variety of viral infections. In this study, we successfully cloned and characterized the complete coding sequence of duck viperin gene. The duck viperin gene encodes 363 amino acids (aa) and is highly similar to viperins from other species. Moreover, secondary and 3D structures were predicted, and these structures showed two main domains, one signal peptide, and one radical S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) domain. Additionally, the duck viperin expression was analyzed in vitro and in vivo, and analysis results indicated that the duck viperin can be strongly up-regulated by poly(I:C) and Newcastle disease virus in primary duck embryo fibroblast cells. Results also demonstrated that Newcastle disease virus significantly induced duck viperin expression in the spleen, kidneys, liver, brain, and blood. Our findings will contribute to future studies on the detailed functions and potential underlying mechanisms of this novel protein in innate immunity.

  11. Proportion of recovered duck bands that are reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, R.K.

    1966-01-01

    Band-reporting rates (the proportion of duck bands recovered by hunters that are actually reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory) appear to have decreased between the late 1950's and early 1960's. About one-half the banded ducks bagged during the 1958-59 and 1959-60 hunting seasons were reported-a rate similar to those recorded in other studies conducted during the early and mid-1950's. Band-reporting rates were lower for the 1962-63 and 1962-64 hunting seasons; less than one-third of the banded ducks bagged were reported. This decrease in band-reporting rates was concurrent with significant changes in duck hunting regulations, the volume of duck banding, and the method used to relay information to the person who reports a band. Band-reporting rates differed for various species of ducks. In general, band-reporting rates were high on canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), redheads (A. americana), and pintails Anas acuta) and low for teals (Anas discors and A. carolinensis).

  12. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Male (foreground) and female pintail ducks climb onto a grassy spot in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  13. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A male pintail duck (left) and female pintail (right) look like bookends on a glass-topped table in the winter waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  14. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two female pintail ducks search for food in the winter waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  15. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A male pintail duck (foreground) paddles in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center while a female behind him bobs for food. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  16. Monitoring the health and production of household Jinding ducks on Hatia Island of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Skerratt, L F; Rahman, M A; Alim, M A; Grace, D; Gummow, B; Rabiul Alam Beg, A B M; Debnath, N C

    2011-02-01

    Duck rearing is an important component of sustainable living in poor rural communities, especially as a source of subsistence. A study was conducted on 118 households (N = 1,373 Jinding ducks, Anas platyrhynchus) from December 2002 to February 2004 on Hatia Island in Bangladesh with the aim of identifying the factors that limit the health and production of Jinding ducks. Overall duck mortality was 29.3%, with disease (19.7%) being a more significant factor than predation (9.6%; p = 0.001). Duck mortality also varied significantly among study zones (p < 0.001). Common diseases were duck plague (21.1%) and duck cholera (32.1%). Helminth infection was prevalent, with endemic trematode (Prosthogonimus spp., Trichobilharzia spp., Echinostoma spp.) and nematode (Cyathostoma bronchialis, Amidostomum anseris, Heterakis gallinarum, Capillaria spp., and Echinuria spp.) infections and epidemic cestode infections due to Hymenolepsis setigera. The median egg production rate per duck per household was 93 for a 6-month laying period. The odds of diminished egg production (average ≤ 93 eggs per duck per household for a 6-month laying period) was 25.4 times higher in ducks that were kept in traditional duck houses (p < 0.001) and 14.2 times higher in ducks that experienced delays in the onset of sexual maturity (days 191 and 280; p < 0.001). Ducks that were provided snails for a shorter period of time over the laying period were 18.2 times more likely to produce fewer eggs than their longer fed peers (p = 0.002). In conclusion, duck mortalities due to diseases and predation and parasitic infections appear to be common constraints on household duck production on Hatia Island. Additionally, improving duck housing and providing longer nutritional supplementation with snails increased the production capabilities of household-raised Jinding ducks on Hatia Island.

  17. Cross-sectional serosurvey of avian influenza antibodies presence in domestic ducks of Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Manandhar, S; Ivanek, R

    2014-09-01

    Kathmandu, Nepal has been classified as a high-risk area for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) by the Nepali Government. While ducks have an important role in the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV), including HPAI, seroprevalence of antibodies to AIV in domestic ducks of Kathmandu has never been assessed. The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of seroconversion to AIV in domestic ducks in major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and (ii) to assess the effect of age, sex, presence of swine and the number of ducks on the farm on the carriage of antibodies to AIV in these ducks. From April through July of 2011, a cross-sectional study was conducted and a total of 310 ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu were sampled. The estimated prevalence of AIV antibodies was 27.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24.6-29.5]. Of 62 enrolled farms, 42% had at least one seropositive duck. Half of the enrolled farms also kept pigs of which 52% had at least one seropositive duck. Bivariate analysis indicated association between ducks' seroconversion to AIV and their age, sex and farm size. However, the final multivariable model, after controlling for clustering of ducks within farms, identified age as the only significant risk factor. Based on this model, ducks older than 1 year of age were more likely to be seropositive compared to ducks <6 months of age [odds ratio = 2.17 (1.07-4.39)]. These results provide baseline information about the AIV seroprevalence in domestic ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and identify a high-risk group that can be targeted in surveillance activities. Future studies should be conducted to differentiate the subtypes of AIV present among domestic ducks in Kathmandu, with particular interest in the presence of HPAI viruses.

  18. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects.

  19. Metal and sediment ingestion by dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.; Day, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis of intestinal digesta from hunter-killed carcasses or of wildlife scat is a promising means of estimating the exposure of wildlife to those environmental contaminants that, like lead, are poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. When evaluating contaminants at a site, biologists may find the results of this non-destructive approach more straightforward to interpret in terms of exposure to wildlife than would be analyses of soils, sediments, water, or wildlife tissues. To illustrate the approach, we collected digesta from 47 waterfowl shot by hunters at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, in Delaware, USA. The waterfowl digesta contained an average of approximately 2.4% sediment, estimated from the Al concentrations in the digesta, a marker for sediment. Al concentrations were significantly correlated with concentrations of Cr (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r=0.57), V (r=0.70), Ni (r=0.31), and Pb (r=0.55), and we concluded that these metals were ingested mainly with sediment. American widgeon (Anas americana) ingested sediment at a rate of about four times that of three other species of dabbling ducks (Anas crecca, A. acuta, A. rubripes) and had several times the exposure to the sediment-associated metals. The digesta of one American black duck contained a high concentration of lead (70 mg/kg, dry wt.), presumably from lead shot, but none of the other samples had notably elevated metal concentrations. We suggest that scat and digesta be analyzed more widely by biologists and resource managers seeking a simple, inexpensive assessment of contaminants in local wildlife habitat.

  20. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Polar Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  4. Live Attenuated Vaccine Based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhong; Ma, Ji; Huang, Kun; Chen, Huanchun; Liu, Ziduo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as 3 days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as 1 week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. PMID:27777571

  5. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat. PMID:26761808

  6. Sensitivity of embryos of chicken, domestic duck, and common eider duck to polychlorinated and non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstroem, B.

    1995-12-31

    Embryos of chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos), and common eider duck (Somateria mollissima) were exposed in ovo to PCBs and to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Two coplanar PCBs, 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB {number_sign}77) and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB {number_sign}126), were considerably more lethal and potent as inducers of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) than in embryos of the other two species. In chicken embryos, these compounds caused edema and eye and beak deformities. An artificial mixture of 18 PAHs which all have been detected in environmental samples, was slightly more toxic to embryos of the domestic duck and the common eider duck than to chicken embryos. The most potent compound in the mixture was benzo(k)fluoranthene. When chicken embryo livers were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in vitro, EROD was induced by very low concentrations and the EC{sub 50} value obtained was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} M. Livers from embryos of eider ducks and domestic ducks were 2--4 orders of magnitude less responsive to TCDD than chicken embryo livers in terms of EROD induction in vitro.

  7. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  8. Factors limiting the health of semi-scavenging ducks in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Skerratt, L F; Cook, A J C; Khan, S A; Grace, D; Alam, M R; Vidal-Diez, A; Debnath, N C

    2011-02-01

    Duck rearing is well suited to coastal and lowland areas in Bangladesh. It is an important component of sustainable livelihood strategies for poor rural communities as an additional source of household income. An epidemiological study was conducted during January 2005-June 2006 on 379 households in Chatkhil of the Noakhali District, Bangladesh which were using the recently devised "Bangladesh duck model". The overall objective of the study was to identify factors that significantly contributed to mortality and constrained productivity and to generate sufficient knowledge to enable establishment of a disease surveillance system for household ducks. The overall mortality was 15.0% in Chatkhil, with predation causing a significantly higher mortality compared with diseases (p < 0.001). Common diseases were duck plague and duck cholera. Morbid ducks frequently displayed signs associated with diseases affecting the nervous and digestive systems. Haemorrhagic lesions in various organs and white multiple foci on the liver were frequently observed in dead ducks. Epidemiological analysis with a shared frailty model that accounted for clustering of data by farm was used to estimate the association between survival time and risk factors. The overall mortality rate due to disease was significantly lower in vaccinated than in non-vaccinated ducks in all zones except zone 2 (p < 0.001). Only vaccinated ducks survived in zone 1. In conclusion, duck mortality and untimely sale of ducks appeared to be important constraints for household duck production in Chatkhil. Vaccination against duck plague appears to be an effective preventive strategy in reducing the level of associated duck mortality. A successful network was established amongst farmers and the surveillance team through which dead ducks, with accompanying information, were readily obtained for analysis. Therefore, there is an opportunity for establishing a long-term disease surveillance programme for rural ducks in Chatkhil

  9. Formation of heterocyclic amines during cooking of duck meat.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Zhang, Y J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods: boiling, microwave cooking, charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying on the formation of HAs in duck breast were studied. The various HAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the cooking loss of duck breast increase along with increasing cooking temperature and time. Pan-fried duck breasts contained the highest amount of total HAs, followed by charcoal-grilling, deep-frying, roasting, microwave cooking and boiling. 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) were detected in all of the cooked duck meat, with levels in the range of 0.1-33 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) was formed easily in duck meat cooked by pan-frying and charcoal-grilling in the range of 0.9-17.8 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was identified in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling and pan-frying, in the range of 0.4-4.2 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was detected in amounts below 4.5 ng g⁻¹ in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying. The other HAs were detected in amounts below 10 ng g⁻¹. Colour development increased with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HAs' content was observed.

  10. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Junyan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-11-10

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas (221)LD/NLPW(225) was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  11. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Junyan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV. PMID:27834908

  12. Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Fraley, G S; Fraley, S M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-03-01

    Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P < 0.0001). Feather hygiene declined with age in ducks reared on litter flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P < 0.011). With the exception of foot pad scores, the majority of ducks had no detectable problems for any single trait. The only main effect due to flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P < 0.05). Overall, the condition of ducks reared, regardless of flooring system, was considered to be good.

  13. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control order for muscovy ducks in the... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.54 Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States. (a) Control of muscovy ducks. Anywhere in the contiguous United States except in Hidalgo, Starr, and...

  14. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control order for muscovy ducks in the... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.54 Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States. (a) Control of muscovy ducks. Anywhere in the contiguous United States except in Hidalgo, Starr, and...

  15. Characterization of duck H5N1 influenza viruses with differing pathogenicity in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yinghua; Wu, Peipei; Peng, Daxin; Wang, Xiaobo; Wan, Hongquan; Zhang, Pinghu; Long, Jinxue; Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Xiufan

    2009-12-01

    A number of H5N1 influenza outbreaks have occurred in aquatic birds in Asia. As aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses and do not usually show clinical disease upon infection, the repeated H5N1 outbreaks have highlighted the importance of continuous surveillance on H5N1 viruses in aquatic birds. In the present study we characterized the biological properties of four H5N1 avian influenza viruses, which had been isolated from ducks, in different animal models. In specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, all four isolates were highly pathogenic. In SPF mice, the S and Y isolates were moderately pathogenic. However, in mallard ducks, two isolates had low pathogenicity, while the other two were highly pathogenic and caused lethal infection. A representative isolate with high pathogenicity in ducks caused systemic infection and replicated effectively in all 10 organs tested in challenged ducks, whereas a representative isolate with low pathogenicity in ducks was only detected in some organs in a few challenged ducks. Comparison of complete genomic sequences from the four isolates showed that the same amino acid residues that have been reported to be associated with virulence and host adaption/restriction of influenza viruses were present in the PB2, HA, NA, M and NS genes, while the amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site were diverse. From these results it appeared that the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses was increased for ducks and that amino acid substitutions at the HA cleavage site might have contributed to the differing pathogenicity of these isolates in mallards. A procedure for the intravenous pathogenicity index test in a mallard model for assessing the virulence of H5/H7 subtype avian influenza viruses in waterfowl is described.

  16. Zoonotic Echinostome Infections in Free-Grazing Ducks in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Duenngai, Kunyarat

    2013-01-01

    Free-grazing ducks play a major role in the rural economy of Eastern Asia in the form of egg and meat production. In Thailand, the geographical location, tropical climate conditions and wetland areas of the country are suitable for their husbandry. These environmental factors also favor growth, multiplication, development, survival, and spread of duck parasites. In this study, a total of 90 free-grazing ducks from northern, central, and northeastern regions of Thailand were examined for intestinal helminth parasites, with special emphasis on zoonotic echinostomes. Of these, 51 (56.7%) were infected by one or more species of zoonotic echinostomes, Echinostoma revolutum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Echinostomes found were identified using morphological criteria when possible. ITS2 sequences were used to identify juvenile and incomplete worms. The prevalence of infection was relatively high in each region, namely, north, central, and northeast region was 63.2%, 54.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. The intensity of infection ranged up to 49 worms/infected duck. Free-grazing ducks clearly play an important role in the life cycle maintenance, spread, and transmission of these medically important echinostomes in Thailand. PMID:24516271

  17. High duck nesting success in a predator-reduced environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Duck nesting and production were studied during 1969-74 on a 51-ha field of undisturbed grass-legume cover and a surrounding 8.13-km2 area in north-central South Dakota. The principal mammalian predators of ducks were reduced within a 259-km2 zone from May 1969 through August 1971. Dabbling duck nest densities, hatching success, and breeding populations attained high levels. Seven duck species produced 1,062 nests on the 51-ha field during 6 years, 864 (81%) hatched, 146 (14%) were destroyed, and 52 (5%) had other fates. During 1970-72, when predator reduction was most effective, the hatching success for 756 nests was 94%. The number of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) nests increased from 37 (0.7/ha) in 1969 to 181 (3.5/ha) in 1972. Mallard pairs increased from 2.8/km2 to 16.8/km2 on the 8.13-km2 area during the same period. A minimum of 7,250 ducklings hatched on the 51-ha field during the 6 years, including 2,342 ducklings in 1972. Exceptionally high duck nesting densities and hatching rates occurred when predators were controlled.

  18. Techniques for establishing local breeding populations of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.; Kruse, A.D.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge in east-central North Dakota to further evaluate a technique for establishing nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) by releasing propagated birds and installing nest houses. No wood duck nesting had been recorded previously in the area. During May-July 1968, 253 ducklings, hand-reared at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center near Jamestown, North Dakota, were released when 9 to 16 days old into a 0.5-acre enclosure on the refuge, where they grew to flight stage and departed. Seventy-eight nest houses were installed in August on the refuge. About 76 percent of the ducks survived until late September, when southward migration began. The first-year band recovery rate by hunters of 4.7 percent was comparable to that of wild immature wood ducks. Most recoveries occurred between North Dakota and Minnesota in the north and Texas and Louisiana in the south. There were 16 nesting attempts, which produced 175 ducklings, by homing female wood ducks in the boxes in 1969. The number of nesting attempts increased to 34 in 1970, with a production of 311 ducklings.

  19. Quantitation of mule duck in goose foie gras using TaqMan real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A; García, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Hernández, Pablo E; Martín, Rosario

    2004-03-24

    A real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method has been developed for the quantitation of mule duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) in binary duck/goose foie gras mixtures. The method combines the use of real-time PCR with duck-specific and endogenous control "duck + goose" primers to measure duck content and total foie gras content, respectively. Both PCR systems (duck-specific and duck + goose) were designed on the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA). The duck-specific system amplifies a 96 bp fragment from duck DNA, whereas the duck + goose system amplifies a 120 bp fragment from duck and goose DNA. The method measures PCR product accumulation through a FAM-labeled fluorogenic probe (TaqMan). The C(t) (threshold cycle) values obtained from the duck + goose system are used to normalize the ones obtained from the duck-specific system. Analysis of experimental duck/goose foie gras binary mixtures demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection and quantitation of duck in the range of 1-25%. This genetic marker can be very useful to avoid mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution of goose by duck in foie gras.

  20. Cloning and expression of Tsaiya duck liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Ko, Y H; Cheng, C H; Shen, T F; Ding, S T

    2004-11-01

    Liver basic fatty acid (FA)-binding protein (Lb-FABP) cDNA was cloned from the livers of laying Tsaiya ducks and used to generate probes for quantification of the Lb-FABP mRNA in Tsaiya ducks. The full-length Lb-FABP cDNA of the Tsaiya duck was highly homologous with that of the mallard (99%), chicken (88%), and iguana (73%). The amino acid sequence was also highly homologous to Lb-FABP found in birds and reptiles, indicating a similar function of the Tsaiya duck Lb-FABP to those species. The calculated molecular weight for the cloned duck Lb-FABP was 14,043g/mol. The Lb-FABP was highly expressed in the liver of laying Tsaiya ducks and not detectable in heart, ovary, intestine, or adipose tissues. The expression of Tsaiya duck Lb-FABP in the skeletal muscle was also detected, and the sequence was confirmed. The greater expression of the hepatic Lb-FABP in the egg-laying Tsaiya ducks than the prelaying ducks paralleled the higher FA use by the laying ducks. These results suggest that hepatic Lb-FABP may be needed for egg production when FA metabolism is high for the ducks. Feeding laying Tsaiya ducks with diets enriched with 2% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil for 2 wk significantly increased hepatic DHA content compared with in ducks fed a 2% butter basal diet. There was no effect of dietary DHA enrichment on the expression of Lb-FABP in the liver of Tsaiya ducks. The results suggest that even though the Lb-FABP may be involved in hepatic FA metabolism, the effect of individual FA on liver Lb-FABP in laying Tsaiya ducks needs to be further studied.

  1. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Duck Ovarian Follicles Infected with Duck Tembusu Virus by Label-Free LC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kaikai; Zhao, Dongmin; Liu, Yuzhuo; Liu, Qingtao; Huang, Xinmei; Yang, Jing; An, Fengjiao; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. DTMUV infection mainly results in significant decreases in egg production in egg-laying ducks within 1–2 weeks post infection. However, information on the comparative protein expression of host tissues in response to DTMUV infection is limited. In the present study, the cellular protein response to DTMUV infection in duck ovarian follicles was analyzed using nano-flow high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed 131 differentially expressed proteins, among which 53 were up regulated and 78 were down regulated. The identified proteins were involved in the regulation of essential processes such as cellular structure and integrity, RNA processing, protein biosynthesis and modification, vesicle transport, signal transduction, and mitochondrial pathway. Some selected proteins that were found to be regulated in DTMUV-infected tissues were screened by quantitative real-time PCR to examine their regulation at the transcriptional level, western blot analysis was used to validate the changes of some selected proteins on translational level. To our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the proteomic changes in duck ovarian follicles following DTMUV infection. The protein-related information obtained in this study may be useful to understand the host response to DTMUV infection and the inherent mechanism of DTMUV replication and pathogenicity. PMID:27066001

  2. The pathogenesis of duck virus enteritis in experimentally infected ducks: a quantitative time-course study using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Xuefeng, Qi; Xiaoyan, Yang; Anchun, Cheng; Mingshu, Wang; Dekang, Zhu; Renyong, Jia

    2008-06-01

    Duck virus enteritis is an acute and contagious herpesvirus infection of duck, geese and swans with high morbidity and mortality. The kinetics of viral DNA loads and immunohistochemical localization of virulent duck enteritis virus, as well as histopathological examination in various tissues of ducks following oral infection, were investigated. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in various tissues was coincident with the levels of duck enteritis virus at the various sites, suggesting that the levels of duck enteritis virus in systemic organs have a close correlation with the progression of disease. The abundance of target epithelial and lymphoid cells may contribute to the high levels of virus infection and replication in lymphoid and intestinal tissues.

  3. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Parakamawongsa, Tippawon; Premashthira, Sith; Tiensin, Thanawat; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wagner, Hans; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2006-02-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outbreaks in relation to poultry, land use, and other anthropogenic variables from the start of the second epidemic wave (July 2004-May 2005). Results demonstrate a strong association between H5N1 virus in Thailand and abundance of free-grazing ducks and, to a lesser extent, native chickens, cocks, wetlands, and humans. Wetlands used for double-crop rice production, where free-grazing duck feed year round in rice paddies, appear to be a critical factor in HPAI persistence and spread. This finding could be important for other duck-producing regions in eastern and southeastern Asian countries affected by HPAI.

  4. [Molecular genetic diversity of Fujian domestic duck breeds].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-fang; Li, Bi-chun; Ma, Yue-hui; Tang, Qing-ping; Chen, Kuan-wei; Tu, Yun-jie

    2007-02-01

    By using 28 micro-satellite markers with better polymorphism, this paper studied the genetic diversity of four Fujian provincial domestic duck breeds Jinding, Putian black, Liancheng white, and Shanma. According to the alleles frequencies, the polymorphic information content, average heterozygosity, anaqular genetic distance (DA) and Nei' s standard genetic distance (DS) for each breed were calculated. Based on DA and DS, four dendrograms were obtained by neighbor-joining (NJ) and UPGMA methods. The results showed that the average heterozygosity of the four duck breeds was 0. 5353, indicating that the protection of the genetic diversity of these breeds should be strengthened. The orders of the two types of genetic distances among the breeds were accordant, and the dendrograms were the same, reflecting that much more micro-satellite loci should be adopted to obtain more universal conclusions when the genetic diversity was analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships among the four duck breeds were in accordance with their economic types and ecological localities.

  5. Movements of flightless long-tailed ducks during wing molt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Lacroix, D.L.; Reed, J.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the movements of flightless Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during the wing molt in the near-shore lagoons of the Beaufort Sea in Alaska. Estimates of site fidelity during the 21-day flightless period ranged from 1-100%, with considerable variation among locations and within locations among years. There was no effect of low-level experimental disturbance or an underwater seismic survey on site fidelity of molting Long-tailed Ducks. Birds molting along a relatively consistent habitat gradient were more likely to move than those molting in a fragmented habitat. While flocks of birds are consistently observed in the same locations, these data suggest considerable turnover within these aggregations. These results, in conjunction with other studies, suggest that forage is relatively uniformly distributed within lagoons. We conclude that habitat selection by molting Long-tailed Ducks is likely influenced by protection from wind and associated waves.

  6. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    With the conclusion of this project, most duck nest data have been entered, but all nest-captured hen data and other breeding waterfowl data that were outside the scope of this project have still not been entered and electronically archived. Maintaining an up-to-date archive will require additional resources to archive and enter the new duck nest data each year in an iterative process. Further, data proofing should be conducted whenever possible, and also should be considered an iterative process as there was sometimes missing data that could not be filled in without more direct knowledge of specific projects. Despite these disclaimers, this duck data archive represents a massive and useful dataset to inform future research and management questions.

  7. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia

    PubMed Central

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions. PMID:21822341

  8. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Bockel, Thomas P.; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in Monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions.

  9. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  10. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses isolated from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Skerratt, Lee F; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-11-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  11. Conditioned aversion of aluminum sulfate in black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if reduced consumption of foods with elevated Al levels by black ducks (Anas rubripes) was due to taste aversion, conditioned taste aversion or malaise. Black ducks preferred a diet with 1,000 ppm Al over a control diet but ate less of a diet with 5,000 ppm Al. Prior experience with the high Al diet enhanced preference for the control diet. Changes in body weight and food consumption through time suggested that aversion to the high Al diet was a conditioned response to mild malaise.

  12. Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K. P.; McKinney, F.; Sorenson, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic constraint and inertia, i.e. limitations on future evolutionary trajectories imposed by previous adaptation, are often invoked to explain behavioural, morphological and physiological traits that defy explanation in an adaptive context. We reconstructed historical changes in male parental care behaviour in the dabbling ducks (family: Anatidae; tribe: Anatini) using a phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Male parental care is observed in many tropical and Southern hemisphere dabbling ducks but is lacking in all Northern hemisphere species. Southern hemisphere species that are very recently derived from Northern hemisphere ancestors, however, are exceptions to this general pattern. Lack of male parental care in these species can be attributed to phylogenetic constraint.

  13. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on hepatic function in the duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, J.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    1. The indocyanine green dye clearance test for hepatic function was determined in mallard ducks before and during the chronic ingestion (7 months) of representative paraffinic or aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PH). 2. No mortality or visible symptoms of toxicity occured in any of the tests. Ingestion of 4000 ppm aromatic PH produced significant increases in liver (25%), plasma clearance of indocyanine green (33%) and hepatic blood flow (30%). 3. Although the aromatics elicited a greater hepatic stress response than the paraffins, the ducks tolerated high concentrations of PH for extended periods.

  14. Population ecology and harvest of the American black duck: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusch, D.H.; Ankney, C.D.; Boyd, H.; Longcore, J.R.; Montalbano, F.; Ringelman, J.K.; Stotts, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The purpose of our review was to examine available data on population trends and current status of black ducks and trends in natality and survival and to relate these, where possible, to changes in habitat, predation, disease, contaminants, harvest, and hybridization with mallards. 2. The number of black ducks tallied in the winter survey has declined steadily over the past 30 years at an average rate of about 3%/ year. Reliability and precision of the survey are uncertain; it may not provide an adequate index to the continental population of black ducks. Breeding surveys are incomplete and sporadic, but black ducks have decreased in Ontario and increased in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec. 3. Recent declines in numbers of black ducks tallied in the winter survey are not unusual in magnitude or much different from those that have occurred among several other species of waterfowl. 4. At present, black ducks are not especially scarce relative to numbers of several other ducks in eastern North America. 5. There is no solid evidence of major decreases in quality or quantity of breeding habitat for black ducks in recent years; in some areas, habitat has improved. 6. Natural mortality of black ducks has not been well studied, but does not seem unusually high compared to other dabbling ducks. 7. Harvest rates of black ducks are similar to those of sympatric mallards as determined by banding analyses. 8. There is no strong evidence for direct effects of contaminants on black ducks, but some indirect effects through invertebrate food resources have been detected. 9. Age ratios in black ducks show no trend in the past 18 years. 10. The quality and quantity of wintering habitat for black ducks have decreased substantially in some areas. 11. Disease and other natural mortality that affect black ducks do .not occur in unusually high frequency. 12. A decline in harvest of black ducks has occurred; most of the decline has been in the United States, especially since

  15. Assessment of potential shale oil and tight sandstone gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, India, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a well performance-based geologic assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a technically recoverable mean volume of 62 million barrels of oil in shale oil reservoirs, and more than 3,700 billion cubic feet of gas in tight sandstone gas reservoirs in the Bombay and Krishna-Godavari Provinces of India. The term “provinces” refer to geologically defined units assessed by the USGS for the purposes of this report and carries no political or diplomatic connotation. Shale oil and tight sandstone gas reservoirs were evaluated in the Assam and Cauvery Provinces, but these reservoirs were not quantitatively assessed.

  16. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of DHV-1 in Pekin ducks and on the innate immune responses of ducks to infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Cuiping; Yu, Shengqing; Duan, Yunbing; Hu, Yue; Qiu, Xvsheng; Tan, Lei; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun; Ding, Chan

    2014-05-01

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) affects 1-week-old but not 3-week-old ducks, and it causes a more severe disease in the younger ducks. These differences may be partially due to the host response to DHV infection. In order to understand this difference, we characterized the pathobiology of and innate immune response to DHV infection in 1-day-old (1D) and 3-week-old (3 W) ducks. Viral RNA was detected in duck livers at 24, 36 and 72 h after inoculation with DHV at a dose of 10(3) LD50. Virus-induced pathology ranged from no clinical signs to severe disease and death, and it was more severe in the 1D ducks. Infection with DHV induced up-regulation of gene expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7, TLR3, retinoic-acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5), interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-α, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), interferon-stimulated gene 12 (ISG12), and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like gene (OASL) in the livers of 3 W ducks. Of these, IL-6, OASL and ISG12 mRNA levels were more than 100-fold higher in infected 3 W ducks than in mock-infected ducks of the same age. These genes were induced much less in infected 1D ducklings. We present evidence that a lower level of viral replication in the hepatocytes of 3 W ducks, whose basal level of cytokines is higher than that in 1D ducklings, may be related to the strong innate immunity induced. From our data, we conclude that duck age plays an important role in the pathogenicity of and innate immune responses to DHV.

  17. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  18. In vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of duck embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Schacke, M; Glück, B; Wutzler, P; Sauerbrei, A

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis B-virucidal testing of biocides in quantitative suspension tests using duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) requires primary duck embryonic hepatocytes for viral propagation. To improve the test system and availability of these cells, commercial culture plates with different growth surfaces were tested for cell cultivation and different approaches for cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension were examined. After 12 days of culture, the largest amounts of hepatocytes were grown in CellBIND and TTP plates and CellBIND surface showed the lowest tendency of monolayer detachment nearly comparable with collagen 1-coated CELLCOAT plates. For cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension, the use of growth medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (ME(2)SO), FCS supplemented with ME(2)SO or cryosafe-1 as cryoprotective agents provided the highest rates of surviving cells after thawing. The freezing-thawing process did not significantly reduce the susceptibility of hepatocytes to infection with DHBV. In conclusion, plates without collagen 1 such as CellBIND are recommended for cultivation of primary duck embryonic hepatocytes in infectivity experiments of DHBV for virucidal testing of biocides. The use of cryopreserved hepatocytes is possible when freshly isolated cells from the liver of duck embryos are not available.

  19. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A. M.; Zhang, H. X.; Chen, W.; Xia, W. G.; Ruan, D.; Wang, S.; Zheng, C. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr) levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64%) to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05). The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age. PMID:27282968

  20. Sublethal effects of chronic lead ingestion in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos) fed 1, 5, or 25 ppm lead nitrate were bled and sacrificed at 3-wk intervals. No mortality occurred, and the pathologic lesions usually associated with lead poisoning were not found. Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration did not occur. After 3-wk ducks fed 25 ppm lead exhibited a 40% inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity that persisted through 12 wk exposure. After 12 wk treatment similar enzyme inhibition was present in the ducks fed 5 ppm lead. At 3 wk there was a small accumulation of lead (less than 1 ppm) in the liver and kidneys of ducks fed 25ppm lead; no further increases occurred throughout the exposure. No significant accumulation of lead occurred the the tibiae or wing bones. Groups of ducks fed 5 and 25 ppm diets for 12 wk were placed on clean feed and examined through a 12 wk posttreatment period. After 3 wk on clean diet delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and lead concentrations in the blood had returned to pretreatment levels. Even though lead concentrations in the blood, soft organs and bone were low, a highly significant negative correlation between blood lead and blood enzyme activity was obtained. This enzyme bioassay should provide a sensitive and precise estimate for monitoring lead in the blood for waterflow.

  1. 9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and Clenny Run, with intersection of State Routes 92 and 100 beyond, Brandywine Creek State Park in background, mixed deciduous trees along top of hill - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  2. 8. View southeast, Route 100 (Montchanin Road) to left duck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View southeast, Route 100 (Montchanin Road) to left duck and large stand of old growth oak trees at back entrance to Winterthur center right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  3. Lame Ducks Can Leave on Wings that Fly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    While a "lame duck" college president may have diminished authority, he may also enjoy an unusual opportunity to move the institution forward. Outgoing presidents who pursue a substantive agenda during their final months can calm fears and second-guessing, preserve institutional momentum, and conclude their term with the satisfaction of a job well…

  4. Dioxins and furans linked to reproductive impairment in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    A wetland in central Arkansas was contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and because the area was a major waterfowl habitat, we studied the effects of the contamination on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during 1988-90. Residues in wood duck eggs, based on toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for combined compounds, ranged from 0.2 to 611 parts per trillion (ppt) wet mass (70% were the toxic isomer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tetraCDD)) and were 50 times higher in eggs from near the point source than from an uncontaminated reference site 111 km away. Nest success, hatching success, and duckling production were suppressed (P lt 0.05) at nesting sites 9 and 17 km downstream, as was hatching success 58 km downstream. Egg TEFs were inversely correlated (P lt 0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. In addition, teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting site nearest the point source. The threshold range of toxicity (based on TEFs) where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks was gt 20-50 ppt. Wood ducks were sensitive to dioxin and furan contamination, and we recommend it as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  5. Tembusu virus infection in Cherry Valley ducks: the effect of age at infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, X Y; Diao, Y X; Wang, J; Liu, X; Lu, A L; Zhang, L; Ge, P P; Hao, D M

    2014-01-10

    Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 5 day, 2 week and 5 week of age were intranasally infected with the WFCL strain of Tembusu virus (TMUV) to investigate the effect of host age on the outcome of TMUV infection. For each age group, clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, viral copy numbers in tissues and serum neutralizing antibody titers were recorded. Age-related differences in the resistance to TMUV infection were observed with younger ducks being more susceptible. Some ducks infected at 5 day and 2 week of age developed severe clinical signs, including severe neurological dysfunction and death. However, subclinical signs and no mortality were observed in ducks infected at 5 week of age. A decline in the severity of gross and microscopic lesions was observed as ducks mature. Systemic infections were established in the three age groups post challenge. Higher viral copy numbers in the tissues, especially in vital organs such as the brain and the heart, were developed in the ducks infected at 5 day of age than older ducks, correlating with the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the tissues. Furthermore, ducks infected at 5 week of age developed significantly higher serum neutralizing antibody titers than ducks infected at 5 day of age as determined by serum neutralization test. Therefore, age-related differences in the resistance to TMUV infection should be considered when studying the pathogenicity, pathogenesis, formulation of the vaccination and therapy strategies of TMUV infection in ducks.

  6. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  7. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  8. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: a disease connection

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John. Y; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape. PMID:27695384

  9. Pasteurella multocida-associated sinusitis in khaki Campbell ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Songserm, Thaweesak; Viriyarampa, A Srisamai; Sae-Heng, Namdee; Chamsingh, Wilairat; Bootdee, Orawan; Pathanasophon, Pornpen

    2003-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida group B, serotype 3, was isolated from sinusitis-affected khaki Campbell ducks. To study the role of P. multocida in sinusitis, commercial khaki Campbell ducks were experimentally infected with P. multocida alone or combined with Escherichia coli. In Expt. 1, experimental ducks were infected with P. multocida intranasally or ocularly. A comparison was done by intranasal inoculation with pooled nasal discharge from the affected ducks or phosphate-buffered saline. The ducks intranasally inoculated with the nasal discharge or P. multocida showed sinusitis. In Expt. 2, E. coli alone or a combination of P. multocida and E. coli was intranasally inoculated into experimental ducks. The ducks intranasally inoculated with the combination of P. multocida and E. coli had sinusitis, the same as found in the field but less severe than that of the field cases. Pasteurella multocida was already present in litter/floor of duck farms. We concluded that P. multocida played a role in induction of sinusitis. However, the sinusitis in ducks may be initiated by poor management, especially in the brooding period of ducks.

  10. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stevenson, Mark; Yulianto, Didik; Priyono, Walujo; Meers, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  11. SURVEY FOR WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN WILD DUCKS, 2004-06, USA.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Jankowski, Mark D; Goldberg, Diana; Franson, J Christian

    2016-04-28

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004-06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon ( Anas americana ), Mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos ), and Northern Pintail ( Anas acuta ) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks ( Aix sponsa ) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  12. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Stevenson, Mark; Yulianto, Didik; Priyono, Walujo; Meers, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised. PMID:27019344

  13. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  14. Temporal changes of populations and trophic relationships of wintering diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Kidwell, David M.; Osenton, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Population and trophic relationships among diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay are diverse and complex as they include five species of bay ducks (Aythya spp.), nine species of seaducks (Tribe Mergini), and the Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Here we considered the relationships between population changes and diet over the past half century to assess the importance of prey changes to wintering waterfowl in the Bay. Food habits of 643 diving ducks collected from Chesapeake Bay during 1999-2006 were determined by analyses of their gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard contents and compared to historical data (1885-1979) of 1,541 diving ducks. Aerial waterfowl surveys, in general, suggest that six species of seaducks were more commonly located in the meso- to polyhaline areas of the Bay, whereas five species of bay ducks and Ruddy Ducks were in the oligo- to mesohaline areas. Seaducks fed on a molluscan diet of Hooked Mussel (Ischadium recurvum), Amethyst Gemclam (Gemma gemma), and Dwarf Surfclarn (Mulinia lateralis). Bay ducks and Ruddy Ducks fed more on Baltic Macoma (Macoma balthica), the adventive Atlantic Rangia (Rangia cuneata), and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Mergansers were found over the widest salinity range in the Bay, probably because of their piscivorous diet. Each diving duck species appears to fill a unique foraging niche, although there is much overlap of selected prey. When current food habits are compared to historic data, only the Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) has had major diet changes, although SAV now accounts for less food volume for all diving duck species, except the Redhead (Aythya americana). Understanding the trophic-habitat relationships of diving ducks in coastal wintering areas will give managers a better understanding of the ecological effects of future environmental changes. Intensive restoration efforts on SAV and oyster beds should greatly benefit diving duck populations.

  15. A possible K-T boundary bolide impact site offshore near Bombay and triggering of rapid Deccan volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, J. G.; Agrawal, P. K.; Pandey, O. P.; Singh, A. P.

    1993-03-01

    The temporal coincidence of a major biological mass extinction (including dinosaurs), the well-known iridium excess anomaly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary and the eruption of Deccan flood basalts at about 65 Ma has aroused global interest among geologists and biologists. It is widely debated whether the mass extinction and iridium anomaly are due to an asteroid impact or the massive outpouring of extensive Deccan volcanism. An oval shaped unusual positive gravity anomaly (10 000 km 2 in area) near Bombay has attracted our attention during a search for an impact site near Deccan basalts. A detailed gravity interpretation indicates the presence of a fossil conduit structure of 12 km height extending from a shallow crust-mantle boundary (at 18 km) to an approximate depth of 6 km from the surface. The conduit structure, with a maximum diameter of about 35 km at its base, may originate from cracking of a weak pre-Deccan trap shallow upwarped mantle. The structure may have been caused by a bolide impact which triggered the eruption of massive flood basalts (Deccan traps) on the western margin of the fast-moving Indian plate. An impact in this locality can explain the sudden detachment of the arcuate Seychelles block from India as well as the large-scale reorganisation of plate boundaries in the Indian Ocean. Our hypothesis of impact-triggered volcanism at 65 Ma advocates a bimodal cause for the mass extinction at the K-T boundary. Extraordinary geothermal and structural conditions of the nearby region are also discussed as circumstantial evidence to support the twin-cause mechanism by weakened features and the presence of partial melt at subcrustal depth.

  16. A chaotic model for the plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    The plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century was detected in 1896. One year before, an Advisory Committee had been appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal Society, and the Lister Institute. This Committee made numerous investigations and gathered a large panel of data including the number of people attacked and died from the plague, records of rat and flea populations, as well as meteorological records of temperature and humidity [1]. The global modeling technique [2] aims to obtain low dimensional models able to simulate the observed cycles from time series. As far as we know, this technique has been tried only to one case of epidemiological analysis (the whooping cough infection) based on a discrete formulation [3]. In the present work, the continuous time formulation of this technique is used to analyze the time evolution of the plague epidemic from this data set. One low dimensional model (three variables) is obtained exhibiting a limit cycle of period-5. A chaotic behavior could be derived from this model by tuning the model parameters. It provides a strong argument for a dynamical behavior that can be approximated by low dimensional deterministic equations. This model also provides an empirical argument for chaos in epidemics. [1] Verjbitski D. T., Bannerman W. B. & Kápadiâ R. T., 1908. Reports on Plague Investigations in India (May,1908), The Journal of Hygiene, 8(2), 161 -308. [2] Mangiarotti S., Coudret R., Drapeau L. & Jarlan L., 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E, 86(4), 046205. [3] Boudjema G. & Cazelles B., 2003. Extraction of nonlinear dynamics from short and noisy time series. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 12, 2051-2069.

  17. Identification and survey of a novel avian coronavirus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Qian; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies including DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. The timely identification of novel viruses using NGS technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. In this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (CoV), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), using RNA-Seq. The novel duck-specific CoV was a potential novel species within the genus Gammacoronavirus, as indicated by sequences of three regions in the viral 1b gene. We also performed a survey of CoVs in domestic fowls in China using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the viral nucleocapsid (N) gene. A total of 102 CoV positives were identified through the survey. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral N sequences suggested that CoVs in domestic fowls have diverged into several region-specific or host-specific clades or subclades in the world, and IBVs can infect ducks, geese and pigeons, although they mainly circulate in chickens. Moreover, this study provided novel data supporting the notion that some host-specific CoVs other than IBVs circulate in ducks, geese and pigeons, and indicated that the novel duck-specific CoV identified through RNA-Seq in this study is genetically closer to some CoVs circulating in wild water fowls. Taken together, this study shed new insight into the diversity, distribution, evolution and control of avian CoVs.

  18. Identification and Survey of a Novel Avian Coronavirus in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qian; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies including DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. The timely identification of novel viruses using NGS technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. In this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (CoV), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), using RNA-Seq. The novel duck-specific CoV was a potential novel species within the genus Gammacoronavirus, as indicated by sequences of three regions in the viral 1b gene. We also performed a survey of CoVs in domestic fowls in China using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the viral nucleocapsid (N) gene. A total of 102 CoV positives were identified through the survey. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral N sequences suggested that CoVs in domestic fowls have diverged into several region-specific or host-specific clades or subclades in the world, and IBVs can infect ducks, geese and pigeons, although they mainly circulate in chickens. Moreover, this study provided novel data supporting the notion that some host-specific CoVs other than IBVs circulate in ducks, geese and pigeons, and indicated that the novel duck-specific CoV identified through RNA-Seq in this study is genetically closer to some CoVs circulating in wild water fowls. Taken together, this study shed new insight into the diversity, distribution, evolution and control of avian CoVs. PMID:24023656

  19. Postcatastrophe population dynamics and density dependence of an endemic island duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seavy, N.E.; Reynolds, M.H.; Link, W.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) are restricted to approximately 9 km2 in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. To evaluate the importance of density dependence for Laysan ducks, we conducted a Bayesian analysis to estimate the parameters of a Gompertz model and the magnitude of process variation and observation error based on the fluctuations in Laysan duck abundance on Laysan Island from 1994 to 2007. This model described a stationary distribution for the population at carrying capacity that fluctuates around a long-term mean of 456 ducks and is between 316 to 636 ducks 95% of the time. This range of expected variability can be used to identify changes in population size that warn of catastrophic events. Density-dependent population dynamics may explain the recovery of Laysan duck from catastrophic declines and allow managers to identify population monitoring thresholds.

  20. Subacute toxic effects of dietary T-2 toxin in young mallard ducks.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, M A; Wobeser, G A

    1983-01-01

    Young Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing purified T-2 toxin at levels of 20 or 30 ppm for two or three weeks. Ingestion of T-2 toxin was associated with reduced weight gain and delayed development of adult plumage. Affected ducks developed caseonecrotic plaques throughout the upper alimentary tract, especially in oropharynx and ventriculus. Several ducks also developed severe ulcerative, proliferative esophagitis and proventriculitis. Generalized atrophy of all lymphoid tissues consistently occurred. The manifestations of T-2 mycotoxicosis in Mallard ducks were mostly attributable to irritant toxicity to the alimentary mucosa. The T-2 toxin caused neither hematopoietic suppression nor a hemorrhagic syndrome in ducks. These alimentary lesions of T-2 mycotoxicosis in ducks do not resemble diseases of native waterfowl presently being recognized in routine surveillance of waterfowl mortality in Saskatchewan. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6883185

  1. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.

  2. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  3. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel.

  4. Vaccination of ducks with a whole-cell vaccine expressing duck hepatitis B virus core antigen elicits antiviral immune responses that enable rapid resolution of de novo infection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren S; Halpern, Michael; Kotlarski, Ieva; Jilbert, Allison R

    2006-05-10

    As a first step in developing immuno-therapeutic vaccines for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, we examined the ability of a whole-cell vaccine, expressing the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core antigen (DHBcAg), to target infected cells leading to the resolution of de novo DHBV infections. Three separate experiments were performed. In each experiment, ducks were vaccinated at 7 and 14 days of age with primary duck embryonic fibroblasts (PDEF) that had been transfected 48 h earlier with plasmid DNA expressing DHBcAg with and without the addition of anti-DHBcAg (anti-DHBc) antibodies. Control ducks were injected with either 0.7% NaCl or non-transfected PDEF. The ducks were then challenged at 18 days of age by intravenous inoculation with DHBV (5 x 10(8) viral genome equivalents). Liver biopsies obtained on day 4 post-challenge demonstrated that vaccination did not prevent infection of the liver as similar numbers of infected hepatocytes were detected in all vaccinated and control ducks. However, analysis of liver tissue obtained 9 or more days post-challenge revealed that 9 out of 11 of the PDEF-DHBcAg vaccinated ducks and 8 out of 11 ducks vaccinated with PDEF-DHBcAg plus anti-DHBc antibodies had rapidly resolved the DHBV infection with clearance of infected cells. In contrast, 10 out of 11 of the control unvaccinated ducks developed chronic DHBV infection. In conclusion, vaccination of ducks with a whole-cell PDEF vaccine expressing DHBcAg elicited immune responses that induced a rapid resolution of DHBV infection. The results establish that chronic infection can be prevented via the vaccine-mediated induction of a core-antigen-specific immune response.

  5. Evaluation of an aerial survey to estimate abundance of wintering ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, A.T.; Dinsmore, S.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have successfully designed aerial surveys that provided precise estimates of wintering populations of ducks over large physiographic regions, yet few conservation agencies have adopted these probability-based sampling designs for their surveys. We designed and evaluated an aerial survey to estimate abundance of wintering mallards {Anas platyrhynchos), dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini) other than mallards, diving ducks (tribes Aythini, Mergini, and Oxyurini), and total ducks in western Mississippi, USA. We used design-based sampling of fixed width transects to estimate population indices (I??), and we used model-based methods to correct population indices for visibility bias and estimate population abundance (N??) for 14 surveys during winters 2002-2004. Correcting for bias increased estimates of mallards, other dabbling ducks, and diving ducks by an average of 40-48% among all surveys and contributed 48-61% of the estimated variance of N??. However, mean-squared errors were consistently less for N?? than I??. Estimates of N?? met our goals for precision (CV ??? 15%) in 7 of 14 surveys for mallards, 5 surveys for other dabbling ducks, no surveys for diving ducks, and 10 surveys for total ducks. Generally, we estimated more mallards and other dabbling ducks in mid- and late winter (Jan-Feb) than early winter (Nov-Dec) and determined that population indices from the late 1980s were nearly 3 times greater than those from our study. We developed a method to display relative densities of ducks spatially as an additional application of survey data. Our study advanced methods of estimating abundance of wintering waterfowl, and we recommend this design for continued monitoring of wintering ducks in western Mississippi and similar physiographic regions.

  6. Evaluation of an aerial survey to estimate abundance of wintering ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, A.T.; Dinsmore, S.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have successfully designed aerial surveys that provided precise estimates of wintering populations of ducks over large physiographic regions, yet few conservation agencies have adopted these probability-based sampling designs for their surveys. We designed and evaluated an aerial survey to estimate abundance of wintering mallards {Anas platyrhynchos), dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini) other than mallards, diving ducks (tribes Aythini, Mergini, and Oxyurini), and total ducks in western Mississippi, USA. We used design-based sampling of fixed width transects to estimate population indices (I?), and we used model-based methods to correct population indices for visibility bias and estimate population abundance (N?) for 14 surveys during winters 2002-2004. Correcting for bias increased estimates of mallards, other dabbling ducks, and diving ducks by an average of 40-48% among all surveys and contributed 48-61% of the estimated variance of N?. However, mean-squared errors were consistently less for N? than I?. Estimates of N? met our goals for precision (CV < 15%) in 7 of 14 surveys for mallards, 5 surveys for other dabbling ducks, no surveys for diving ducks, and 10 surveys for total ducks. Generally, we estimated more mallards and other dabbling ducks in mid- and late winter (Jan-Feb) than early winter (Nov-Dec) and determined that population indices from the late 1980s were nearly 3 times greater than those from our study. We developed a method to display relative densities of ducks spatially as an additional application of survey data. Our study advanced methods of estimating abundance of wintering waterfowl, and we recommend this design for continued monitoring of wintering ducks in western Mississippi and similar physiographic regions.

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in ducks: a review.

    PubMed

    Adzitey, Frederick; Huda, Nurul; Ali, Gulam Rusul Rahmat

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes are important bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis. The consumption of poultry meat and their products is considered as a major and leading source of human infection. While surveys of chicken meat and products, and its association with foodborne pathogens are widely available, such information on ducks is scarce. This survey examines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes isolated from ducks. Data obtained from key surveys are summarized. The observed prevalence of these pathogens and their resistance to various antibiotics varies from one study to the other. The mean prevalence (and range means from individual surveys) are duck 53.0% (0.0-83.3%), duck meat and parts 31.6% (12.5-45.8%), and duck rearing and processing environment 94.4% (92.0-96.7%) for Campylobacter spp. For Salmonella spp., the mean prevalence data are duck 19.9% (3.3-56.9%), duck meat and parts 28.4% (4.4-75.6%), duck egg, shell, and content 17.5% (0-4.17%), and duck rearing and processing environment 32.5% (10.5-82.6%). Studies on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes in ducks are by far very rare compared to Campylobacter and Salmonella, although ducks have been noted to be a potential source for these foodborne pathogens. From our survey, ducks were more frequently contaminated with Campylobacter than Salmonella. Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. also exhibited varying resistance to multiple antibiotics.

  8. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  9. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  10. Food use and nutrition of black ducks nesting in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.; Owen, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on 32 adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) collected during the nesting seasons of 1974-76, the proportion of macro invertebrates (as aggregate [average] percent of dry weight) in the diet of males, egg-laying females, and postlaying females was 60, 75, and 55%, respectivey. Sample sizes were small, and the differences associated with sex and reproductive condition were not signficant. Molluscs, Isopods, ephemeropteran and odonate nymphs, and coleopteran, trichopteran, and dipteran larvae contributed 74% of the dry weight and 64% of the gross energy ingested. Data from proximate analyses of 9 invertebrate and 9 plant foods were combined with food habits data to estimate the nutrients available to breeding hens. We concluded that females with access to an adequate amount of natural food including invertebrates and the seeds and tubers of aquatic plants would obtain sufficient minerals, protein, and energy for reproduction. Food quality does not appear to limit the density of black ducks nesting in Maine.

  11. Development and application of an indirect immunoperoxidase assay for the detection of Duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus antigen in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Shen, Chanjuan; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Zhang, Na; Zhou, Yi; Zhu, Dekang; Jia, Renyong; Luo, Qihui; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2010-01-01

    An improved indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) was developed to detect antigens of Duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus (DSHDV) in paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). This technique used an indirect streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase labeling system with polyclonal antiserum developed against purified DSHDV antigens. Specimens from the experimentally inoculated Pekin ducks with DSHDV and archived paraffin-embedded tissues from natural cases of Duck viral swollen head hemorrhagic disease (DVSHD) were examined by clinical and histological criteria. Positive staining was most widely observed in the cytoplasm of the following organs: immune, digestive, and urinary organs, heart, lung, and trachea, which corresponded to the intracellular distribution of reovirus. The DSHDV antigens were first detected at 4 hr postinoculation in the bursa of Fabricius of infected ducks. Therefore, this method was suitable for the early diagnosis of DVSHD. Immunoperoxidase staining was not present in tissues and organs of sham-inoculated ducks (negative control). The IPA developed in the current study is a convenient, sensitive, and specific means of detecting DSHDV and is applicable to routine diagnosis, retrospective studies, and prospective studies of DSHDV infection in ducks.

  12. The vaccine efficacy of recombinant duck enteritis virus expressing secreted E with or without PrM proteins of duck tembusu virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Jinxiong; Jiang, Yongping; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Qimeng; Wu, Li; He, Xijun; Chen, Hualan

    2014-09-15

    A newly emerged tembusu virus that causes egg-drop has been affecting ducks in China since 2010. Currently, no vaccine is available for this disease. A live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine has been used routinely to control lethal DEV in ducks since the 1960s. Here, we constructed two recombinant DEVs by transfecting overlapping fosmid DNAs. One virus, rDEV-TE, expresses the truncated form of the envelope glycoprotein (TE) of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), and the other virus, rDEV-PrM/TE, expresses both the TE and pre-membrane proteins (PrM). Animal study demonstrated that both recombinant viruses induced measurable anti-DTMUV neutralizing antibodies in ducks. After two doses of recombinant virus, rDEV-PrM/TE completely protected ducks from DTMUV challenge, whereas rDEV-TE only conferred partial protection. These results demonstrate that recombinant DEV expressing the TE and pre-membrane proteins is protective and can serve as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  13. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Rudis, Deborah D.; Roffe, Thomas J.; Robinson-Wilson, Everett

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 μg/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  14. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region.

    PubMed Central

    Henny, C J; Rudis, D D; Roffe, T J; Robinson-Wilson, E

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsqaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stellei) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 micrograms/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants. PMID:7556023

  15. Translocation and disease monitoring of wild laysan ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Work, Thierry M.

    2007-01-01

    The Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis), also known as the Laysan teal because of its small size, is a critically endangered waterfowl species that once occurred widely across the Hawaiian Archipelago. For the past 150 years, however, it was restricted to a single population on Laysan, a 4-square-kilometer (1.5-square-mile) island with a hypersaline shallow lake. Laysan is part of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge in Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. 

  16. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  17. Breeding biology and habitat use of black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, R.; Longcore, J.; Ringelman, J.; Reinecke, K.; Hendrix, K.

    1989-01-01

    Forested wetlands are Important habitats for black ducks nesting in the Northeast. Invertebrates, with their high protein content, are primary foods of females during egg laying and for rapidly growing ducklings. Beaver-created and modified wetlands provide excellent habitat for feeding as well as protective cover. As these wetlands age, their quality declines after 7-10 years, and waterfowl use diminishes. Wetland availability and quality should be considered when managing beaver.

  18. Selenium accumulation in sea ducks wintering at Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Michael L; Badzinski, Shannon S; Petrie, Scott A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2010-04-01

    Numbers of wintering sea ducks, including buffleheads (Bucephala albeola; BUFF), common goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; COGO), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; LTDU), increased substantially at Lake Ontario after Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) colonized the Great Lakes. Invertebrates, including Dreissenid mussels, are major diving duck prey items that can transfer some trace elements, such as selenium (Se) to higher trophic levels. Se can be problematic for waterfowl and it often has been detected at elevated levels in organisms using the Great Lakes. There are, however, few data on hepatic Se concentrations in sea ducks, particularly during the winter at Lake Ontario. In this study, we evaluated interspecific differences and temporal trends in hepatic Se concentrations among BUFF (n = 77), COGO (n = 77), and LTDU (n = 79) wintering at Lake Ontario. All three species accumulated Se throughout winter, but COGO did so at a higher rate than did BUFF and LTDU. Overall, Se concentrations were higher in LTDU [mean = 22.7; 95% CI = 20.8-24.8 microg/g dry weight (dw)] than in BUFF ([mean = 12.3; 95% CI = 11.6-13.1 microg/g dw) and COGO ([mean = 12.0; 95% CI = 10.7-3.5 microg/g dw) throughout the winter. Se concentrations were deemed elevated (>33 microg/g dw) in 0%, 5%, and 19% of BUFF, COGO, and LTDU, respectively. Presently there are no data on Se toxicity end points for these species, so it is unclear how acquiring concentrations of these magnitudes affect their short- and long-term health or reproduction.

  19. Altered avoidance behavior of young black ducks fed cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 4 or 40 ppm cadmium as cadmium chloride. One-week-old ducklings that had been fed thc same dietary concentrations of cadmium as had their parents were tested for avoidance of a fright stimulus. Ducklings fed 4 ppm cadmium ran significantly farther from the stimulus than did controls or ducklings fed 40 ppm cadmium. Such an alteration in behavior could have harmful effects on wild birds.

  20. A cable-chain device for locating duck nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kirsch, L.M.; Ball, I.J.

    1969-01-01

    A cable-chain device towed between two vehicles was developed for locating occupied duck nests in brushy, herbaceous, and grassy cover types. Twenty-three of 29 previously located gadwall (Anas strepera) and blue-winged teal (A. discors) hens were flushed from their nests with the drag for an efficiency of 79 percent. Eighty acres of nesting cover can be searched in 4-6 hours by the method described.

  1. Meiotic recombination analysis in female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, M I; Del Priore, L

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic recombination in female ducks was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein, a mismatch repair protein of mature recombination nodules. In total, 6820 crossovers were scored along the autosomal synaptonemal complexes in 122 meiotic nuclei. From this analysis we predict that the female map length of the duck is 2845 cM, with a genome wide recombination rate of 2 cM/Mb. MLH1-focus mapping along the six largest bivalents shows regional variations of recombination frequencies that can be linked to differences in chromosome morphology. From this MLH1 mapping it can be inferred that distally located markers will appear more separated in genetic maps than physically equidistant markers located near the centromeres on bivalents 1 and 2. Instead, markers at interstitial positions on the acrocentric bivalents 3-6 will appear more tightly linked than expected on the basis of their physical distance because recombination is comparatively lower at the mid region of these chromosomes. The present results provide useful information to complement linkage mapping in ducks and extend previous knowledge about the variation of recombination rates among domestic Galloanserae.

  2. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) linkage mapping by AFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Rouvier, Roger; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wu, Chean-Ping; Huang, Hsiu-Lin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2009-03-17

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with multicolored fluorescent molecular markers was used to analyze duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genomic DNA and to construct the first AFLP genetic linkage map. These markers were developed and genotyped in 766 F2 individuals from six families from a cross between two different selected duck lines, brown Tsaiya and Pekin. Two hundred and ninety-six polymorphic bands (64% of all bands) were detected using 18 pairs of fluorescent TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. Each primer set produced a range of 7 to 29 fragments in the reactions, and generated on average 16.4 polymorphic bands. The AFLP linkage map included 260 co-dominant markers distributed in 32 linkage groups. Twenty-one co-dominant markers were not linked with any other marker. Each linkage group contained three to 63 molecular markers and their size ranged between 19.0 cM and 171.9 cM. This AFLP linkage map provides important information for establishing a duck chromosome map, for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping) and for breeding applications.

  3. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) linkage mapping by AFLP fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chang-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Rouvier, Roger; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wu, Chean-Ping; Huang, Hsiu-Lin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2009-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with multicolored fluorescent molecular markers was used to analyze duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genomic DNA and to construct the first AFLP genetic linkage map. These markers were developed and genotyped in 766 F2 individuals from six families from a cross between two different selected duck lines, brown Tsaiya and Pekin. Two hundred and ninety-six polymorphic bands (64% of all bands) were detected using 18 pairs of fluorescent TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. Each primer set produced a range of 7 to 29 fragments in the reactions, and generated on average 16.4 polymorphic bands. The AFLP linkage map included 260 co-dominant markers distributed in 32 linkage groups. Twenty-one co-dominant markers were not linked with any other marker. Each linkage group contained three to 63 molecular markers and their size ranged between 19.0 cM and 171.9 cM. This AFLP linkage map provides important information for establishing a duck chromosome map, for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping) and for breeding applications. PMID:19291328

  4. Efficient strategy for constructing duck enteritis virus-based live attenuated vaccine against homologous and heterologous H5N1 avian influenza virus and duck enteritis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong; Hu, Yong; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Wei; Cao, Hangzhou; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-04-16

    Duck is susceptible to many pathogens, such as duck hepatitis virus, duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in particular. With the significant role of duck in the evolution of H5N1 HPAIV, control and eradication of H5N1 HPAIV in duck through vaccine immunization is considered an effective method in minimizing the threat of a pandemic outbreak. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against these pathogens should be determined. In this study, the DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1, and its potential as a polyvalent vaccine was evaluated. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the gB and UL26 gene junction of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The HA gene of A/duck/Hubei/xn/2007 (H5N1) was inserted into the C-KCE genome via the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) to generate the recombinant vector pBAC-C-KCE-HA. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-HA was developed by eliminating the BAC backbone. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA induced both the cross-reactive antibodies and T cell response against H5. Moreover, C-KCE-HA-immunized ducks provided rapid and long-lasting protection against homologous and heterologous HPAIV H5N1 and DEV clinical signs, death, and primary viral replication. In conclusion, our BAC-C-KCE is a promising platform for developing a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine.

  5. A duck enteritis virus-vectored bivalent live vaccine provides fast and complete protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-11-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 10(6) PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks.

  6. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  7. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus in Ruddy ducks and Lesser Scaup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV) has not been characterized in numerous duck species, especially diving ducks, some of which migrate across the continental U.S. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N2 AIV was characterized in two diving duck species, Ruddy ...

  8. The effect of NS1 gene exchange on the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused only mild respiratory infections in ducks. Since then, new viruses have emerged that cause systemic disease and high mortality in ducks and other waterfowl. Studies on HPAI virus pathogenicity in ducks have been limited and t...

  9. The role of NS protein in the pathogenicity of HPAI H5N1 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until 2002, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses caused no disease or only mild respiratory infections in ducks. Since then, new viruses have emerged that cause systemic disease and high mortality in ducks and other waterfowl. Studies on HPAI virus pathogenicity in ducks have been...

  10. Outcome of aggressive interactions between American black ducks and mallards during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Longcore, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) numbers have declined during the past several decades, while mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have expanded their range eastward. Competitive exclusion of black ducks from wetlands by mallards has been proposed as a principal cause of the decline. We studied a sympatric population of black ducks and mallards in Maine during the early breeding season to document behavior and interactions. We observed 832 aggressive interactions; most (72%) were between members of the same species. When a choice was available, both species interacted more often with conspecifics than with the other species (P < 0.028). On wetlands that both species occupied simultaneously, numbers of interspecific interactions initiated by each species were similar (P = 0.47). The proportion of won (initiator displaces recipient of attack), lost (initiator displaced), and ?no change? outcomes of these interactions were different (P < 0.0001). Black ducks displaced mallards during 87.2%, lost none, and no change occurred during 12.8% of the interactions they initiated with mallards. Mallards displaced black ducks during 63.3%, were displaced by the black duck during 15%, and no change occurred during 21.7% of the interactions they initiated with black ducks. Displacement from wetlands was rare (38 of 229 interspecific interactions) and was equal between species. Mallards were neither more aggressive than nor behaviorally superior to black ducks.

  11. Scavenging ducks and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza, Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Wibawa, Hendra; Morton, John; Usman, Tri Bhakti; Junaidi, Akhmad; Meers, Joanne

    2010-08-01

    In Java, Indonesia, during March 2007-March 2008, 96 farms with scavenging ducks that were not vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were monitored bimonthly. Bird-level (prevalence among individual birds) H5 seroprevalence was 2.6% for ducks and 0.5% for chickens in contact with ducks. At least 1 seropositive bird was detected during 19.5% and 2.0% of duck- and chicken-flock visits, respectively. Duck flocks were 12.4x more likely than chicken flocks to have seropositive birds. During 21.4% of farm visits, duck was H5 seropositive when all sampled in-contact chickens were seronegative. Subtype H5 virus was detected during 2.5% of duck-flock visits and 1.5% of chicken-flock visits. When deaths from HPAI infection occurred, H5 virus shedding occurred in apparently healthy birds on 68.8% of farms. Of 180 poultry deaths investigated, 43.9% were attributed to H5 virus. These longitudinal study results indicate that ducks are a source of infection for chickens and, potentially, for humans.

  12. Determinants of pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in domestic ducks has increased over time with some viruses producing 100% mortality in very short time. The determinants of pathogenic...

  13. Avian influenza virus-induced regulation of duck fibroblast gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have been non-pathogenic in ducks causing no disease or mild respiratory infections. However, in 2002, new viruses emerged causing systemic disease and death. To better understand the differences in pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in ducks, we in...

  14. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  15. Effects of ACTH, capture, and short term confinement on glucocorticoid concentrations in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsson, P.B.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Atkinson, S.; Mashburn, K.L.; Tuomi, P.A.; Esler, Daniel; Mulcahy, D.M.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about baseline concentrations of adrenal hormones and hormonal responses to stress in sea ducks, although significant population declines documented in several species suggest that sea ducks are exposed to increased levels of environmental stress. Such declines have been observed in geographically distinct harlequin duck populations. We performed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge to evaluate adrenal function and characterize corticosterone concentrations in captive harlequin ducks and investigated the effects of capture, surgery, and short term confinement on corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks. Harlequin ducks responded to the ACTH challenge with an average three-fold increase in serum corticosterone concentration approximately 90??min post injection, and a four- to five-fold increase in fecal glucocorticoid concentration 2 to 4??h post injection. Serum corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks increased within min of capture and elevated levels were found for several hours post capture, indicating that surgery and confinement maintain elevated corticosterone concentrations in this species. Mean corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks held in temporary captivity were similar to the maximum response levels during the ACTH challenge in captive birds. However, large variation among individuals was observed in responses of wild birds, and we found additional evidence suggesting that corticosterone responses varied between hatch year and after hatch year birds. ?? 2008.

  16. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-03

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from <0.0005 to 0.019 mg/kg. The residue levels of the fat, intestine, and tongue were obviously higher than those of the meat and other edible tissues. The transfer factors of all duck commodities were from 0.0001 to 0.0049 among different contamination levels, which indicated that chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  17. Evidence for Vertical Transmission of Novel Duck-Origin Goose Parvovirus-Related Parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Tang, Y; Dou, Y; Zheng, X; Diao, Y

    2016-06-01

    In 2015, novel duck-origin goose parvovirus-related parvovirus (N-GPV) infection progressively appeared in commercial Cherry Valley duck flocks in North China. Diseased ducks were observed to have beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). A previous study showed that a high seropositive rate for N-GPV indicated a latent infection in most breeder duck flocks. To investigate this possibility in hatching eggs collected from N-GPV-infected breeder ducks, 120 eggs were collected at various stages of embryonic development for viral DNA detection and an N-GPV-specific antibody test. N-GPV DNA was present in nine hatching eggs, eleven duck embryo and eight newly hatched ducklings. Of the newly hatched ducklings, 58.33% (21/36) were seropositive. Further, two isolates were obtained from a 12-day-old duck embryo and a newly hatched duckling. N-GPV infection did not reduce the fertilization rate and hatchability. These results indicate possible vertical transmission of N-GPV and suggest that it may be transmitted from breeder ducks to ducklings in ovo.

  18. Sentinel model for influenza A virus monitoring in free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Jairak, Waleemas; Prakairungnamthip, Duangduean; Bunpapong, Napawan; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can cause influenza in birds and mammals. In Thailand, free-grazing ducks are known IAV reservoirs and can spread viruses through frequent movements in habitats they share with wild birds. In this study, the sentinel model for IAV monitoring was conducted over 4 months in two free-grazing duck flocks. IAV subtypes H4N6 (n=1) and H3N8 (n=5) were isolated from sentinel ducks at the ages of 13 and 15 weeks. Clinical signs of depression and ocular discharge were observed in the infected ducks. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic characterization of the isolated IAVs indicated that all Thai IAVs were clustered in the Eurasian lineage and pose low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. Serological analysis found that antibodies against IAVs could be detected in the ducks since 9-weeks-old. In summary, our results indicate that the sentinel model can be used for IAV monitoring in free-grazing duck flocks. Since free-grazing ducks are potential reservoirs and transmitters of IAVs, routine IAV surveillance in free-grazing duck flocks can be beneficial for influenza prevention and control strategies.

  19. 78 FR 14413 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK... of the vessel LUCKY DUCK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``The vessel is to be operated as...

  20. Integration of Research with Long-Term Monitoring: Breeding Wood Ducks on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennamer, R.A.; Hepp, G.R.

    2000-10-01

    In 1981, long-term monitoring of breeding wood ducks was initiated. Females were marked and recaptured for 15 years and annual population parameters were developed. Precise parameter estimates were possible due to high capture rates. The results contribute to the long-term understanding of wood duck populations.

  1. Accumulation and loss of arsenic and boron, alone and in combination, in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.; Whitworth, M.R.; Olsen, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    Study was conducted at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center from June to October 1987. Adult mallard ducks were exposed to dietary concentrations of arsenic as sodium arsenate, boron as boric acid, or both; tissue accumulation and loss rates were estimated when the ducks were returned to uncontaminated food.

  2. Pathological and epidemiological significance of goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Corrand, Léni; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Albaric, Olivier; Etievant, Mélanie; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2011-08-01

    Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the viral agent of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese, a lethal disease of goslings. It was recently shown that GHPV can also be detected in Muscovy and mule ducks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the pathobiology of GHPV in ducks. In the first experiment, field isolates of GHPV from Muscovy or mule ducks were fully sequenced and compared with goose GHPV. These duck isolates were then used to inoculate 1-day-old goslings. Typical clinical signs and lesions of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese were reproduced, indicating that "duck-GHPV" isolates are virulent in geese. In the second experiment, 1-day-old and 21-day-old Muscovy ducklings were infected by a reference GHPV strain. In both cases, neither clinical signs nor histopathological lesions were observed. However, the virus was detected in cloacal bursae and sera, and serological responses were detected at 12 days post infection. These findings suggest firstly that one common genotype of GHPV circulates among ducks and geese, and secondly that ducks may be infected by GHPV but show no pathologic evidence of infection, whereas geese express clinical signs. GHPV infection should therefore be considered as being carried in ducks and of epidemiological relevance in cases of contact with goose flocks.

  3. Epidemiologic Investigation of Riemerella anatipestifer in a Commercial Duck Company by Serotyping and DNA Fingerprinting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercial duck company that raises approximately two million Pekin ducks per year experienced an outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer(RA)on nine farms over a one year period. Due to concerns that the bacteria was being spread from farm to farm, an investigation using serotyping and DNA fingerprin...

  4. Application of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic marker for accurate identification of duck faeces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da; Duan, Chuanren; Shang, Yaning; Ma, Yunxia; Tan, Lili; Zhai, Jun; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jingsong; Wang, Guixue

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to judge the legal duty of pollution liabilities by assessing a duck faeces-specific marker, which can exclude distractions of residual bacteria from earlier contamination accidents. With the gene sequencing technology and bioinformatics method, we completed the comparative analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences, which were associated with ducks and other animal species, and found the sequences unique to duck faeces. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques were used to verify the reliability of both human and duck faeces-specific primers. The duck faeces-specific primers generated an amplicon of 141 bp from 43.3 % of duck faecal samples, 0 % of control samples and 100 % of sewage wastewater samples that contained duck faeces. We present here the initial evidence of Faecalibacterium-based applicability as human faeces-specificity in China. Meanwhile, this study represents the initial report of a Faecalibacterium marker for duck faeces and suggests an independent or supplementary environmental biotechnology of microbial source tracking (MST).

  5. 75 FR 9316 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Muscovy Ducks, Revisions to the Waterfowl Permit Exceptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AV34 Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Muscovy Ducks... Service, change the regulations governing control of introduced migratory birds. The muscovy duck (Cairina... Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 703-358- 1825. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  6. Pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses from Vietnam in chickens and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and other wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza type A viruses, and influenza viruses in these species normally is an asymptomatic infection. Even the viruses that are highly pathogenic for chickens typically can infect but do not cause disease in domestic ducks. However,...

  7. Green house emissions, inventories and evaluation of marine environment visa vis offshore oil field development activities Bombay high (west coast) upstream petroleum sector, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.S.; Ahmed, S.; Negi, C.V.S.; Nainwal, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Wide use of petroleum products contributes significant amount of emission to the global environment and hence maintaining emission inventories are of great importance while assessing the global green house emissions. The present paper describes a brief account of green house emission and inventories for CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, HC particulate and SO{sub 2} emissions generated due to upstream petroleum sector activities viz. discharges of gaseous emission, combustion of Natural Gas anti HSD from production and drilling facilities of Bombay offshore area located in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) west coast of India. Besides, authors have also given an account on west coast marine base line status including impact of oil field activities on marine ecosystem.

  8. Effect of age on pathogenesis and innate immune responses in Pekin ducks infected with different H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks varies between different viruses and is affected by the age of the ducks, with younger ducks presenting more severe disease. In order to better understand the pathobiology of H5N1 HPAI in ducks, including t...

  9. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo; Beldomenico, Pablo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana; Uhart, Marcela

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning in waterfowl due to ingestion of lead pellets is a long recognized worldwide problem but poorly studied in South America, particularly in Argentinean wetlands where duck hunting with lead gunshot is extensive. In 2008, we found high pellet ingestion rates in a small sample of hunted ducks. To expand our knowledge on the extent of lead exposure and to assess health risks from spent shot intake, during 2011 and 2012 we sampled 415 hunter-killed ducks and 96 live-trapped ducks. We determined the incidence of lead shot ingestion and lead concentrations in bone, liver and blood in five duck species: whistling duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), white-faced tree duck (D. viduata), black-bellied whistling-duck (D. autumnalis), rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca) and Brazilian duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis). The ingestion of lead shot was confirmed in 10.4% of the ducks examined (43/415), with a prevalence that varied by site and year, from 7.6% to 50%. All bone samples (n=382) and over 60% of liver samples (249/412) contained lead concentrations above the detection limit. The geometric mean lead concentration in tissues (mg/kg dry weight) was 0.31 (GSD=3.93) and 3.61 (GSD=4.02) for liver and bone, respectively, and 0.20 (GSD=2.55) in blood (mg/kg wet weight). Lead levels surpassed toxicity thresholds at which clinical poisoning is expected in 3.15% of liver samples, 23.8% of bones and 28% of blood samples. Ducks with ingested lead pellets were much more likely to have high levels of lead in their liver. Rosy-billed pochards were consistently more prone to ingesting lead shot than other duck species sampled. However, whistling ducks showed higher levels of lead in liver and bone. Our results suggest that lead from ammunition could become a substantial threat for the conservation of wild duck populations in Argentina. The replacement of lead by non-toxic shot would be a reasonable and effective solution to this problem.

  10. Assessing the waddle: An evaluation of a 3-point gait score system for ducks.

    PubMed

    Makagon, Maja M; Woolley, Rebecca; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-08-01

    Impaired walking ability is an economically important welfare problem that affects poultry raised for meat production, including Pekin ducks. To gain a better understanding of the impacts of walking impairments on duck production, and to identify contributing variables and plausible remedies, an accurate measure of walking ability must first be defined. The viability of a 3-point gait score system for characterizing the walking abilities of Pekin ducks was evaluated. Specifically, we examined whether the qualitative gait score categories corresponded to quantitative gait parameter measures, and evaluated the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the gait score system. Commercial Pekin ducks aged 13 to 14 d (14 d; 248 ducks), 20 to 21 d (21 d; 350 ducks), and 30 to 32 d (31 d; 368 ducks), were video recorded and gait scored using a 3-point system (GS0 = best gait; GS2 = poor gait) as they crossed a Tekscan(®) gait analysis system. Gait structure parameters were calculated based on 4 steps made by each duck. The most prominent differences were observed at 21 d and 31 d of age between the ducks with GS0 and GS2, with GS2 scoring ducks walking a shorter total distance, having greater differences in the amount of pressure applied to the right versus left leg, and the amount of time spent standing on 2 feet between steps. Gait score reliabilities were calculated separately for observers who received minimal training (M, N = 10) and those who viewed and discussed the sample cases (V, N = 13). Both groups assessed the gait of ducks from video footage. Inter-rater reliability (Fleiss kappa) was lowest for 14 d old ducks (M: k = 0.47, T: k = 0.62), and best for the 32 d old ducks (V: k = 0.75; T: k = 0.8). Overall, intra-rater reliabilities (Pearson's correlation) were high and were unaffected by the scorer's level of training (M: r = 0.87; V: r = 0.87; t21 = 0.43). The results indicate that a 3-point gait score system is a promising tool for assessing the walking ability

  11. DDE thins eggshells and lowers reproductive success of captive black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.; Whittendale, T.W.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs of captive black ducks fed diets containing DDE at 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) experienced significant shell thinning and an increase in shell cracking when compared to eggs of untreated black ducks. Eggshells from dosed ducks were: 18-24 percent thinner at the equator than shells from undosed ducks; 28-31 percent thinner at the cap; and 29-38 percent thinner at the apex. Shell cracking averaged 21 percent among eggs fram the 30 ppm DDE dosage and 10 percent among eggs from the 10 ppm dosage. Only 2 percent of the eggs from untreated black ducks were cracked. Survival of ducklings fram dosed parents in terms of 'percentage of 21-day ducklings of embryonated eggs' was 40-76 percent lower than survival of ducklings from undosed parents. Average DDE residues (wet weight) in eggs from hens fed 10 and 30 ppm DDE were 46 ppm and 144 ppm, respectively.

  12. Black ducks and their Chesapeake Bay habitats : proceedings of a symposium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The symposium 'Black Ducks and Their Chesapeake Bay Habitats,' held October 4, 2000, provided a forum for scientists to share research about the American black duck (Anas rubripes), an important breeding and wintering waterfowl species dependent upon the Chesapeake Bay habitats. American black ducks have declined significantly in the last 50 years and continue to be a species of management concern. The symposium, sponsored by the Wildfowl Trust of North America and the U.S. Geological Survey, highlighted papers and posters on a range of topics, from the traditional concerns of hunting, habitat, and hybridization to the more recent concerns of human disturbance and neophobia. Other presentations provided a historical perspective of black duck management. The direction that black duck conservation initiatives could and/or should take in the future was also discussed. As populations of humans in the Chesapeake Bay region continue to increase, we can expect that these subjects will receive increased discussion in the future.

  13. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  14. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyang; Chen, Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  15. Science, population ecology, and the management of the American black duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    This essay deals with the relevance of some of the ideas of Romesburg (1981) to population ecology and management of the American black duck (Anas rubripes). Most investigations dealing with the effects of hunting regulations on black duck populations have used the hypothetico-deductive (H-D) approach of specifying a priori hypotheses and associated deduced predictions. These investigations have not used manipulative experimentation, however, but have involved severely constrained analyses of historical data and have thus produced weak inferences. The 1982 lawsuit over black duck hunting regulations, the current uncertainty about appropriate black duck management actions, and the frequent skirmishes in the published literature of black duck population ecology are natural consequences of these weak inferences. I suggest that we attempt to take advantage of management and other manipulations by treating them as an opportunity to learn something via experimentation, as recommended by Macnab (1983) and Walters (1986).

  16. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  17. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian

    2015-04-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  18. Genetic relationship of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in Korea and their pathogenic potential in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Min-Chul; Paek, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kim, Bang-Sil; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2012-03-23

    The H3 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most frequently isolated subtypes in domestic ducks, live poultry markets, and wild birds in Korea. In 2002-2009, a total of 45 H3 subtype AIVs were isolated from the feces of clinically normal domestic ducks (n=28) and wild birds (n=17). The most prevalent subtypes in domestic ducks were H3N2 (35.7%), H3N6 (35.7%), H3N8 (25.0%), and H3N1 (3.6%, novel subtype in domestic duck in Korea). In contrast, H3N8 (70.6%) is the most prevalent subtype in wild birds in Korea. In the phylogenetic analysis, HA genes of the Korean H3 AIVs were divided into 3 groups (Korean duck, wild bird 1, and wild bird 2) and all viruses of duck origin except one were clustered in a single group. However, other genes showed extensive diversity and at least 17 genotypes were circulating in domestic ducks in Korea. When the analysis expanded to viruses of wild bird origin, the genetic diversity of Korean H3 AIVs became more complicated. Extensive reassortments may have occurred in H3 subtype influenza viruses in Korea. When we inoculated chickens and ducks with six selected viruses, some of the viruses replicated efficiently without pre-adaptation and shed a significant amount of viruses through oropharyngeal and cloacal routes. This raised concerns that H3 subtype AIV could be a new subtype in chickens in Korea. Continuous surveillance is needed to prepare the advent of a novel subtype AIV in Korea.

  19. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spoilage, with the most common species in the raw and smoked duck products being Aeromonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively. HHP treatment significantly reduced the levels of total aerobic bacteria in raw and smoked duck products. This study demonstrates that HHP treatment may be used to effectively improve the safety of raw and smoked duck meat products.

  20. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spoilage, with the most common species in the raw and smoked duck products being Aeromonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively. HHP treatment significantly reduced the levels of total aerobic bacteria in raw and smoked duck products. This study demonstrates that HHP treatment may be used to effectively improve the safety of raw and smoked duck meat products. PMID:27194939

  1. The effects of environmental enrichment devices on feather picking in commercially housed Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Colton, S; Fraley, G S

    2014-09-01

    Like other poultry species, Pekin ducks occasionally show an auto-mutilation behavior referred to as feather picking. Self-picking can lead to further pecking by conspecifics and ultimately to reduced feather quality and poor overall health of the bird. Although the reasons underlying feather picking are not clear, it appears to occur when the ducks are transitioning between downy feathers and adult plumage, between 17 and 22 d of age. We hypothesized that giving Pekin ducks a substitute outlet for this behavior in the form of environmental enrichment devices (EED) would decrease feather picking and improve feather quality and duck health and welfare. The EED were plastic Wiffle-style balls, each threaded with 4 zip-ties. In the first experiment, we set out to determine that placement of EED would not induce fear or harmful behaviors. Five barns were each divided into 2 pens, holding an average combined total of approximately 4,500 ducks with one pen per barn used as control. Upon placement of the EED in one pen per barn, both pens were videotaped for a total of 2 h per day. The physical characteristics of 100 ducks per pen were scored at age 7, 21, 28, and 35. Results showed a decrease (P = 0.034) in both self-picking and conspecific-pecking in pens with EED compared with pens without EED. Although no differences in body condition scores were observed at 7 d of age, by d 21 ducks with EED showed better (P = 0.021) feather quality and cleanliness scores compared with ducks without EED. In a second experiment, we set out to determine if ducks had a color preference for blue/green, red, or white EED. Again, ducks with EED showed reduced (P = 0.038) feather picking compared with ducks without EED. Ducks interacted considerably more (P = 0.00089) frequently with blue/green EED then either red or white EED. These results suggest that providing environmental enrichment may minimize feather picking and improve feather quality and duck welfare.

  2. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  3. Modeling movement and fidelity of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimpfer, N.L.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial relationships among stocks of breeding waterfowl can be an important component of harvest management. Prediction and optimal harvest management under adaptive harvest management (AHM) requires information on the spatial relationships among breeding populations (fidelity and inter-year exchange), as well as rates of movements from breeding to harvest regions. We used band-recovery data to develop a model to estimate probabilities of movement for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) among 3 Canadian breeding strata and 6 harvest regions (3 in Canada, and 3 in the United States) over the period 1965-1998. Model selection criteria suggested that models containing area-, year-, and age-specific recovery rates with area- and sex-specific movement rates were the best for modeling movement. Movement by males to southern harvest areas was variable depending on the originating area. Males from the western breeding area predominantly moved to the Mississippi Flyway or southern Atlantic Flyway (??ij = 0.353, SE = 0.0187 and ??ij = 0.473, SE = 0.037, respectively), whereas males that originated in the eastern and central breeding strata moved to the northern Atlantic flyway (??ij = 0.842, SE = 0.010 and ??ij = 0.578, SE = 0.0222, respectively). We used combined recoveries and recaptures in Program MARK to estimate fidelity to the 3 Canadian breeding strata. Information criteria identified a model containing sex- and age-specific fidelity for black ducks. Estimates of fidelity were 0.9695 (SE = 0.0249) and 0.9554 (SE = 0.0434) for adult males and females, respectively. Estimates of fidelity for juveniles were slightly lower at 0.9210 (SE = 0.0931) and 0.8870 (SE = 0.0475) for males and females, respectively. These models have application to the development of spatially stratified black duck harvest management models for use in AHM.

  4. Nest and brood attentiveness in female black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation rhythms and brood attentiveness of radio-marked Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in southcentral Maine during 1977-1980. Recess duration and frequency differed between three females nesting near wetlands (x = 82 min, 2.3 recesses/day) and two nesting at upland sites(x = 183 min, I. I recesses/day), but incubation constancy was similar for all birds (x = 86.7%). A fourth wetland-nesting female apparently responded to the absence of down and concealing cover at the nest site by taking shorter and fewer recesses (x= 34 min, 1.0 recesses/day) than did other wetland-nesters with typical nests. Wetland-nesters took longer recesses with increasing air temperature and following long incubation sessions. After their ducklings were two weeks old, two brood-rearing females began leaving their broods to forage on nearby wetlands. Duration of rearing recess (x = 56 min) and total recess time (x = 94 min/day) were less during this mid-rearing stage than during the latter part of rearing (x = 265 min, 488 min/day). The two hen-brood bonds terminated at 43 and 48 days. We suggest that small endogenous nutrient reserves and the low density of invertebrate foods, typical of Black Duck breeding habitat, were critical factors affecting the evolution of Black Duck incubation behavior. Bouts of inattention during brood rearing may have also evolved in relation to food requirements; by foraging on wetlands away from their broods, females avoid competing with offspring for common food resources.

  5. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, Gary L.

    2000-01-01

    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  6. Effects of different wavelengths of light on the biology, behavior, and production of grow-out Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C L; Colton, S; Haas, R; Rice, M; Porter, A; Schenk, A; Meelker, A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that red light conditions may improve growth and decrease aggressive behaviors in chickens and turkeys; however, more recent studies suggest that blue-green light may improve production of broilers over red light. To date, no research has been conducted to examine whether different wavelengths of light have an impact on production in the Pekin duck. To determine this, we raised Pekin ducks under aviary conditions that were similar to standard commercial barns. The ducks were kept in 3 different pens: red light (approximately 625 nm), blue light (approximately 425 nm), and white light. Light sources in each pen were standardized to produce a peak energy at 1.6 × 10³ μM photons/m²/s at the level of the ducks' heads. Ducks were given ad libitum access to water and commercial duck diet, and were housed on pine shavings at a density of 0.43 m²/duck. Ducks were evaluated weekly for BW and condition and a subjective measure of the duck's anxiety levels was determined. We found that ducks housed under blue light had significantly (P < 0.01) reduced BW at every age until the end of the study (processing age; 35 d). Unlike ducks housed under red or white light, ducks housed in the blue pen showed a higher level of anxiety; while evaluators were in the pen a majority of them began panting, they were much less inquisitive than other ducks, they took longer to exhibit normal social behavior once evaluation was completed, and they frequently "swarmed" when no people were present. There were no differences in any measurements between the red and white-lighted pens. These data suggest that unlike the chicken, blue lights may be inappropriate for raising Pekin ducks in a commercial setting.

  7. Production of chicken progeny (Gallus gallus domesticus) from interspecies germline chimeric duck (Anas domesticus) by primordial germ cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhai; Khazanehdari, Kamal A; Baskar, Vijaya; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Chang, Il-Kuk

    2012-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) in duck (Anas domesticus) gonads. Chimeric ducks were produced by transferring chicken PGCs into duck embryos. Transfer of 200 and 400 PGCs resulted in the detection of a total number of 63.0 ± 54.3 and 116.8 ± 47.1 chicken PGCs in the gonads of 7-day-old duck embryos, respectively. The chimeric rate of ducks prior to hatching was 52.9% and 90.9%, respectively. Chicken germ cells were assessed in the gonad of chimeric ducks with chicken-specific DNA probes. Chicken spermatogonia were detected in the seminiferous tubules of duck testis. Chicken oogonia, primitive and primary follicles, and chicken-derived oocytes were also found in the ovaries of chimeric ducks, indicating that chicken PGCs are able to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in duck ovaries and participate in the progression of duck ovarian folliculogenesis. Chicken DNA was detected using PCR from the semen of chimeric ducks. A total number of 1057 chicken eggs were laid by Barred Rock hens after they were inseminated with chimeric duck semen, of which four chicken offspring hatched and one chicken embryo did not hatch. Female chimeric ducks were inseminated with chicken semen; however, no fertile eggs were obtained. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that chicken PGCs could interact with duck germinal epithelium and complete spermatogenesis and eventually give rise to functional sperm. The PGC-mediated germline chimera technology may provide a novel system for conserving endangered avian species.

  8. The Growth of Protein Crystals Using McDUCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Felicia; Wilson, Lori; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Most of the current microgravity crystal growth hardware is optimized to produce crystals within the limited time available on orbit. This often results in the actual nucleation and growth process being rushed or the system not coming to equilibrium within the limited time available. Longer duration hardware exists, but one cannot readily pick out crystals grown early versus those which nucleated and grew more slowly. We have devised a long duration apparatus, the Multi-chamber Dialysis Unit for Crystallization Kinetics, or McDUCK. This apparatus-is a series of protein chambers, stacked upon a precipitant reservoir chamber. All chambers are separated by a dialysis membrane, which serves to pass small molecules while retaining the protein. The volume of the Precipitant chamber is equal to the sum of the volumes of the protein chamber. In operation, the appropriate chambers are filled with precipitant solution or protein solution, and the McDUCK is placed standing upright, with the precipitant chamber on the bottom. The precipitant diffuses upwards over time, with the time to reach equilibration a function of the diffusivity of the precipitant and the overall length of the diffusion pathway. Typical equilibration times are approximately 2-4 months, and one can readily separate rapid from slow nucleation and growth crystals. An advantage on Earth is that the vertical precipitant concentration gradient dominates that of the solute, thus dampening out solute density gradient driven convective flows. However, large Earth-grown crystals have so far tended to be more two dimensional. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of lysozyme crystals grown in McDUCK have indicated that the best, and largest, come from the middle chambers, suggesting that there is an optimal growth rate. Further, the improvements in diffraction resolution have been better signal to noise ratios in the low resolution data, not an increase in resolution overall. Due to the persistently large crystals

  9. Uptake and retention of dietary cadmium in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Finley, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 2, 20, or 200 ppm of cadmium chloride in the diet were sacrificed at 30-day intervals and tissues were analyzed for cadmium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. The liver and kidney accumulated the highest levels of cadmium. Tissue residues were significantly correlated in all treatment groups and residues increased with treatment level. Hematocrits and hemoglobin concentrations were normal in all groups throughout the study. Little cadmium accumulated in eggs of laying hens, but egg production was suppressed in the group fed 200 ppm.

  10. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  11. Eggshell breakage by incubating black ducks fed DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.

    1973-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) hens fed 10 ppm dry weight (approximately 3 ppm wet weight) of p,p'-DDE in the diet laid eggs with shells 22 percent thinner at the equator, 30 percent thinner at the cap, and 33 percent thinner at the apex than those of controls. Natural incubation increased shell cracking more than fourfold as compared with mechanical incubation. Hens removed cracked eggs from nests, and one hen terminated incubation. Hens fed DDE produced one-fifth as many ducklings as controls. DDE in eggs of dosed hens averaged 64.9 ppm wet weight.

  12. Brood sizes of sympatric American black ducks and mallards in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; McAuley, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The long-term decline of the American black duck (Anas rubripes) population has been attributed to lower productivity of black ducks that might have been excluded from fertile agricultural wetlands by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We monitored broods on 53 wetlands in 1993 and on 58 wetlands in 1994 to determine mean brood sizes of black ducks and mallards in forested and agricultural landscapes. Study wetlands were moderately to highly fertile. We monitored 94 black duck broods each year and 46 (1993) and 52 (1994) mallard broods until they reached Class IIc-III (near fledging). No differences existed (P = 0.71) in mean brood size between black ducks (1993, 3.95 ? 0.23; 1994, 4.59 ? 0.24) and mallards (1993, 3.96 ? 0.35; 1994, 5.00 ? 0.43) either year. Brood size for species; however, was different between years (P = 0.014) and among wetland sites (P = 0.001). Mean sizes of broods were larger (P < 0.05) on 2 large impoundment complexes (Lake Josephine and Lake Christina) compared with brood sizes on other wetlands in forested or agricultural landscapes. No differences (P 0.41) existed between mean Class IIc-III, brood sizes of black ducks and mallards whether species were alone or together on wetlands. Our data document that mallard productivity is similar to that of black ducks where they breed sympatrically in Maine.

  13. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  14. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  15. Adaptation and transmission of a duck-origin avian influenza virus in poultry species.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinling; zu Dohna, Heinrich; Anchell, Nichole L; Adams, Sean C; Dao, Nguyet T; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol J

    2010-01-01

    A duck-origin avian influenza virus (AIV) was used to study viral adaptation and transmission patterns in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). Inoculated birds were housed with naïve birds of the same species and all birds were monitored for infection. The inoculating duck virus was transmitted effectively by contact in both species. Viruses recovered from infected birds showed mutations as early as 1 or 3 days after inoculation in chickens and ducks, respectively. Amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) or deletions in neuraminidase (NA) stalk regions were identified in chicken isolates, but only substitutions in HA were identified in duck isolates. HA substitution-containing viruses replicated more efficiently than those with NA stalk deletions. NA deletion mutants were not recovered from contact chickens, suggesting inefficient transmission. Amino acid substitutions in HA proteins appeared in pairs in chickens, but were independent in ducks, indicating adaptation in chickens. In addition, our findings showed that a duck-origin virus can rapidly adapt to chickens, suggesting that the emergence of new epidemic AIV can be rapid.

  16. Factors associated with hunter success for ducks on state-owned lands in Illinios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Hine, Christopher S.; Yetter, Aaron P.; Horath, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Factors that influence hunter success for waterfowl are subject to varying levels of control by managers. The relative influence of these factors is poorly understood, but such information may be valuable to guide management actions intended to promote successful hunting and communicate management decisions to constituents. We used bag-check data to investigate factors influencing hunter success for mallards Anas platyrhynchos and other dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini) during the period 1981-2000 and 2002 at Illinois public waterfowl areas. Competing models of hunter success for mallards and other dabbling ducks included a negative association with average low temperature during the duck season (uncontrollable by managers) and positive associations with estimates of local and continental duck abundance, factors which we considered partially controllable by managers. Although a certain proportion of variation in hunter success for ducks cannot be directly influenced by managers, we suggest that programs and management efforts, which promote larger continental duck populations (e.g. Conservation Reserve Program) and local duck abundance (e.g. provide quality wetland foraging habitats), may positively influence hunter success.

  17. Possible waterborne transmission and maintenance of influenza viruses in domestic ducks.

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, D D; Shortridge, K F

    1982-01-01

    Two duck farms in Hong Kong were examined monthly for 1 year for the occurrence and persistence of influenza viruses within the duck communities. The predominant virus in one community was H3N2, a virus antigenically related to the pandemic Hong Kong strain. This virus was isolated monthly throughout the year from feces or pond water or both, indicating a cycle of waterborne transmission. Viruses of the same antigenic combination were isolated 1 and 2 years after the last sampling occasion, implying persistence in the community. Infection was asymptomatic. Maintenance of virus appeared to be dependent upon the continual introduction of ducklings susceptible to infection onto virus-contaminated water; the feces of ducks 70 to 80 days old were generally free of detectable virus despite the exposure of the ducks to virus in pond water. In the second community, in which ducklings were not introduced after the initial sampling, the prevailing viruses, H7N1 and H7N2, also present asymptomatically, ceased to be detected once the ducks were 70 to 80 days old. The normal practice of raising ducks of different ages on the same farm, wherein the water supplies are shared, as typified by the first community, appears to be instrumental in maintaining a large reservoir of influenza viruses in the duck population of southern China. PMID:7055370

  18. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  19. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  20. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Essam A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI) in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1) and the other fifteen (Group 2) were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1). The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis). Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1) became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs. PMID:27047014

  1. Genes involved in the establishment of hepatic steatosis in Muscovy, Pekin and mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Annabelle; Davail, Stéphane; Ricaud, Karine; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Gontier, Karine

    2017-01-01

    Our main objectives were to determine the genes involved in the establishment of hepatic steatosis in three genotypes of palmipeds. To respond to this question, we have compared Muscovy ducks, Pekin ducks and their crossbreed the mule duck fed ad libitum or overfed. We have shown a hepatic overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and di-acyl glycerol acyl transferase 2 (DGAT2) in overfed individuals, where DGAT2 seemed to be more regulated. This increase in lipogenesis genes is associated with a decrease of lipoprotein formation in Muscovy and mule ducks, especially apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTTP), leading to lipid accumulation in liver. In Pekin ducks, MTTP expression is upregulated suggesting a better hepatic lipids exportation. Regarding lipids re-uptake, fatty acid-binding protein 4 and very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor are overexpressed in liver of mule ducks at the end of the overfeeding period. This phenomenon puts light on a mechanism unknown until today. In fact, mule can incorporate more lipids in liver than the two other genotypes leading to an intensified hepatic steatosis. To conclude, our results confirmed the genotype variability to overfeeding. Furthermore, similar observations are already described in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in human, and ask if ducks could be an animal model to study hepatic triglyceride accumulation.

  2. Seasonal predator removal relative to hatch rate of duck nests in waterfowl production areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    These authors report that hatch rates of duck nests were related to removal of predators from waterfowl production areas. Cost effectiveness of such efforts is questioned. The prairie pothole region (PPR) is the primary breeding ground of several species of North American ducks (Bellrose 1980). Much habitat of breeding ducks in the PPR has been destroyed or degraded by intensive agriculture (e.g., Kiel et al. 1972, Bellrose 1980, Sugden and Beyersbergen 1984, Boyd 1985), resulting in high predation rates on duck nests (Sargeant and Raveling 1992). Because of predation, hatch rate (HR) of duck nests in Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA's) in the PPR is often less than the 15-20% suggested for stability of populations of the 5 most common species of dabbling ducks (e.g., Cowardin et al. 1985, Greenwood 1986, Klett et al. 1988, Greenwood et al. 1990). Managers seek ways to reduce depredations of duck clutches in WPA's, but little information is available concerning effects of predator removal. We evaluated seasonal (spring and early summer) removal of predators from WPA's in Minnesota and North Dakota. Our objectives were to compare HR in uplands of WPA's with and without predators removed and to determine functional aspects of conducting predator removal.

  3. Comparative histomorphometrical study of genital tract in adult laying hen and duck.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Ahmad-Ali; Zamanimoghadam, Abdolkarim; Heidari, Massoumeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the histomorphological structures of oviductal regions of the apparently healthy adult laying hens (Gallus gallus dometicus) and ducks (Ansa ansa domesticus). For this purpose, 20 hens and 20 female ducks aged between 1-1.5 years were used. After euthanasia, the oviducts were dissected out and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight and length of them were recorded. For histological studies, after tissue preparation and staining with H&E, histological layers of isthmus, uterus and vagina were recognized and the size of them with micrometry method were determined. Our data analyses indicated that, the mean weight, length of oviduct as well as weight of isthmus, uterus in hen were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of duck, whereas the vaginal thickness and weight were greater in duck than the hen. In histological studies, epithelium and cilia were well developed in duck and lamina propria was filled with glands in the regions of the isthmus and uterus. The length of primary mucosal folds of isthmus and uterus in duck was more than hen. The longest mucosal fold has been seen in uterus. Most of the parameters in duck were greater than hen except the length of secondary fold of three parts of oviduct including isthmus, uterus, and vagina.

  4. Thinking like a duck: fall lake use and movement patterns of juvenile ring-necked ducks before migration.

    PubMed

    Roy, Charlotte L; Fieberg, John; Scharenbroich, Christopher; Herwig, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    The post-fledging period is one of the least studied portions of the annual cycle in waterfowl. Yet, recruitment into the breeding population requires that young birds have sufficient resources to survive this period. We used radio-telemetry and generalized estimating equations to examine support for four hypotheses regarding the drivers of landscape scale habitat use and movements made by juvenile ring-necked ducks between the pre-fledging period and departure for migration. Our response variables included the probability of movement, distances moved, and use of different lake types: brood-rearing lakes, staging lakes, and lakes with low potential for disturbance. Birds increased their use of staging areas and lakes with low potential for disturbance (i.e., without houses or boat accesses, >100 m from roads, or big lakes with areas where birds could sit undisturbed) throughout the fall, but these changes began before the start of the hunting season and their trajectory was not changed by the onset of hunting. Males and females moved similar distances and had similar probabilities of movements each week. However, females were more likely than males to use brood-rearing lakes later in the fall. Our findings suggest juvenile ring-necked ducks require different lake types throughout the fall, and managing solely for breeding habitat will be insufficient for meeting needs during the post-fledging period. Maintaining areas with low potential for disturbance and areas suitable for staging will ensure that ring-necked ducks have access to habitat throughout the fall.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  6. The CD8α gene in duck (Anatidae): cloning, characterization, and expression during viral infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Chen, Yang; Zhao, Wen Ming; Huang, Zheng Yang; Duan, Xiu Jun; Tong, Yi Yu; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiu; Chang, Guo Bin; Chen, Guo Hong

    2015-02-01

    Cluster of differentiation 8 alpha (CD8α) is critical for cell-mediated immune defense and T-cell development. Although CD8α sequences have been reported for several species, very little is known about CD8α in ducks. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses of ducks, we cloned CD8α coding sequences from domestic, Muscovy, Mallard, and Spotbill ducks using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Each sequence consisted of 714 nucleotides and encoded a signal peptide, an IgV-like domain, a stalk region, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. We identified 58 nucleotide differences and 37 amino acid differences among the four types of duck; of these, 53 nucleotide and 33 amino acid differences were between Muscovy ducks and the other duck species. The CD8α cDNA sequence from domestic duck consisted of a 61-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 714-nucleotide open reading frame, and an 849-nucleotide 3' UTR. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the amino acid sequence of CD8α is conserved in vertebrates. RT-PCR revealed that expression of CD8α mRNA of domestic ducks was highest in the thymus and very low in the kidney, cerebrum, cerebellum, and muscle. Immunohistochemical analyses detected CD8α on the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath of the spleen. CD8α mRNA in domestic ducklings was initially up-regulated, and then down-regulated, in the thymus, spleen, and liver after treatment with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1) or the immunostimulant polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C).

  7. Transcriptome analysis of adiposity in domestic ducks by transcriptomic comparison with their wild counterparts.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Luo, J; Li, J X; Li, J J; Wang, D Q; Tian, Y; Lu, L Z

    2015-06-01

    Excessive adiposity is a major problem in the duck industry, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic comparisons between domestic and wild animals have contributed to the exploration of genetic mechanisms responsible for many phenotypic traits. Significant differences in body fat mass have been detected between domestic and wild ducks. In this study, we used the Peking duck and Anas platyrhynchos as the domestic breed and wild counterpart respectively and performed a transcriptomic comparison of abdominal fat between the two breeds to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome basis of adiposity in ducks. We obtained approximately 350 million clean reads; assembled 61 250 transcripts, including 23 699 novel ones; and identified alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, skipped exons and retained intron as the main alternative splicing events. A differential expression analysis between the two breeds showed that 753 genes exhibited differential expression. In Peking ducks, some lipid metabolism-related genes (IGF2, FABP5, BMP7, etc.) and oncogenes (RRM2, AURKA, CYR61, etc.) were upregulated, whereas genes related to tumor suppression and immunity (TNFRSF19, TNFAIP6, IGSF21, NCF1, etc.) were downregulated, suggesting adiposity might closely associate with tumorigenesis in ducks. Furthermore, 280 576 single-nucleotide variations were found differentiated between the two breeds, including 8641 non-synonymous ones, and some of the non-synonymous ones were found enriched in genes involved in lipid-associated and immune-associated pathways, suggesting abdominal fat of the duck undertakes both a metabolic function and immune-related function. These datasets enlarge our genetic information of ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing mechanisms underlying adiposity in ducks.

  8. Studies on vertical and horizontal transmission of duck plague virus in apparently healthy waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, Elizabeth C.

    1978-01-01

    Healthy waterfowl were found to be carriers of duck plague (DP) virus. Black ducks (Anas rubripes) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) surviving a natural outbreak of DP at Coloma, Wisconsin, in 1973 yielded DP virus in cloacal swabs taken four years postinfection. Experimental infection of previously unexposed mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynochos) with the Coloma strain of DP virus CO-WI (73) also produced cloacal virus shedding for up to four years after infection. A second DP virus strain, LA-SD (73) from the Lake Andes, South Dakota, epornitic, was detected from cloacal swabs of pintail ducks (Anas acuta), gadwall ducks (Anas strepera), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and Canada geese infected experimentally one year before. The frequency of swabs positive for DP virus varied between individuals within each of the tested species. The amount of detectable DP virus shed was about 100 plaqueforming units of virus percloacal swab. Oral erosions were present in all species tested except Canada geese and gadwall ducks. Erosions occurred at the openings of the sublingual salivary gland ducts. DP virus was isolated from erosions. All ducks with lesions proved to shed DP virus, although not necessarily at the time they had the lesion. Three pintail ducks treated with dexamethasone for ten days, shed DP virus daily for 19 days after the first day of treatment. These birds also shed DP virus the one time they were tested prior to dexamethosone treatment. An acute lethal outbreak occurred in CO-WI (73) carrier birds. Both DP virus and specific lesions were found in dead birds. The deaths coincided with a change in housing and with the simultaneous introduction of co-housed LA-SD (73) infected ducklings. DP virus was isolated from the chorio-allantoic (CA) fluid of a fourteen day pekin embryo and from five of ten infertile pekin eggs laid by DP carrier birds.

  9. Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianbo; Fu, Zhihui; Yin, Zhaozheng

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, intensive breeding of poultry and livestock of large scale has made the treatment of its waste and wastewater an urgent environmental issue, which motivated this study. A wetland of 688 m2 was constructed on an egg duck farm, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was chosen as an aquatic plant for the wetland and used as food for duck production. The objectives of this study were to test the role of water hyacinth in purifying nutrient-rich wastewater and its effects on the ducks' feed intake, egg laying performance and egg quality. This paper shows that the constructed wetland removed as much as 64.44% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 21.78% of total nitrogen (TN) and 23.02% of total phosphorus (TP). Both dissolved oxygen (DO) and the transparency of the wastewater were remarkably improved, with its transparency 2.5 times higher than that of the untreated wastewater. After the ducks were fed with water hyacinth, the average daily feed intake and the egg-laying ratio in the test group were 5.86% and 9.79% higher, respectively, than in the control group; the differences were both significant at the 0.01 probability level. The egg weight in the test group was 2.36% higher than in the control group (P < 0.05), but the feed conversion ratios were almost the same. The eggshell thickness and strength were among the egg qualities significantly increased in ducks fed with water hyacinth. We concluded that a water hyacinth system was effective for purifying wastewater from an intensive duck farm during the water hyacinth growing season, as harvested water hyacinth had an excellent performance as duck feed. We also discussed the limitations of the experiment.

  10. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P < 0.01). As expected, linear increases in tibia and femur bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P < 0.01). Right and left hip angle increased with duck age (P < 0.01). Additionally, ducks with a GS2 had wider hip angles opposed to ducks with a GS0 (P < 0.01). Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P < 0.05). Femur ash content was lowest in 32-day-old ducks and ducks with GS1 and GS2 (P < 0.0001). Tibia ash content increased with age, but decreased as gait score increased (P < 0.001). The observation that right hip angle changed with gait scores merits further investigation into the relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth.

  11. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in diving ducks wintering in Gdańsk Bay, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Szefer, P

    1982-06-01

    The levels of HCB, alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC, DDT (plus analogues), and PCB were determined in adipose fat from seven species of diving ducks at their winter quarters in the southern Baltic. PCB, epsilon DDT and HCB were detected in all samples. PCB's were highest followed by epsilon DDT and HCB. Residues of gamma-BHC were detected in only four of 129 samples examined, but, for all samples from the long-tailed duck, only levels of alpha-BHC were positive. Differences between HCB, epsilon DDT and PCB residue levels between males and females of the scaup-duck were statistically insignificant (P less than 0.01).

  12. Ecology of fall-migrating ducks in central Illinois: A radar perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Benjamin J.

    Research from the last two decades has elucidated the importance of migration in the annual cycle of ducks, but many aspects of migration ecology remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of investigating movements that occur over large spatial scales, at substantial heights and at night. Weather surveillance radar (WSR) offers a unique tool for observing movements of birds aloft, but until now has been used primarily to address questions only relevant to broad taxonomic groups. Using thermal infrared imaging, portable radar, and natural history, I ground-truthed WSR echoes originating from a complex of wetlands in the central Illinois River valley to develop a technique for identifying and enumerating ducks as they emigrated from this important stopover area. With this technique, I quantified duck emigrations during 7 falls (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2005-2008). I used WSR-derived estimates of annual turnover in combination with aerial inventory estimates of duck use to estimate the average amount of time ducks spent at my study site during fall (stopover duration). The mean stopover duration estimate of 11 days (SD = 4 days) was much shorter than a historical estimate (28 days) that has been use for regional waterfowl conservation planning. I also regressed average annual stopover duration estimates against an index of annual foraging habitat quality and found a strong, positive relationship (r2 = 0.71), suggesting ducks assessed local habitat conditions and adjusted time spent at the site. Weather influences the timing of migration in many avian taxa, but this relationship is poorly understood for ducks. An evaluation of competing models including 15 years of data indicated following winds aloft, no precipitation, less cloud cover, decreasing temperatures, increasing barometric pressure and date best predicted emigration (R2 = 0.52). Based on this model, the odds of a duck emigration occurring when winds were following and precipitation was absent were 13.2 to

  13. A three-variable chaotic system for the epidemic of bubonic plague in Bombay by the end of the 19th century and its coupling to the epizootics of the two main species of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A plague epidemic broke out in Bombay by the end of the 19th century. A committee was first appointed by the Bombay City [1] in order to stop the epidemic before the rain season started. Unfortunately, the disease could not be stopped and the epidemic became endemic. After several years, another Advisory Committee [2] was appointed that tried to investigate the causes of plague in all possible directions. An impressing quantity of information was gathered during the period 1907-1911 and published. In particular, it was noticed that the epidemic was systematically preceded by epizootics of rats. For this reason, the populations of the main species of rodents were systematically monitored. This data set is revisited here by using a multivariate version of the global modeling technique [3]. The aim of this technique is to obtain a set of Ordinary Differential Equations directly from time series. Three observational time series are considered: the number of person died of bubonic plague per half month (1), and the number of captured infected black rats Mus rattus (2) and brown rats Mus decumanus (3). Several models are obtained, all based on the same algebraic basic structure. These models are, either directly chaotic, or close to chaos (chaos could easily be obtained by tuning one model parameter). The algebraic structure of the simplest model obtained is analyzed in more details. Surprisingly, it is found that the interpretation of the coupling between the three variables can be done term by term. This interpretation is in quite good coherence with the conclusions of the Advisory Committee published one hundred years ago. This structure also shows that the human action to slow down the disease during this period was obviously effective, although insufficient to stop the epidemic drastically. This result suggests that the global modeling technique can be a powerful tool to detect causal couplings in epidemiology, and, more generally, among observational variables from

  14. Characteristics of some black duck nest sites in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Ringelman, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    A standard method for characterizing nest sites and concealment (visibility of orange decoy and percent overhead cover measured by densiometer) was used to obtain characteristics of 36 nest sites of black ducks in Maine, 1978-89. Nest locations were represented by cutover areas (10), islands (6), bogmat (5), emergent meadow (5), emergent wetland (3), stream floodplain (3), hardwood forest (1), conifer forest (1), mixed forest (1) and ephemeral pond (1). Within these locations nests were found in shrub clumps (1), under conifers (6), on hummocks (6), on ericaceous mats (4), under a clump of hardwood trees (4), under woody slash (3), on an emergent herbaceous clump (1), on a boulder (1) and on a muskrat house (1). After excluding 7 nests disturbed by investigators, 22 (76%) of the 29 remaining nests were successful nests. Nests in upland cuts were especially successful (9 of 9) and success was 75 - 100% at most locations, but both nests along stream floodplain were abandoned because of human disturbance. Unsuccessful nests were usually closer to ponds (2.5 times) or streams (6.6 times) and often at land water interfaces, i.e., islands and bogmat. Nests under conifers (5 of 6) and woody slash (3 of 3) usually were successful. The combination of low nesting density and isolation of nests in upland cutover areas (successful nests averaged nearly 3 times farther from roads) seem to influence black duck nest success.

  15. Central nervous versus total body thermosensitivity of the duck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, E.; Martin, R.; Simon-Oppermann, Ch.

    1981-09-01

    Ducks were chronically implanted with thermodes in the POAH region, the lower brainstem or the vertebral canal. At thermoneutral conditions, lowering the temperature of the spinal cord (Tvc) or the lower brainstem (Tmb) stimulated metabolic heat production (M) with a subsequent rise of core temperature (Tc). Lowering the temperature of the POAH region (Thy) induced a fall of Tc due to paradoxical activation of heat defence and, thus, induced slight to moderate general hypothermia depending on the cooling intensity. When Thy was normalized, the hypothermia temporarily stimulated metabolic heat production until Tc was normalized. Cold sensitivity of the entire body, as revealed by the metabolic response to the hypothermia induced by preceding POAH cooling, and cold sensitivity of the spinal cord and the lower brainstem, as revealed by the metabolic response to local cooling, were quantified by calculating the quotient δM/δT from the maximum metabolic response and the experimentally induced drop of Tc, Tmb and Tvc. With lower brainstem cooling δM/δTmbdid not exceed -0.4 W/(kg · ‡C). With spinal cord cooling, δM/δTvc did not exceed -0.6 W/(kg · ‡C). The mean value of δM/δTc after hypothermia induced by POAH cooling was -4.02 W/(kg · ‡C). The results indicate that the cold sensitivity residing in the CNS of ducks represents only a small fraction of the entire cold sensitivity of the body.

  16. Feeding ecology and development of juvenile black ducks in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Data from 41 juvenile Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in the Penobscot River valley of Maine from June through August 1974-76 were used to estimate the proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the prefledging diet and the allometric growth rates of the tarsi, flight muscles, and alimentary system. The proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the diet of downy and partially feathered juveniles averaged 88 and 91% of dry weight, but decreased to 43% for fully feathered young. The most important invertebrate food organisms for juvenile Black Ducks were asellid isopods, molluscs, nymphs of Ephemeroptera and Odonata, and larvae of Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Diptera. A high proportion of invertebrates was consumed during the period of fastest absolute and relative growth. Estimation of allometric growth rates with the power formula (Y = a 'X b) showed that (1) the legs were relatively large at hatching and developed slowly; (2) the flight muscles, which were relatively small at hatching, grew slowly until the 4-week period preceding fledging, when they increased as the 4.75 power of body weight; and (3) growth of the liver and gizzard was approximately proportional to body weight. The data support Ricklefs' thesis that delayed functional maturity of the wings permits an increase in the overall growth rate of waterfowl.

  17. Breathing in thin air: acclimatization to altitude in ducks.

    PubMed

    Powell, Frank L; Shams, Hashim; Hempleman, Steven C; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2004-12-15

    We measured ventilation (VI) and arterial blood gases in Pekin ducks during acclimatization to 3800 m altitude for 1-90 days. Four experimental series were conducted over 4 years using both natural altitude and a hypobaric chamber. PaCO2 decreased to 3.5 Torr, relative to the value measured during acute hypoxia after 1 day and remained at this level for up to 90 days. However, PaO2 did not increase. Arterial pH showed an unexpected metabolic alkalosis during the first hours at altitude but after 3 days, a metabolic acidosis partially compensated the respiratory alkalosis and pHa was constant thereafter. When normoxia was restored after hypoxia, PaCO2 was 5.5 Torr less than the original normoxic control value, but PaO2 was not increased. VI showed variable changes during acclimatization but if metabolic rate was constant in our study, as reported by others, then effective parabronchial V(VP) increased during acclimatization. Increased VP tends to restore PaO2 toward normoxic levels and decreases adverse effects of gas exchange limitation, which apparently increased during acclimatization in ducks.

  18. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    An extreme sensitivity of pen-reared black ducks (BDs) to lead shot was observed incidental to development of an enzyme assay (Pain & Rattner, 1988). Intubation of pen-reared BDs with one no. 4 lead shot resulted in 60% mortality in 6 days. It was concluded that BDs were more sensitive to lead shot than expected, or that lead toxicity may be exacerbated by stressful conditions (elevated temperature, confinement in small pens). We reexamined lead shot toxicity in BDs and mallards (MLs). In winter 1986 (Ta=1.7-14.6? C), pen-reared and wild BDs, and game-farm and wild MLs were sham-dosed or given one no. 4 shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional shot. Since the original observation of enhanced. shot toxicity to BDs occurred during summer, the study was also repeated in summer 1987 (Ta=I7:6-30.9?C), with pen-reared BDs and game-farm MLs. Mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, and protoporphyrin concentration were used to compare sensitivity among groups. Sensitivity to lead shot was similar between BDs and MLs. However, the wild ducks appeared more vulnerable than their domesticated counterparts, and signs of intoxication were more pronounced in winter than in summer.

  19. Effects of Pax3 and Pax7 expression on muscle mass in the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhang, R P; Zhao, Y M; Li, Q Q; Yan, X P; Liu, J Y; Gou, H; Li, L

    2015-09-28

    This study aimed to investigate whether the differential expression of muscle development-related genes is one of the reasons why muscle development differs between Pekin, Jianchang, and Heiwu ducks, which are all domesticated duck breeds (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) breeds. At 2 weeks of age, the RNA expression of paired box 7 (Pax7), paired box 3 (Pax3), myogenic differentiation antigen (MYOD), and myogenin (MYOG) genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Pax3 and Pax7 protein levels were detected by western blot assay. Myofiber morphology was investigated using paraffin-embedded muscle sections. At 8 weeks of age, 30 ducks of each breed were slaughtered for meat quality determination. The results revealed that Pax3 and Pax7 expression levels at both the RNA and protein levels were high in the Pekin duck. In addition, MYOG expression levels in the Jianchang duck were significantly higher than in the other two duck breeds (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in MYOD expression levels between the breeds (P > 0.05). Myofiber diameter and cross-sectional area were the largest in the Pekin duck and the smallest in the Heiwu duck. There were significant differences in slaughter data between these breeds, and muscle content was greatest in the Pekin duck. The results indicate that the muscle content of three different duck breeds is associated with the expression of satellite-cell marker genes.

  20. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in ducks and in-contact chickens in backyard and smallholder commercial duck farms in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Henning, Kate A; Morton, John M; Long, Ngo T; Ha, Nguyen T; Vu, Le T; Vu, Pham P; Hoa, Dong M; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-01

    Scavenging ducks are thought to play an important role in the maintenance and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among domesticated and wild bird populations in South East Asia, but detailed field epidemiological results describing the infection status of domestic ducks and in-contact chickens have not been published. We conducted a longitudinal study, monitoring ducks and in-contact chickens in 80 flocks in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam with bi-monthly testing from May 2007 until May 2008. Because H5 vaccination campaigns are conducted at regular intervals in poultry flocks in Viet Nam, both unvaccinated sentinel and H5 vaccinates were monitored. On each farm, a total of 10 birds were selected: 7 ducks (4 unvaccinated and 3 vaccinated) and 3 chickens (2 unvaccinated and 1 vaccinated) that were in close contact with the ducks. Blood samples were tested for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition test, with H5 antibody titers ≥2(4) considered to indicate past exposure to H5 field or vaccine virus. Titers of vaccinated birds were analyzed for samples collected more than 3 weeks post-vaccination. Pooled oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were assessed for H5 viral RNA using real-time PCR. Bird- and flock-level prevalences were estimated accounting for sampling fractions and clustering under the multi-stage sampling design with birds being sampled within flocks within villages in four different provinces. In total, serum and swab samples from 5409 birds-samplings were analyzed. Bird-level seroprevalence was 17.5% (95% CI: 14.1, 20.9) amongst unvaccinated ducks and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.4, 14.4) amongst unvaccinated in-contact chickens. Flock-level seroprevalence (proportion of flock-visits with at least one unvaccinated bird test positive) was 42.6% (95% CI: 38.0, 47.2) for ducks and 19.0% (95% CI: 13.6, 24.4) for chickens. Only 54.3% (95% CI: 39.2, 69.3) of vaccinated ducks and 55.5% (95% CI: 46.8, 64.2) of vaccinated in

  1. Construction of a recombinant duck enteritis virus vaccine expressing hemagglutinin of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluation of its efficacy in ducks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Yang, Chenghuai; Li, Junping; Li, Ling; Cao, Minghui; Li, Qihong; Li, Huijiao

    2017-01-01

    H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination. One-step growth analyses showed that the HA gene insertion had no effect on viral replication and suggested that the UL2 gene was nonessential for virus growth in vitro. In vivo tests further showed that the insertion of the HA gene in place of the UL2 gene did not affect the immunogenicity of the virus. Moreover, a single dose of 10(3) TCID50 of rDEV-∆UL2-HA induced solid protection against lethal DEV challenge and completely prevented H9N2 AIV viral shedding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a DEV-vectored vaccine providing robust protection against both DEV and H9N2 AIV virus infections in ducks.

  2. Duck cerebellum participates in regulation of food intake via the neurotransmitters serotonin and neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua Z; Li, Xin Y; Tong, Jing J; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhan, Han C; Sha, Jun N; Peng, Ke M

    2008-10-01

    Two important neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been confirmed to be involved in food intake regulation. To clarify whether the cerebellum participates in modulation of food intake through these two neurotransmitters, we investigated the distribution and expression levels of 5-HT and NPY in cerebellum of the duck. Our results showed that 5-HT and NPY were distributed only at the Purkinje cell layer of the duck cerebellum. Moreover, the expression level of 5-HT in fasted (4 h) and tryptophan (100-200 mg/kg)-treated ducks was significantly higher than that in control animals (P<0.01), whereas the expression of NPY was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Therefore, our results indicated that inhibitory regulation of food intake respectively increased and decreased cerebellar 5-HT and NPY in the duck.

  3. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  4. Foraging behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in a ferry wake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Ducks) were observed diving in the wake of the Nantucket Island ferry during December over a 5-year period (2005–2009). The unusual diving behavior appeared to be related to foraging, but could not be confirmed. Long-tailed Ducks typically feed on more mobile prey than most other diving ducks, and it is speculated that the propeller wash in shallow water dislodged or disturbed prey and provided an enhanced feeding opportunity. Long-tailed Ducks collected while feeding in a disturbed area near a clamming boat not far from the ferry channel were feeding predominantly on Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) that apparently had been dislodged by the clamming operation.

  5. Phylogenetics, phylogeography and population genetics of North American sea ducks (tribe: Mergini)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Pearce, John M.; Scribner, Kim T.

    2015-01-01

    Many environments occupied by North American sea ducks are remote and difficult to access, and as a result, detailed information about life history characteristics that drive population dynamics within and across species is limited. Nevertheless, progress on this front during the past several decades has benefited by the application of genetic technologies, and for several species, these technologies have allowed for concomitant tracking of population trends and genetic diversity, delineation of populations, assessment of gene flow among metapopulations, and understanding of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds. This chapter provides an overview of phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and population genetics studies of North American sea duck species, many of which have sought to understand the major and minor genetic divisions within and among sea duck species, and most of which have been conducted with the understanding that the maintenance of genetic variation in wild sea duck populations is fundamental to the group’s long-term persistence.

  6. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12-23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23-39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  7. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    In winter, pen-reared and wild black ducks (Anas rubripes), and game farm and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), maintained on pelleted feed, were sham-dosed or given one number 4 lead shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional lead shot. This dosing regimen also was repeated in summer using pen-reared black ducks and game farm mallards. Based upon mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and protoporphyrin concentration, black ducks and mallards were found to be equally tolerant to lead shot. However, captive wild ducks were more sensitive than their domesticated counterparts, as evidenced by greater mortality and weight loss following lead shot administration. This difference may be related to stress associated with captivity and unnatural diet.

  8. Wood duck population trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.; Burger, George V.; Havera, Stephen P.; Graber, David A.; Kirby, Ronald E.; Taylor, T. Scott

    1990-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been conducted yearly since 1966, and can be used to describe relative population density and trends of birds in North America north of Mexico. Wood ducks (Air sponsa) are difficult to survey using conventional waterfowl monitoring techniques, but a large portion of their range is surveyed by the BBS. Wood ducks are detected at low densities on many BBS routes, and population trends can be estimated for most regions. Populations have been increasing throughout North America since 1966, but statistically significant increases generally occurred only in the early (1966-78) part of the period. Roadside survey methodology used in the BBS has limitations that make it inefficient as a survey technique for wood ducks, and we recommend using modified methodologies that specifically survey wood duck habitat.

  9. Dynamic use of wetlands by black ducks and mallards: evidence against competitive exclusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Longcore, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The decline of the American black duck (Anas rubripes) has been attributed to competition from mallards (A. platyrhynchos) that led to exclusive use of fertile wetlands by mallards. Data from annual breeding waterfowl surveys provide instantaneous, single observations of breeding pairs, which are used to estimate breeding population size and evaluate the condition of habitat. Data from these surveys have been used to document habitat use by black ducks and mallards. We used quiet-observation surveys from elevated platforms to study sympatric black ducks and mallards in northern Maine during the breeding season. Our objectives were to document occupancy of wetlands by breeding black ducks and mallards throughout the day during prenesting and early nesting periods to determine whether 1) wetlands were occupied by only a single species, 2) pairs of the same species occupied wetlands throughout the period, and 3) single observations of short duration adequately determine numbers and species using a wetland. We observed ducks at 5-minute intervals from elevated platforms on wetland margins to determine numbers and species of indicated pairs using each wetland over time. We visited 80% of the wetlands >2 times, with mean total time per wetland averaging 267 minutes. For each wetland we determined the most frequently observed grouping of black ducks and mallards from all combinations recorded during all intervals (e.g., 1 black duck [BO] pair during 9 intervals; 2 mallard [MA] pairs and 1 BO pair during 22 intervals; 0 pairs during 3 intervals). A single pair, a lone male, or no ducks were recorded during 34% of the 5-minute intervals. For wetlands with >2 hours of observations (n=65), all but 2 were used by >2 different combinations of ducks. On most wetlands, the most frequent grouping was observed during 2 hours were used by both species, random visits detected both species on only 27 wetlands. Our data do not support assertions that the mallard has caused the decline

  10. IFN-γ increases efficiency of DNA vaccine in protecting ducks against infection

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jian-Er; Huang, Li-Na; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Qu, Di

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the effects of DNA vaccines in combination with duck IFN-γ gene on the protection of ducks against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. METHODS: DuIFN-γ cDNA was cloned and expressed in COS-7 cells, and the antiviral activity of DuIFN-γ was detected and neutralized by specific antibodies. Ducks were vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone or co-immunized with plasmid expressing DuIFN-γ. DuIFN-γ mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from immunized ducks was detected by semi-quantitative competitive RT-PCR. Anti-DHBpreS was titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DHBV DNA in sera and liver was detected by Southern blot hybridization, after ducks were challenged with high doses of DHBV. RESULTS: DuIFN-γ expressed by COS-7 was able to protect duck fibroblasts against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in a dose-dependent fashion, and anti-DuIFN-γ antibodies neutralized the antiviral effects. DuIFN-γ in the supernatant also inhibited the release of DHBV DNA from LMH-D2 cells. When ducks were co-immunized with DNA vaccine expressing DHBpreS/S and DuIFN-γ gene as an adjuvant, the level of DuIFN-γ mRNA in PBMCs was higher than that in ducks vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone. However, the titer of anti-DHBpreS elicited by DHBpreS/S DNA alone was higher than that co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA. After being challenged with DHBV at high doses, the load of DHBV in sera dropped faster, and the amount of total DNA and cccDNA in the liver decreased more significantly in the group of ducks co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA than in other groups. CONCLUSION: DHBV preS/S DNA vaccine can protect ducks against DHBV infection, DuIFN-γ gene as an immune adjuvant enhances its efficacy. PMID:16124047

  11. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). The Shannon-Weiner index of the microbiota from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis of the caecal and faecal DNA extracts showed that the alfalfa meal diet promotes the intestinal microbial diversity, as indicated by their higher species richness and Shannon-Weiner index. However, the groups did not significantly differ in terms of average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio (p > 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the groups supplemented with 3%, 6% and 9% of alfalfa meal than the unsupplemented control group, and alfalfa meal promoted the lymphocytes proliferation of the growing egg-type ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  12. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens.

  13. Genetic characterization of hepadnaviruses associated with histopathological changes in the liver of duck and goose embryos.

    PubMed

    Biđin, Marina; Tišljar, Marina; Biđin, Zdenko; Lojkić, Ivana; Majnarić, Darko

    2014-12-05

    Avian hepadnaviruses are etiological agents of hepatitis B, that has been identified primarily in ducks, and more recently in various avian species. In this paper, 16 hepadnaviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the field samples from dead embryos of commercially reared domestic duck and goose. Based on the molecular analysis of the S-protein gene sequences and phylogenetic Neighbor-joining tree, identified viruses were clustered in the same genetic group, indicating no host-related diversity. Both duck and goose-origin hepadnaviruses were grouped within the cluster consisting of "Western-country" and "Chinese" duck hepatitis B (DHBV) isolates, showing more evolutionary distances with other known avian hepadnaviruses. Histopathologically, the lesions observed in the liver tissue from hepadnavirus positive duck and goose embryos varied from low to mild degree of perivascular mononuclear cells and mixed cell infiltrations, followed by mild vacuolar changes. Small focal necrotic changes in the liver parenchyma, and bile ductular proliferation were also found in examined liver samples. Generally, the microscopic findings resemble those described in experimentally infected ducks, while this was the first description of hepadnavirus associated lesions in domestic goose. Although hepadnaviruses are considered to have a very narrow host range, this study showed that domestic ducks and geese are susceptible to infection with genetically almost identical hepadnaviruses, that were likely to produce similar microscopic changes in the liver of both duck and goose embryos. The impact of naturally occurred hepadnavirus infection and possible synergistic interactions with other infectious or non-infectious agents on embryo viability needs further investigation.

  14. Post-breeding activities of mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Kirby, R.E.; Ball, I.J.; Riechmann, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor the post-breeding activities of 129 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 118 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) on a 932-km2 area in north-central Minnesota from 1968 to 1974. Upon completion of breeding activities and before the flightless period, all mallard drakes departed the area; this exodus peaked during early June. Of the non-brood hens 8 of 23 remained on the area, whereas 26 of 51 of the hens raising broods spent the flightless period on their breeding areas. Thirty-nine percent of the mallard hens on the area in the spring were present at the beginning of their flightless period. Fifty percent of the drake wood ducks and 41 percent of the hens left the breeding area before flightlessness. Their timing was similar to that of mallards. The flightless period began in mid-June for wood duck drakes and lasted into early October for some mallard hens. All late molting mallard and wood duck hens reared broods that same year. A minimum of 35 percent of the spring mallard hens remained on the area at the beginning of hunting season (early October). About 17 percent of the wood duck males and 42 percent of the females breeding locally remained on the area until hunting began. Eleven of 51 mallards and 4 of 25 wood ducks that reared broods were killed on the study area compared with 2 of 23 for non-brood mallards and 1 of 20 for non-brood wood duck hens. Principal habitats used by post-breeding mallards were bays of large lakes and river marshes. Wood ducks tended to use similar habitat but also frequented small woodland ponds. During the flightless period both species remained mostly in areas with abundant emergent cover.

  15. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  16. DDE residues in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) near a former DDT manufacturing plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Cromartie, E.

    1981-01-01

    Breast muscle DDE residues were as high as 5.8 ppm wet-weight basis and 280 ppm lipid-weight basis in young wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) collected on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge near a former DDT manufacturing plant in northern Alabama. The average DDE residue in wood ducks collected nearest the plant was 46 times background levels 74 km from the plant.

  17. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens.

  18. Differential immune response of mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells to two highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses with distinct pathogenicity in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhu; Hu, Jiao; He, Liang; Li, Qunhui; Gu, Min; Wang, Xiaoquan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Huimou; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-02-01

    CK10 and GS10 are two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses of similar genetic background but differ in their pathogenicity in mallard ducks. CK10 is highly pathogenic whereas GS10 is low pathogenic. In this study, strong inflammatory response in terms of the expression level of several cytokines was observed in mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with CK10 while mild response was triggered in those by GS10 infection. Two remarkable and intense peaks of immune response were induced by CK10 infection within 24 hours (at 8 and 24 hours post infection, respectively) without reducing the virus replication. Our observations indicated that sustained and intense innate immune responses may be central to the high pathogenicity caused by CK10 in ducks.

  19. Maternal transfer of dechloranes and their distribution among tissues in contaminated ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping-Fan; Yu, Lian-Lian; Li, Long; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xing-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The tissue concentrations of dechlorane plus and its analogues were determined in ducks collected from several e-waste recycling villages of Taizhou, China. Compared with the published literature, the relatively high concentrations of these compounds were detected in ducks, indicating serious DP contamination. Since both the duck meat and eggs were important components for diet, this result reminded us of keeping a watchful eye on human dietary exposure to DP and its analogues in this study area. The wet-weight concentrations of DP and its analogues were significantly related to tissue lipid content (p < 0.05), indicating that the lipid pools predominantly impacted the distribution of DPs in ducks. On the basis of lipid adjustment, the significantly lower levels in brain than those in liver and blood, displayed the occurrence of liver sequestration and blood-brain barrier to DP and its analogues in the duck (p < 0.05). The maternal transfer of DP and Mirex was not obviously limited, and the transferring extent of Dec 602 was over one. The stereo-selected accumulation of two DP isomers occurred among tissues with preference to syn-DP in blood, and to anti-DP in brain. The values of lipid-adjusted monodechlorinated products mainly originated from the exterior environment in ducks.

  20. Local and landscape associations between wintering dabbling ducks and wetland complexes in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Reinecke, Kenneth J.; Dinsmore, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape features influence distribution of waterbirds throughout their annual cycle. A conceptual model, the wetland habitat complex, may be useful in conservation of wetland habitats for dabbling ducks (Anatini). The foundation of this conceptual model is that ducks seek complexes of wetlands containing diverse resources to meet dynamic physiological needs. We included flooded croplands, wetlands and ponds, public-land waterfowl sanctuary, and diversity of habitats as key components of wetland habitat complexes and compared their relative influence at two spatial scales (i.e., local, 0.25-km radius; landscape, 4-km) on dabbling ducks wintering in western Mississippi, USA during winters 2002–2004. Distribution of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) groups was positively associated with flooded cropland at local and landscape scales. Models representing flooded croplands at the landscape scale best explained occurrence of other dabbling ducks. Habitat complexity measured at both scales best explained group size of other dabbling ducks. Flooded croplands likely provided food that had decreased in availability due to conversion of wetlands to agriculture. Wetland complexes at landscape scales were more attractive to wintering ducks than single or structurally simple wetlands. Conservation of wetland complexes at large spatial scales (≥5,000 ha) on public and private lands will require coordination among multiple stakeholders.

  1. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks.

    PubMed

    Jensen, W I; Allen, J P

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  2. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  3. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  4. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas alysanensis) by emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1993, unusual mortality occurred among endangered Laysan ducks on Laysan Island, one of the remote refugia of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (USA). Ten live ducks were emaciated, and blood samples documented anemia, heterophilia, and eosinophilia. Pathology in 13 duck carcasses revealed emaciation, marked thickening of the proventricular wall, abundant mucus, and nodules in the gastrointestinal tract. Histology revealed granulomata associated with nematodes in the proventriculus, small intestines, and body walls of nine of 10 ducks examined on histology. We suspect that low rainfall and low food abundance that year contributed to enhanced pathogenicity of parasite infection, either through increased exposure or decreased host resistance. Because the Laysan duck is found only on Laysan island and is critically endangered, translocation of this species to other islands is being considered. Given that we have not seen pathology associated with Echinuria spp. in native waterfowl on other Hawaiian Islands and given the parasitea??s potential to cause significant lesions in Laysan ducks, it will be important to prevent the translocation of Echinuria spp.

  5. Natural cavities used by wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Ball, I.J.; Cowardin, L.M.; Mathisen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to locate 31 wood duck (Aix sponsa) nest cavity sites in 16 forest stands. Stands were of 2 types: (1) mature (mean = 107 years) northern hardwoods (10 nest sites), and (2) mature (mean = 68 years) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) (21 nest sites). Aspen was the most important cavity-producing tree used by wood ducks and accounted for 57 percent of 28 cavities inspected. In stands used by wood ducks, the average density of suitable cavities was about 4 per hectare. Trees containing nests were closer to water areas (P < 0.05) and the nearest forest canopy openings (P < 0.01) than was a random sample of trees from the same stands. A significant (P < 0.005) relationship existed between the orientation of the cavity entrance and the nearest canopy opening. Potential wood duck cavities usually were clustered within a stand rather than randomly distributed. Selection of trees by woodpeckers for nest hole construction probably influenced the availability of cavities used by wood ducks. A plan for managing forests to benefit wood ducks and other wildlife dependent on old-growth timber is discussed.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis between domestic and wild duck species in Korea using mtDNA D-loop sequences.

    PubMed

    Jin, S D; Hoque, Md R; Seo, D W; Paek, W K; Kang, T H; Kim, H K; Lee, J H

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the consumption of duck meat has increased; therefore, we need to reveal the origin and gene flow of domestic ducks in Korea. In order to discriminate between duck species, D-loop variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been investigated. In this study, 45 individuals from seven species of wild and domestic ducks in Korea were considered for the D-loop region sequences. With the participation of all the sequences, a phylogenetic neighbor-joining tree was constructed to differentiate between the wild and domestic duck species. In consideration of these sequences, a total 66 haplotypes were obtained (indel included) with an average haplotype of 76.9%, and a haplotype and nucleotide diversity of 0.91 and 0.01, respectively. Also, an estimation of the sequence divergence within and between species was measured in 0.045 and 0.013-0.095, respectively. Meanwhile, the lowest distances of 0.024, 0.013 and 0.018 were observed in three species, including the Mallard, Spot-billed and domestic duck, respectively, which have relatively close genetic relationships. All haplotypes were used for the median-joining network analysis to differentiate all duck species, while three duck species were closely related. Moreover, 26 indel polymorphisms were identified which could be used for the discrimination among the duck species. Based on our results, duck species were effectively discriminated in a D-loop region, which could then be used for an appropriate genetic conservation program for the wild duck and domestic duck breeds in Korea.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Subgenotype 1b Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Sansui Sheldrake Ducks in Guizhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu; Xu, Houqiang; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Newcastle disease viruses, Sheldrake duck/China/Guizhou/01/2016 and Sheldrake duck/China/Guizhou/02/2016, isolated from Sansui Sheldrake ducks in Guizhou Province, China. The genome of the isolates is 15,198 nucleotides in length. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates are clustered into subgenotype 1b in class I. PMID:27932647

  8. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  9. [Fungi microbiot of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae)].

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Richard E; Feijó, Francisco M C; Alves, Nilza D; Lima, Paulo M; Pereira, Daniel S; Freitas, Carlos C O

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie Melipona subnitida Ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. Bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido. We found the fungi: Aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); Aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); Penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); Aspergillus terreus 1 (6.3%); Curvularia sp. 1 (6.35%); Monilia sp. 1 (6.3%); Nigrospora sp. 1 (6.3%); Cladosporium sp. 1 (6.3%); Tricoderma sp. 1 (6.3%).

  10. Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in Maine during 1977-80. Eight radio-marked hens moved their broods an average of 1.2 km from the nest to rearing pond, but only 1 hen initiated secondary brood movements. Half of the 85 broods reared in the study area used only 3 wetlands, and most rearing ponds contained active beaver (Castor canadensis) colonies. Brood-rearing hens preferred Emergent ponds over lakes and Evergreen Scrub-Shrub wetlands, and did not occupy Dead Scrub-Shrub, Unconsolidated Bottom, or Aquatic Bed wetlands. Rearing ponds were large and possessed extensive areas of flooded mountain alder (Alnus incana), willow (Salix spp.), and herbaceous vegetation. Wetlands avoided by brood-rearing hens were those with large areas of open water, submergent aquatics, or ericaceous shrub vegetation.

  11. What about the ducks? An alternative vaccination strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Durland

    2005-01-01

    Like most emerging disease threats, avian influenza is a zoonotic disease maintained in nature by wildlife. In this case, the reservoir of infection is migratory waterfowl, primarily ducks. Rather than trying to vaccinate most of the world's human population in response to the threat of an avian influenza pandemic, it might be more prudent to vaccinate key reservoir wildlife species from which pandemic strains evolve. This strategy would require a much more intensive research effort to understand the evolution of avian influenza viruses in nature, but it would be far less costly than any of the alternatives. Research priorities for emerging zoonoses, such as new strains of avian influenza viruses, should be re-evaluated with an emphasis on ways to intervene at their source, the natural reservoir hosts from which they originate, rather than focusing up on human-based interventions, which are too often too late. PMID:17132336

  12. Embryotoxicity of Corexit 9500 in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Finch, Bryson E; Smith, Philip N

    2012-04-01

    Embryotoxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9500 was examined using fertilized mallard duck eggs. Corexit 9500 was topically applied below the air cell to eggs in volumes ranging from 0 to 100 μL on day 3 of incubation. The highest incidence of mortality occurred at developmental stage 4, one day post-Corexit 9500 application. Hatching success was significantly decreased among eggs treated with ≥ 20 μL of Corexit 9500 as compared to controls (P ≤ 0.047). No egg treated with ≥ 40 μL successfully hatched. The application volume resulting in 50% mortality (corrected for control survival) was determined to be 15.5 μL. Developmental stage at embryo death was also significantly decreased compared to controls in eggs exposed to 40 μL (P = 0.0042) and above.

  13. What about the ducks? An alternative vaccination strategy.

    PubMed

    Fish, Durland

    2005-10-01

    Like most emerging disease threats, avian influenza is a zoonotic disease maintained in nature by wildlife. In this case, the reservoir of infection is migratory waterfowl, primarily ducks. Rather than trying to vaccinate most of the world's human population in response to the threat of an avian influenza pandemic, it might be more prudent to vaccinate key reservoir wildlife species from which pandemic strains evolve. This strategy would require a much more intensive research effort to understand the evolution of avian influenza viruses in nature, but it would be far less costly than any of the alternatives. Research priorities for emerging zoonoses, such as new strains of avian influenza viruses, should be re-evaluated with an emphasis on ways to intervene at their source, the natural reservoir hosts from which they originate, rather than focusing up on human-based interventions, which are too often too late.

  14. Bone development in black ducks as affected by dietary toxaphene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehrle, P.M.; Finley, M.T.; Ludke, J.L.; Mayer, F.L.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    Black ducks, Anas rubripes, were exposed to dietary toxaphene concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 μg/g of food for 90 days prior to laying and through the reproductive season. Toxaphene did not affect reproduction or survival, but reduced growth and impaired backbone development in ducklings. Collagen, the organic matrix of bone, was decreased significantly in cervical vertebrae of ducklings fed 50 μg/g, and calcium conentrations increased in vertebrae of ducklings fed 10 or 50 μg/g. The effects of toxaphene were observed only in female ducklings. In contrast to effects on vertebrae, toxaphene exposure did not alter tibia development. Toxaphene residues in carcasses of these ducklings averaged slightly less than the dietary levels.

  15. Methylmercury: Second generation reproductive and behavioral effects of mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) whose parents were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury (equal to about 0.1 ppm mercury in a natural diet) also were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury beginning at 9 days of age and continuing through their reproductive season. Mercury in the eggs of treated hens averaged 0.86 ppm. Hens fed 0.5 ppm mercury made less efficient use of feed and laid a greater percentage of eggs outside nestboxes compared with controls. Hens fed mercury also produced fewer 1-week-old ducklings than did controls. There were no significant differences between controls and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury in approach responses to tape-recorded maternal calls, in avoidance of a frightening stimulus, or in open-field behavior. Ducklings from parents fed 0.5 pprn mercury did not grow as fast as did control ducklings.

  16. Floods on Duck River in the vicinity of Centerville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    This flood hazard information report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along a selected reach of the Duck River in the vicinity of Centerville, Tennessee. The report was prepared in response to a request by the town for up-to-date information regarding the flood potential along the studied stream reach in order to better administer its floodplain management program. This report does not propose plans or the solution of identified flood problems along the studied stream reach. Rather, the information and technical data contained herein are intended to provide a sound basis for informed decisions regarding the wise use of flood-prone lands within the town of Centerville and the surrounding portion of Hickman County. 3 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Effect of certain anesthetic agents on mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, D.R.; Greenwood, R.J.

    1972-01-01

    Four anesthetic agents used in human or veterinary medicine and 3 experimental anesthetic preparations were evaluated for effectiveness in inducing narcosis when administered orally to game-farm mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).Tribromoethanol was the only compound to satisfy criteria of initial tests. Mean duration of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods was 2.4 minutes, 8.7 minutes, and 1.3 hours, respectively, at the median effective dosage for immobilization (ED50; 100 mg./kg. of body weight). The median lethal dosage (LD50) was 400 mg./kg. of body weight.Tribromoethanol was also tested on mallards during the reproductive season. Effects on the hatchability of eggs or the survival of young were not detected.

  18. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  19. Upland duck nesting related to land use and predator reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    Duck nesting was studied during 1971 in north-central South Dakota under four conditions: in idle, five or six year old fields of domestic grass-legume mixtures in an area where predators including the red fox (Vulpes fulva), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and badger (Taxidea taxus) were (1) reduced and (2) not reduced. Nesting was also studied in tracts of active agricultural land (primarily croplands and pastures) where predators were (3) reduced, and (4) not reduced. Under condition (1), 260 nests were found on 0.87 km2 (299 nests/km2), eggs hatched in 92 percent of the nests and production was 22.0 ducklings/hectare. Under condition (2), 187 nests were found on 2.22 km2 (84 nests/km2), nest success was 68 percent and 4.7 ducklings/hectare were produced. On active agricultural land subject to predator reduction (condition 3), 64 nests were found on 5.14 km2 (12 nests/km2). Eggs in 85 percent of the nests hatched and production was 0.7 duckling/hectare. On active agricultural land not subject to predator reduction (condition 4), 58 nests were found on 4.01 km2 (14 nests/km2), nest success was 51 percent and 0.5 duckling/hectare was produced. Idle, 16 to 65-hectare (40 to 160-acre) stands of cool-season, introduced grasses in combination with legumes produced maximum numbers of upland nesting ducks.

  20. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  1. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks.

    PubMed

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P < 0.01) BW value than those with the GH/CC and GH/CTgenotype. In females of Pekin ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) to birds with two other detected genotypes in respect to BW, CG, LBB and LS. In the case of Mulards, ducks with the GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P < 0.05) by the polymorphism of the GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  2. Characterization of Gut Microbiome Dynamics in Developing Pekin Ducks and Impact of Management System

    PubMed Central

    Best, Aaron A.; Porter, Amanda L.; Fraley, Susan M.; Fraley, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    Little to no research has been conducted on the gut microbiome of the Pekin duck, yet over 24.5 million ducks are raised for human consumption each year in the United States alone. Knowledge of the microbiome could lead to an understanding of the effects of growing conditions such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and enzymes in feeding practices, the use of antibiotics, and the sources of pathogenic bacteria in diseased ducks. In order to characterize changes in the caecal microbiome that occur as ducks develop through a typical industry grow-out period, a 16S rRNA community analysis of caecal contents collected over a 6-week period was conducted using a next generation sequencing approach. Transitions in the composition of the caecal microbiome occurred throughout the lifespan, with a large shift during days 4 through 10 posthatch. Two major phyla of bacteria were found to be present within the caeca of aviary raised ducks, with the relative abundance of each phylum varying by age of the duck. Proteobacteria is dominant for the first 3 days of age, and Firmicutes increases and dominates beginning at day 4. Barn raised ducks contained a significant population of Bacteroidetes in addition to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at later developmental time points, though this phylum was absent in aviary raised ducks. Genera containing pathogens of anseriformes most often found in industry settings were either absent or found as normal parts of the caecal microbial populations. The high level differences in phylum abundance highlight the importance of well-designed sampling strategies for microbiome based studies. Results showed clear distinctions between Pekin Duck caecal contents and those of Broiler Chickens and Turkey in a qualitative comparison. These data provide a reference point for studies of the Pekin Duck through industry grow-out ages, provide a foundation for understanding the types of bacteria that promote health, and may lead to improved methods to

  3. Activation of Duck RIG-I by TRIM25 Is Independent of Anchored Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Magor, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a viral RNA sensor crucial in defense against several viruses including measles, influenza A and hepatitis C. RIG-I activates type-I interferon signalling through the adaptor for mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). The E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif containing protein 25 (TRIM25), activates human RIG-I through generation of anchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains attached to lysine 172, or alternatively, through the generation of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that interact non-covalently with RIG-I CARD domains. Previously, we identified RIG-I of ducks, of interest because ducks are the host and natural reservoir of influenza viruses, and showed it initiates innate immune signaling leading to production of interferon-beta (IFN-β). We noted that K172 is not conserved in RIG-I of ducks and other avian species, or mouse. Because K172 is important for both mechanisms of activation of human RIG-I, we investigated whether duck RIG-I was activated by TRIM25, and if other residues were the sites for attachment of ubiquitin. Here we show duck RIG-I CARD domains are ubiquitinated for activation, and ubiquitination depends on interaction with TRIM25, as a splice variant that cannot interact with TRIM25 is not ubiquitinated, and cannot be activated. We expressed GST-fusion proteins of duck CARD domains and characterized TRIM25 modifications of CARD domains by mass spectrometry. We identified two sites that are ubiquitinated in duck CARD domains, K167 and K193, and detected K63 linked polyubiquitin chains. Site directed mutagenesis of each site alone, does not alter the ubiquitination profile of the duck CARD domains. However, mutation of both sites resulted in loss of all attached ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains. Remarkably, the double mutant duck RIG-I CARD still interacts with TRIM25, and can still be activated. Our results demonstrate that anchored ubiquitin chains are not necessary for TRIM25

  4. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H. C.; Huang, J. F.; Lee, S. R.; Liu, H. L.; Hsieh, C. H.; Huang, C. W.; Huang, M. C.; Tai, C.; Poivey, J. P.; Rouvier, R.; Cheng, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03) and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03) and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The

  5. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Liu, H C; Huang, J F; Lee, S R; Liu, H L; Hsieh, C H; Huang, C W; Huang, M C; Tai, C; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Cheng, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h (2) = 0.07±0.03) and M (h (2) = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h (2) = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h (2) = 0.20±0.03) and F (h (2) = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality

  6. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-07-25

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  7. Quantitative transmission characteristics of different H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Niqueux, Éric; Picault, Jean-Paul; Amelot, Michel; Allée, Chantal; Lamandé, Josiane; Guillemoto, Carole; Pierre, Isabelle; Massin, Pascale; Blot, Guillaume; Briand, François-Xavier; Rose, Nicolas; Jestin, Véronique

    2014-01-10

    EU annual serosurveillance programs show that domestic duck flocks have the highest seroprevalence of H5 antibodies, demonstrating the circulation of notifiable avian influenza virus (AIV) according to OIE, likely low pathogenic (LP). Therefore, transmission characteristics of LPAIV within these flocks can help to understand virus circulation and possible risk of propagation. This study aimed at estimating transmission parameters of four H5 LPAIV (three field strains from French poultry and decoy ducks, and one clonal reverse-genetics strain derived from one of the former), using a SIR model to analyze data from experimental infections in SPF Muscovy ducks. The design was set up to accommodate rearing on wood shavings with a low density of 1.6 ducks/m(2): 10 inoculated ducks were housed together with 15 contact-exposed ducks. Infection was monitored by RNA detection on oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs using real-time RT-PCR with a cutoff corresponding to 2-7 EID50. Depending on the strain, the basic reproduction number (R0) varied from 5.5 to 42.7, confirming LPAIV could easily be transmitted to susceptible Muscovy ducks. The lowest R0 estimate was obtained for a H5N3 field strain, due to lower values of transmission rate and duration of infectious period, whereas reverse-genetics derived H5N1 strain had the highest R0. Frequency and intensity of clinical signs were also variable between strains, but apparently not associated with longer infectious periods. Further comparisons of quantitative transmission parameters may help to identify relevant viral genetic markers for early detection of potentially more virulent strains during surveillance of LPAIV.

  8. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  9. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Szymanski, M.L.; Caswell, J.H.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Checkett, J.M.; Afton, A.D.; Moore, T.G.; Caswell, F.D.; Walters, R.A.; Humburg, D.D.; Yee, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

  10. Jamaica Bay studies VII: Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of ducks in a New York estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna; Trout, J. Richard; Wander, Wade; Ritter, Glenn S.

    1984-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of ducks (Anatini, Cairinini, Aythyini, Mergini, Oxyurini) were examined at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, a coastal estuary on Long Island, New York. The refuge contains a variety of tidal habitats as well two freshwater impoundments. The largest concentrations of diving ducks were present in March and April, and from October through December; while the largest concentrations of dabbling ducks were present from June through December. Thus, diving ducks used the refuge on migration whereas dabbling ducks used the refuge during and following the breeding season. Time of year was thus the most significant factor affecting distribution and abundance. Some species were present all year, including Black Duck Anas rubripes, Mallard A. platyrhynchos, Gadwall A. strepera, and Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis. Although both dabblers and divers used all areas of the bay, dabblers used both ponds while divers used only the East Pond. Dabbling ducks concentrated in the bay at low tide, and on the ponds at high tide. There were more divers on the bay on a falling tide although tide direction did not influence the abundance or distribution of dabblers. Temperature and wind variables influenced the distribution of all ducks: they used the bay at low temperatures, and rafted in large flocks on the bay in intermediate, Northwest winds. Only the numbers and distribution of dabblers were significantly influenced by cloud cover. We conclude that abiotic factors influence the abundance and distribution of ducks on Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, and that tidal factors should be considered when managing migratory or wintering populations of ducks.

  11. Increased efficacy of inactivated vaccine candidates prepared with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains of predominant genotypes in ducks.

    PubMed

    Youn, S Y; Kwon, Y K; Song, C S; Lee, H J; Jeong, O M; Choi, B K; Jung, S C; Kang, M S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has been a major causative agent of food-borne human disease, mainly due to consumption of contaminated food animal products. In particular, ducks serve as a reservoir of serovar Typhimurium, and are one of the common sources of human infection. To prevent infection of ducks, and therefore minimize human infection, it is critical to control the persistent epidemic strains in ducks. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity and virulence of serovar Typhimurium isolates from ducks in Korea to identify the predominant strains that might be used as efficient vaccine candidates for ducks. Among the isolates, 2 representative isolates (ST26 and ST76) of predominant genotypes were selected as vaccine strains on the basis of genotypic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA microarrays. Two-week-old ducks were then injected intramuscularly with inactivated vaccine candidates prepared using ST26 or ST76 (10(8) cfu/0.5 mL/duck or 10(9) cfu/0.5 mL/duck), and oral challenge with a highly virulent serovar Typhimurium strain (10(9) cfu/0.5 mL/duck) was carried out 2 wk later. Shedding of the challenge strain was significantly decreased in group 2 after vaccination. The antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all vaccinated groups were enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the unvaccinated control group. Overall, vaccination with ST26 or ST76 reduced bacterial shedding and colonization in internal organs, and induced elevated antibody response. In particular, serovar Typhimurium ST26 (10(8) cfu/0.5 mL/duck) was the most effective vaccine candidate, which can provide efficient protection against serovar Typhimurium in ducks with higher effectiveness compared to a commercial vaccine currently used worldwide.

  12. Host immune responses of ducks infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of different pathogenicities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangmeng; Jiao, Peirong; Song, Yafen; Cao, Lan; Yuan, Runyu; Gong, Lang; Cui, Jin; Zhang, Shuo; Qi, Wenbao; Yang, Su; Liao, Ming

    2013-10-25

    Our previous studies have illustrated three strains of duck-origin H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) had varying levels of pathogenicity in ducks (Sun et al., 2011). However, the host immune response of ducks infected with those of H5N1 HPAIVs was unclear. Here, we compared viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ducks following infection with the two HPAIV (A/Duck/Guangdong/212/2004, DK212 and A/Duck/Guangdong/383/2008, DK383). DK383 could replicate in the tested tissue of ducks (brain, spleen, lungs, cloacal bursa, kidney, and pancreas) more rapid and efficiently than DK212 at 1 and 2 days post-inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of TLR3, IL-6, IL-8, and MHC class II in brains were higher than those of respective genes in lungs during the early stage of post infection. Furthermore, the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the brain of ducks following infection with DK383 were remarkably higher than those of ducks infected with DK212, respectively. Our results suggest that the shift in the H5N1 HPAIVs to increased virulence in ducks may be associated with efficient and rapid replication of the virus, accompanied by early destruction of host immune responses. These data are helpful to understand the underlying mechanism of the different outcome of H5N1 HPAIVs infection in ducks.

  13. Differences in pathogenicity of A/Duck/Vietnam/201/05 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus reassortants in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand which viral genes contribute to the high virulence of A/Dk/Vietnam/201/05 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in ducks, we used reverse genetics to generate single-gene reassortant viruses with genes from A/Ck/Indonesia/7/03, a virus that produces mild disease ...

  14. Contrasting nest survival patterns for ducks and songbirds in northern mixed-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Todd; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.

    2017-01-01

    Management actions intended to protect or improve habitat for ducks may benefit grassland-nesting passerines, but scant information is available to explore this assumption. During 1998–2003, we examined nest survival of ducks and songbirds to determine whether effects of prescribed fire and other habitat features (e.g., shrub cover and distance to habitat edges) were similar for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota. We used the logistic-exposure method to estimate survival of duck and songbird nests (n = 3,171). We used an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that most influenced nest survival. Patterns of nest survival were markedly different between taxonomic groups. For ducks, nest survival was greater during the first postfire nesting season (daily survival rate [DSR] = 0.957, 85% CI = 0.951–0.963), relative to later postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.946, 85% CI = 0.942–0.950). Furthermore duck nest survival and nest densities were inversely related. Duck nest survival also was greater as shrub cover decreased and as distance from cropland and wetland edges increased. Passerines had lower nest survival during the first postfire nesting season (DSR = 0.934, 85% CI = 0.924–0.944), when densities also were low compared to subsequent postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.947, 85% CI = 0.944–0.950). Parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) reduced passerine nest survival and this effect was more pronounced during the first postfire nesting season compared to subsequent nesting seasons. Passerine nest survival was greater as shrub cover decreased and perhaps for more concealed nests. Duck and songbird nest survival rates were not correlated during this study and for associated studies that examined additional variables using the same dataset, suggesting that different mechanisms influenced their survival. Based on our results, ducks should not be considered direct surrogates for passerines

  15. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  16. An attenuated duck plague virus (DPV) vaccine induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses to protect ducks against virulent DPV infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Shu, Bing; Yu, Xia; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2014-04-01

    Duck plague (DP) is a severe disease caused by DP virus (DPV). Control of the disease is recognized as one of the biggest challenges in avian medicine. Vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV, and an attenuated vaccine is the main routine vaccine. The attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa is a modified live vaccine, but the systemic and mucosal immune responses induced by this vaccine have been poorly understood. In this study, the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated after subcutaneous immunization of ducks. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were counted by flow cytometry, and humoral and mucosal Ig antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that high levels of T cells and Ig antibodies were present postimmunization and that there were more CD4(+) T cells than CD8(+) T cells. Titers of humoral IgG were higher than those of humoral IgA. Local IgA was found in each sample, whereas local IgG was found only in the spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, harderian gland, liver, bile, and lung. In a protection assay, the attenuated DPV vaccine completely protected ducks against 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the lethal DPV strain CHv via oral infection. These data suggest that this subcutaneous vaccine elicits sufficient systemic and mucosal immune responses against lethal DPV challenge to be protective in ducks. This study provides broad insights into understanding the immune responses to the attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa through subcutaneous immunization in ducks.

  17. Habitat use and preferences of breeding female wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartke, Kevin M.; Hepp, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Female wood ducks (Aix sponsa) feed primarily on plant foods in the prelaying period and switch to a diet of mostly invertebrates during egg production. If nutrient acquisition is habitat-specific, then selection and use of habitats may differ between these reproductive stages. A better understanding of these processes is needed to assist future habitat conservation and management efforts. In January-May 1999 and 2000, we monitored movements and habitat use of radiomarked females (n = 47) during the prelaying and egg-production periods of first nests. Home-range size averaged 367 ha and did not vary with reproductive period, year, or female age. Habitat use did not differ between periods of prelaying and egg production; consequently, data were combined. Habitat use varied between years, female age, and periods of nest initiation (i.e., early vs. late). Use of beaver ponds (BP), temporary wetlands (TW), managed impoundments (MI), and lake habitats (LK) declined in 2000 compared to 1999, possibly due to reduced precipitation. Nest initiation date was independent of female age. Adult females used BP more than yearlings, and early-nesting females used BP and MI more than late-nesting females. Females selected habitats nonrandomly when habitat composition of the study area was compared to that of home ranges (second-order selection). Lake-influenced wetlands (LI) and MI were ranked highest in preference. Home-range size was inversely related to percentage of the home range comprised of MI and LI, supporting the idea that MI and LI were high-quality habitats. However, we found no relationship between nest initiation date (an important index to reproductive performance) and the combined area of MI and LI in home ranges. Habitai selection did not differ from random when habitat composition of home ranges was compared to that of radio locations (third-order selection). Although MI and LI were preferred, high-quality habitats, our results suggest that breeding female wood

  18. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Newcastle Disease Virus Strains Isolated from a Wild Duck and a Pigeon in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Alikina, Tatyana Y.; Yurchenko, Kseniya S.; Glushchenko, Alexandra V.; Gunbin, Konstantin V.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.; Gubanova, Natalya V.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, Adygea/duck/12/2008, from a wild duck in Russia, and Altai/pigeon/777/2010, from a pigeon in Russia. Based on comparative sequence analysis of the F gene, these strains were classified as NDV class II, genotypes VIId and VIb/2, respectively. PMID:27932648

  20. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  1. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  2. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  3. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  4. "We Decided to Call It Quits": An Exercise in Applying Duck's Dissolution Model to Students' Breakup Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Matthew H.; Turman, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    Steve Duck's scholarship has made a noticeable impact on the study of interpersonal communication. Of his works, one of the most noteworthy is the explanatory model of relationship disengagement and dissolution. Duck's Dissolution Model (DDM) explains the stages that relationships pass through when they encounter stress resulting in two…

  5. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  6. Complete genome sequence of a genotype XVII Newcastle disease virus, isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the f...

  7. Protective effects of recombinant glycoprotein D based prime boost approach against duck enteritis virus in mice model.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Saravanan, R; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2015-11-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is an acute herpes viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The method of repeated immunization with a live attenuated vaccine has been used for the prevention and control of duck enteritis virus (DEV). However, the incidence of the disease in vaccinated flocks and latency reactivation are the major constraints in the present vaccination programme. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy afforded by intramuscular inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding DEV glycoprotein D (pCDNA-gD) followed by DEV gD expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisia (rgD) was assessed in a murine model. Compared with mice inoculated with DNA (pCDNA-gD) or protein (rgD) only, mice inoculated with the combination of gD DNA and protein had enhanced ELISA antibody titers to DEV and had accelerated clearance of virus following challenge infection. Furthermore, the highest levels of lymphocyte proliferation response, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were induced following priming with the DNA vaccine and boosting with the rgD protein. For instance, the specially designed recombinant DEV vector vaccine would be the best choice to use in ducks. It offers an excellent solution to the low vaccination coverage rate in ducks. We expect that the application of this novel vaccine in the near future will greatly decrease the virus load in the environment and reduce outbreaks of DEV in ducks.

  8. Experimental infection of mallard ducks with different subtype H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV’s) remain a threat to poultry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses, including HPAIV, are usually non-pathogenic for ducks and other wild aquatic birds, with the exception of some Asian lineage H5N1 HPAIVs which can cause severe disease in ducks. With ...

  9. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii -specific ...

  10. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  11. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  12. Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 A...

  13. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks. PMID:27708647

  14. A comprehensive analysis of the germline and expressed TCR repertoire in White Peking duck

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Sun, Yi; Ma, Yonghe; Li, Zhenrong; Zhao, Yu; Ren, Liming; Han, Haitang; Jiang, Yunliang; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Recently, many immune-related genes have been extensively studied in ducks, but relatively little is known about their TCR genes. Here, we determined the germline and expressed repertoire of TCR genes in White Peking duck. The genomic organization of the duck TCRα/δ, TCRγ and unconventional TCRδ2 loci are highly conserved with their counterparts in mammals or chickens. By contrast, the duck TCRβ locus is organized in an unusual pattern, (Vβ)n-Dβ-(Jβ)2-Cβ1-(Jβ)4-Cβ2, which differs from the tandem-aligned clusters in mammals or the translocon organization in some teleosts. Excluding the first exon encoding the immunoglobulin domain, the subsequent exons of the two Cβ show significant diversity in nucleotide sequence and exon structure. Based on the nucleotide sequence identity, 49 Vα, 30 Vδ, 13 Vβ and 15 Vγ unique gene segments are classified into 3 Vα, 5 Vδ, 4 Vβ and 6 Vγ subgroups, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most duck V subgroups, excluding Vβ1, Vγ5 and Vγ6, have closely related orthologues in chicken. The coding joints of all cDNA clones demonstrate conserved mechanisms that are used to increase junctional diversity. Collectively, these data provide insight into the evolution of TCRs in vertebrates and improve our understanding of the avian immune system. PMID:28134319

  15. Proteolytic activity alterations resulting from force-feeding in Muscovy and Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Awde, S; Marty-Gasset, N; Wilkesman, J; Rémignon, H

    2013-11-01

    We investigated liver protease activity in force-fed and non-force-fed ducks using zymography gels to better understand mechanisms underlying liver steatosis in palmipeds. Male Muscovy and Pekin ducks were slaughtered before and after a short period (13 d) while they were conventionally fed or force fed. The force-fed regimen contained a high level of carbohydrates and was delivered in large doses. Main hepatic proteases (matrix metalloprotease-2, calpains, and cathepsins) were extracted from raw liver and specifically activated within electrophoretic gels. Both force-fed Muscovy and Pekin ducks presented higher liver weights and BW associated with lower matrix metalloprotease-2 and m-calpain hepatic activities. On the other hand, hepatic cathepsin activity was not affected by force feeding. It was concluded that Muscovy and Pekin duck hepatic proteases are affected similarly by the force feeding. Thus, this cannot explain differences observed between Muscovy and Pekin ducks regarding their ability to develop hepatic steatosis generally reported in literature.

  16. Winter movements of American black ducks in relation to natural and impounded wetlands in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Costanzo, G.R.; Stotts, D.B.; Whitman, William R.; Meredith, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to follow the movements and habitat use of female American Black ducks (Anas rubripes) trapped at Brigantine Division. Edwin B. Forsythe NWR (BNW) during three field seasons (1983-1896). Use of the BNWR impoundments was strongly associated with open vs. closed hunting seasons and with presence or absence of ice cover. Black ducks primarily used the impoundments for daytime roost sites and fed in saltmarsh areas at night during the hunting season. Following the hunting season use generally dispersed to saltmarsh and inland freshwater habitats. Freeze-up of the impoundments resulted in dispersal of black ducks to saltmarsh, inland freshwater, or areas to the south of New Jersey. We conclude that the BNWR impoundments only partially meet the habitat requirements of wintering black ducks. Access to saltmarsh habitats for feeding, and to inland freshwater habitats during periods of hard freeze, may be critical. The utility of the BNWR impoundments to black ducks, needs to be considered in conjunction with the availability of these other important habitats.

  17. The role of sediment ingestion in exposing wood ducks to lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Audet, D.

    1997-01-01

    Waterfowl on lateral lakes of the Coeur d'Alene River and on Lake Coeur d'Alene have been poisoned for many years by lead (Pb) from mining and smelting. In 1992 we undertook a study in the area to determine the importance of sediment ingestion in exposing wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to Pb. Digesta were removed from the intestines of wood ducks collected from contaminated and reference areas. The average Pb concentration in digesta of wood ducks from the contaminated area was 32 ppm dry weight. The sediment content was estimated to average less than 2% of the dry weight of the wood duck diet. Lead concentrations in digesta were closely correlated with concentrations of acid-insoluble ash, Al, Ti and Fe in digesta, and these four variables are associated with sediment. Samples containing low concentrations of these variables also had low concentrations of Pb. These results suggest that most of the Pb in the digesta came from ingested sediment, rather than from plant material in the diet. The importance of ingested sediment as a source of lead was unexpected, because wood ducks are surface feeders on aquatic plants and they rarely dabble beneath the surface or feed on the bottom. However, it appears that sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route of exposure to environmental contaminants that are not readily taken up by plants and invertebrates, and this route should be considered in risk assessments of waterfowl.

  18. Performance of indigenous, Khaki Campbell and their reciprocal crossbred layer ducks under different management systems.

    PubMed

    Nageswara, A R; Ramasubba Reddy, V; Ravindra Reddy, V

    2005-08-01

    1. The performance of indigenous ducks (ID), Khaki Campbell (KC) and their reciprocal crossbred layers was studied from 19 to 58 weeks of age. For each genotype, 4 x 18 ducks (3 males + 15 females) were reared under a semi-intensive system (SIS) and an intensive system (IS) with standard management, and 4 x 50 ducks (8 males + 42 females) were reared in an extensive system (ES) with traditional management. 2. In comparison to KC, ID were superior in terms of age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg weight, hatchability, eggshell thickness with higher egg shape index. KC ducks were superior to ID in body weight, egg production and feed/kg eggs. Egg quality was similar among the genotypes. Crosses were superior to their parent breeds in age at first egg, egg production and feed/kg eggs. They were also superior to KC in egg weight and egg-shell thickness with a higher egg shape index. 3. The performance of genotypes in the SIS and the IS was similar and superior to the ES except for fertility and yolk colour. 4. Significant heterotic effects were recorded for age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg production per duck-day, feed efficiency and egg weight in crosses. Performance was similar in the reciprocal crosses, but superior to their parent breeds.

  19. Meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory evaluation of Cherry Valley, Spent Layer and Crossbred ducks.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yan; Huang, Jichao; Chen, Yulian; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare meat quality characteristics of Cherry Valley (CV), Spent Layer (SL) and Crossbred (CB) ducks. Meat quality, proximate and fatty acid composition were measured in breast and thigh muscles from CV, SL and CB, as well as sensory evaluation of duck soup made from three breeds. The results showed SL contained a highest percentage of protein but lowest moisture than those of CV and intermediate CB (P < 0.05). The L* and b* value of SL ducks were lowest among three breeds (P < 0.05). The breast of SL had higher water-holding capacity compared to CV (P < 0.05), although CV was the most tender among the three breeds (P < 0.05). SL had lower contents of saturated fatty acid and higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids with a more acceptable P/S ratio of 0.57 and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1.52 (P < 0.05). Intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acids were involved in producing intense aroma and flavor of duck meats. Differences of color and tenderness in meats were attributed to values of L* and cooking loss of muscles. In conclusion, it would be suggested that SL was more suitable for producing duck soup among the three breeds.

  20. The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualan; Zhang, Yong; Qian, Wubin; Kim, Heebal; Gan, Shangquan; Zhao, Yiqiang; Li, Jianwen; Yi, Kang; Feng, Huapeng; Zhu, Pengyang; Li, Bo; Liu, Qiuyue; Fairley, Suan; Magor, Katharine E; Du, Zhenlin; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Goodman, Laurie; Tafer, Hakim; Vignal, Alain; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Kyu-Won; Sheng, Zheya; An, Yang; Searle, Steve; Herrero, Javier; Groenen, Martien A M; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Faraut, Thomas; Cai, Qingle; Webster, Robert G; Aldridge, Jerry R; Warren, Wesley C; Bartschat, Sebastian; Kehr, Stephanie; Marz, Manja; Stadler, Peter F; Smith, Jacqueline; Kraus, Robert H S; Zhao, Yaofeng; Ren, Liming; Fei, Jing; Morisson, Mireille; Kaiser, Pete; Griffin, Darren K; Rao, Man; Pitel, Frederique; Wang, Jun; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken and zebra finch, and this repertoire has been shaped through lineage-specific duplications. We identify genes that are responsive to influenza A viruses using the lung transcriptomes of control ducks and ones that were infected with either a highly pathogenic (A/duck/Hubei/49/05) or a weakly pathogenic (A/goose/Hubei/65/05) H5N1 virus. Further, we show how the duck’s defense mechanisms against influenza infection have been optimized through the diversification of its β-defensin and butyrophilin-like repertoires. These analyses, in combination with the genomic and transcriptomic data, provide a resource for characterizing the interaction between host and influenza viruses. PMID:23749191

  1. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system.

    PubMed

    Schenk, A; Porter, A L; Alenciks, E; Frazier, K; Best, A A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2016-04-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n=1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n=8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks' body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P<0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P<0.001), nitrites (P<0.001), pH (P<0.01), and bacterial growth (P<0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P<0.001)E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcusin the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P=0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P=0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health.

  2. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for species identification of goose and mule duck in foie gras products.

    PubMed

    Rodrı X0301 Guez, Miguel A; Garcı X0301 A, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Mayoral, Belén; López-Calleja, Inés; Hernández, Pablo E; Martı X0301 N, Rosario

    2003-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a conserved region of the α-actin gene has been used for the specific identification of goose (Anser anser) and mule duck (Anas platyrhynchos×Cairina moschata) foie gras. Universal primers were used for the amplification of a DNA fragment containing three introns and four exons of the α-actin gene in goose and mule duck. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragments was necessary for the design of forward species-specific primers in the goose and mule duck α-actin genes. The use of species-specific forward primers, together with a reverse universal primer, produced amplicons of different length, allowing clear identification of goose and mule duck foie gras samples. Analysis of experimental mixtures demonstrated that 1% of duck can be easily detected in goose foie gras using the PCR method developed here. This genetic marker can be very useful for the accurate identification of these two species in foie gras products.

  3. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  4. Calcium-45 uptake by shell gland, oviduct, plasma and eggshell of DDT-dosed ducks and chickens.

    PubMed

    Davison, K L

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with ducks and chickens to determine the effects of acute doses of DDT and DDE on calcium-45 balance and calcium-45 distribution among plasma, femur, tibia, oviduct, shell gland, and eggshell. Species differences in distribution of calcium-45 were evident between control ducks and control chickens. Ducks contained more radiocalcium in plasma, shell glands, tibias, and femurs than chickens and eliminated less radiocalcium in their droppings than chickens. The percentage of radiocalcium deposited in eggshells by control birds of either species was about equal. Ducks and chickens treated with DDT or DDE contained more radiocalcium in their shell glands than their respective controls. Treatment with DDT or DDE caused eggshell thinning in ducks but not in chickens; however, treatment with DDT or DDE did not alter significantly the percentage of radiocalcium that appeared in eggshells of either species.

  5. Duck nesting in fields of undisturbed grass-legume cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A study of dabbling duck (Anatinae) nesting was conducted during 1971-73 on nine 12- to 54-ha Cropland Adjustment Program fields in the prairie pothole region of north-central South Dakota. The tall, dense vegetation was comprised of introduced cool-season grasses and legumes, primarily smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis), intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium), and alfalfa. Complexes of temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent wetlands surrounded the fields at densities of 1.5-8.1 basins/km2 and areas of 9.4-17.2 ha/km2. Of the 620 nests studied, 38 percent were of blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 24 percent were of mallards (A. platyrhynchos), and 24 percent were of gadwalls (A. strepera). Densities of nests of all species averaged 67, 114, and 47 nests/km2 (3-yr av 77/km2). Calculated hatching rates were 69, 58, and 32 percent (av 56) for the 3 years. Hatchability of eggs in successful nests averaged 97.1 percent. Averages of 4.0, 6.2, and 1.2 ducklings were hatched per hectare in 1971, 1972, and 1973, respectively (3-yr av 3.7/ha).

  6. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  7. A pintail duck swims in the water at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A pintail duck swims calmly in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with the space center. The pintail can be found in marshes, prairie ponds and tundra, and salt marshes in winter. They range from Alaska and Greenland south to Central America and the West Indies. The open waters of the Wildlife Refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The refuge comprises 92,000 acres, ranging from fresh-water impoundments, salt-water estuaries and brackish marshes to hardwood hammocks and pine flatwoods. The diverse landscape provides habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles, including such endangered species as Southern bald eagles, wood storks, Florida scrub jays, Atlantic loggerhead and leatherback turtles, osprey, and nearly 5,000 alligators.

  8. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  9. Ontogenetic immune challenges shape adult personality in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; Toomey, Matthew B; McGraw, Kevin J; Rowe, Melissah

    2012-01-22

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour are widespread in animals, but the proximate mechanisms driving these differences remain largely unresolved. Parasitism and immune challenges are hypothesized to shape the expression of animal personality traits, but few studies have examined the influence of neonatal immune status on the development of adult personality. We examined how non-pathogenic immune challenges, administered at different stages of development, affected two common measures of personality, activity and exploratory behaviour, as well as colour-dependent novel object exploration in adult male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). We found that individuals that were immune-challenged during the middle (immediately following the completion of somatic growth) and late (during the acquisition of nuptial plumage) stages of development were more active in novel environments as adults relative to developmentally unchallenged birds or those challenged at an earlier developmental time point. Additionally, individuals challenged during the middle stage of development preferred orange and avoided red objects more than those that were not immune-challenged during development. Our results demonstrate that, in accordance with our predictions, early-life immune system perturbations alter the expression of personality traits later in life, emphasizing the role that developmental plasticity plays in shaping adult personality, and lending support to recent theoretical models that suggest that parasite pressure may play an important role in animal personality development.

  10. Dabbling duck behavior and aircraft activity in coastal North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomy, J.T.; Collazo, J.A.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have prompted the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We quantified behavioral responses of wintering American black ducks (Anas rubripes), American wigeon (A. americana), gadwall (A. strepera), and American green-winged teal (A. crecca carolinensis) exposed to low-level flying military aircrafts at Piney and Cedar islands, North Carolina, in 1991 and 1992. Waterfowl spent ???1.4% of their time responding to aircraft, which included flying, swimming, and alert behaviors. Mean duration of responses by species ranged from 10 to 40 sec. Costs to each species were deemed low because disruptions represented a low percentage of their time-activity budgets only a small proportion of birds reacted to disturbance (13/672; 2%); and the likelihood of resuming the activity disrupted by an aircraft disturbance event was high (64%). Recorded levels of aircraft disturbance (i.e., x?? = 85.1 dBA) were not adversely affecting the time-activity budgets of selected waterfowl species wintering at Piney and Cedar islands.

  11. Mycotic Keratitis in a Khaki Campbell Duck ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sadar, Miranda J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Burton, Andrew G; Byrne, Barbara A; Wiggans, K Tomo; Hollingsworth, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    A 1.5-year-old, intact female khaki Campbell duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was evaluated for lethargy and a swollen left eye (OS). Mucoid discharge, chemosis, and conjunctival hyperemia with trace aqueous flare, indicating anterior uveitis, in the anterior chamber were evident on ophthalmic examination. There was no fluorescein stain uptake by the cornea. Initial topical antibiotic therapy and systemic anti-inflammatory treatments were unsuccessful, and the lesion progressed to a diffuse, yellow-white plaque, which covered 90%-95% of the cornea 4 days later. There was moderate blepharospasm, mild blepharedema, and epiphora OS. The mobility of the nictitating membrane was impaired because of the presence of the plaque over the cornea. Cytologic examination of a corneal scraping revealed fungal hyphae, and aerobic culture confirmed Aspergillus species. Treatment with topical voriconazole (1 drop OS q4h-q6h) was initiated and was switched to oral voriconazole (20 mg/kg PO q12h) 6 days after initiating treatment. The ocular disease improved during the antifungal treatment period. Eighty-four days after initial presentation (9 days after discontinuation of treatment), there was no clinical evidence of mycotic keratitis on ophthalmic examination.

  12. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  13. Feeding ducks, bacterial chemotaxis, and the Gini index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaudecerf, François J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-08-01

    Classic experiments on the distribution of ducks around separated food sources found consistency with the "ideal free" distribution in which the local population is proportional to the local supply rate. Motivated by this experiment and others, we examine the analogous problem in the microbial world: the distribution of chemotactic bacteria around multiple nearby food sources. In contrast to the optimization of uptake rate that may hold at the level of a single cell in a spatially varying nutrient field, nutrient consumption by a population of chemotactic cells will modify the nutrient field, and the uptake rate will generally vary throughout the population. Through a simple model we study the distribution of resource uptake in the presence of chemotaxis, consumption, and diffusion of both bacteria and nutrients. Borrowing from the field of theoretical economics, we explore how the Gini index can be used as a means to quantify the inequalities of uptake. The redistributive effect of chemotaxis can lead to a phenomenon we term "chemotactic levelling," and the influence of these results on population fitness are briefly considered.

  14. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  15. [Emergy value evaluation on rice-duck organic farming mode].

    PubMed

    Xi, Yunguan; Qin, Pei

    2006-02-01

    Employing emergy value evaluation method, this paper compared the ecological and economic benefits of rice-duck organic farming system (mode I) and conventional rice-wheat rotation system (mode II) in Shanghai suburb. The results showed that mode I had better emergy benefits, higher self-organizing ability and sustainability, and higher product safety. The net emergy yield ratio (EYR), feedback ratio of yield emergy (FYE), and emergy sustainable index (ESI) of mode I were respectively 1.57, 14.1, and 8.71 times as much as those of mode II, and the emergy index of product safety (EIPS) was 0 in mode I but -0.66 in mode II. The emergy investment ratio (EIR) and environmental loading ratio (ELR) of mode I were 40.1% and 18.3% of mode II, respectively, suggesting that mode I had less environmental pressure than mode II. Mode I had lower economic benefits than mode II. The economic output, gross income, and net income of mode I were 15.7%, 9.6%, and 29.6% less than those of mode II , respectively. As for Em dollars, the output, gross income, and net income of mode I were respectively 50%, 102.6%, and 136.4% higher than those of mode II. With the system optimization and the development of organic food market, mode I had the potential to improve its economic benefits.

  16. Histochemical features of the Muscovy duck small intestine during development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao An; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Xiaoming, Nie; Baglini, Alessandro; Romboli, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the distribution and morphology of argyrophil and of goblet cells in the mucosa of the small intestine of the Muscovy duck during development using the Grimelius silver staining and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS) staining technique. The argyrophil cells distribution was variable over the length of the small intestine from embryonic day 24 (24E) to post-hatching day 13 (13d). In the villi most argyrophil cells belonged to the open-type, while in the crypts they belonged to the closed-type. In the duodenum the density of argyrophil cells was highest at hatching, while in the jejunum and in the ileum the highest density value was at hatching and 13d. AB/PAS-positive goblet cells appeared on the villi and crypts of the duodenum and jejunum at 30E, and in the ileum at hatching. The density of AB/PAS-positive cells was the highest in the three segments at hatching. The AB-positive cells, compared with the PAS-positive cells, predominated in villi and crypts of the three segments, moreover the rate of AB-positive cells to PAS-positive cells significantly decreased from 30E to 9d. An increase in argyrophil and goblet cells number during the later incubation and at hatching, could indicate the small intestine in that period is being prepared to face a new diet.

  17. Survival and reproductive success of black ducks fed methyl mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Stendell, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A diet containing 3 ppm mercury was fed to black ducks (Anas rubripes) for periods of 28 weeks during two consecutive breeding seasons. Clutch size, egg production, number of eggs incubated, hatchability and survival of ducklings were lower during both years in hens fed mercury. Reduced hatchability and poor duckling survival were the most harmful effects. During 2 years, 13 pairs of breeders fed mercury produced only 16 ducklings that survived 1 week compared with 73 ducklings from 13 pairs of controls. Mercury residues in eggs, embryos and ducklings averaged about 30% lower during the second breeding season compared with first year results. Third eggs laid by treated hens contained a mean of 6?14 and 3?86 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Whole embryos that failed to hatch contained means of 9?62 and 6?08 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Brains of dead ducklings contained between 3?25 and 6?98 ppm mercury and exhibited lesions characteristic of mercury poisoning. Relative tissue mercury levels for treated adult breeders were: feathers > liver > kidney > breast muscle > brain. Mercury levels in males and females did not differ.

  18. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás

    2009-04-01

    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  19. A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

    PubMed

    Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka; Yi, Young-Joo; Yoo, Jaehong; Kang, Nam Kyu; Heo, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.

  20. Translocation of Endangered Laysan Ducks to Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (2004-5)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Island ecosystems throughout the Pacific have undergone catastrophic species loss, largely due to the effects of alien or non-native species. Rats, in particular, pose significant threats to native species. In Hawai`i, the appearance of rats (which are not native to Hawai`i) in the subfossil record coincides with the disappearance of ground nesting birds. Sadly, only three of Hawai`i?s 10 endemic waterfowl species still exist today. The Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis), also known as the Laysan Teal, is a critically endangered dabbling duck that is restricted to a single population on the remote and rat-free Laysan Island (Fig. 1). The Laysan Duck was listed as an endangered species in 1966 because of its small population, limited distribution, and dependence on a fragile island ecosystem. The same threats identified in 1966 continue to plague the species today.

  1. SNP discovery and genotyping using Genotyping-by-Sequencing in Pekin ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Cui, Qian-Qian; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection and genome-wide association studies need thousands to millions of SNPs. However, many non-model species do not have reference chips for detecting variation. Our goal was to develop and validate an inexpensive but effective method for detecting SNP variation. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) can be a highly efficient strategy for genome-wide SNP detection, as an alternative to microarray chips. Here, we developed a GBS protocol for ducks and tested it to genotype 49 Pekin ducks. A total of 169,209 SNPs were identified from all animals, with a mean of 55,920 SNPs per individual. The average SNP density reached 1156 SNPs/MB. In this study, the first application of GBS to ducks, we demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method. GBS can be used for genetic studies in to provide an effective method for genome-wide SNP discovery. PMID:27845353

  2. [Effects of rice-duck farming on paddy field water environment].

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Jia-En; Chen, Rui; Xu, Rong-Bao

    2008-09-01

    Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rice-duck farming on the water environment in paddy field. The results showed that under rice-duck farming, the temperature and pH value of the surface water in paddy field decreased, and the electrical conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, and the contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) increased. The total N, P, and K increased by 1.85-5.06 times, 2.01-8.70 times, and 42.79%-109.18%, respectively, as compared to those in conventional rice farming. All of these illustrated that rice-duck farming improved the paddy field water environment and nutrient supply, optimized the ecological environment of paddy field, and promoted the growth and development of rice.

  3. Biochemical identification of mallard-black duck hybrids through a breeding program and in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1978-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce black duck-mallard hybrids for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and esterases. In addition to the initial crosses, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns in hybrid matings with either black duck or mallards. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished. However, mallard or black duck crosses with hybrids were detectable as hybrids in only 11.5 - 22.6% of the progeny using serum proteins, and 22.6 - 38.8% using serum esterases. Concurrent with the breeding program, a field survey indicated hybrid frequencies ranging from 4% to 28%.

  4. Heat stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the productivity of egg-laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shang; Ruan, Dong; Jiang, Zongyong

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat stress on the nutritional metabolism and productivity of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The heat-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in heat-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in heat-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in heat-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of heat stress. In summary, heat stress decreased the productivity of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance.

  5. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, L.

    1975-01-01

    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  6. Sources of variation in survival and breeding site fidelity in three species of European ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    1. We used long-term capture-recapture-recovery data and a modelling approach developed by Burnham (1993) to test a priori predictions about sources of variation in annual survival rates and fidelity within a population of individually marked females in three species of European ducks from a breeding ground study site in Latvia. 2. True annual survival was higher for diving ducks (tufted duck 0-72, common pochard 0-65) and lower for northern shoveler (0-52). Survival of female diving ducks was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures at Western European wintering areas, the relationship being much stronger for pochard. 3. We present the first unbiased estimates of breeding fidelity and permanent emigration in European ducks. Estimated fidelity rates were high (0'88-1-0) and emigration rates low (0-0-12) for all three species, and we found strong evidence for age-specific differences in fidelity of pochards. Unusual long-distance (up to 2500 km) breeding dispersal movements that we found in female tufted ducks have not been documented in any other European waterfowl and are most probably a result of saturated nesting habitats. 4. Fidelity was a function of patch reproductive success in the previous year for all three species providing support for the idea that patch success is an important cue influencing fidelity. 5. Fidelity probability increased to 1.0 for shovelers during the last 12 years of study following provision of critical improvements in nesting habitats and suggested that habitat conditions and reproductive success determined site fidelity and settling patterns for shoveler and probably also influenced fidelity of the two other species. In predictable habitats, fidelity is a parameter that reflects the integration of fitness components and is thus a good quantity for assessing the effectiveness of habitat management actions.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Pepsin-soluble Collagens from Bones, Skins, and Tendons in Duck Feet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were conducted to characterize pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extracted from bones (PSC-B), skins (PSC-S), and tendons (PSC-T) of duck feet and to determine their thermal and structural properties, for better practical application of each part of duck feet as a novel source for collagen. PSC was extracted from each part of duck feet by using 0.5 M acetic acid containing 5% (w/w) pepsin. Electrophoretic patterns showed that the ratio between α1 and α2 chains, which are subunit polypeptides forming collagen triple helix, was approximately 1:1 in all PSCs of duck feet. PSC-B had slightly higher molecular weights for α1 and α2 chains than PSC-S and PSC-T. From the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), higher onset (beginning point of melting) and peak temperatures (maximum point of curve) were found at PSC-B compared to PSC-S and PSC-T (p<0.05). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) presented that PSC-S and PSC-T had similar intermolecular structures and chemical bonds, whereas PSC-B exhibited slight difference in amide A region. Irregular dense sheet-like films linked by random-coiled filaments were observed similarly. Our findings indicate that PSCs of duck feet might be characterized similarly as a mixture of collagen type I and II and suggest that duck feet could be used for collagen extraction without deboning and/or separation processes. PMID:27857543

  8. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions.

  9. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  10. Description and identification of American Black Duck, Mallard, and hybrid wing plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.; Reed, A.; Dupuis, P.; Obrecht, H.H.; Quist, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    We developed a key to identify wings of hybrids between American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Material for analysis included review of historical descriptions dating from the late 1700's, older museum collections in Europe and North America, wings collected from hunters in North America and Great Britain, birds banded in Canada and the United States, and a flock of propagated hybrids. All first filial generation (F1) American Black Duck x Mallard hybrids were identified correctly with the key. A lower proportion of other hybrid cohorts (i.e., backcrosses of F1, to parental forms (P1), and second and third filial generations (F2, F3, etc.) were identified. We successfully identified a larger portion of male than female hybrids for all hybrid progeny cohorts examined except F1. The new key identified 2.37 times more hybrids in the 1977 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Parts Collection Survey (annual determination of the species, age, and sex composition of the waterfowl harvest using detached wings contributed by hunters) than were identified by standard techniques. The proportion of American Black Duck x Mallard hybrids to the American Black Duck parental population (the ratio: hybrids/[hybrids + American Black Ducks]) may therefore be closer to 0.132 than 0.056, the historically reported value. The hybrid key is suggested for use from North Carolina north in the Atlantic Flyway and Arkansas and Tennessee north in the Mississippi Flyway (areas where other members of the Mallard group will not confound assessment). We provide suggestions for further research that would assist identification of wings in parts collection surveys and permit estimation of the proportional representation of Mallard genes in the American Black Duck gene pool.

  11. Description and identification of American Black Duck, Mallard, and hybrid wing plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Ronald E.; Reed, Austin; Dupuis, Pierre; Obrecht, Holliday H.; Quist, Walter J.

    2000-01-01

    We developed a key to identify wings of hybrids between American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Material for analysis included review of historical descriptions dating from the late 1700's, older museum collections in Europe and North America, wings collected from hunters in North America and Great Britain, birds banded in Canada and the United States, and a flock of propagated hybrids. All first filial generation (F1) American Black Duck - Mallard hybrids were identified correctly with the key. A lower proportion of other hybrid cohorts (i.e., backcrosses of F1 to parental forms (P1), and second and third filial generations (F2, F3, etc.) were identified. We successfully identified a larger portion of male than female hybrids for all hybrid progeny cohorts examined except F1. The new key identified 2.37 times more hybrids in the 1977 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Parts Collection Survey (annual determination of the species, age, and sex composition of the waterfowl harvest using detached wings contributed by hunters) than were identified by standard techniques. The proportion of American Black Duck - Mallard hybrids to the American Black Duck parental population (the ratio: hybrids/[hybrids + American Black Ducks]) may therefore be closer to 0.132 than 0.056, the historically reported value. The hybrid key is suggested for use from North Carolina north in the Atlantic Flyway and Arkansas and Tennessee north in the Mississippi Flyway (areas where other members of the Mallard group will not confound assessment). We provide suggestions for further research that would assist identification of wings in parts collection surveys and permit estimation of the proportional representation of Mallard genes in the American Black Duck gene pool.

  12. Ducks and passerines nesting in northern mixed-grass prairie treated with fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Todd A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Berkey, Gordon B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important, ecology-driven tool for restoration of grassland systems. However, prescribed fire remains controversial for some grassland managers because of reported reductions in bird use of recently burned grasslands. Few studies have evaluated effects of fire on grassland bird populations in the northern mixed-grass prairie region. Fewer studies yet have examined the influence of fire on nest density or survival. In our review, we found no studies that simultaneously examined effects of fire on duck and passerine nesting. During 1998—2003, we examined effects of prescribed fire on the density of upland-nesting ducks and passerines nesting in north-central North Dakota, USA. Apparent nest densities of gadwall (Anas strepera), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and all duck species combined, were influenced by fire history of study units, although the degree of influence was not compelling. Fire history was not related to nest densities of blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), or northern pintail (A. acuta); however, apparent nest densities in relation to the number of postfire growing seasons exhibited a strikingly similar pattern among all duck species. When compared to ducks, fire history strongly influenced apparent nest densities of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). For most species examined, apparent nest densities were lowest in recently burned units, increased during the second postfire growing season, and stabilized or, in some cases, decreased thereafter. Prescribed fire is critical for restoring the ecology of northern mixed-grass prairies and our findings indicate that reductions in nest densities are limited mostly to the first growing season after fire. Our results support the premise that upland-nesting ducks and several grassland passerine species are adapted to periodic fires occurring at a frequency similar to that

  13. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  14. Movements and foraging effort of Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks wintering near Dutch Harbor, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.A.; Flint, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the movements and foraging effort of radio-marked Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to evaluate habitat quality in an area impacted by industrial activity near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Foraging effort was relatively low, with Steller's Eiders foraging only 2.7 ± 0.6 (SE) hours per day and Harlequin Ducks 4.1 ± 0.5 hours per day. Low-foraging effort during periods of high-energetic demand generally suggests high food availability, and high food availability frequently corresponds with reductions in home range size. However, the winter ranges of Harlequin Ducks did not appear to be smaller than usual, with the mean range size in our study (5.5 ± 1.1 km2) similar to that reported by previous investigators. The mean size of the winter ranges of Steller's Eiders was similar (5.1 ± 1.3 km2), but no comparable estimates are available. Eutrophication of the waters near Dutch Harbor caused by seafood processing and municipal sewage effluent may have increased populations of the invertebrate prey of these sea ducks and contributed to their low-foraging effort. The threat of predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that winter near Dutch Harbor may cause Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks to move further offshore when not foraging, contributing to an increase in range sizes. Thus, the movement patterns and foraging behavior of these ducks likely represent a balance between the cost and benefits of wintering in a human-influenced environment.

  15. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  16. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  17. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signaling and is absent in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Alysson H; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signaling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-β. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signaling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus, ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signaling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself.

  18. Lead in tissues of mallard ducks dosed with two types of lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sacrificed one month after ingesting one number 4 all-lead shot or one number 4 lead-iron shot. Livers, kidneys, blood, wingbones, and eggs were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption. Necropsy of sacrificed ducks failed to reveal any of the tissue lesions usually associated with lead poisoning in waterfowl. Lead levels in ducks given all-lead shot averaged about twice those in ducks given lead-iron shot, reflecting the amount of lead in the two types of shot. Lead in the blood of ducks dosed with all-lead shot averaged 0.64 ppm, and 0.28 ppm in ducks given lead-iron shot. Lead residues in livers and kidneys of females given all-lead shot were significantly higher than in males. In both dosed groups, lead levels in wingbones of females were about 10 times those in males, and were significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid after dosage. Lead levels in contents and shells of eggs laid by hens dosed with all-lead shot were about twice those in eggs laid by hens dosed with lead-iron shot. Eggshells were found to best reflect levels of lead in the blood. Our results indicate that mallards maintained on a balanced diet and dosed with one lead shot may not accumulate extremely high lead levels in the liver and kidney. However, extremely high lead deposition may result in the bone of laying hens after ingesting sublethal amounts of lead shot as a result of mobilization of calcium from the bone during eggshell formation.

  19. Spleen Transcriptome Profile of Muscovy Ducklings in Response to Infection With Muscovy Duck Reovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxi; Wu, Yijian; Cai, Yilong; Zhuang, Yubin; Xu, Lihui; Wu, Baocheng; Zhang, Yanding

    2015-06-01

    Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. However, the molecular basis for pathogenesis of this virus remains poorly understood, and the complete genome sequence of Muscovy duck is lacking. Here we report the transcriptome profile of Muscovy ducks in response to MDRV infection. RNA sequencing technology was employed to obtain a representative complement of transcripts from the spleen of ducklings, and then differential gene expression was analyzed between MDRV-YB strain infected ducks and noninfected ducks. This analysis generated 65,536 unigenes. Of these, 6458 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the infected and noninfected groups. The symptom and pathology of ducks infected with MDRV-YB was correlated with the greater proportion of decreased expression genes (4906) than increased expression (1552) level. Gene ontology analysis assigned differentially expressed genes to the categories: "biological processes," "cellular functions," and "molecular functions." Differentially expressed genes involved in the innate immune system were analyzed further, and 128 of these genes showed decreased expression and 86 showed increased expression between the infected and noninfected groups. These genes represented the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, and the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways and included interferon (IFN) α, IFNγ, interleukin 6, RIG-I, and TLR4. The data were verified by SYBR fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SYBR-qPCR). Our findings offer new insight into the host immune response to MDRV infection.

  20. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  1. Health risk associated with the consumption of duck egg containing endosulfan residues.

    PubMed

    Ketyam, Butsayanan; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Amnart; Poapolathep, Saranya; Jermnak, Usuma; Phaochoosak, Napasorn; Tanhan, Phanwimol

    2016-05-01

    Eight duck farms and a local market in Suphanburi province, Thailand adjacent to paddy fields were selected for this study. The concentrations of endosulfan isomers (α- and β-endosulfan) and endosulfan sulfate in environmental matrices (water, soil, feed) and duck eggs were determined. Human health risk via the contaminated egg consumption was also evaluated. Analysis of environmental matrices found both endosulfan isomers (α- and β-endosulfan) and endosulfan sulfate in most samples. Endosulfan sulfate was predominantly found in all matrices followed by β- and α-endosulfan, respectively. The total endosulfan concentrations were in the following order: feed > soil > water. However, the levels of endosulfan detected were lower than the regulatory maximum residue limit of endosulfan, except in water (>0.200 ng mL(-1)). Endosulfan sulfate in duck egg samples was also predominantly detected in both yolk and albumin. The average total endosulfan residues (∑endosulfan) in yolk (6.73 ng g(-1)) were higher than in albumin (4.78 ng g(-1)). According to principle component analysis, we found that paddy soil surrounding the duck farms is the suspected source of endosulfan contamination in husbandry water which subsequently contaminates duck eggs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of these endosulfan-contaminated eggs were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for endosulfan (6 μg kg(-1) day(-1)). However, the consumption of this contaminated duck eggs should be of concerns in regard to chronic exposure. Therefore, the better environmental managements to reduce endosulfan residues can play a crucial role for decreasing human health risk.

  2. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Analysis of South-East Asian Duck Populations Based on the mtDNA D-loop Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, H.; Seo, D. W.; Bhuiyan, M. S. A.; Choi, N. R.; Hoque, M. R.; Heo, K. N.; Lee, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D–loop region is widely used for exploring genetic relationships and for investigating the origin of various animal species. Currently, domestic ducks play an important role in animal protein supply. In this study, partial mtDNA D–loop sequences were obtained from 145 samples belonging to six South-East Asian duck populations and commercial duck population. All these populations were closely related to the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), as indicated by their mean overall genetic distance. Sixteen nucleotide substitutions were identified in sequence analyses allowing the distinction of 28 haplotypes. Around 42.76% of the duck sequences were classified as Hap_02, which completely matched with Anas platyrhynchos duck species. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree also revealed that South-East Asian duck populations were closely related to Anas platyrhynchos. Network profiles were also traced using the 28 haplotypes. Overall, results showed that those duck populations D-loop haplotypes were shared between several duck breeds from Korea and Bangladesh sub continental regions. Therefore, these results confirmed that South-East Asian domestic duck populations have been domesticated from Anas platyrhynchos duck as the maternal origins. PMID:27004808

  3. Peracute sodium toxicity in free-ranging black-bellied whistling duck ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 July 2002, 98a??103 newly hatched black-bellied whistling ducks (Dendrocygna autumnalis) were observed alive at an inland saline lake (La Sal Vieja) in Willacy County, Texas (USA). Seventy-one (71%) died after showing signs indicative of sodium toxicity within 5 hr of entering the water; some died within minutes. Six carcasses were sent to the United States Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center (Madison, Wisconsin, USA) for analysis, and brain sodium levels of all ducklings were above 2,000 parts per million wet weight. More black-bellied whistling duck ducklings are likely to have been affected, but they were not observed after hatching.

  4. Carbonate deposition on tail feathers of ruddy ducks using evaporation ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial carbonate deposits were observed on rectrices of Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) collected during 1982-1984 on evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Carbonate deposits were composed of about 75% aragonite and 25% calcite, both polymorphous forms of CaCO3. Significantly more carbonate deposits were observed on Ruddy Ducks as length of exposure to agricultural drain water increased, during the 1983-1984 field season when salt concentrations in the ponds were higher, and in certain evaporation-pond systems.

  5. Fall food habits of wood ducks from Lake Marion, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGilvrey, F.B.

    1966-01-01

    A total of 108 stomachs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) collected from hunters on the upper end of Lake Marion, South Carolina, between November 29 and December 6, 1961, were examined for information on food habits. Six plants made up over 98 percent of the total volume. Five were tree fruits: water and pin oak (Quercus nigra and Q. palustris), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water hickory (Carya aquatica). The sixth important food was corn (Zea mays). In areas being managed for wood ducks and timber, therefore, these tree species should not be removed.

  6. Widespread horizontal genomic exchange does not erode species barriers among sympatric ducks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of speciation and maintenance of species barriers is at the core of evolutionary biology. During speciation the genome of one population becomes separated from other populations of the same species, which may lead to genomic incompatibility with time. This separation is complete when no fertile offspring is produced from inter-population matings, which is the basis of the biological species concept. Birds, in particular ducks, are recognised as a challenging and illustrative group of higher vertebrates for speciation studies. There are many sympatric and ecologically similar duck species, among which fertile hybrids occur relatively frequently in nature, yet these species remain distinct. Results We show that the degree of shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between five species of dabbling ducks (genus Anas) is an order of magnitude higher than that previously reported between any pair of eukaryotic species with comparable evolutionary distances. We demonstrate that hybridisation has led to sustained exchange of genetic material between duck species on an evolutionary time scale without disintegrating species boundaries. Even though behavioural, genetic and ecological factors uphold species boundaries in ducks, we detect opposing forces allowing for viable interspecific hybrids, with long-term evolutionary implications. Based on the superspecies concept we here introduce the novel term "supra-population" to explain the persistence of SNPs identical by descent within the studied ducks despite their history as distinct species dating back millions of years. Conclusions By reviewing evidence from speciation theory, palaeogeography and palaeontology we propose a fundamentally new model of speciation to accommodate our genetic findings in dabbling ducks. This model, we argue, may also shed light on longstanding unresolved general speciation and hybridisation patterns in higher organisms, e.g. in other bird groups with unusually high

  7. Complete genome sequence of a novel duck hepatitis A virus discovered in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-ya; Su, Shuo; Huang, Zhen; Zhu, Wan-jun; Chen, Ji-dang; Zhao, Fu-rong; Wang, Yan-jing; Xie, Jie-xiong; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong

    2012-09-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) isolated from mixed infections with DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) and DHAV-3 in ducklings in Southern China. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology with the sequence of DHAV-3 (GenBank accession number DQ812093) (96.2%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of gene rearrangement between DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and it will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck hepatitis A virus in Southern China.

  8. Biochemical identification of the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, and black duck, A. rubripes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Noe, L.A.; Henny, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. 1. Eleven tissue systems from mallards and black ducks were examined for soluble proteins, lactate dehydrogenases and non-specific esterases through discontinuous polyacrylamide techniques. 2. 2. Biochemical relationships between the black duck and mallard are extremely similar. 3. 3. Hemoglobins and lactate dehydrogenase appear to be common in electrophoretic mobility between the two species. 4. 4. Approximately 89% of the soluble proteins and 58% of the non-specific esterases are common among the two species, indicating both biochemical similarity at the genus level and species-specificity.

  9. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Choline Requirements of Starter White Pekin Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Z. G.; Tang, J.; Xie, M.; Yang, P. L.; Hou, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    A 2×5 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary methionine levels (0.28% and 0.48%) and 5 dietary choline levels (0, 394, 823, 1,239, and 1,743 mg/kg), was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine status on choline requirements of starter white Pekin ducks from 7 to 28 days of age. Four hundred eighty 7-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to ten dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 28 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured and the legs of all ducks from each pen were examined for incidence of perosis. Perosis and growth depression were observed in choline-deficient ducks and supplementation of choline reduced perosis and significantly increased weight gain and feed intake regardless of dietary methionine levels (p<0.05). In addition, significant positive effects of dietary methionine supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were observed at any choline level (p<0.05). Supplementation of 1,743 mg/kg choline in diets alleviated the depression of weight gain and feed intake caused by methionine deficiency at 0.28% methionine level. The interaction between choline and methionine influenced weight gain and feed intake of ducks (p<0.05). At 0.28% methionine level, 1,743 mg/kg choline group caused 4.92% and 3.23% amount of improvement in weight gain and feed intake compared with 1,239 mg/kg choline group, respectively. According to the broken-line regression, the choline requirements of starter Pekin ducks for weight gain and feed intake were 1,472 and 1,424 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 946 and 907 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. It suggested the choline recommendations of starter Pekin ducks on a semi-purified diet were 1448 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 927 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. Compared with the adequate methionine level, menthionine deficiency markedly increased the choline requirements of ducks. PMID

  10. Recombinant VP1 protein of duck hepatitis virus 1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its immunogenicity in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Li, X K; Wu, T C; Wang, Y; Zhang, C J; Cheng, X C; Chen, P Y

    2014-01-01

    The VP1 gene of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) strain VJ09 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR from the liver of a duckling with clinical symptoms of viral hepatitis. The resulting VP1 cDNA was 720 bp in length and encoded a 240-amino-acid protein. In VP1 gene-based phylogenetic analysis, the VJ09 strain grouped with DHV-1 genotype C. The VP1 gene was inserted into the expression vector pPICZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The expressed VP1 protein was purified and identified by western blot analysis. To evaluate the recombinant VP1's immunogenic potential in ducklings, the antibodies raised in the immunized ducklings were titrated by ELISA, and lymphocyte proliferation and virus neutralization assays were performed. The results show that the recombinant VP1 protein induced a significant immune response in ducklings and this could be a candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine against DHV-1 genotype C.

  11. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  12. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  13. Dietary Administration of Bacillus subtilis Enhances Growth Performance, Immune Response and Disease Resistance in Cherry Valley Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengjiao; Hao, Guangen; Wang, Baohua; Li, Ning; Li, Rong; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Given the promising results of applying Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) as a probiotic in both humans and animals, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of B. subtilis on growth performance, immune response and disease resistance in Cherry Valley ducks. At 28 d post-hatch (dph), ducks fed a diet with B. subtilis weighed significantly more, had higher relative immune organ weights (e.g., bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen), and exhibited greater villus heights, villus height to crypt depth ratios (duodenum and jejunum), and shallower crypt depths in the duodenum than controls fed a normal diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the major pro-inflammatory factors and antiviral proteins, as measured in the thymus and the spleen, were higher at 28 dph in ducks fed probiotics than those of 14 dph. After 28 d of feeding, the ducks were challenged with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and novel duck reovirus (NDRV), and ducks fed B. subtilis achieved survival rates of 43.3 and 100%, respectively, which were significantly greater than the control group's 20 and 83.3%. Altogether, diets with B. subtilis can improve Cherry Valley ducks' growth performance, innate immune response, and resistance against E. coli and NDRV. PMID:28008328

  14. Seroprevalence of Campylobacter-Specific Antibodies in two German Duck Farms – A Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Lugert, Raimond; Groß, Uwe; Linsel, Gunter; Heutelbeck, Astrid; Zautner, Andreas Erich

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that about 60–100% of farmed ducks are colonized by Campylobacter species. Because of this, a higher risk of campylobacteriosis among duck farm workers can be assumed. To estimate the risk of Campylobacter infections in duck farm workers, we investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in ducks of two duck farms and the seroprevalence of anti-Campylobacter antibodies (IgA and IgG) in two cohorts of workers. The first cohort consisted of high-exposed stable workers and slaughterers, which was compared to a second cohort of non-/low-exposed persons. Duck caecal swabs and serum samples were collected in 2004, 2007, and 2010. The colonization rate in the examined ducks was found to be 80–90%. The seroprevalence of anti-Campylobacter IgA and IgG antibodies among the non-exposed cohort was found to be 0.00% in all 3 years. In contrast, the exposed cohort demonstrated an IgA seroprevalence of 4.17% in 2004, 5.71% in 2007, and 0.00% in 2010 and an IgG seroprevalence of 8.33% in 2004, 0.00% in 2007, and 4.29% in 2010. In conclusion, in 2004, we observed a significantly higher anti-Campylobacter antibody seroprevalence in the exposed cohort followed by a steady reduction in 2007 and 2010 under occupational health and safety measures. PMID:27429794

  15. Development and evaluation of a VP3-ELISA for the detection of goose and Muscovy duck parvovirus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Li, Yongfeng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Chunguo; Zhi, Haidong; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Gang; Li, Na; Liu, Shiguo; Xiang, Wenhua; Tong, Guangzhi

    2010-02-01

    The VP3-encoding gene of goose parvovirus (GPV) Ep22 strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The GPV VP3-encoding gene was 1605 bp in length, and it encoded a 534 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 59.9 kDa. The VP3 fusion protein expressed in E. coli was detected by goose and Muscovy duck anti-parvovirus polyclonal sera. In addition, an ELISA (VP3-ELISA) using the VP3 protein as the coating antigen for the detection of antibodies to GPV in geese and antibodies to Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in Muscovy ducks was developed. Compared to the virus neutralization test, the specificity and sensitivity of the VP3-ELISA was 90.2% and 95.2% for goose sera and 91.8% and 96.7% for Muscovy duck sera, respectively. The VP3-ELISA did not react with the anti-sera to other goose or duck pathogens, indicating that this protein is specific for the reorganization of goose or duck anti-parvovirus antibodies. Cross-reactivity between immunoglobulin G antibodies from geese and Muscovy ducks was also tested, and the results reflected the phylogenetic distance between these two birds when using the ELISA. In conclusion, the VP3-ELISA is a sensitive and specific method for detecting antibodies against GPV or MDPV.

  16. Differential channelling of liver lipids in relation to susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in two species of ducks.

    PubMed

    Hermier, Dominique; Guy, Gérard; Guillaumin, Solange; Davail, Stéphane; André, Jean-Marc; Hoo-Paris, Robert

    2003-08-01

    In the human, hepatic steatosis can be associated with an imbalance between synthesis, secretion and storage of hepatic lipids, and exhibits a genetic susceptibility. The effect of overfeeding on hepatic lipid channelling was investigated in two genotypes of ducks that differ in their susceptibility to fatty liver, i.e. the common duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and the Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata. Before overfeeeding, the Muscovy duck exhibited a lower subcutaneous adiposity and a higher muscular development, whereas hepatic composition was similar in both genotypes (>5% lipids and triglycerides accounting for 6-10% lipids). In the plasma lipoprotein profile, HDL predominated (5.5-7.8 g/l) over VLDL (0.09-0.25 g/l) and LDL (0.65-1.06 g/l). All lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were lower in the Muscovy duck. In response to overfeeding, the Muscovy duck exhibited a higher degree of hepatic steatosis (62 vs. 50% lipids), and a lower increase in adiposity and in the concentration of plasma triglycerides (6-fold vs. 10-fold) and VLDL (23-fold vs. 34-fold). Thus, certain genotypes may be more responsive to the dietary induction of fatty liver because of a less efficient channelling of hepatic lipids towards secretion into plasma and adipose storage, and the duck may represent a suitable model in which to study the development of hepatic steatosis and its pathogenesis.

  17. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-01-01

    A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt) of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02) and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV) is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  18. Dietary Administration of Bacillus subtilis Enhances Growth Performance, Immune Response and Disease Resistance in Cherry Valley Ducks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengjiao; Hao, Guangen; Wang, Baohua; Li, Ning; Li, Rong; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Given the promising results of applying Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) as a probiotic in both humans and animals, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of B. subtilis on growth performance, immune response and disease resistance in Cherry Valley ducks. At 28 d post-hatch (dph), ducks fed a diet with B. subtilis weighed significantly more, had higher relative immune organ weights (e.g., bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen), and exhibited greater villus heights, villus height to crypt depth ratios (duodenum and jejunum), and shallower crypt depths in the duodenum than controls fed a normal diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the major pro-inflammatory factors and antiviral proteins, as measured in the thymus and the spleen, were higher at 28 dph in ducks fed probiotics than those of 14 dph. After 28 d of feeding, the ducks were challenged with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and novel duck reovirus (NDRV), and ducks fed B. subtilis achieved survival rates of 43.3 and 100%, respectively, which were significantly greater than the control group's 20 and 83.3%. Altogether, diets with B. subtilis can improve Cherry Valley ducks' growth performance, innate immune response, and resistance against E. coli and NDRV.

  19. Sources of variation in survival of breeding female wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartke, Kevin M.; Grand, J.B.; Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    In waterfowl, reproduction is physiologically demanding and females are exposed to varying risks of mortality at different periods of the breeding cycle. Moreover, differences among females may influence survival within breeding periods. We captured and fitted female Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with radio-transmitters before nest initiation during two breeding seasons to estimate survival and investigate sources of variation in survival. We partitioned the breeding season into three periods (preincubation, incubation, postnesting) according to breeding status of individual females, and used information-theoretic methods to compare models in which daily survival varied among periods, between successful and failed nesting females, and with parameters describing individual heterogeneity. Our analysis suggested that daily survival was best modeled as a function of breeding period, differences between successful and failed nesting females during postnesting, and early incubation body condition of successful females during post-nesting. Model-averaged daily survival was 0.9988 (95% CL: 0.9963-0.9996) during preincubation and 1.0 during incubation. Postnesting daily survival was 1.0 for failed nesting females and 0.9948 (0.9773-0.9988) for successful females, suggesting a trade-off between current reproduction and survival. Female age, body condition at capture, nest initiation date, and brood size generally were not useful for explaining variation in survival. Only early incubation body condition was important for modeling survival of successful females during postnesting; however, weight of evidence was limited and the effect on survival was weak. Mortality was greatest for females during preincubation and for females that nested successfully. Results support the hypothesis that brood care is costly for females. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  20. Influence of plastic slatted floors compared with pine shaving litter on Pekin Duck condition during the summer months.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S; Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-07-01

    The management and well-being of commercial Pekin ducks has been studied in the European Union where straw is the predominant litter source. In the United States, however, the most prevalent litter is wood shavings, with a recent trend toward using plastic slatted flooring. A previous study in the United States evaluated the relationship between flooring type (litter, slats) and duck condition during winter months and found very few differences between the 2 in terms of overall duck condition. The purpose of the current study was to reevaluate the 2 flooring systems during the summer months to determine if seasonal differences would interact with flooring type to have an impact on duck condition. Eighteen commercial barns that produce Pekin ducks for Maple Leaf Farms Inc. (Leesburg, IN), located in northern Indiana and southern Wisconsin (n = 9 litter; n = 9 raised slatted floor), were used for this study. Twenty ducks were randomly selected from 5 predetermined areas within each house (n = 100 total) and scored for eye condition, nostril and feather cleanliness, and feather and foot pad quality at 7, 21, and 32 d of age. Environmental data, including carbon monoxide, ammonia, RH, and temperature, were also obtained at each collection day. The only statistical differences in body condition occurred at 7 d; there were more ducks with clear eyes and eye rings on the litter flooring, whereas average nostril scores were better on the plastic slatted floors. Live weight, weight gain per day, flock mortality, and condemnations at the plant were collected, and the only statistical difference was a higher gain per day for ducks reared on slatted floors compared with litter (P < 0.05). There were no differences between flooring systems in the environmental parameters measured within the barns. In summary, there were very few differences between the litter and slatted flooring systems, indicating that there may not be clear advantages for one particular flooring system over

  1. Replication of 2 subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus of duck and gull origins in experimentally infected Mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Daoust, P-Y; van de Bildt, M; van Riel, D; van Amerongen, G; Bestebroer, T; Vanderstichel, R; Fouchier, R A M; Kuiken, T

    2013-05-01

    Many subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus circulate in wild bird reservoirs, but their prevalence may vary among species. We aimed to compare by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, histology, and immunohistochemistry the distribution and pathogenicity of 2 such subtypes of markedly different origins in Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos): H2N3 isolated from a Mallard duck and H13N6 isolated from a Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis). Following intratracheal and intraesophageal inoculation, neither virus caused detectable clinical signs, although H2N3 virus infection was associated with a significantly decreased body weight gain during the period of virus shedding. Both viruses replicated in the lungs and air sacs until approximately day 3 after inoculation and were associated with a locally extensive interstitial, exudative, and proliferative pneumonia. Subtype H2N3, but not subtype H13N6, went on to infect the epithelia of the intestinal mucosa and cloacal bursa, where it replicated without causing lesions until approximately day 5 after inoculation. Larger quantities of subtype H2N3 virus were detected in cloacal swabs than in pharyngeal swabs. The possible clinical significance of LPAI virus-associated pulmonary lesions and intestinal tract infection in ducks deserves further evaluation.

  2. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  3. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  4. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Albers, Peter H; Klein, Patrice N; Green, David E; Melancon, Mark J; Bradley, Brian P; Noguchi, George

    2006-02-01

    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure.

  5. Wood duck brood movements and habitat use on prairie rivers in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granfors, D.A.; Flake, Lester D.

    1999-01-01

    Wood duck (Aix sponsa) populations have been increasing in the Central Flyway, but little is known about wood duck brood rearing in prairie ecosystems. We compared movements and habitat use of radiomarked female wood ducks with broods in South Dakota on 2 rivers with contrasting prairie landscapes. The perennial Big Sioux River had a broad floodplain and riparian forest, whereas the intermittent Maple River had emergent vegetation along the river channel. Movements between nest sites and brood-rearing areas were longer on the Maple River than on the Big Sioux River (P = 0.02) and were among the longest reported for wood duck broods. Movements on the Big Sioux River were longer in 1992 (P = 0.01), when the floodplain was dry, than in 1993 or 1994. Before flooding occurred on the Big Sioux River, broods used semipermanent wetlands and tributaries outside the floodplain; thereafter, females selected forested wetlands along the river. Broods on the Maple River used emergent vegetation along the river channel throughout the study. Because median length of travel to brood-rearing areas was 2-3 km we recommend maintenance of brood-rearing habitat every 3-5 km along prairie rivers. Wildlife managers should encourage landowners to retain riparian vegetation along perennial rivers and emergent vegetation along intermittent streams to provide brood-rearing habitat during wet and dry cycles.

  6. Genome Sequence of a Virulent Genotype III Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Laying Ducks in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Guoyuan; Wang, Min; Wang, Honglin; Li, Lintao; Luo, Qingping; Zhang, Tengfei

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain HN1007, isolated from diseased duck flocks in Henan, China, in 2010. The isolate has a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides, and was classified as a member of genotype III of class II. PMID:28034854

  7. Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2010-06-01

    The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies.

  8. Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice–duck cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Long, Pan; Huang, Huang; Liao, Xiaolan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Huabin; Chen, Aiwu; Chen, Can

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rice–duck cultivation is the essence of Chinese traditional agriculture. A scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology. RESULTS: The duck’s secretions, excreta and their treading, pecking and predation decrease the occurrence of plant diseases, pests and weeds, enrich species diversity and improve the field environment. The rice–duck intergrowth system effectively prevents rice planthoppers and rice leafhoppers. The control effects can be up to 98.47% and 100% respectively; it also has effects on the control of Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and the rice leafrollers. Notable control results are found on sheath blight, while the effects on other diseases are about 50%. Harm from weeds is placed under primary control; prevention of weeds is sequenced by broadleaf weeds > sedge weeds > Gramineae weeds. Contents of soil organic matter, N, P and K are improved by the system; nutrient utilization is accelerated, resulting in decreased fertilizer application. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 1–2% and duck fodder is saved in this system. There is also an obvious economic benefit. CONCLUSION: Compared to conventional rice cultivation, rice–duck cultivation shows great benefits to ecologic cost and economic income. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23703299

  9. Gene expression patterns, and protein metabolic and histological analyses for muscle development in Peking duck.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Ping; Liu, He-He; Li, Qing-Qing; Wang, Yan; Liu, Jun-Ying; Hu, Ji-Wei; Yan, Xi-Ping; Gou, Hua; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to use duck breast muscle and leg muscle, the 2 main productive muscle organs, as a model to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling how the 2 muscles have different deposition capabilities, and to analyze the mechanisms facilitating duck muscle development posthatching. Peking duck breast muscle and leg muscle were collected 3, 7, and 16 wk posthatching. The morphology of the myofibers was observed by paraffin sectioning the muscles. The expression of genes involved in protein metabolism [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), RPS6-p70-protein kinase (S6K), forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), and atrogin-1 (MAFbx)] was detected using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot assays, and the results indicated that breast muscle had a stronger capacity for both protein synthesis and protein degradation compared with leg muscle. Satellite cell frequency declined during muscle development in both tissues, and the expression of Pax3/7, satellite cell marker genes, was not significantly different between breast muscle and leg muscle. No notable apoptosis was observed in either tissue. The results of this study suggest that protein metabolism signaling is the main reason promoting duck skeletal muscle mass gain.

  10. The Autonomous Duck: Exploring the Possibilities of a Markov Chain Model in Animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Javier

    This document reports the construction of a framework for the generation of animations based in a Markov chain model of the different poses of some drawn character. The model was implemented and is demonstrated with the animation of a virtual duck in a random walk. Some potential uses of this model in interpolation and generation of in between frames are also explored.

  11. Comparison of the pathogenicity of different H5N1 HPAI viruses in chickens and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contrary to what is observed in chickens where infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses produce fatal disease, the Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing systemic disease and death. In order to further ...

  12. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Jinzhou; Wang, Yao; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis, and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen, and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 days post infection. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were tested in the liver, spleen, and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7, and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis. PMID:27199963

  13. Duck lymphocytes. VIII. T-lymphoblastoid cell lines from reticuloendotheliosis virus-induced tumours.

    PubMed

    Chan, S W; Bando, Y; Warr, G W; Middleton, D L; Higgins, D A

    1999-04-01

    The T strain of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV-T) obtained, along with the helper chicken syncytia virus (CSV), from the CSO4 cell line was highly oncogenic and rapidly fatal in ducks. Tumours were mainly seen in spleen, but neoplastic cells were observed microscopically in many organs. In vitro REV transformation of duck lymphocytes failed to yield stable cell lines, so cells from organs (blood, bone marrow, spleen, lymph node, bursa of Fabricius) of infected birds were used to establish cell lines. Some of these cell lines have been cloned. The success rates of establishment and cloning were increased if cells were cultured in a range of media containing different supplements; however, medium containing 5% foetal calf serum (FCS) and 5% duck serum was generally most efficacious for initial establishment, while spent medium from the parental line supplemented with a further 20% FCS gave best results for cloning. Cloned cell lines had the morphology of lymphoblastoid cells, with irregular nuclei and diffuse chromatin. Analysis of mRNA extracted from these cell lines showed that the uncloned lines were strongly expressing the β chain of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and weakly expressing immunoglobulin (Ig) polypeptides [λ light chain and μ, υ, υ (ΔFc) and α heavy chains in various proportions], suggesting the presence of T and B cells. The cloned cell lines that could be classified were TCR β+ ve T cells. This is the first report of the establishment, cloning and partial characterization of duck lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  14. Is carprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic, safe for use in Pekin ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carprofen (Rymadyl) is a common systemic analgesic used to relieve chronic pain states in dogs, such as osteoarthritis. There is no comparable drug recommended to treat pain, such as that originating from bill trimming procedures, in ducks. The aim of this study was to evaluate if carprofen could be...

  15. Enrichment of a Precore-Minus Mutant of Duck Hepatitis B Virus in Experimental Mixed Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Yuan; Summers, Jesse

    1999-01-01

    A precore-deficient mutant of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) produced by site-directed mutagenesis was tested for its ability to compete with wild-type virus in a mixed infection of 3-day-old ducklings. The mutation was shown to produce a cis-acting defect, resulting in a replication rate that was about one-half that of wild-type virus. Accordingly, wild-type virus was rapidly selected during the spread of infection. During the chronic phase of the infection, however, two selection patterns were seen. In 4 of 10 ducks, the wild-type virus slowly replaced the precore mutant. In another four ducks, the precore mutant virus slowly replaced the wild-type virus. In the remaining two ducklings, ratios of wild-type and precore mutant virus fluctuated, with wild-type virus slowly predominating. The replacement of wild-type virus was not due to the emergence of a rapidly replicating variant of the precore mutant, since genomes cloned from the infected ducks retained their original replication defect. Replacement of wild-type virus, however, correlated with elevated anti-core antibody titers, which continued to increase with time. The selection of a precore-negative strain of DHBV may be analogous to the selection for precore mutants of HBV during chronic hepatitis in humans. PMID:10196253

  16. Changes in lipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane induced by overfeeding in duck.

    PubMed

    Molee, W; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Auvergne, A; Babilé, R

    2005-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to examine the influence of overfeeding ducks with corn on the lipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane. Seventy-day-old male Mule ducks (Cairina moschata x Anas platyrhynchos) were overfed with corn for 12.5 days in order to induce fatty livers. The cholesterol and phospholipid contents were approximately 50% higher in hepatocyte plasma membranes from fatty livers compared to those of lean livers obtained from non-overfed ducks. However, the cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratio did not differ between both groups. Overfeeding induced a significant change in phospholipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane with a decrease in phosphatidylcholine proportion and conversely an increase in phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid profile of phospholipids was also altered. In fatty hepatocyte plasma membrane, the overall proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was decreased and this was due to the decrease of some of, but not all, the PUFA. In addition, the proportions of oleic acid and n-9 series unsaturated fatty acids were higher in fatty than in lean liver membranes. This study provides evidence that overfeeding with a carbohydrate-rich corn-based diet induces a de novo hepatic lipogenesis in Mule duck which predominates over dietary lipid intake to change the lipid composition of the hepatocyte plasma membrane.

  17. Correlates of Harlequin Duck densities during winter in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Bowman, Timothy D.; Dean, T.A.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated relationships of Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) densities to habitat attributes, history of habitat contamination by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, and prey biomass density and abundance during winters 1995-1997 in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Habitat features that explained variation in duck densities included distance to streams and reefs, degree of exposure to wind and wave action, and dominant substrate type. After accounting for these effects, densities were lower in oiled than unoiled areas, suggesting that population recovery from the oil spill was not complete, due either to lack of recovery from initial oil spill effects or continuing deleterious effects. Prey biomass density and abundance were not strongly related to duck densities after accounting for habitat and area effects. Traits of Harlequin Ducks that reflect their affiliation with naturally predictable winter habitats, such as strong site fidelity and intolerance of increased energy costs, may make their populations particularly vulnerable to chronic oil spill effects and slow to recover from population reductions, which may explain lower densities than expected on oiled areas nearly a decade following the oil spill.

  18. Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2000-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent shotgun pellets has been recognized as an important disease of North American waterfowl since Bellrose's (1959) research >40 years ago. Nation-wide regulations banning the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting were established in 1991. We compared the prevalence of lead exposure in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering on 2 areas in Tennessee before (1986-88) and after the ban (1997-99) to assess the effect of the ban on lead shot on this species. Prevalence of elevated blood lead in black ducks declined by 44% from before (11.7% prevalence) to after (6.5% prevalence) the implementation of non-toxic shot. The reduction in lead exposure was pronounced in adult black ducks (from 14.3% to 5.3%). However, prevalence in lead exposure remained similar in juvenile black ducks (from 8.2% to 8.3%). Additional evidence from lead ingestion and lead poisoning mortality events also indicates that lead exposure has declined in waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. We believe that lead ingestion will continue to decline, despite the persistence of lead shot in some wetlands. The impact of reduced lead exposure on waterfowl populations needs to be assessed.

  19. [Molecular characteristic of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 causing pancreatitis ].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanghua; Huang, Yu; Fu, Qiuling; Cheng, Longfei; Wan, Chunhe; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Lin, Jiansheng; Lin, Fang

    2014-09-04

    [OBJECTIVE] We studied the molecular characteristics of the full-length genome of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 causing pancreatitis in Muscovy ducklings. [METHODS] We determined the entire genomic sequence of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 strain MPZJ1206 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and analyzed the bioinformatics of the viral genome sequence. [ RESULTS] The genome length of strain MPZJ1206 comprised 7703 bases, with a G + C content of 43.05%. The genome of MPZJ1206 contains a single, long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2249 amino acids, with a genomic orgariization similar to those of other isolates of duck hepatitis A virus type 1. MPZJ1206 is identical with previously isolates by 93. 5% - 99. 6% in nucleotide sequence and 97. 9% - 99. 6% in amino acid sequence and shares genetic distance no more than 7%. Phylogenetic analysis based on genome sequence indicates that MPZJ1206 shares a close genetic relationship with two strains isolated in 2011. [CONCLUSION] Although pathotype caused by MPZJ1206 strain is significantly distinct from those induced by classical isolates of duck hepatitis A virus type 1, the genome of MPZJ1206 shares high homology with those of previous isolates. The change of pathotype may result from an alteration in viral tissue tropism of MPZJ1206.

  20. Avian botulism: a case study in translocated endangered Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Klavitter, John L.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Laysan Ducks are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago and are one of the world’s most endangered waterfowl. For 150 yr, Laysan Ducks were restricted to an estimated 4 km2 of land on Laysan Island in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In 2004 and 2005, 42 Laysan Ducks were translocated to Midway Atoll, and the population increased to approximately 200 by 2007. In August 2008, mortality due to botulism type C was identified, and 181 adult, fledgling, and duckling carcasses were collected from August to October. Diseased birds were found on two islands within Midway Atoll at multiple wetlands; however, one wetland contributed most carcasses. The epidemic was discovered approximately 14–21 days after the mortality started and lasted for 50 additional days. The details of this epidemic highlight the disease risk to birds restricted to small island populations and the challenges associated with managing newly translocated endangered species. Frequent population monitoring for early disease detection and comprehensive wetland monitoring and management will be needed to manage avian botulism in endangered Laysan Ducks. Vaccination may also be beneficial to reduce mortality in this small, geographically closed population.

  1. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.54 Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States. (a... adversely affect other migratory birds or species designated as endangered or threatened under the...

  2. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.54 Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States. (a... adversely affect other migratory birds or species designated as endangered or threatened under the...

  3. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.54 Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States. (a... adversely affect other migratory birds or species designated as endangered or threatened under the...

  4. No More Peking Ducks in Hong Kong: Provoking Critical Thinking through "Subversive Teaching."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Gwendolyn

    Education in Hong Kong has been developed along a British model that uses examination results to determine students' academic futures: to be allowed to go on to a university to study or to go into the workplace with a tenth-grade education. The system has been described by likening students to Peking ducks who are forced to eat, fattened up for…

  5. Dioxin effects on wood duck (Aix sponsa) embryos from sites near paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, D.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Fleming, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Biological and biochemical variables were studied in wood duck embryos from four dioxin-contaminated sites near paper mills in the Southeastern United States and three reference sites. Sites were selected based on a history of dioxin contamination in both sediments and fish. In addition, wood duck embryos collected downstream from an Arkansas Superfund site with demonstrated dioxin-induced reproductive impairment served as positive controls. Whole clutches of eggs were collected from the wild after fifteen days of incubation and mechanically incubated. Two embryos per clutch were sacrificed at pipping and liver monooxygenase activities (BROD, EROD and MROD) were quantified. Hatching success was determined for the remainder of the nest. Preliminary results indicate no difference in monooxygenase activities across sites even though the authors have previously demonstrated induction of monooxygenase activity in wood duck embryos in laboratory studies. In addition, there were no differences in weight at pipping, liver weight and liver weight to body weight ratios. No differences were seen in hatching success or weight at hatch nor were there any gross morphological abnormalities. This may indicate that exposure of wood ducks nesting near these pulp paper mills is below those which cause elevated monooxygenase activities and reproductive impairment.

  6. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  7. Uranium and thorium content in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis L.).

    PubMed

    Szefer, P; Falandysz, J

    1983-08-01

    Concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in liver, breast muscle, leg muscle, stomach and heart of long-tailed ducks wintering in Gdańsk Bay during 1980-81. The highest concentration of uranium and thorium was found in stomach, and the lowest in breast muscle.

  8. A PCR marker for detection in surface waters of faecal pollution derived from ducks.

    PubMed

    Devane, Megan L; Robson, Beth; Nourozi, Fariba; Scholes, Paula; Gilpin, Brent J

    2007-08-01

    Detection of the faecal pollution contribution from wildfowl is an important adjunct in determining the sources of faecal pollution in waterways. This is particularly true, where human waste and other animal faecal sources have been eliminated as the pollution source. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) marker was developed as a duck-specific marker of faecal pollution. The semi-nested primer system targeted an unknown bacterium (E2) isolated from mallard ducks. E2 had the closest 16S rRNA sequence similarity to members of the Desulfovibrio genus, which was further confirmed by phenotypic characterisation of the bacterium. Testing of the prevalence of E2 identified the marker in 76% of duck faecal samples (n=42), 20% of swan faecal samples (n=10) and 15% of Canada geese faecal samples (n=20). It was also identified in the faeces of two out of 15 domestic goats (13%). The marker was not detected in any samples derived from human faeces or effluent, dairy cows or sheep. It is proposed that this PCR marker would be useful in conjunction with faecal taxation indicators in the determination of pollution derived from duck faecal inputs in waterways.

  9. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of duck Toll-like receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dan; Pan, Zhiming; Kang, Xilong; Wang, Jing; Song, Li; Jiao, Xinan

    2014-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the single-exon TLR5 gene of the Maya breed of Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna). The TLR5 open reading frame is 2580 bp in length and encodes an 859-amino acid protein. The putative amino acid sequence of duck TLR5 consisted of a signal peptide sequence, 11 leucine-rich repeat domains, a leucine-rich repeat C-terminal domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain. The duck TLR5 gene was highly expressed in the lung, bone marrow, spleen, and liver; moderately expressed in kidney, small intestine, large intestine, and brain. A plasmid expressing duck TLR5 was constructed and transfected into HEK293T cells, and expression was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. HEK293T cells transfected with duck TLR5- and NF-κB-luciferase-containing plasmids significantly responded to flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium, indicating that it is a functional TLR5 homolog.

  10. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Klein, P.N.; Green, D.E.; Melancon, M.J.; Bradley, B.P.; Noguchi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure.

  11. Estimation and correction of visibility bias in aerial surveys of wintering ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, A.T.; Gerard, P.D.; Dinsmore, S.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incomplete detection of all individuals leading to negative bias in abundance estimates is a pervasive source of error in aerial surveys of wildlife, and correcting that bias is a critical step in improving surveys. We conducted experiments using duck decoys as surrogates for live ducks to estimate bias associated with surveys of wintering ducks in Mississippi, USA. We found detection of decoy groups was related to wetland cover type (open vs. forested), group size (1?100 decoys), and interaction of these variables. Observers who detected decoy groups reported counts that averaged 78% of the decoys actually present, and this counting bias was not influenced by either covariate cited above. We integrated this sightability model into estimation procedures for our sample surveys with weight adjustments derived from probabilities of group detection (estimated by logistic regression) and count bias. To estimate variances of abundance estimates, we used bootstrap resampling of transects included in aerial surveys and data from the bias-correction experiment. When we implemented bias correction procedures on data from a field survey conducted in January 2004, we found bias-corrected estimates of abundance increased 36?42%, and associated standard errors increased 38?55%, depending on species or group estimated. We deemed our method successful for integrating correction of visibility bias in an existing sample survey design for wintering ducks in Mississippi, and we believe this procedure could be implemented in a variety of sampling problems for other locations and species.

  12. Ergot Alkaloids in Feed for Pekin Ducks: Toxic Effects, Metabolism and Carry Over into Edible Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Hardened sclerotia (ergots) of Claviceps purpurea contaminate cereal grains and contain toxic ergot alkaloids (EA). Information on EA toxicity in ducks is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the growth experiment (Day 0–49, n = 54/group) was to titrate the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for total ergot alkaloids (TEA). A control diet was prepared without ergots, and the diets designated Ergot 1 to 4 contained 1, 10, 15 and 20 g ergot per kg diet, respectively, corresponding to TEA contents of 0.0, 0.6, 7.0, 11.4 and 16.4 mg/kg. Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group. The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation. Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g. Bile was tested positive for ergonovine (=ergometrine = ergobasine) with a mean concentration of 40 ng/g. Overall, the LOAEL amounted to 0.6 mg TA/kg diet suggesting that ducks are not protected by current European Union legislation (1 g ergot/kg unground cereal grains). PMID:26043275

  13. Spring temperature, clutch initiation date and duck nest success: a test of the mismatch hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Drever, Mark C; Clark, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    1. Increases in average global temperature during the twentieth century have prompted calls for research on the effect of temperature variation on avian population dynamics. Particular attention has been paid to the hypothesis that increased temperatures may affect a species' ability to shift their breeding efforts to match the phenology of their prey, and thus result in reduced reproductive success (the 'mismatch hypothesis'). 2. We used data from a long-term study of breeding ducks to investigate how duck nest success varied with clutch initiation date, and to test whether spring temperature affected this relationship in a manner consistent with the mismatch hypothesis. We modelled five possible functional forms of how nest success might vary with clutch initiation date and spring temperature, and used an information-theoretic approach to determine which model best described the nesting outcomes of five dabbling duck species nesting in Saskatchewan, Canada. 3. Probability of nest success for the five species did not vary strongly with clutch initiation date, and we found evidence consistent with the mismatch hypothesis for one species, northern pintail Anas acuta, although weight of evidence was weak. 4. Overall nest success of all five species was positively associated with spring temperature. These results suggest that increasing spring temperature alone (within the range observed in this study) may not affect nest success in a manner that would result in lower populations of breeding ducks.

  14. Development of a highly immunogenic Newcastle disease virus chicken vaccine strain of duck origin.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.

  15. Outbreak of duck plague (duck herpesvirus enteritis) in numerous species of captive ducks and geese in temporal conjunction with enforced biosecurity (in-house keeping) due to the threat of avian influenza A virus of the subtype Asia H5N1.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Kuczka, A; Kühnhold, A; Bunzenthal, C; Bönner, B M; Hanka, K; Redmann, T; Yilmaz, A

    2007-01-01

    The continuing westward spread of avian influenza A virus of the subtype H5N1 in free-living and domestic birds forced the European Union and the German federal government to enhance all biosecurity measures including in-house keeping of all captive birds from October 20 to December 15, 2005. Movement of captive ducks and geese of many different species from a free-range system to tight enclosures and maintenance for prolonged times in such overcrowded sheds resulted in pronounced disturbance of natural behaviour, interruption of mating and breeding activities and possibly additional stress. Under these conditions the birds developed signs of severe disease and enhanced mortality twentyfour days later. A total of 17 out of 124 (14%) adult birds and 149 out of 184 year-old birds (81 %) died during the outbreak. A herpesvirus was isolated from many organs of succumbed ducks and geese that was identified as a duck plague herpesvirus by cross neutralization test using known antisera against duck plague virus. The published host range of duck plague comprises 34 species within the order Anseriformes. We report here on additional 14 species of this order that were found to be susceptible to duck plague virus. The exact source of the herpesvirus could not identified. However, low antibody titres in some ducks at day of vaccination indicate that at least some of the birds were latently infected with a duck plague herpesvirus. The remaining healthy appearing birds were subcutaneously vaccinated with a modified live duck plague vaccine (Intervet, Boxmeer, NL) that stopped losses and resulted in seroconversion in most of the vaccinated birds.

  16. Posthatch growth of the digestive system in wild and domesticated ducks.

    PubMed

    Watkins, E J; Butler, P J; Kenyon, B P

    2004-06-01

    1. Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that domestication and artificial selection have influenced the posthatch growth and functioning of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ducks. The mass and length of the GI tract organs, the growth of intestinal villi, the intestinal surface area and the activities of brush border digestive enzymes were measured in a commercial strain of Pekin duck and its wild ancestor, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), at regular intervals between hatch and 16 weeks of age. 2. The growth of the digestive organs, with respect to body mass, was described using allometry. Allometric mass exponents were then used to calculate body 'mass-corrected', or 'relative' organ masses, relative surface areas and relative enzyme activities. There were appreciable differences between data presented on a mass-specific (g/kg) and a mass-corrected (g/kg(b)) basis, which highlighted the importance of correcting for the complete effects of body mass when comparing the growth and function of the digestive system between strains. 3. While the process of domestication has induced major changes in the absolute characteristics of the GI tract, it has failed to have the same effect on the relative characteristics. During the first 2 weeks posthatch, the relative masses of the majority of digestive organs, and the GI tract as a whole, were the same in both strains. During weeks 3 to 5, domesticated ducks maintained higher absolute growth rates of the body and the GI tract, with the support of relatively smaller digestive organs. The relative masses of the small intestine and the GI tract as a whole were 45 and 66% higher respectively in mallards than in Pekin ducks during this period. 4. Domesticated ducks had elevated digestive enzyme activity and a greater absorptive surface area than mallards throughout development, both in absolute and relative terms. This appears to compensate for the failure of the relative masses of digestive organs in domesticated

  17. Response of nesting ducks to predator exclosures and water conditions during drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, Lewis M.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Lokemoen, John T.; Sklebar, H. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether small predator exclosures might be a useful tool for increasing duck recruitment. During a period of increasing drought from 1987 to 1991, we monitored populations of dabbling ducks on 9 51-km2 study areas, 3 of which contained a centrally located 25-ha predator exclosure and 3 of which served as control areas. We did not detect an increase in duck pairs per treated area/pairs per control area with time (P = 0.37). However, an index to the proportion of females nesting in exclosures increased with time for 4 of 5 dabbling duck species: mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; P < 0.001), gadwalls (A. strepera; P = 0.009), blue-winged teal (A. discors; P = 0.021), and northern pintails (A. acuta; P = 0.009). This index did not increase for northern shovelers (A. clypeata; P = 0.33). A regression ratio estimate of breeding population used in this study produced results similar to ratio estimates based on area of land or area of water. Duck populations declined on North Dakota study areas as drought increased, but populations remained relatively stable on a Minnesota study area. Pair numbers were positively related to area of ponds for all species (P = 0.000-0.078) and to number of ponds (P = 0.0006-0.014) for all species except gadwall (P = 0.35). Area of ponds explained more variation in pair numbers than did number of ponds for all species except shovelers. As the number of ponds decreased, the number of pairs per pond increased for mallards (P = 0.001) and gadwalls (P = 0.004) but not for teal (P = 0.67), shovelers (P = 0.76), or pintails (P = 0.93). Nest densities inside exclosures averaged 1.2 nests/ha, and nest success averaged 72% over 5 years, which was substantially higher than in similar habitat outside exclosures. Our inability to detect a change in duck pairs per treated area/pairs per control area was probably a result of small sample size, drought, and variability among study areas. However, the increase in proportion of the study area

  18. Influence of age, sex and rearing systems on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression pattern in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues of indigenous ducks.

    PubMed

    Kolluri, Gautham; Ramamurthy, N; Churchil, R R; Dhinakar Raj, G; Kannaki, T R

    2014-02-01

    Abstract 1. The objective of the experiment was to determine the influence of age, sex and rearing system on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene expression in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues and physiological responses to stress in male and female indigenous ducks of Tamil Nadu, India. 2. A total of 36 ducks (12 males and 24 females) were obtained from local farmers and tissue samples of gut tissues (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum), lymphoid organs (spleen and bursa) and lungs were collected in RNAlater solution followed by RNA extraction. 3. After normalisation to β-actin (endogenous control) qPCR analysis identified a significant effect of age, sex and rearing system on TLR7 expression in the ducks. 4. A significant up-regulation of TLR7 expression was observed in lungs, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum of sexually mature (45 wk) compared with that of immature ducks (16 wk). Among sexes, male ducks had significantly higher TLR7 expression than female ducks. 5. Age and sex interactions were significant in lungs, duodenum, jejunum and caecum. Ducks reared in an extensive housing system showed significantly higher TLR7 expression in bursa, lungs, duodenum, ileum and caecum compared to intensively reared ducks. There were no effects of age, sex and rearing systems on TLR7 expression in the spleen. 6. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and serum corticosterone were higher in ducks reared on an intensive system compared with ducks from an extensive rearing system.

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from wetland rice-duck cultivation systems in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengfang; Cao, Cougui; Wang, Jingping; Zhan, Ming; Yuan, Weiling; Ahmad, Shahrear

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a rice-duck cultivation system in the subtropical region of China and its regulating factors were investigated by using a static chambers technique during rice growth seasons in 2006 and 2007. The experimental field was equally divided into six plots for two different treatments: One was a conventional rice field (CK) and the other was a rice-duck ecosystem (RD). With the same amount of urea applied as basal fertilization, N2O emission fluxes from RD and CK followed a similar seasonal variation trend. During the flooding seasons, the N2O emission flux was not correlated with temperature, but it was significantly related to soil inorganic nitrogen (SIN) (p < 0.01) and soil pH (p < 0.01). After drainage, the N2O emission flux was not correlated with temperature, SIN, and soil pH. Our experimental data showed that peaks of N2O emission flux occurred both in 2 weeks after urea application and after drainage. Compared to CK, RD could significantly increase N2O emission. We evaluated the integrated global warming potentials (GWPs) of a rice-duck cultivation system based on methane (CH4) and N2O emission, which showed that RD could suppress the total amount of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice paddies. Moreover, because the decrease of CH4 emissions from RD compared to CK was far more than the increase of N2O emissions from RD compared to CK, RD greatly reduced integrated GWPs (CH4 + N2O) compared to CK. So, the rice-duck cultivation system is an effective strategy for reducing integrated GWPs of the rice-duck cultivation systems based on CH4 and N2O in southern China and will contribute to alleviating global warming.

  20. Does life history predict risk-taking behavior of wintering dabbling ducks?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Moore, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that longer-lived, less fecund species should take fewer risks when exposed to predation than shorter-lived, more fecund species. We tested this prediction for seven species of dabbling ducks (Anas) by measuring the approach behavior (behavior of ducks when approaching potential landing sites) of 1099 duck flocks during 37 hunting trials and 491 flocks during 13 trials conducted immediately after the 1999-2000 waterfowl hunting season in California, USA. We also experimentally manipulated the attractiveness of the study site by using two decoy treatments: (1) traditional, stationary decoys only, and (2) traditional decoys in conjunction with a mechanical spinning-wing decoy. Approach behavior of ducks was strongly correlated with their life history. Minimum approach distance was negatively correlated with reproductive output during each decoy treatment and trial type. Similarly, the proportion of flocks taking risk (approaching landing sites to within 45 m) was positively correlated with reproductive output. We found similar patterns of approach behavior in relation to other life-history parameters (i.e., adult female body mass and annual adult female survival rate). Thus, species characterized by a slower life-history strategy (e.g., Northern Pintail [A. acuta]) were more risk-averse than species with a faster life-history strategy (e.g., Cinnamon Teal [A. cyanoptera]). Furthermore, although we were able to reduce risk-averseness using the spinning-wing decoy, we were unable to override the influence of life history on risk-taking behavior. Alternative explanations did not account for the observed correlation between approach behavior and life-history parameters. These results suggest that life history influences the risk-taking behavior of dabbling ducks and provide an explanation for the differential vulnerability of waterfowl to harvest. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  1. Environmental variability and population dynamics: Do European and North American ducks play by the same rules?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pöysä, Hannu; Rintala, Jukka; Johnson, Douglas H.; Kauppinen, Jukka; Lammi, Esa; Nudds, Thomas D.; Väänänen, Veli-Matti

    2016-01-01

    Density dependence, population regulation, and variability in population size are fundamental population processes, the manifestation and interrelationships of which are affected by environmental variability. However, there are surprisingly few empirical studies that distinguish the effect of environmental variability from the effects of population processes. We took advantage of a unique system, in which populations of the same duck species or close ecological counterparts live in highly variable (north American prairies) and in stable (north European lakes) environments, to distinguish the relative contributions of environmental variability (measured as between-year fluctuations in wetland numbers) and intraspecific interactions (density dependence) in driving population dynamics. We tested whether populations living in stable environments (in northern Europe) were more strongly governed by density dependence than populations living in variable environments (in North America). We also addressed whether relative population dynamical responses to environmental variability versus density corresponded to differences in life history strategies between dabbling (relatively “fast species” and governed by environmental variability) and diving (relatively “slow species” and governed by density) ducks. As expected, the variance component of population fluctuations caused by changes in breeding environments was greater in North America than in Europe. Contrary to expectations, however, populations in more stable environments were not less variable nor clearly more strongly density dependent than populations in highly variable environments. Also, contrary to expectations, populations of diving ducks were neither more stable nor stronger density dependent than populations of dabbling ducks, and the effect of environmental variability on population dynamics was greater in diving than in dabbling ducks. In general, irrespective of continent and species life history

  2. Drag-Based ‘Hovering’ in Ducks: The Hydrodynamics and Energetic Cost of Bottom Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, Gal; Swallow, John G.; Jones, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Diving ducks use their webbed feet to provide the propulsive force that moves them underwater. To hold position near the bottom while feeding, ducks paddle constantly to resist the buoyant force of the body. Using video sequences from two orthogonal cameras we reconstructed the 3-dimensional motion of the feet through water and estimated the forces involved with a quasi-steady blade-element model. We found that during station holding, near the bottom, ducks use drag based propulsion with the webbed area of the foot moving perpendicular to the trajectory of the foot. The body was pitched at 76±3.47° below the horizon and the propulsive force was directed 26±1.9° ventral to the body so that 98% of the propulsive force in the sagittal plane of the duck worked to oppose buoyancy. The mechanical work done by moving both feet through a paddling cycle was 1.1±0.2 J which was equivalent to an energy expenditure of 3.7±0.5 W to hold position while feeding at 1.5 m depth. We conclude that in shallow water the high energetic cost of feeding in ducks is due to the need to paddle constantly against buoyancy even after reaching the bottom. The mechanical energy spent on holding position near the bottom, while feeding, is approximately 2 fold higher than previous estimates that were made for similar bottom depths but based on the presumed motion of the body instead of motion of the feet. PMID:20830286

  3. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  4. Harlequin duck population recovery following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill: Progress, process and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck Histrionicus histrionicus populations during 1995 to 1998. We evaluated potential constraints on full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil; (2) food limitation; and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the 'Exxon Valdez' spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 yr after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998; (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995 to 1998; (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995 to 1997; and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery will also be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to

  5. DNA vaccines expressing the duck hepatitis B virus surface proteins lead to reduced numbers of infected hepatocytes and protect ducks against the development of chronic infection in a virus dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren S; Kotlarski, Ieva; Jilbert, Allison R

    2006-07-20

    We tested the efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) pre-surface (pre-S/S) and surface (S) proteins in modifying the outcome of infection in 14-day-old ducks. In two experiments, Pekin Aylesbury ducks were vaccinated on days 4 and 14 of age with plasmid DNA vaccines expressing either the DHBV pre-S/S or S proteins, or the control plasmid vector, pcDNA1.1Amp. All ducks were then challenged intravenously on day 14 of age with 5 x 10(7) or 5 x 10(8) DHBV genomes. Levels of initial DHBV infection were assessed using liver biopsy tissue collected at day 4 post-challenge (p.c.) followed and immunostained for DHBV surface antigen to determine the percentage of infected hepatocytes. All vector vaccinated ducks challenged with 5 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(8) DHBV genomes had an average of 3.21% and 20.1% of DHBV-positive hepatocytes respectively at day 4 p.c. and 16 out of 16 ducks developed chronic DHBV infection. In contrast, pre-S/S and S vaccinated ducks challenged with 5 x 10(7) DHBV genomes had reduced levels of initial infection with an average of 1.38% and 1.93% of DHBV-positive hepatocytes at day 4 p.c. respectively and 10 of 18 ducks were protected against chronic infection. The pre-S/S and the S DNA vaccinated ducks challenged with 5 x 10(8) DHBV genomes had an average of 31.5% and 9.2% of DHBV-positive hepatocytes on day 4 p.c. respectively and only 4 of the 18 vaccinated ducks were protected against chronic infection. There was no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the DHBV pre-S/S or S DNA vaccines. In conclusion, vaccination of young ducks with DNA vaccines expressing the DHBV pre-S/S and S proteins induced rapid immune responses that reduced the extent of initial DHBV infection in the liver and prevented the development of chronic infection in a virus dose-dependent manner.

  6. Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10(-6) kg O3/m(3)/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.

  7. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  8. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  9. Cytochrome P450 1A induction in sea ducks inhabiting nearshore areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trust, Kimberly A.; Esler, Daniel N.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Following the Exxon-Valdez oil spill, hepatic rates of EROD activity and thus, P450 1A expression, were significantly higher in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) and Barrow’s goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) from oiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska when compared to birds from unoiled sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure did not account for areal differences in P450 1A induction in harlequin ducks. Background hydrocarbon levels in Prince William Sound were negligible prior to the 1989 oil spill, but remnant Exxon-Valdez oil was still present in nearshore habitats of the spill zone coincident with our study. We conclude that P450 1A induction in sea ducks from areas oiled during the Exxon-Valdez oil spill was likely due to exposure to residual oil. We speculate that biochemical and physiological changes in individuals chronically exposed to oil may be constraining population recovery of some sea duck species affected by the spill.

  10. Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10−6 kg O3/m3/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast. PMID:27433112

  11. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  12. Estimating population abundance and mapping distribution of wintering sea ducks in coastal waters of the mid-Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Forsell, D.J.; Wortham, J.S.; Boomer, G.S.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Survey design for wintering scoters (Melanitta sp.) and other sea ducks that occur in offshore waters is challenging because these species have large ranges, are subject to distributional shifts among years and within a season, and can occur in aggregations. Interest in winter sea duck population abundance surveys has grown in recent years. This interest stems from concern over the population status of some sea ducks, limitations of extant breeding waterfowl survey programs in North America and logistical challenges and costs of conducting surveys in northern breeding regions, high winter area philopatry in some species and potential conservation implications, and increasing concern over offshore development and other threats to sea duck wintering habitats. The efficiency and practicality of statistically-rigorous monitoring strategies for mobile, aggregated wintering sea duck populations have not been sufficiently investigated. This study evaluated a 2-phase adaptive stratified strip transect sampling plan to estimate wintering population size of scoters, long-tailed ducks (Clangua hyemalis), and other sea ducks and provide information on distribution. The sampling plan results in an optimal allocation of a fixed sampling effort among offshore strata in the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast region. Phase I transect selection probabilities were based on historic distribution and abundance data, while Phase 2 selection probabilities were based on observations made during Phase 1 flights. Distance sampling methods were used to estimate detection rates. Environmental variables thought to affect detection rates were recorded during the survey and post-stratification and covariate modeling were investigated to reduce the effect of heterogeneity on detection estimation. We assessed cost-precision tradeoffs under a number of fixed-cost sampling scenarios using Monte Carlo simulation. We discuss advantages and limitations of this sampling design for estimating wintering sea duck

  13. Building the foundation for international conservation planning for breeding ducks across the U.S. and Canadian border.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Kevin E; Evans, Jeffrey S; Walker, Johann; Devries, James H; Howerter, David W

    2015-01-01

    We used publically available data on duck breeding distribution and recently compiled geospatial data on upland habitat and environmental conditions to develop a spatially explicit model of breeding duck populations across the entire Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). Our spatial population models were able to identify key areas for duck conservation across the PPR and predict between 62.1-79.1% (68.4% avg.) of the variation in duck counts by year from 2002-2010. The median difference in observed vs. predicted duck counts at a transect segment level was 4.6 ducks. Our models are the first seamless spatially explicit models of waterfowl abundance across the entire PPR and represent an initial step toward joint conservation planning between Prairie Pothole and Prairie Habitat Joint Ventures. Our work demonstrates that when spatial and temporal variation for highly mobile birds is incorporated into conservation planning it will likely increase the habitat area required to support defined population goals. A major goal of the current North American Waterfowl Management Plan and subsequent action plan is the linking of harvest and habitat management. We contend incorporation of spatial aspects will increase the likelihood of coherent joint harvest and habitat management decisions. Our results show at a minimum, it is possible to produce spatially explicit waterfowl abundance models that when summed across survey strata will produce similar strata level population estimates as the design-based Waterfowl Breeding Pair and Habitat Survey (r2 = 0.977). This is important because these design-based population estimates are currently used to set duck harvest regulations and to set duck population and habitat goals for the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. We hope this effort generates discussion on the important linkages between spatial and temporal variation in population size, and distribution relative to habitat quantity and quality when linking habitat and population

  14. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zipkin, Elise F; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T; O'Connell, Allan F; Royle, J Andrew; Silverman, Emily D

    2010-08-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly and identification of genes associated with feed conversion ratio and breast muscle yield in domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Zhen-He; Hao, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yu-Ze; Hu, Shen-Qiang; Yang, Fang-Xi; Qu, Lu-Jiang; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Breast muscle yield and feed conversion efficiency are the major breeding aims in duck breeding. Understanding the role of specific transcripts in the muscle and small intestine might lead to the elucidation of interrelated biological processes. In this study, we obtained jejunum and breast muscle samples from two strains of Peking ducks that were sorted by feed conversion ratio (FCR) and breast muscle percentage into two-tailed populations. Ten RNA-Seq libraries were developed from the pooled samples and sequenced using the Hiseq2000 platform. We created a reference duck transcript database using de novo assembly methods, which included 16 663 irredundant contigs with an N50 length of 1530 bp. This new duck reference cDNA dataset significantly improved the mapping rate for RNA-Seq data, from 50% to 70%. Mapping and annotation were followed by Gene Ontology analysis, which showed that numerous genes were differentially expressed between the low and high FCR groups. The differentially expressed genes in the jejunum were enriched in biological processes related to immune response and immune response activation, whereas those in the breast muscle were significantly enriched in biological processes related to muscle cell differentiation and organ development. We identified new candidate genes, that is, PCK1, for improving the FCR and breast muscle yield of ducks and obtained much better reference duck transcripts. This study suggested that de novo assembly is essential when applying transcriptome analysis to a species with an incomplete genome.

  16. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica ducks including Pekin, Mallard-type, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different virulence, given by any one of three routes (intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular), became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar for each species but depended on the virulence of the virus used. Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varied by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of H5N1 HPAI surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations. PMID:23876184

  17. Effects of heat stress on antioxidant defense system, inflammatory injury, and heat shock proteins of Muscovy and Pekin ducks: evidence for differential thermal sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Jin-jun; Wang, De-qian; Li, Guo-qin; Wang, Gen-lin; Lu, Li-zhi

    2014-11-01

    Rising temperatures are severely affecting the mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of duck. Our aim was to investigate the effect of acute heat stress on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs: HSP90, 70, 60, 40, and 10) and inflammatory factors (nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehybe (MDA), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) in livers of ducks and to compare the thermal tolerance of Pekin and Muscovy ducks exposed to acute heat stress. Ducks were exposed to heat at 39 ± 0.5 °C for 1 h and then returned to 20 °C for 1 h followed by a 3-h recovery period. The liver and other tissues were collected from each individual for analysis. The mRNA levels of HSPs (70, 60, and 40) increased in both species, except for HSP10, which was upregulated in Muscovy ducks and had no difference in Pekin ducks after heat stress. Simultaneously, the mRNA level of HSP90 decreased in the stress group in both species. Morphological analysis indicated that heat stress induced tissue injury in both species, and the liver of Pekin ducks was severely damaged. The activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in Muscovy duck liver, but decreased in Pekin duck. The mRNA levels of inflammatory factors were increased after heat stress in both duck species. These results suggested that heat stress could influence HSPs, inflammatory factors expression, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the differential response to heat stress indicated that the Muscovy duck has a better thermal tolerance than does the Pekin duck.

  18. Hepatic metabolism of glucose and linoleic acid varies in relation to susceptibility to fatty liver in ad libitum-fed Muscovy and Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Saez, Gladys; Baéza, Elisabeth; Davail, Stéphane; Durand, Denys; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility to develop hepatic steatosis is known to differ between duck species, especially between Muscovy and Pekin ducks. This difference could be explained by either differential responses of species to overfeeding or genetic differences in hepatic lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to compare the intensities of the different hepatic pathways (oxidation, lipogenesis, esterification, secretion, etc.) of the two main nutrients (glucose and linoleic acid (LA)) reaching the liver of ad libitum-fed Muscovy (n 6) and Pekin (n 6) ducks using the ex vivo method of liver slices incubated for 16 h with [U-14C]glucose, [1-14C]LA and [35S]methionine added to the survival medium. In such experimental conditions, the lipogenesis pathway from glucose was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the liver of the Muscovy duck than in that of the Pekin duck. Furthermore, the hepatic uptake of LA was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck leading to a 2-fold higher (P<0.05) esterification of this fatty acid in the liver of the Muscovy duck. The hepatic secretion of VLDL was higher (P<0.01) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck but insufficient to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver of the Muscovy duck. In conclusion, these results show the influence of the species on the hepatic metabolism of ducks in relation to their susceptibility to develop fatty liver. These results should shed light on the metabolic regulations that might underlie susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in the the human liver.

  19. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric

    2013-07-22

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica ducks including Pekin, Mallard-type, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different virulence, given by any one of three routes (intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular), became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar for each species but depended on the virulence of the virus used. Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varied by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of H5N1 HPAI surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations.

  20. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Cherry, P.; Doster, A.; Murdoch, R.; Adeola, O.; Applegate, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P < 0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P < 0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P < 0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth